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INTRODUCTION

This thesis is towards discovering the factors responsible for a good voice. Good music is
created when Voice produces the sound at the correct pitch, accurate frequency and with good
quality. Voice culture is the science of perfecting and using one's voice effectively, It is also
called science of the human voice. Voice is also an instrument for a vocalist to communicate
his musical ideas. It has to be kept finely tuned. And Voice Training and Voice Culture helps
to improve its quality, its power and endurance. Voice is the only instrument that can be
cultivated, improved and cultured, by variation of pitch, intensity and timbre (tonal quality)
In Sangeeta Ratnakar sarira1 is a term which refers to a gifted voice without any regular
practice. Sareera is a natural voice. The Voice training method turns the gifted natural
instrument into an exquisite and melodious Vadhyam or instrument.

Sanskrit Sholok :

Vidhyadanena tapasa bhaktiya va parvatipateh


Prabhuta bagyavibhavah susariram avaptate 2 (Sangeet Ratnakar)

Voice is an only instrument that can be cultivated, improved and cultured by variation of pitch,
intensity and timbre (tonal quality).Indian Classical Music is based on spirituality. For a vocalist
of Indian Classical Music Voice is to sing the glory of God. Any determined effort focused
towards attaining perfection is called Sadhana. A vocalist has to exercise and make the vocal

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2

VOICE CULTURE-S A K Durga ,pg no 144


VOICE CULTURE-S A K Durga ,pg no 144

cord music worthy towards attaining perfection and is called KanthaSadhana. In Western
Music it is called Voice-Culture.

Indian Classical Music is always connected with spirituality, When a vocalist of Indian Classical
Music sings in correct tone, the whole environment becomes spiritual and soothing. It seems to
pour forth freely from the Heart spontaneously. There is no evidence of calculation, of carefully
directed effort, of attention to the workings of the voice, in the tones of a perfect singer.
All the Teachers and Authorities of Voice Culture believe that this manner of handling the
voice must be acquired by every student of singing or vocal music, in course of carefully
directed study. This training in the use of Voice is the most important feature of education in
Vocal Music or singing. Voice Culture embraces the correct management of the vocal organs.
Vocal training has indeed come to be considered synonymous with training in the correct use of
the Voice. Every method of instruction in singing must contain as its most important element
some means for dealing with the problem of tone-production.

In Indian Classical music both Hindustani and Carnatic, the teaching of Voice production has
been purely on empirical basis so far, relying on the pernicious system of trial and error, with the
result that this branch has been exposed to more charlatanism. 3

A proper understanding of the structure and foundation of the physiological mechanism,


acoustical principles of voice emission and psychological factors of the individual help to deduce
scientific facts which would guide through the tangle of confusion which has beset the art of
Voice Culture.
3

S A K Durga -VOICE CULTURE, with special reference to South Indian Music pg no1

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Voice training has become imperative in the current scenario, it helps Voice flexibility and
ensures Control of Breath, Uniformity in voice, Clarity in voice, Articulation, Resonance, Vocal
range. Scientific and the medical aspect of voice culture is to maintain Voice hygiene and
preserve the voice from voice disorder. There are difference between musical knowledge and
presenting that musical knowledge by impressive singing. In the past many musicians ignored
the importance of a melodies voice, they gave importance to the knowledge of the music and the
different techniques of music.

Although the classical system of music has been enriched with many exercises to develop the
skill of singing, a comprehensive study of all the scientific aspects related to voice cultivation
and also the practice of technically developed exercises will help the singers to analyze the own
voice and to manipulate the vocal apparatus for the perfect voice modulation.

Here there is a very important fact that an effective and impressive voice is a must for singers to
succeed. Thats why Voice Culture is becoming very important for a singer, one interesting thing
is that it is helpful for other professionals also like Public Speaker, Actor, Teacher whoever is
related with impressive voice. As a concept, an ideal voice differ according to the System of
Music, Western music is based on Harmony, Indian music is based on Melody, Carnatic music
has its own unique style, In Hindustani music every Gharanas voice training is different. Soft
singing is necessary in film music. But the best voice is which is most flexible.

Voice training has become imperative in the current scenario, it helps Voice flexibility and
ensures Control of Breath, Uniformity in voice, Clarity in voice, Articulation , Resonance and
Vocal range. Scientific and the medical aspect of voice culture is to maintain Voice hygiene and

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preserve the Voice from Voice disorder. This research aims at to find out the different methods
to improve the quality of voice.

OBJECTIVE OF THE THESIS

The thesis revisits the key concepts the of Voice Culture Methods based on different methods of
Voice training in Hindustani Classical Music, addressing these methods as suggestive form. In
doing so, the thesis aims to explore the possibilities of further integrating patterns of voice
training in Hindustani Vocal Forms so as to enhance performance experiences.

The thesis also investigates how different vocal style training affect both the singer and the
presentation of singing style. The thesis therefore emphasizes on design as an important component to
investigate how the correct voice training methods can be enhanced. It is conceived as a metaphor that
develops ideas in Hindustani Classical music and how it then creates other possibilities of training the
voice. Voice culture is an advanced stage of voice training.

A proper understanding of the structure and foundation of the physiological mechanism, acoustical
principles of voice emission and psychological factors of the individual help to deduce scientific facts
which would guide through the tangle of confusion which has beset the art of voice culture. Since
voice is the result of the proper use of certain muscles of the body, an elementary knowledge of the
structure and function of these muscles is almost indispensable for voice cultivation.
The concept of voice culture and care has gained a lot of significance in recent time.
Today a good voice is not only restricted to classical music, a good voice can be use in
other professions like radio jockeying, jingles, voiceovers and last but not the least in the

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teaching professions as well. With more and more people taking on such professions, the
need for a good cultured voice has become very essential.
I found it very interesting subject for research this inspired me to choose the subject
Method to improve the voice quality through voice culture for my P.HD program.
As a vocal music student, I was always interested in voice production and voice related
subject.
As a vocal music teacher, to teach music students and to give them new ideas and
information about voice.
I have selected this topic for research because I felt there was a need for the
documentation of the traditional and science of voice production together to train the
voice for Hindustani classical music.
As the researcher, I did not have any science background, this study will help develop
inquisitiveness towards the science of voice production in singing.
A study to establish the techniques to improve the voice quality through traditional and
scientific aspect of voice training.
To document the knowledge and use of science of voice production in the vocalists
voice.
The main aim of the study is to introduce scientific aspect of voice culture with the
traditional method to help the vocalist to sing well and preserve voice from disorders.
To study whether New Techniques of voice culture helps to train the voice for singing
different forms of Hindustani Classical Music.
Although Indian classical music has been enriched with many exercises to develop the
skill of singing, but voice culture is about to analyze the voice by scientific aspect
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The main aim of the study is to introduce scientific aspect of voice culture with the
traditional method to help the vocalist to sing well and preserve voice from disorders The
methods to maintain the vocal hygiene how to preserve the voice from voice disorders.

OUTLINE OF THE THESIS CHAPETARISATION


In the first Chapter, the characteristic of Voice culture has been described
a) Voice Culture is a study of Voice and, technique of good voice and voice production.
b) Voice Cultures techniques and exercises are developed after an in-depth study of Physiology
Anatomy, Psychology, Physics, Yoga and Music.
c) The supremacy of the voice as compared to other musical instruments .
d) The voice is used for the purpose of singing as supposed to speaking are dealt with. The
technique of voice production for singing is more complex.
e) The quality of the voice in singing and speaking is conditioned by anatomical peculiarities of
the face, language and civilization.
f) The importance and need of Voice culture is to understand the scientific aspect of voice
culture with the traditional method of voice training both the technique will help the singers to
analyze ones own voice to produce good voice quality and preserve the voice from disorders.

In the Second Chapter the use of voice in ancient Indian text has been described.

a) The treatment of voice has been described in our ancient texts.


b) The science of voice production can be traced from the four Vedas.

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It is said that the origin of Indian music lies in chanting of the mantra of SamaVeda .
c) In ancient time the singers voice is denoted by the term Sarira It has been defined as that
which can bring out the beauties of a Raga without undergoing any training and has come out
with the body is Sarira. Sarandeva has mentioned this in Sangita Ratnakar.
d) Nada Yoga Indian culture including its Music has its origin in Nada Yoga .The relation of
Yoga, Voice and Music.
e) Voice or Sound occurs in four levels and dimensions. These four levels of Voice relate to
frequency, fineness, perceiving level and strength.
f) Reference of Voice hygiene in Ancient Text
g) The merit and demerit of an Voice has been described by the Sangita Laksankaras their
comparison in terms of modern knowledge of Anatomy and Physiology.

In the Third Chapter the usefulness of Voice culture to train the voice to sing has been
described:

a)The style of breathing determines the quality of the voice to a large extent. Hence correct
breathing habits should be well established in the early years itself.

b) Voice Culture give us the correct direction to develop the vocals without any vocal abuse.
Strain our throats in order to get a louder singing voice could result in vocal abuse or damage,
because many of us may squeeze our vocal cords to get a louder singing voice.

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c) Increasing the vocal range is one of the things that allows a singer to be versatile. Our vocal
range is our ability to sing comfortably either high or low notes. Usually our range is measured
in Saptak or octaves.

d) Resonance is responsible for making the voice it sounded is more beautiful. Our vocal chords
are far more complex, more capable than any instrument, can imitate nearly every instrument. In
comparison, it sounded is more beautiful. No instrument can bring as much emotion and feel in a
song than a human voice.
e) Sustaining a note or any Swara which is completely in tune for various seconds is that the
pleasure it provides for the vocalist when reaching the peak of the song is elements utilized
during a skilled singing concert.

In the Fourth Chapter the practical voice training of Hindustani Classical Music has been
described
a) The classical system of music has been enriched with many exercises to develop the skill of
singing,
b) Practice of 7 notes and knowledge of Octave , Selection of Correct Pitch and Scale,
Importance of Kharaj practice or Kharaj Sadhana, Practice of Palta or Alankar, Preparation of
voice for Raga presentation , Importance of Aalaap in Voice Culture, Importance of Taan
,Importance of Articulation in voice culture, Attaining the concept of Laya (periodicity) while
singing has been described.

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c) With the traditional method of voice training ,a comprehensive study of all the scientific
aspects related to voice cultivation and also the practice of technically developed exercises will
help the singers to analyze ones own voice.

In the Fifth Chapter I have been described role of voice culture in different vocal forms of
Hindustani classical music

a) There is a variety of Indian vocal styles with great diversity in classical music. Voice
Cultures aim is to gain the control of the voice to sing the chosen vocal form aesthetically.

b) Role of Voice Culture in Different Vocal Forms of Hindustani Music- Dhrupad ,Dhamar,
Khayal etc and basic training in Carnatic and Western Music.

In the Sixth Chapter The Application of Voice Culture In Hindustani Classical Music has
been described

a) Till now I was describing basics of voice culture, In this Chapter I have described Voice
cultures methods in specific voice training.

b) The voice training method in institutions or education systems.

c) The traditional method of voice training the Gharana system of vocal music.

Style of Gharana systems are itself is a topic to research. It is a vast subject to deal. Many good
work has already been done on different gharanas vocal style . So I have taken few prominent
gharana and their basic voice style.

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d) The uniqueness of a voice or the inborn quality of voice which is find in famous vocalists
because the ornaments or the esthetics easily come out from their voice.

I have described it only as a part or possibilities of Voice culture methods.


In the Seventh Chapter the New Approach, Possibilities of Voice Culture has been
described

a) Possibilities in understanding of subject Voice culture

b) New appoarch and few suggestions.

c) The Analytical study of Voice culture

At the end, I have given the source of data which I have used to write this thesis and
Bibliography and lists of books and websites I have visited has been described.

The research does not include


In the process of this thesis work, the subject came out to be very vast but to keep the thesis
easy and meaningful to the context , It was necessary to stream line few things , I have tried to
focus my research on practical methods of voice culture, which can be used as voice culture
methods. The few points which have not been described in details are :

a) The detailed study of the Science of Voice production.

b) The Gharanas nuances.


Gharanas in Hindustani classical music itself is a topic to research. Many good research and
work have been already done in gharana systems.
c) The details of voice training in institutions.
The music learning in school, college and universities is a vast topic, so I have taken it as a
small part of my thesis.
d) The uniqueness of voice quality.
Every famous vocalist of Hindustani classical music has uniqueness in their voices. Many
research and books already has been written on the famous vocalists and musicians.

The main aim of this thesis is to explain the voice culture methods and its need and benefits.
Benefits of scientific voice production and the traditional method of voice training which is
called Kanth Sadhana in Hindustani classical music.

In the conclusion of the thesis, detailed analysis of the thesis work has been described. At the end
in bibliography, I have given the list of books and websites which I have used for reference.

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CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
Page No
VOICE CULTURE
1.1) What is Voice Culture?

1-7

1.2) Involvement of other important subjects in Voice Culture.

8-9

1.3) Voice and its greatness as a Musical instrument.

10-11

1.4) How to cultivate the Speaking Voice into a impressive Singing Voice.

12-18

1.5) Science of Voice Production.

19-29

1.6) What is Voice quality?

30-32

1.7) Basics of Voice Culture.

33-35

1.8) The benefits, importance and need of Voice Culture

36-37

CHAPTER-2
VOICE AND ANCIENT INDIAN TEXTS
2.1) Reference of Voice according to Ancient Indian Texts.

38-44

2.2) Metaphysics of Production of Voice.

45-51

2.3) Relation of music and the Chakra.

52-57

2.4) Nada Yoga - The Yoga of Sound

58-65

2.5) Four Stages of Voice in Ancient time.

66

2.6) The Merit and Demerit of the Voice Shariram in ancient period .

67-76

2.7) Methods to maintain the voice in ancient text.

77-81

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CHAPTER -3
THE EFFECTIVENESS AND USEFULLNESS OF VOICE CULTURE
Page No
3.1) Control of Breath.

82-92

3.2) Power in Voice while Singing or Vocal Projection.

93-97

3.3) Extending the Vocal Range.

98-105

3.4) Resonance in singing.

106-109

3.5) Vocal sustain on Musical notes or Swara.

110-114

CHAPTER-4
THE PRACTICAL ASPECT OF VOICE TRAINING IN HIBDUSTANI CLASSICAL
MUSIC
4.1) Selection of Correct Pitch and Scale.

115-123

4.2) Practice of 7 notes and knowledge of Octave .

124-126

4.3) Importance of Kharaj practice or Kharaj Sadhana.

127

4.4) Practice of Palta or Alankar.

128-135

4.5) Practice of 'Merukhand'-gayaki.

136-141

4.6) Practice of Sargam geet and Lakshan geet .

142-145

4.7) Knowlegde of 10 Scales.

146-149

4.8) Importance of Aalaap in voice culture.

150-153

4.9) Importance of Taan in voice culture.

154-160

4.10) Ornaments of Vocal Music.

161-165

4.11) Importance of Vowels Aa Ee Oo and Articulation.

166-170

4.12) Voice training with Tala.

171-175
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CHAPTER -5
THE USE OF VOICE FOR DIFFERENT MUSICAL FORMS IN HINDUSTANI
CLASSICAL MUSIC
Page No
176 -180

5.1) Role of Voice Culture in Vocal forms


5.1.1) Dhrupad.

181

5.1.2) Dhamar.

182

5.1.3) Khayal.

183-186

5.1.4) Tarana.

187

5.1.5) Tappa.

188

5.1.6) Thumri.

189

5.2) Voice Techniques of Different System of Music


5.2.1) Voice Culture and Carnatic Vocal Music.

190-194

5.2.2) Voice Culture and Western Vocal Music.

195-196

CHAPTER 6
THE APPLICATION OF VOICE CULTURE IN TRADITIONAL METHODS AND
INSTITUTIONAL METHODS OF HINDUSTANI CLASSICAL MUSIC
6.1)

Voice culture in Traditional Methods and Institutions

6.1.1) Gharana System.

197-206

6.1.2) Voice culture methods in Institutions.

207

6.2) The concept of Ideal Voice or Uniqueness of voice.

208-211

CHAPTER-7
NEW APPROACH AND POSSIBILITIES OF VOICE CULTUR IN HINDUSTANI
CLASSICAL MUSIC
7.1) Approach of Voice Culture in Hindustani Classical Music.

212-234

7.2) Analytical Study and techniques of Voice culture.

235-242

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CONCLUSION

I-VII

APPENDIX-I ( Vocal management)

VIII-XII

APPENDIX-II

XIII-XVII

List of Charts
List of Figures
List of Tables
BIBLIOGRAPHY

XVIII-XX

Enclosures- COMPACT DISC ( CDs)


i) Discography (Interviews with Musicians On Voice Culture Methods)
ii) The vocal demonstration of voice training methods and different vocal forms of Hindustani
classical music by the candidate.

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