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Y-SHAPE BRIDGE ANALYSIS BASED ON SPACE GRILLAGE METHOD


LU Pengzhen1, ZHAO Renda1, ZHANG Junping2 , XING Tianyu1
LU Pengzhen, Department of Bridge, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu
610031, China; email: pzh_lu@163.com.
1
ZHAO Renda, Department of Bridge, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu
610031, China; email: rendazhao@163.com.
2
ZHANG Junping, Department of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University,
Guangzhou 510006, China; zhangjp168@163.com
1
XIANG Tianyu, Department of Bridge, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu
610031, China;
1

Abstract: The complicated mechanic behavior of the Y-shape Bridge is studied


based on the theory of the elementary beam, and takes account of restrained torsion,
distortion angle, distortion warp and shear lag effect at the same time. A thin-walled
beam element with 10 freedom degrees of every node is established by increasing
freed degree. Meanwhile, authors establish an analytic program and matrix of the
element stiffness, and analyze a typical Y-shape Bridge according to method of the
space grillage analysis. In addition, this paper compares calculation results of the
general girder and the shell model with experiment test.
Key words: Structure of Y-shape BridgeStiffness matrix Analysis of space grillage
1 Introduction

It is an effective way to solve the problem of the traffic congestion. With the
increasing use of thin-walled structure use, mechanic behavior of the Y-shape bridge
structure becomes complex especially in restrained torsiondistortion angle
distortion warp and shear lag effect. Scholars at home and abroad HUANG JY,
E.C.Hambly and others have studied the design and the method of the structure
analysis of the Y-shape Bridge based on the theory of the thin-walled box girder.
Generally, there have three methods which can be used in the Y-shape Bridge
analysis. The first, the Y-shape Bridge structure was divided into two independent
structures in the past, and each of the independent structure is analyzed respectively.
This method does not taking account of the mutual influence of the main bridge and
ramp. The second, the Y-shape bridge was carried out based on general theory and
method of the space grillage analysis, and this way can not taking account of the
restrained torsionthe distortion anglethe distortion warp and the shear lag effect.
The third, analysis of Y-shape bridge structure adopts shell theory. This method can
not obtain directly internal force, and workload of post-process is heavy. In a word,

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those analytical methods above can not exactly hold structural behavior of the
Y-shape Bridge. Based on the general girder theory, by increasing freedom degree,
taking account of the strained torsionthe distortion anglethe distortion warp and
the shear lag effect at the same time, authors establish the element stiffness matrix
of the Y-shape thin-walled box beam.
2 Analysis of Y-shape bridge structure theory
2.1 Analysis of Y-shape bridge straight girder element stiffness
Authors establish element of the thin-walled straight box girder, and the element
is shown in Fig.1
0

z
Mx

Fz

Fx

Fy
Mz

My

Fig.1 coordinates and nodal force of thin-walled box girder element


Vector of element node force is ^F ` under the element coordinate system, and
vector of displacement is ^G `.

^F ` >F , F , N
^G ` >u , v , w ,T
xi

yi

zi

, M xi , M yi , M zi , BIi ,M]i, Fxj , Fyj , N zj , M xj , M yj , M zj , BIj ]T

xi

, T yi , T zi , f i , ]i, ri, r ci, u j , v j , w j , T xj , T yj , T zj , f j , ]j , rj , r cj

Based on characteristic of the straight box girder structure and mechanic


behaviors, moment, torque and distortion uncouple under the out loading, and the
results of element stiffness are decomposed into the strained torsion, the distortion
and the shear lag effect components. Authors obtain matrix >K @20& 20 of the Y-shape
thin-walled box beam element stiffness of 10 freedom degrees per-node.
2.2 Analysis of curve girder element stiffness
2.2.1 Local coordinate and unknown quantity of the displacement of Curve girder
A thin-walled curved with identical cross-section is shown in Fig 2, geometric
center axis of the space flexure is proposed on the same plane, and SiSj is the
eccentric distance y0 between shearing force center and geometric center. To
calculate conveniently, authors take no account of factors of the eccentric
displacement. Radius of the geometrical center is RG, and radius of center of the
shear force is Rs.

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0j

sj

x
y

z
0
s

Fig.2 Element of spatial curve girder


Local coordinate system adopts curve line coordinate, the z axis director of the
local coordinate points to the tangential direction of the girder axis line, and its
directory accords with element directory. X axis lies in curvature plane, the x axis is
normal to z axis, and the x axis that points at right-side of element directory is
positive. The local coordinate system conforms to the principle of right hand screw,
and it is normal curvature when curvature center lies in the right of element directory
and negative in the left. The vectors of the node displacement and bar end force of
the curve element accord with the straight girder element.
2.2.2Strain energy of thin-walled curve girder element
The strain energy of buckling element of the curve girder in the Fig 3 has two
aspects: taking account of buckling effect and taking no account of buckling effect.
U

U I  U II

2.2.3 Matrix of element stiffness


Stiffness matrix of the curve girder element can be acquired through the flexible
degree matrix.
3 program of limit element of Y-shape bridge structure
The whole set of thinking of the procedure composition calculation analysis:
The structure was divided into space straight girder element and curve girder element
based on this papers theory that is the thin-walled box girder stiffness matrix
analysis, and the finite element analytical method is adopted. In addition, the
procedure composition adopts FORTRAN language.
3.1 Program using scope
The program was obtained based on the condition of the same area, constant
curvature radius and thin-walled box section girder, and only take account of flexural
and torsion interaction, if the structure of satisfy the need of above condition, which
all can be calculated and analyzed centralize loading and torque based on this
program, such as thin-walled straight girder, thin-walled curve girder, wide wing
thin-walled box and Y-shape bridge and so on.

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3.2 dispositions of joint point of Y-shape structure two branches


Authors adopt analysis of the space pole element model in the joint location, and
establish the different small girder in the joint location of the two branches.
Calculation of the section characteristic of the small girder can be presented in the
following equation (3). In the equation (3), tc t cc h is thickness of lateral top slab ,
thickness of the bottom and distance of up and down slab in turn.
2t ct cch 2
K
(3)
(t c  t cc)
3.3 Boundary condition
1) Condition of geometry boundary c of strained torsion
Concretion end: all displacement freedom degrees were strained: T z 0 f 0
Resistance hinge bearing: T z 0 f c 0 B I =0
2) Condition of geometry boundary of distortion angle
Concretion end: J J c 0
Hinge bearing (set up rigidity lateral beam): J J cc 0 

4 Analysis of engineering application
4.1 Introduction
There is a typical Y-shape bridge, and span of the main bridge is consist of 25m
30m25m. Width of section A-A of the bridge is 9.0m, width of section B-B of
the bridge is 6.0m, and high degree of the bridge is 1.5m. Radius of the ramp curve is
50m, angle of between the ramp line and the main line is 300,and span of the ramp is
consist of 25m25m.The whole drawing of the bridge is shown in Fig.3.
Authors analyze the typical Y-shape Bridge according to this papers theory and
analytic method. In order to validate the precision of t this papers theory and
analytic method, authors use 3 kinds of loading cases and the form of the bearing
arrangement in turn when the structure is analyzed. Meanwhile, authors compare the
results of this papers theory analysis with the model of shell.
4.2 Model of space grillage finite element
In view of the abovementioned characteristic of the Y-shape bridge structure,
authors analyze the structure according to this papers theory and analytic method.
the analysis of this simplification is: authors set up 3 longitudinally grillage in the
web slab of the box girder of the main bridge 1 span, and other spans include main
line and ramp adopt 2 longitudinally grillage. Meanwhile, authors establish a
hypothesized longitudinally grillage in the structure every edge respectively. Authors
use 33 hypothesized lateral girders in the main bridge according to the span length of
the bridge structure, and establish 21 hypothesized lateral girders in the ramp, and the

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whole bridge altogether divide into 422 element of the space beam. The mode of the
simplified space grillage finite element is shown in Fig.4.

Fig.3 Drawing of Y-shape Bridge (cm)


4.3 Comparison of between results of this papers analysis and the model of shell
According to this papers theory and the grillage analysis, authors analyze the
structure based on 3 kinds of loading cases and 3 different form of the bridge bearing,
the arrangement drawing of the loading cases is shown in Fig.5.Meanwhile, authors
compare the result of the this papers analysis with the model of the shell as well as
experiment test. In order to shorten paper, authors only offer the partial computed
result, and the results of the strain and the deflection are shown in table.1.
&

&

,,

Fig.4 Model of space grillage

&

,,,,

Fig.5 Drawing of loading cases

Table.1 Strain and deflection of under the 3 kinds of loading cases (I)
Theory of the shell
Loading
cases

C1

C2

C3

section

1 span middle of
main bridge
2 span middle of
main bridge
2 span middle of
main bridge

This papers theory

Experiment test
deflect

strain

deflection

strain

deflection

strain

10-6

(mm)

10-6

(mm)

10-6

235

0.37

175

0.39

222

0.28

241

0.47

191

0.48

213

0.42

265

0.59

230

0.68

215

0.56

ion
(mm)

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5 Conclusions
Here we may draw the following conclusions.
(1) Based on the general beam theory, by increasing freedom degree, taking
account of the strained torsionthe distortion anglethe distortion warp and
the shear lag effect at the same time, it can exactly hold the mechanic
behaviors of the thin-walled box beam structure of the Y-shape bridge.
(2) Mechanic Behaviors of the space grillage accord with the practical structural
mechanic property, and the internal forces of the thin-walled box beam
structure of the Y-shape Bridge can be obtained directly.

References

Hambly, E.C.1982. Bridge super structure capability.China Communication


Press, Beijing.
Huang, J.Y. (2000). Structure theory and calculation method of viaduct bridge.
Science Press, Beijing.
O`Briven, E .J.(1998). Up stand finite element analysis of slab ridges.
Computers structures, (69): 671-683.
Huang, H.Y.(2002). Analysis of Y -shape bridge mechanic include constrained
torsion and distortion effect. Huanan Science and Technology University,
Guangzhou.
Wu, S.X. (1996). Box girder bridge analysis with irregular arbitrary play
geometry. Journal of Ninbo University, (3):126-134.

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