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Anticline Trap

An anticline is an area of the subsurface where the strata have been pushed into forming a domed
shape. If there is a layer of impermeable rock present in this dome shape, then hydrocarbons can
accumulate at the crest until the anticline is filled to the spill point - the highest point where
hydrocarbons can escape the anticline.
Application:

This type of trap is by far the most significant to the hydrocarbon industry. Anticline traps
are usually long oval domes of land that can often be seen by looking at a geological map
or by flying over the land.
The anticline traps can be filled partially or completely with oil. When it is filled completely with
oil, this is known as their spill plane

Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD)


Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is an enhanced oil recovery technology for
producing heavy crude oil and bitumen. It is an advanced form of steam stimulation in which a
pair of horizontal wells is drilled into the oil reservoir, one a few meters above the other. High
pressure steam is continuously injected into the upper wellbore to heat the oil and reduce
its viscosity, causing the heated oil to drain into the lower wellbore, where it is pumped out.
Application:
In the Steam-assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process, heated oil drains from around growing
steam chambers, driven by gravity, to lower horizontal wells. As the oil drains, the steam
chamber advances into the reservoir. The process has several features:

The displacement or the oil is systematic and high recoveries can be obtained.

In suitable applications, oil to steam ratios higher than those found for conventional
steam-flooding can be achieved.

The process can be used in even the heaviest of bitumen reservoirs without extensive
preheating. The feature which makes this possible is that once the oil is heated, it remains
hot as it drains to the production well; this is unlike conventional steam-flooding where
oil which is displaced from the steam chamber tends to cool on its way to production.

Carbon Sink
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carboncontaining chemical compound for an indefinite period. The process by which carbon sinks
remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration. Public
awareness of the significance of CO2 sinks has grown. There are also different strategies used to
enhance this process

Application
The natural sinks are:

Absorption of carbon dioxide by the oceans


via physicochemical and biological processes
Photosynthesis by terrestrial plants

Natural sinks are typically much bigger than artificial sinks. The main artificial sinks are:

Landfills

Carbon capture and storage proposals

Carbon sources include:

Combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) by humans for energy and
transportation

Farmland (by animal respiration); there are proposals for improvements in farming
practices to reverse this.