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Active volcanoes in the Philippines

Histori
Name of

Coordina

Elevati

vulcano

tes

on (m)

Province/s

cal
Eruptio
ns

Eruption
Description

and

Current Status

Explosions in 1952
17.31098
Ambalatun

2N

gan Group

121.103668
E

is

2,329
metres

[4]

Kalinga

(7,641 ft)

uncertain.

Fumarolic with

solfataras
and thermal
springs.

Eruptions

were

recorded in 1831,
Babuyan
Claro

9.523N
121.940E

1,080
metres

1860
Cagayan

(3,540 ft)

and

1913.

Askedna

Hot

Springs is located in
the southern base
of the volcano.

Eruptions
Banahaw

14.07N
121.48E

2,158
metres

were

uncertain during the


Quezon

(7,080 ft)

mudflows of 1730,
1743,

1843

and

1909.[5]

Biliran

Bulusan

11.558N
124.513E

12.770N

1,301
metres

Phreatic eruption in
Biliran

(4,268 ft)

1,565

1939.

Fumarolic

with thermal springs

Sorsogon

17

Eruptions years are

Histori
Name of

Coordina

Elevati

vulcano

tes

on (m)

Province/s

cal
Eruptio
ns

124.05E

Eruption
Description

and

Current Status

from 1886 to 2011.

metres

Permanently

(5,135 ft)

monitored

Eruption

in

1860

and

Cagua

18.222N
122.123E

solfataric activity in

1,133
metres

strong

Cagayan

(3,717 ft)

1907.

Thermal

areas are located


near

the

summit

and NW to NNE
flanks.

Camiguin
de
Babuyanes

18.83N
121.860E

Its

712
metres

Cagayan

(2,336 ft)

only

recorded

eruption
1857.

was

in

Fumarolic

with thermal springs

Eruptions in 1773,
1856, 1900, 1952,
Didicas

19.077N
122.202E

244
metres

1969 and 1978. A


Cagayan

(801 ft)

submarine volcano
till 1952 when a
permanent

island

was formed.[6]

HibokHibok

9.203N
124.673E

1,552
metres

Camiguin

Eruption

in

years

1827, 1862, 1871

Histori
Name of

Coordina

Elevati

vulcano

tes

on (m)

Province/s

cal
Eruptio
ns

Eruption
Description

and

Current Status

and

19481952.

Activity from 18971902

(5,092 ft)

was

only

solfataric.
Permanently
monitored.

Iraya

Iriga

20.469N
122.010E

13.457N
123.457E

1,009
metres

Last eruption was in


Batanes

1454.

Seismic

(3,310 ft)

swarm in 1998.

1,196

The

metres

Camarines Sur

(3,924 ft)

eruption

1628

in
was

discredited.

[7]

Uncertain
submarine eruption

Jolo Group

6.013N
121.057E

in

811
metres

Sulu

(2,661 ft)

1897.

as Bud

Listed
Dajo,

a cinder
cone on Jolo Island,
in the PHIVOLCS
list.

Kanlaon

10.412N
123.132E

2,435

Negros

metres

Occidental,Negros

(7,989 ft)

Oriental

Eruptions
26

were

recorded from 1886


to
Permanently

2006.

Histori
Name of

Coordina

Elevati

vulcano

tes

on (m)

Province/s

cal
Eruptio
ns

Eruption
Description

and

Current Status

monitored.

Leonard

7.382N

Kniaseff

126.047E

Last eruption was

1,190
metres

Compostela Valley

(3,900 ft)

dated as c.120 AD.


[8]

Strong

features.

Eruption

Makaturing

7.647N
124.32E

recorded

in 1865 and 1882.

1,940
metres

thermal

Lanao del Sur

(6,360 ft)

The 1856 and 1858


eruptions

was

credited toRagang[9]
[10]

Mountain

was

fumarolic on March

Matutum

6.37N
125.07E

7, 1911, but if an

2,286
metres

South Cotabato

(7,500 ft)

eruption
was

occurred
uncertain.

Thermal springs in
Akmoan and Linan.
[11][12]

Mayon

13.257N
123.685E

2,462

Albay

50

Eruptions

were

metres

recorded from 1616

(8,077 ft)

to

2013.

Permanently
monitored. Volcanic

Histori
Name of

Coordina

Elevati

vulcano

tes

on (m)

cal

Province/s

Eruptio
ns

Eruption
Description

and

Current Status

activity is identified
up to present. Alert
Level 3 was raised.
It

could

be

advanced to Alert
Level 5.

Musuan

Parker

7.877N
125.068E

6.113N
124.892E

Eruptions in 1866 &

646
metres

Bukidnon

(2,119 ft)

Strong

seismic swarm in
1976.

1,824
metres

1867.

A caldera-forming
South Cotabato

(5,984 ft)

eruption

occurred

on January 4, 1641.

Reawakened

in

1991 producing the


Pinatubo

15.13N
120.35E

1,486
metres
(4,875 ft)

Zambales,Tarlac,Pam
panga

2nd largest eruption


3

in the 20th century.


Followed by milder
eruptions in 1992
and 1993.

Ragang

7.70N
124.50E

2,815

Lanao

metres

Sur, Cotabato

(9,236 ft)

del 7

Eruption years are


from 1765 to 1873.
Eruptions

were

uncertain in 1915

Histori
Name of

Coordina

Elevati

vulcano

tes

on (m)

Province/s

cal
Eruptio
ns

Eruption
Description

and

Current Status

and 1916.

Last activity was the


formation
San Pablo
Volcanic
Field

14.12N
121.30E

1,090
metres

ofSampaloc
Laguna,Batangas

(3,580 ft)

Lake around

1350

AD +/- 100 years


determined
by anthropology[3][13]

Eruption years are

Smith

19.534N
121.917E

from 1652 to 1924.

688
metres

Cagayan

(2,257 ft)

Combined
with Babuyan
Claro on the GVP
list.

Eruption

Taal

14.002N
120.993E

is

from 1572 to 1977.

400
metres

years

Batangas

33

(1,300 ft)

Showing signs of
unrest since 1991
and

permanently

monitored.

Unnamed
volcano
(Ibugos)

20.33N
121.75E

24
metres
(79 ft)

Submarine
Batanes

eruptions in 1773,
1850 and 1854.

See also[edit]
Mount Pinatubo(Filipino: Bundok Pinatubo) is an active stratovolcano in the Cabusilan
Mountains on the island of Luzon, near the tripoint of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac,
and Pampanga. Before the volcanic activities of 1991, its eruptive history was unknown to most
people. It was heavily eroded, inconspicuous and obscured from view. It was covered with
dense forest which supported a population of several thousand indigenous people, the Aetas, who
fled to the mountains during the Spanish regime. The volcano's Plinian / Ultra-Plinian eruption on
15 June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century after the 1912
eruption of Novarupta in the Alaska Peninsula.[5] Complicating the eruption was the arrival
of Typhoon Yunya (Diding), bringing a lethal mix of ash and rain to areas surrounding the
volcano conquest of the Philippines.
Age of rock

Between
635,000

and 1.1 0.09 million years[2]

Last eruption

June 15, 1991

80,000

Mayon Volcano (Tagalog: Bulkang Mayon, Central Bikol: Bulkan Mayon), also known as Mount
Mayon, is an active volcano in the province of Albay, on the island of Luzon in the Philippines.
Renowned as the "perfect cone" because of its almost symmetric conical shape, the mountain was
declared a national park and a protected landscape on July 20, 1938, the first in the country. It was
reclassified a Natural Park and renamed Mayon Volcano Natural Park in the year 2000.[3]
Local folklore refers to the volcano being named after the legendary heroine Daragang
Magayon (English: Beautiful Lady)
Type

Stratovolcano

Age of rock

more than 20 million years old

Last eruption

September 18, 2014

Mayon Volcano is the main landmark of Albay Province, Philippines, rising 2,462 metres (8,077 ft)
Mayon is the most active volcano in the Philippines having erupted over 49 times in the past 400
years.[7] The first record of a major eruption was witnessed in February 1616 by Dutch explorer Joris
van Spilbergen who recorded it on his log in his circumnavigation trip around the world.[8] The first
eruption of which there is an extended account was the six-day event of July 20, 1766. [9][10]

1814 eruption
a total of 2,200 locals perished in what is considered to be the most lethal eruption in Mayon's
history;[6] estimates by PHIVOLCS list the casualties at about 1,200, however. The eruption is

believed to have contributed to the accumulation of atmospheric ash, [citation needed] capped by the
catastrophic eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815, that led to the Year Without a Summer in 1816.

1897 eruption
Mayon Volcano's longest uninterrupted eruption occurred on June 23, 1897 (VEI=4), which lasted for
seven days of raining fire. Lava once again flowed down to civilization. Eleven kilometers (7 miles)
eastward, the village of Bacacay was buried 15 m (49 ft) beneath the lava. In Libon 100 people were
killed by steam and falling debris or hot rocks. Other villages like San Roque, Misericordia and Santo
Nio became deathtraps. Ash was carried in black clouds as far as 160 kilometres (99 mi) from the
catastrophic event, which killed more than 400 people
Kanlaon Volcano, also spelled as Kanla-on or Canlaon, is an activevolcano on Negros island in
central Philippines. The stratovolcanostraddles the provinces of Negros Occidental and Negros
Oriental, approximately 30 km (19 mi) southeast of Bacolod, the capital and most populous city of
Negros Occidental.
The most active volcano in central Philippines, Kanlaon has erupted 26 times since 1919. Eruptions
are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ash falls near the
volcano. In 1902, the eruption was classified asstrombolian, typified by the ejection
of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs.
Mount Ragang, also called Mount Piapayungan and Blue Mountain by the local people, is
a stratovolcano on Mindanao island in the Philippines. It is the seventh highest mountain in
the PhilippinesMount Ragang is located on the boundary of the provinces of Lanao del
Surand Cotabato in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Ragang has an elevation of 2,815
metres (9,236 ft) and a base diameter of 32 km (20 mi).It is the most active volcano on Mindanao

Mount Kalatungan
It is the sixth highest mountain in the country with an elevation of 2,824 m (9,265 ft) asl. It is one of
the several high elevation peaks in the Kalatungan Mountain Range in Bukidnon on the island
of Mindanao, the second largest island in the Philippines

Mount Apo
Mount
Apo is
a
large solfataric, potentially
active stratovolcano in
the
island
of Mindanao, Philippines. With an elevation of 2,954 metres (9,692 ft) above sea level, it is the
highest mountain in the Philippine Archipelago and is located between Davao City and Davao del
Surprovince in Region XI and Cotabato province in Region XII. The peak overlooks Davao City 45
kilometres (28 mi) to the northeast, Digos City 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the southeast,
and Kidapawan City 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the west.

Mount Apo, active volcano, south central Mindanao, 20 miles (32 km) west of Davao City; it is
the highest point in the Philippines, rising to9,692 feet (2,954 metres). Part of the Cordillera
Central, it is covered by a forest of tall, tropical hardwoods; two subsidiary peaks nearly match
its height.

Taal Volcano
The lake partially fills Taal Caldera, which was formed by prehistoric eruptions between 140,000 and
5,380 BP.[2] Viewed from Tagaytay Ridge, Taal Volcano and Lake presents one of the most
picturesque and attractive views in the Philippines. [3] It is located about 50 km (31 mi) south of the
capital of the country, the city ofManila. The volcano had several violent eruptions in the past causing
loss of life in the island and the populated areas surrounding the lake, with the death toll estimated at
around 5,000 to 6,000. Because of its proximity to populated areas and its eruptive history, the
volcano was designated a Decade Volcano, worthy of close study to prevent future natural disasters.
Allv olcanoes of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

Mount Dulang-dulang
Mount Dulang-dulang, dubbed by Filipino mountaineers as "D2", is one of the high elevation peaks
in the Kitanglad Mountain Range, located in the north central portion of the province of Bukidnon in
the island of Mindanao. It is the second highest mountain of the Philippines at 2,941 metres
(9,649 ft) above sea level, second only to Mount Apo of Davao at 2,956 m (9,698 ft) and slightly
higher than Mount Pulag of Luzon, the third highest at 2,922 m (9,587 ft).[1]

The mountain is regarded by the Talaandig tribe of Lantapan as a sacred place. It is also within
the ancestral domain of the tribe
, is covered by lofty forests and is a home to a variety of fauna and flora. It is home to 58 mammal
species
including bats, squirrels,monkeys, wild
boars, flying
lemurs, shrews,
and deer.
[1]
The Philippine eagle is also sighted within the vicinity of the mountain

Luzon
Inactive Volcano

Palindan Hill

Mount Tamlong

Location

1402N 12115.
5E

1405N 12114.
5E

Province

Region

ElevationASL

Laguna

Luzon

~260

Laguna

Luzon

249

Visayas
Banton Island

1255N 12204E

Romblon

Visayas

596

Carlota Island

1302N 12153E

Romblon

Visayas

49

Isabel Island

130121N1215540E

Romblon

Visayas

72

Mindanao
Mount Akir-Akir

725.27N12425.45E

Maguindanao

Mindanao

526

Balo Dome

618.5N 12510.26E

South Cotabato

Mindanao

873

Base Peak

614.8N 12508.85E

South Cotabato

Mindanao

598

Earthquake
two scales: The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than
approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe.
The more numerous earthquakes smaller than magnitude 5 reported by national seismological
observatories are measured mostly on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as the Richter
magnitude scale. These two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude 3
or lower earthquakes are mostly almost imperceptible or weak and magnitude 7 and over potentially
cause serious damage over larger areas, depending on their depth

to about magnitude 8. Earthquakes associated with normal faults are generally less than magnitude
7. For every unit increase in magnitude, there is a roughly thirtyfold increase in the energy released.
For instance, an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 releases approximately 30 times more energy than a
5.0 magnitude earthquake and a 7.0 magnitude earthquake releases 900 times (30 30) more
energy than a 5.0 magnitude of earthquake. An 8.6 magnitude earthquake releases the same
amount of energy as 10,000 atomic bombs like those used in World War II

Effects of earthquakes

Shaking and ground rupture

Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally resulting in
more or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid structures. The severity of the local effects
depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude, the distance from the epicenter,

and the local geological and geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reduce wave
propagation.[50] The ground-shaking is measured by ground acceleration
Specific local geological, geomorphological, and geostructural features can induce high levels of
shaking on the ground surface even from low-intensity earthquakes. This effect is called site or local
amplification. It is principally due to the transfer of the seismic motion from hard deep soils to soft
superficial soils and to effects of seismic energy focalization owing to typical geometrical setting of
the deposits.

Landslides and avalanches


Earthquakes, along with severe storms, volcanic activity, coastal wave attack, and wildfires, can
produce slope instability leading to landslides, a major geological hazard. Landslide danger may
persist while emergency personnel are attempting rescue

Fires
Earthquakes can cause fires by damaging electrical power or gas lines. In the event of water mains
rupturing and a loss of pressure, it may also become difficult to stop the spread of a fire once it has
started. For example, more deaths in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake were caused by fire than
by the earthquake itself.

Tsunami
Tsunamis are long-wavelength, long-period sea waves produced by the sudden or abrupt movement
of large volumes of water. In the open ocean the distance between wave crests can surpass 100
kilometers (62 mi), and the wave periods can vary from five minutes to one hour. Such tsunamis
travel 600-800 kilometers per hour (373497 miles per hour), depending on water depth. Large
waves produced by an earthquake or a submarine landslide can overrun nearby coastal areas in a
matter of minutes. Tsunamis can also travel thousands of kilometers across open ocean and wreak
destruction on far shores hours after the earthquake that generated themOrdinarily, subduction
earthquakes under magnitude 7.5 on the Richter scale do not cause tsunamis, although some
instances of this have been recorded. Most destructive tsunamis are caused by earthquakes of
magnitude
7.5
or
more.[55]

Floods
A flood is an overflow of any amount of water that reaches land. [56] Floods occur usually when the
volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, exceeds the total capacity of the
formation, and as a result some of the water flows or sits outside of the normal perimeter of the
body. However, floods may be secondary effects of earthquakes, if dams are damaged. Earthquakes
may cause landslips to dam rivers, which collapse and cause floods.[57]
The terrain below the Sarez Lake in Tajikistan is in danger of catastrophic flood if the landslide
dam formed by the earthquake, known as the Usoi Dam, were to fail during a future earthquake.
Impact projections suggest the flood could affect roughly 5 million people.[58]

Human impacts
An earthquake may cause injury and loss of life, road and bridge damage, general property damage,
and collapse or destabilization (potentially leading to future collapse) of buildings. The aftermath may
bring disease, lack of basic necessities, and higher insurance premiums.