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Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort, Pattaya City, Thailand, 19-21 March 2014

Distribution Network with Solar and Wind

Distributed Generation using NSPSO

Subas Ratna Tuladhar, Jai Govind Singh, Member, IEEE and Weerakorn Ongsakul, Member, IEEE

distribution network with solar and wind generation is solved

using non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimization

(NSPSO). Three objective functions including system loss

minimization, minimization of maximum voltage deviation and

minimization of number of switching operations, are considered.

The proposed NSPSO based algorithm has been tested on IEEE

33-bus radial distribution system. A comparison of network

performance with respect to system loss and maximum voltage

deviation for the three cases i.e., without network

reconfiguration, with optimal but fixed network reconfiguration

and with optimal but dynamic/adaptive network reconfiguration

has been shown. The results indicate that better network

performance is achieved from dynamic/adaptive network

reconfiguration strategy than with other cases.

Index TermsDistributed generation, distribution network

reconfiguration, non-dominated particle swarm optimization.

I. NOMENCLATURE

Nbus

Vref

Ns

Sj

Soj

Pi

Qi

Vi

Yij

i

Nbr

vidk , xidk

k

c1 ,c2

max , min

r1 , r2

Bus voltage reference value,

Total number of switches

Switching state of jth switch at the current time

interval

Switching state of jth switch in the previous

time interval

Active power injection at ith bus,

Reactive power injection at ith bus,

Voltage at ith bus,

Admittance between ith bus and jth bus,

Power angle at ith bus,

Total number of connected branches,

the velocity and position of particle i in

dimension d of k iteration.

the inertia weight of k iteration.

cognitive and social acceleration coefficients,

maximum and minimum value of inertia

weight,

random numbers between 0 to 1 with uniform

(email:

jgsingh@ait.ac.th)

and

Weerakorn

Ongsakul

(email:

ongsakul@ait.ac.th) are with the Energy Field of Study in School of

Environment, Resources and Development at Asian Institute of Technology,

Thailand.

pbest idk

gbestidk

ki

distribution,

local best particle i in dimension d of iteration

k,

global best particle i in dimension d of

iteration k,

Status of ith branchs switch

II. INTRODUCTION

with the provision of recloser and tie switches at different

locations. Distribution network reconfiguration (DNRC) is a

network-altering function performed by utilities through

opening and closing of sectionalizing and tie switches in the

distribution network for a number of purposes. With the

increased use of SCADA and distribution automation through

remote controlled equipment, the reconfiguration of

distribution network becomes more viable as a tool for

planning and control [1]. The change in network topology

affects the power flow of the network, thus affecting the power

losses, voltage drops, etc. Thus, by subjecting DNRC to

certain optimization objectives, a feasible network

configuration that gives the best performance is selected.

DNRC is a complex optimization problem which may be

subjected to one or many objectives as desired for the

optimum performance of the distribution system. The

optimization process is further complicated when the

variations in the load and the generation from DGs based on

renewables such as wind and solar DGs are considered.

Significant research work on optimal distribution system

reconfiguration has been done in the last four decades, with the

trend now shifting from single objective consisting of loss

minimization or voltage drop minimization to multiple

objective problem formulation [2]. Many studies, both for

single and multiple objectives have also been conducted for

distribution network with DGs or electric vehicle (EV)

charging load. In [3], a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based

optimization technique is presented for loss reduction in the

system consideration the effect of load variation and the

stochastic power generation of renewable DGs. In [4], an

adaptive MOPSO in conjunction with graph theory has been

used for multi-objective optimization of DNRC for distribution

network without DG.

This paper proposes a NSPSO based algorithm for dynamic

International Conference and Utility Exhibition 2014 on Green Energy for Sustainable Development (ICUE 2014)

Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort, Pattaya City, Thailand, 19-21 March 2014

duration and frequent changes in the daily load and the

generation from DG. Therefore, based on a day ahead

forecasted data, a switching schedule has been suggested

ahead for given number of time segments in the day in order to

have the optimal performance for the entire time period

considered. Though forecasted data for day ahead is not much

accurate, here it has been assumed that it is available without

further changes. Moreover, this methodology can be used for

any segment of period e.g., half hour, one hour, two hour etc.

1. Solar generation:

For this work, a typical daily solar PV generation curve for

a clear sky condition is considered for estimation of PV output

for a given day as shown in Fig. 2. It is assumed that the PVbased DG of 1.5 MW capacity is installed at bus 16 in the

IEEE 33-bus system.

For demonstrating the impact of reconfiguration, a typical

day with its 24 hour duration divided into 6 time frames is

considered. The best network configuration for each time

frame is evaluated from the optimization algorithm based on

the loading and the DG generation at that time frame. This is

done to avoid too many switching operations of the switches in

the network [5].

Fig. 2. Normalized PV generation curve [1]

2. Wind generation:

Likewise, a typical daily wind power generation curve is

considered as shown in Fig. 3. For practical purpose, such

curve may be derived from statistical analysis of the

historical data for average wind speed. Here, it is assumed

that a 0.8 MW wind powered DG is installed at bus 30.

A. Demand Evaluation

In this work, a typical average load profile is assumed

based on load forecast and the historical data for the daily

demand curve as shown in Fig. 1. The load at each of the six

time frames is considered to be constant and equal to the

maximum load at that time frame to consider the worst case

condition. Real time measurements may then be used to

forecast load and further approximate the load to the mostly

likely load value from the demand curve. At the beginning of

each period, the optimal configuration for the next period is

determined.

B. DG Profile

In this paper, it has been assumed that all DGs are of small

scale range connected to the system at medium voltage and

operated at unity power factor for economic reasons. Like in

the case of load profile, the DG profile is considered for a 24

hour duration, which is divided into the same six time frames.

The DG generation output for each time frame is considered to

be the average output for that time frame.

A. Main Objective Functions

Three objectives have been considered in this paper for

performance improvement of the distribution system. They are

as follows.

1. Minimization of line loss

The first objective is to minimize the total line loss in the

network as formulated in (1)

Minimize f1(x) = PLoss =

Where,

N br

i =1

plossi =

N br

k .R . I

i =1

2

i

(1)

International Conference and Utility Exhibition 2014 on Green Energy for Sustainable Development (ICUE 2014)

Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort, Pattaya City, Thailand, 19-21 March 2014

i= 1, 2, Nbr

ki = 0, (if ith branch is open) and

ki = 1, (if ith branch is closed)

2. Minimization of voltage deviation

The second objective is to minimize the maximum voltage

deviation in any of the given bus after reconfiguration as

formulated in (2)

Minimize f2(x) = max V min {V } , V max {V }

ref

i

ref

i

(2)

The third objective is to minimize the total number of

switching operations between any two consecutive time

intervals so as to minimize the mechanical stress on the

switches as formulated in (3)

Minimize f3(x) =

NS

S

i

S oj

switches in order to maintain the radiality of the network and

to prevent islanding of any of the network components. Hence

the following reconfiguration constraints are applied to avoid

the selection of infeasible switch sets [6].

The total number of switches selected for each particle is

equal to the number of loops formed when all the tie

switches and sectionalizing switches are closed.

X i= [X i ,1 , X i , 2 , X i ,d X i , D ]

(9)

Where,

D = Total number of loops in the network,

Xi = vector of switch indices for ith particle

(3)

Where,

Sj = 0, (if jth switch is open) and

Sj = 1, (if jth switch is closed)

B. Technical Constraints

1. Power balance

N bus

Pi Vi . V j .Yij , cos( i j ij ) = 0

(4)

j =1

N bus

Qi Vi . V j .Yij sin( i j ij ) = 0

(5)

j =1

Where,

i= 1, 2, Nbus,

2. Bus voltage operating limit

All bus voltages should be within the specified operational

limit after reconfiguration in order to ensure stability and

power quality, as formulated in (6).

V min Vi V max

i= 1, 2, Nbus

(6)

All connected lines should be operated with current passing

through them maintained within their specified limit in order to

ensure system security, as formulated in (7)

ki . I i I

max

i

i= 1, 2, Ns

(7)

ensures that the distribution feeders operate within their

specified limit as well.

4. Radiality of distribution network

It is desired that even after reconfiguration, the network still

remains a radial one. In order to do so, the following

relationship has to be followed for the number of branches

connected in the system.

(8)

Nbr = Nbus - 1

5. Constraints for switch selection

The dth element of the particle Xi must belong to the dth loop

or mesh.

Only one switch from a branch string or vector common to

any two loops can be opened. For instance, only one switch

from vector L12 or L13 can be opened at a time as in Fig. 4.

Likewise, only one switch from a continuous branch string

or vector between any two nodes can be opened. For

example, only one switch from vector L33 can be opened.

All branches intersecting on a common node cannot have

any open switch in them at the same time. For instance, L12,

L13 and L23 intersect at node c. Hence, at least one of the

vectors cannot have an open switch in it at any given time.

V. SUGGESTED APPROACH FOR OPTIMUM NETWORK

RECONFIGURATION

1. Introduction to NSPSO

NSPSO is a multi objective optimization technique based

on evolutionary theory and is a modification of the

conventional PSO technique that is designed to solve multi

objective optimization problems [7]. Instead of a single

comparison between a particles personal best and its offspring

as in the conventional single objective PSO, NSPSO compares

all particles personal bests and their offspring in the entire

population. This measure provides a better means to filter out

the best solution out of the entire population in order to drive

International Conference and Utility Exhibition 2014 on Green Energy for Sustainable Development (ICUE 2014)

Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort, Pattaya City, Thailand, 19-21 March 2014

The particle and velocity update approaches are the same as

that in the conventional single objective PSO.

k

k

k

k

(10)

V k +1 = wk V k + C1 r1 ( Pbest

, i Pi ) + C2 r2 ( Pg , i Pi )

w wmin

w k = wmax max

k max

C1,i C1, j

C1k = C1,i

k max

C 2 ,i C 2 , j

C 2k = C 2,i

k max

Pi k +1 = Pi k + Vi k +1

(11)

True Pareto

Optimal

Front

(12)

classified into 4 successive non-dominated fronts

(13)

After a number of iterations, the number of particles in the

fore-front may exceed the number of particles in use.

Likewise, it is also highly desired to have a diverse solution

spread uniformly around each front in order to obtain all the

solutions in the Pareto-optimal front. Therefore, a further

selection technique is incorporated for each iteration. Here,

crowding distance calculation technique is used for this

purpose, in which the crowding distance of a point i is taken as

the average distance of the two point i-1 and i+1 on either side

of this point i along each of the objectives. The crowding

distance value for particles at the extreme ends of each front is

assigned as infinity.

(14)

In NSPSO, a non-dominated sorting concept is used which

is borrowed from NSGA-II, where the entire population is

sorted into various non-domination levels. This provides the

means for selecting the individuals in the better fronts, hence

providing the necessary selection pressure to push the

population towards Pareto-optimal front [7].

Instead of comparing solely on a particles personal best

with its potential offspring, the entire population of N

particles personal bests and N of these particles offspring are

first combined to form a temporary population of 2N particles.

After this, domination comparisons among all the 2N

individuals in this temporary population are carried out. This

combine-then-compare approach will ensure more nondominated solutions can be discovered through the domination

comparison operations. By comparing the combined 2N

particles for non-domination relationships, the entire

population is sorted out in different non-domination levels as

used in NSGA-II. At each iteration step, we choose only N

individuals out of the 2N to the next iteration step, based on

the non-domination levels. First the entire population is sorted

into two sets, the non-dominated set and the remaining

dominated set. This procedure continues until all particles in

the population are classified into different non-dominated front

levels [7].

A new particle population is created for the next iteration

step by selecting particles from fronts in ascending order, e.g.,

first from Front 1, then Front 2, etc, until N particles (or a

specified threshold) are selected. Since the particles in the first

few fronts get chosen first, this selection pressure will

effectively drive the particle population towards the best front

over many iteration steps [7]. Fig. 5 shows a demonstration of

the sorting arrangement used in NSPSO.

front are again sorted in descending order. In case of

repopulation of N particles from any front, the particles at the

top are selected first. Likewise, for the selection of global best

particle, a particle is randomly selected from the top of the

sorted population.

B. Implementation of NSPSO

The basic steps for implementation of NSPSO for network

reconfiguration are demonstrated by the flowchart in Fig. 6.

This algorithm is implemented just before each of the six time

frames in the 24 hour period considered after real time

measurements give an approximation of the load forecasted for

the upcoming time frame.

In this work, for avoiding the selection of unfeasible

switches, the following steps have been proposed:

Collect all switch indices for dth loop for the selection of dth

element.

Find out any branch vectors in the dth loop that have already

been opened. Remove from the collection all the switch

indices belonging to the already opened branch vectors.

Find out all nodes connected to the dth loop that have more

than two branch vectors intersection. Find out the

intersection branch vectors which already have an open

switch in them. If all but one branch vector have open

switch, remove from the collection the switch indices to the

intersection branch vector that belongs to the dth loop.

Make sure that one of the switch indices from that collection

gets selected for the dth element.

Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort, Pattaya City, Thailand, 19-21 March 2014

been shown. For the second case, it is assumed that only the tie

switches remain open throughout the considered time period.

For each of the six time frame scenarios, the best compromise

solution among the final non-dominated sets is selected for

comparison, with weight value of 5 to loss minimization and

voltage deviation minimization objectives each and weight

value of 1 to switching operation minimization objective.

Fig. 7. Single line diagram of IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system with

DGs

min = 0.3 while acceleration coefficients c1 and c2 are at 2.

The population size and iteration are 50 and 50, respectively.

Fig. 6. Flowchart of the proposed method for implementation of NSPSO for

network reconfiguration

Due to the differences in several characteristics between

transmission system and distribution system, the conventional

load flow methods, like Newton-Raphson method or GaussSiedel method, which are used in transmission networks, may

not be applicable or accurate for load flow in distribution

network. Hence, an alternative load flow method suited for

distribution networks called backward/ forward sweep load

flow algorithm is used in this project. In this project, it is

assumed that the network has a balanced 3-phase system.

However, this method for load flow can be used for both

balanced and unbalanced 3-phase. The detail of the load flow

method is provided in [8].

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

A comparison of the network performance between the case of

implementation of network reconfiguration and that without it

has been shown. Fig. 7 shows the line diagram of the IEEE-33

bus radial network along with the DG connection. In addition,

the case of static network reconfiguration where the network is

reconfigured only once throughout the 24 hour period based

on the loading and generating condition at peak load time has

best compromise solution from the non-dominated set is given

in Table I.

TABLE I

SWITCHING SCHEDULE FOR THE 24 HOUR DURATION

Time

Number of switching

Opened switch combination

Duration

operation

0:00 06:00

11-15-27-33-34

06:00 12:00

9-14-27-31-33

12:00 13:00

9-28-30-33-35

13:00 17:00

7-9-12-28-31

17:00 21:00

7-9-14-28-32

21:00 24:00

7-9-14-28-36

and without reconfiguration is presented in Table II. For the

energy loss calculation, load flow is performed for the same

network configuration but with average load and average DG

output for the given time frame instead of the maximum load.

Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort, Pattaya City, Thailand, 19-21 March 2014

TABLE II

COMPARISON OF NETWORK PERFORMANCE FOR 24 HOUR WITH DIFFERENT RECONFIGURATION STRATEGIES

Time Duration

0:00 06:00

06:00 12:00

12:00 13:00

13:00 17:00

17:00 21:00

21:00 24:00

Without configuration

Power Max. Voltage

Energy Loss

Loss

Deviation

(MWh)

(MW)

(p.u.)

0.0107

0.0163

0.054

0.0955

0.0466

0.297

0.0975

0.0188

0.0936

0.0889

0.0362

0.3184

0.0971

0.2676

0.0595

0.0522

0.0458

0.0608

Total Loss

1.0914

Power

Max. Voltage

Energy Loss

Loss

Deviation

(MWh)

(MW)

(p.u.)

0.0099

0.0175

0.0504

0.0732

0.0318

0.2196

0.0678

0.0215

0.0643

0.0653

0.0264

0.2316

0.0762

0.2128

0.0516

0.041

0.039

0.0486

Total Loss

0.8267

From the result in Table II, it can be seen that the system

efficiency and voltage profile are improved for each time

frames after the implementation of both static and dynamic

network reconfiguration. Likewise, it is seen that the system

without reconfiguration cannot rectify the voltage violation at

time frame of 17:0021:00 hours, when the average DG output

drops significantly but the load remains fairly high. The

minimum bus voltage observed during this period is 0.9405

p.u. It is also seen that the network configuration according to

static reconfiguration strategy may contribute to reduction in

losses and voltage deviation as observed in each time frames.

The total energy loss reduction compared to the first case is

around 24%. However, the fixed configuration is not optimal

for all time periods, which results in slightly higher voltage

deviations and losses as observed in all time frames compared

to dynamic reconfiguration strategy. Likewise, this strategy

also fails to keep the voltage deviation within limits as

observed in the time frame of 17:00 - 21:00 hour, where the

minimum bus voltage is 0.9484 p.u. On the other hand, with

dynamic reconfiguration, the load flow in the network is

optimized to reduce the system loss and voltage deviation for

the entire 24 hour period. It is observed that there is no voltage

limit violation in any time periods with this strategy. A total

reduction of approximately 30% in the total energy loss is

observed in this case as compared to that without network

reconfiguration.

VII. CONCLUSION

In this paper, an effective algorithm for DNCR considering

the variation of load and RES-based DG output has been

presented by using NSPSO and also network performance

results have been compared for the cases of with and without

DNCR implementation. Test results indicated that the network

performance has been improved with DNCR in terms of loss

reduction and voltage profile improvement. Thus, with proper

facilities for SCADA communication and real time

measurement in distribution automation, a switching schedule

for optimum network reconfiguration can be generated

considering the variation in load and DG output for the overall

improvement in network performance.

Power

Max. Voltage

Energy Loss

Loss

Deviation

(MWh)

(MW)

(p.u.)

0.0073

0.0076

0.036

0.0732

0.0318

0.2196

0.0539

0.0137

0.0497

0.0609

0.0256

0.2148

0.0703

0.0392

0.196

0.0377

0.0284

0.0442

Total Loss

0.7603

VIII. REFERENCE

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

D.P. Bernardon, A.P.C. Mello, L.L. Pfitscher, L.N. Canha, A.R. Abaide,

A.A.B. Ferreira, "Real-time reconfiguration of distribution network with

Gianfranco Chicco and Andrea Mazza, "An Overview of the

Probability- distributed generation," Electric Power Systems Research,

pp. 59 67, Sept. 2013.

based Methods for Optimal Electrical Distribution System

Reconfiguration," IEEE Trans, 2013.

Armin Ebrahimi Milani ,

Mahmood Reza Haghifam A new

probabilistic approach for distribution network reconfiguration:

Applicability to real networks,

Mathematical and Computer

Modelling, pp. 169179, Jun. 2011

Mohammad-Reza Andervazh, Javad Olamaei, Mahmoud-Reza

Haghifam,

Adaptive

multi-objective

distribution

network

reconfiguration using multi-objective discrete particles swarm

optimisation algorithm and graph theory, IET Generation,

Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 7, Iss. 12, pp. 13671382, 2013

L.L. Pfitscher, D.P. Bernardon, L.N. Canha, V.F. Montagner, V.J.

Garcia, A.R. Abaide, Intelligent system for automatic reconfiguration

of distribution network in real time, Electric Power Systems Research,

pp. 84 92, 2013

Aboelsood Zidan, Mostafa F. Shaaban, Ehab F. El-Saadan, Long-term

multi-objective distribution network planning by DG allocation and

feeders reconfiguration, Electric Power Systems Research, 95 104,

2013

Xiaodong Li, A Non-dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimizer for

Multi objective Optimization, pp. 3748, 2003.

T.-H. Chen, N.-C.Yang, Three-phase power-flow by direct Zbr method

for unbalanced radial distribution systems, IET Gener. Transmission,

Distribution, Vol.3, Iss.10, pp.903-910, 2009.

IX. BIOGRAPHIES

Subas Ratna Tuladhar received the B.Eng. degree in electrical engineering

from Tribhuwan University, Nepal in 2008. He is currently a Masters student

in Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand. His research interests

include power system optimization, power electronics, power system

integrated renewable energy, and smart grids.

Dr. Jai Govind Singh (M10) received his M. Tech. and Ph.D. degrees, all in

Electrical Engineering, from IIT Rookree and IIT Kanpur, respectively.

He is currently Assistant Professor in the energy field of study, Asian

Institute of Technology, Thailand. His research interests include power

system operation and control, FACTS, power sector deregulation and power

system planning, Smartgrid and Microgrid, integration of renewable energy

resources into power system and power distribution system.

Weerakorn Ongsakul (S89M95) received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in

electrical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1991

and 1994, respectively.

He is an Associate Professor at Energy Field of Study, and former Dean of

School of Environmental, Resources, and Development, Asian Institute of

Technology (AIT), Thailand. His research interests are in parallel processing

Jomtien Palm Beach Hotel and Resort, Pattaya City, Thailand, 19-21 March 2014

and deregulation, and power system optimization.

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