Conference 2008-2009

Slide

Species

etiology

Morph Dx

notes

notes/DDX

1.1

1

Elephant seal

Toxoplasma gondii

Cerebrum, brainstem: infects many cells including Meningoencpehalitis, necrotizing, lymphoid, resides in a cysts have a thin outer wall containing histiocytic, multifocal mild with parasitophorus vacuole which numerous bradyzoites lymphoplasmacytic perivascular protects it from the host cuffing and few protozoal cysts response Colon: Granulomas, multifocal with few strongyloid nematodes Musculature Digestive tract Reproductive tract

1.2

2

Macaque Cuticle

Oesophagostomum Hypodermis

Ranges in thickness

immediately internal to the cuticle

Under the hypodermis

Mouth, buccal cavity, Only females are present in Rhabditoid esophagus, intestine, and anus infections

Alae-winglike extensions

extensions of the lining cells- multinulceate, or hypodermis into the coelomyarian/polymyarian: extend Females have two tracts, Males have uninucleate, pigmented from pseudocoelom are called into body cavity/ numerous/ tall one digested blood or bile lateral chords Platymyarian/meromyarian: flattened against the hypodermis Some produce eggs others larvae

1.3

3

Horse

Nephroblastoma

Triphasic- equal amounts of all 3 cell lineages

Blastemal cells do not exhibit cytomorphologic characteristics of mesenchymal or epithelial cells

1.4

4

Pig

Actinobacillus suis

2.1

5

Mouse

Corynebacterium bovis

Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing, A suis can also cause rhoboid histiocytic and neutrophilic with cutaneous infarctions similar to vasculitis, necrotic leukocytes (oat Erysipelas cells), fibrin and coccobacilli Skin: Hyperkeratosis, Athymic nude mice and SCID orthokeratotic, with epidermal mice hyperplasia and mild dermatitis Sprague Dawley Rats > 12 months old; Liver, LN, Spleen, Mediastinum, Retroperitoneum, SQ; Rats have nodular lesions, Mice have diffuse infiltrations

acanthosis, kyperkeratosis and coryneform bacteria in the stratum corneum

2.2

6

Mouse

Histiocytic Sarcoma

Liver: Histiocytic Sarcoma

2.3

7

Macaque

Corynebacterium ulcerans

Liver, hepatocytes: Microvesicular lipidosis Lung: Pleuropneumonia, fibrinonecrotic, diffuse, severe, with abundant coccobacilli Thyroid gland: thyroiditis, lymphoplasmacytic, chronic, with follicular hyperplasia and colloid depletion Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, multifocal to coalescing, with syncytia and intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions Heart: atypical endothelial proliferation (angioendotheliomatosis), multifocal with few fibrin thrombi, rare myocyte degeneration and necrosis and minimal lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis Kidney, posterior: Nephritis, necrotizing, granulomatous, severe, with myriad intrahistiocytic bacteria fibro-adipose tissue and skeletal muscle: feline ventral abdominal angiosarcoma Testicle, splenic capsuleseminoma Liver: Myelolipoma, multiple Liver: Cholangiohepatitis, proliferative, lymphohistiocytic, chronic, multifocal, with intraepithelial coccidia Pituitary gland, pars distalis: Adenoma Cerebrum: Neuronal necrosis, multifocal with glial nodules splenitis, necrotizing, random, multifocal, moderate with lymphoid depletion Haired skin: dermatitis, proliferative, and necrotizing, subacute with intraepidermal vesicles, balooning degeneration, and ICIB Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, proliferative with intraepithelial intracytoplasmic ICIB

Similar to C diptheriae and pseudotuberculosis

2.4

8

African Green Monkey

Autoimmune Thyroiditis

3.1

9

Dog

Canine Distemper and Canine Adenovirus type 2

3.2

10

Cat

Feline Systemic Reactive Angioendotheliomatosis

proliferating cells are positive for SMA and VWF (endothelial cells and pericytes)

3.3

11

Rainbow trout

Renibacterium salmoninarium Feline Ventral Abdominal Angiosarcoma Seminoma Myelolipoma

3.4 4.1 4.2

12 13 14

Cat Horse cat

Cd31 and VWF, and lymphatic Vessel endothelial receptor-1 are positive Right testicle: hypoplasia, diffuse also found in spleen, adrenal and spinal cord of dogs, and adrenal glands of cattle

4.3

15

Rabbit

Eimeria steidae

4.4

16

Rat

Pituitary adenoma

Most are prolactin secreting Necrotic and hemorrhagic changes are centered on CNS, pancreas, lungs, liver, adrenals, heart, and lymphoid organs

5.1

17

swan

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1)

5.2

18

Cat

Francisella tularensis

5.3

19

Goat

Capripoxvirus

vasculitis?

Sheeppox, goatpox, and lumpyskin disease

5.4

20

Bison

Mycoplasma bovis

Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing, fibrinosuppurative, diffuse, with interlobular edema and fibrosis

Acute lesions begin in airways Gross: Well demarcated, and progress to multifocal to caseonecrotic nodules up to a few coalescing caseonecrotic centimeters in diameter disperseed debris often containing mineral throughout the cranioventral lung lobes

6.1

21

Dog

Acute Respiratory Distress syndrome

Hyaline membranes are homogenous Lung: Pneumonia, granular or fibrillar eosinophilic material bronchointerstitial, Intrabronchial administration of composed of necrotic epithelial cell fibrinosuppurative, with bronchiolar Staph aureus debris mixed with fibrin and plasmaand alveolar hyaline membranes Surfactant apolipoprotein A, VWF, and and bacteria Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 ddx: Oxygen toxicity, smoke, phosgene, mercury vapor, kerosene, paraquat, high altitude, bleomycin, busulfan, methotrexate E cadherin is lost in lobular tumors (LCIS), so is diagnostic for DCIS Mammary Changes Fibroadenoam (SD) Mammary Dysplasia Mammary hyperplasia (FVB/N) Mammary tumor Fibroepithelial hyperplasia Gynecomastia

6.2

22

Macaque (MALE)

Ductular Carcinoma In situ

Mammary gland: ductular carcinoma Species Rat Rabbit Mouse Mouse Cat Canine

Cause Prolactin Pituitary tumor secreting prolactin Pars distalis prolactin Mammary tumor viruses (MMTV) Progesterone administration Sertoli cell tumor

6.3

23

Mouse (Adult)

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Skeletal muscle, hind limb: Rhabdomyosarcoma, embroyonal Why diagnose embryonal if its Desmin, Myosin, Titin, Myogenin, and with focal osteosarcomatous an adult mouse? mYoD> Actin, Myoglobin, Vimentin differentiation Myogenin and myoD are expressed in the nucleus of myoblasts BMP is not expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma

6.4

24

Mouse

Botryomycosis

Digits, foreleg: Cellulitis, pyogranulomatous, and necrotizing, with osteolysis, Splendore-Hoeppli

Staphylococcus aureus, S hominis, S xylosus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Escherichia coli, Nocardia asteroides, Strep intermedius Horse lesions-Spinal cordhemorrhage, malacia of thoracic and lumbar spinal cord/ Birds- Lesions in heart and liver ddx: enrofloxacin, taurine deficiency, inherited retinal atrophy, hypertensive retinopathy, combination of methylnitrosurea+ketamine begins centrally (feline central retinal degeneration) Rod-cone dysplasia (AD), and rod-cone degeneration (AR)animal model of retinitis pigmentosa retinal detachment, subretinal hemorrhage/effusion, retinal and choroidal vessel medial hypertrophy, and/or degenerative changes

7.1

25

Hawk

West Nile Virus

Eye: Pectenitis, lymphoplasmacytic, diffuse with mild choroiditis and retinal degeneration and detachment

Horse Histo- Non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, gliosis

7.2

26

Cat

Enrofloxacin induced retinal degeneration

Eye, retina: Degeneration and loss of photoreceptor, outer nuclear layer, and outer plexiform layers, severe, diffuse Taurine deficiency

cats may also have dilative cardiomyopathy

Inherited retinal atrophy

Abyssinian and persian

Hypertensive retinopathy

Also have renal disease or hyperthyroidism

7.3

27

Dog

Traumatic panophthalmitis

Cornea is avascular and covered by non-keratinized, non-pigmented stratified Eye: Panophthalmitis, squamous epithelium, with fibrinosuppurative, diffuse, severe, endothelial tight junctions, and with corneal rupture, iridal Na/K atpase. Bowmans prolapse, phacoclasia, and membrane is the BM below intralesional bacteria the surface epithelium, and is not distinct in animals like it is in humans Stromal damage--> Neutrophils, Neovascularization, Fibroblast proliferation --> possible fibrosis--> visual impairment

Corneal wounds are healed by first sliding epithelium followed by mitosis after 24 hrs. Cells recruited from the corneoscleral junction retain phenotypic characterisitics of conjunctiva such as pigmentation and rete ridges- Conjunctival or cutaneous metaplasia

7.4

28

Dog

Onchocerca sp

Filarids--> small, most in the group produce microfilaria; Coelomyarian Eye, episcleral connective tissue: musculature which atrophies in Some slides contained minimal Adult filarid nematodes with mild Onchocerca and becomes granulomatous inflammation fibrosis hypodermis; very small intestine (Key dx feature tells from Thelazia) Rete mirabilis: Arteritis and periarteritis, necrotizing, lymphocytic, multifocal, marked with fibrinoid necrosis ddx ulcerative mucosal diseases: Rinderpest, BVD, FMD, Bluetongue, BPS, IBR Kidney mottling, infarction, nephritis, Urinary bladder mucosal ulcerations, lymph node and hemal node enlargement, splenic lymphoid hyperplasia Proliferation of CD8+ T cells, Vasculitis, Resp and GI ulcerationInfects Large Granular Lymphocytes with T suppressor and NK cell activity

8.1

29

Ox

Malignant Catarrhal Fever

8.2

30

Cat

Cytuxzoon felis

Kidney, liver and spleen: Histiocytosis, intravascular, diffuse, moderate with intrahistiocytic schizonts Location Parasite Hemoproteus Leukocytozoon Plasmodium Cytauxzoon felis Babesia cati Babesia felis Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma centrale Babesia bovis Babesia bigemina Theileria mutans Theileria annulata Theileria cervi Babesia canis Babesia gibsoni Babesia equi babesia caballi Babesia ovis Babesia motasi Trypanosoma johnbakeri Mycoplasma hemofelis (hemobartonella) Mycoplasma hemocanis (Hemobartonella) Mycoplasma hemosuis (Eperythrozoon suis) Eperythrozoon weyoni Eperythrozoon sp Dipetalonema reconditum Dirofilaria immitis Setaria Trypanosoma theileri Trypanosoma congolese Extracellular parasites Trypansoma vivax Trypanosoma cruzi Trypanosoma brucei Trypansoma evansi Cattle Cats Birds Host

Intraerythrocytic

Deer Elk Dogs Horses Sheep

Birds Cats Dogs Pigs Cattle Llamas Dogs Dogs/cats Horses Cattle dogs

Epicellular (on membrane surface of erythrocytes)

Horses

8.3

31

Chinchilla

Hemolytic toxin, survives in Liver: hepatitis, necro-suppurative, macrophages, strong cell multifocal, moderate, with Listeria monocytogenes mediated immune response is numerous bacilli necessary for clearance Liver, hepatocytes: Vacuolar change, lipid-type Chinchillas are highly susceptible

Abortion: ruminants, late gestation, hematogenous

Septicemic: Calves, foals, fetuses, miliary microabscesses in liver and maybe other organs Encephalitis: ruminants, food--> invades mucosa--> trigeminal nerve--> retrograde axonal transportation--> brainstem --> microabscesses

8.4

32

Dog

Trypanosoma cruzi

Triatomids suck blood and Heart: Myocarditis, defecat--> Trypomastigotes Pseudocyts rupture out of muscle and lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal, are rubbed into the skin and release trypomastigotes into blood--> moderate, with rare sarcoplasmic enter blood--> go to heart and picked up by triatomids --> in bug pseudocysts containing numerous become amastigotes--> intestine change into epimastigotes amastigotes multiply by binary fission

9.1

33

Pig

Skin: Epidermitis, exudative and proliferative, multifocal with Staphylococcus hyicus ulceration and superficial dermatitis and intracorneal cocci Small Intestine: villous necrosis, diffuse, with myriad bacilli Skin: Panniculitis and dermatitis, pyogranulomatous, nodular, focally extensive with fungal hyphae Skin: dermatitis and panniculitis, Capsule impairs phagocytosis, pyogranulomatous with numerous activates complement, and yeasts suppresses T cells Kidney: Adenocarcinoma, tubulopapillary Toxin A- Stimulates cytokine production and attracts leukocytes Toxin B- modulates cell signaling pathways, and induces cytokine production and causes apoptosis

9.2

34

Harbor seal

Clostridium difficile

9.3

35

Cat

Microsporum canis (Pseudomycetoma)

9.4

36

Dog

Cryptococcus neoformans

Some strains produce melanin and phenoloxidase (antioxidants)

10.1

37

Leopard frog

Ranid Herpesvirus-1 adenocarcinoma

Lucke Tumor Herpesvirus

10.2

38

Tasmanian devil

Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor

Haired skin: Malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm

may metastasize, but primarily interfere with feeding, and devils lose condition

10.3

39

Horsehoe crab

Shell disease (Mycoticfusarium)

Lysate extracted from Carapace: Sjell disease, Granular amoebocytes (hemocytes)-amebocytes is sued to test necrotizing acute and chronic with degranulation and formation of a pharmaceuticals for bacterial fungal hyphae and bacteria hemolymph clot endotoxin Invertebrates lack an adaptive Gills: Branchitis, necrotizing, acute immune system- response includes hemolymph and chronic, multifocal with fungal coagulation, toll like receptor hyphae mediated antimicrobial peptide production, melanin formation, Animal model of human TBMammary gland: Mastitis, central zones of necrosis pyogranulomatous, focally where the highest extensive concentrations of bacteria are Hemolymph contains soluble antimicrobial proteins including Creactive protein, alpha-2 microglobulins, lectins and hemocyanins

10.4

40

Guinea pig

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

11.1

41

Cat

Kidney: Renal adenocarcinoma with interstitial nephritis, fibrosis Renal adenocarcinoma and pyelitis, glomerulonephritis with tubular proteinosis Calcinosis circumscripta Haired skin: Granulomas, calcareous, multifocal to Colon: Colitis, fibrinonecrotic, Sheep- Epsilon toxin binds to Goats-Type D- Peracute deathm multifocal to coalescing with endothelial cells leading to acute diarrhea, chronic- Distal small hemorrhagic and superfiical cocci FSE, and bind to distal tubules intestine and cecum, colon, with and bacilli leading to pulpy kidney fibrinonecrotic enterocolitis Lung, arteries- Endoarteritis, chronic with thrombi and intravascular adult nematodes Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, multifocal to coalescing with hemorrhage and nematode larvae

11.2

42

Macaque

11.3

43

Goat

Clostridium perfringens Type D

11.4

44

Dog

angiostrongylus vasorum

12.1

45

Ox

12.2

46

Pig

Tongue: Glossitis, pyogranulomatous, multifocal to Actinobacillus lignierisii coalescing, severe with Splendore Hoepli material, fibrosis, myocyte degeneration, necrosis and loss Spinal cord: Poliomyelitis and ganglioneuritis, non-suppuratove, multifocal marked with neuronal Porcine Teschovirus degeneration and necrosis, (PTV) neuronophagia, gliosis, astrocytosis, satellitosis and spheroids

Ventral horn of spinal cord, brain stem, ganglion cells of spinal ganglion

Some strains associated with female reproductive disorders, enteric disease, pneumonia, pericarditis, and myocarditis

Porcine Hemagglutinating Classical Swine Fever (pestivirus)encephalitis (coronavirus)Pseudoreabies (suid Herpesvirus1)vascular lesions- hemorrhage, Neurological disease (4-7 daynon-suppurative encephalitis of old pigs/ vomiting and wasting infarction, necrosis and DIC- gray and gray matter, neuronal necrosis, and (4-14 days)- Non-suppurative white matter of medulla, pons, and ganglioneuritis, INIB, cerberal encephalomyelitis in medulla, thalamus, endothelial swelling and cortex mostly with other tissuesbrain stem, and trigeminal, proliferation, perivascular lymphocytic adrenal gland,s liver, tonsils, paravertebral and autonomic cuffing, hemorrhage, thrombosis and spleen, lung gliosis, and neuronal degeneration ganglia and gastric myenteric plexus Nipah virus (Paramyxovirus)Encephalitis and pneumonianecrotizing vasculitis and Porcine rubulavirus fibrinoid necrosis of arterioles, encephalomyelitis (Paramyxovirus)venules, and capillaries, with Poli-Encephalomyelitis, endothelial syncytia, ICIB, reproductive failure and corneal bronchointerstitial pneumonia, edema, anterior uveitis, necrotizing bronchiolitis, epididymitis, orchitis, and interstitial lymphocytic neutrophilic pneumonia meningitis, and nonsuppurative encephalitis and gliosis Cecum: Typhlitis, necrotizing and pyogranulomatous, diffuse, severe, with vasculitis, fibrin, hemorrhage, edema, and intralesional hyphae and pseudohyphae and rare INIB Lymph node: Lymphoid depletion, diffuse, severe with draining hemorrhage, edema and eosinophilic INIB Skeletal muscle: Myocyte degeneration and necrosis, multifocal, moderate with hemorrhage, emphysema and few intralesional bacteria reported with co-twin and its Complete mole= paternal side- XX Placenta: Cotyledonary hyperplasia own placenta- the absence of diploid/ Partial mole = Triploid with irregular villus hypertrophy and any detectable fetal structures (fertilization of a haploid ovum either trophoblastic hyperplasia (placental suhc as skin distinguishes by two sperm or one sperm which hamartoma) them from the more common duplicates amorphous globosus (fetal diagnosis of hydatiform mole is Humans- Hydatidorm mole is a questionable: Differentials are cystic swelling of chorionic villi amorphous globosus, adventitial accompanied by trophoblsatic placentation, and a co twin that has proliferation died Epididymis: Epididymitis, granulomatous, focally extensive with sperm granuloma Epididmymis: Epithelial hyperplasia, multifocal, moderate Late gestational (>50 days) Testicle: Orchitis, lymphohistiocytic,abortions, placental necrosis of chronic, diffuse, severe with B canis and B suis lack surface chorionic villi, with marked seminiferous tubular intratrophoblastic bacteria: antigens that test for M melitensis and atrophy and loss and interstitial cell B abortus fetal lesions include hyperplasia pneumonia, endocarditis, and hepatitis Epididmyis: Epididymitis, lymphohistiocytic, chronic with epithelial hyperplasia Causes of sperm granulomascongenital duct anomalies, adenomyosis, trauma, infections

12.3

47

Cat

Candida albicans

Feline Parvovirus

12.4

48

Ox

Clostridium chauvoei

13.1

49

Ox

Hydatiform Mole? (cotyledonary hyperplasia)

13.2

50

sheep

Actinobacillus seminis

13.3

51

Dog

Brucella canis

13.4

52

Dog

Teratoma, monodermal variant

Ovary: Teratoma, monodermal variant

ddx: ganglioneuroma and CNS component of teratoma

14.1

53

Dog

Escerichia coli

Small intestine: enteritis with marked villus atrophy, fusion, blunting, and crypt necrosis, and loss and attaching bacilli, apicomplexans and intracryptal helical bacteria

EPEC/EAEC- adhesins and fimbriae-intimin receptor translocates to host cell causing cytoskeletal rearrangements--> Pedestallike structure and loss of microvilli

Brachyspira canis is commensal/ Brachyspira pilosicoli have been isolated from dogs with diarrhea

14.2

54

Mink

Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, Kits get interstitial pneumonia with rare membranoproliferative and INIB/ Adults get splenomegaly, Aleutian Mink Disease Homozygous for the Aleutian necrotizing, diffuse, moderate, with lymphadneopathy, (Parvovirus) gene are more susceptible multifocal necrotizing arteriolitis, hypergammaglobulinemia, and acute subacute interstitial nephritis, and interstitial nephritis leading to kidney Nutritional myopathy Skeletal muscle: Degeneration and necrosis, multifocal moderate Proliferating larval cestodes (spargana)- Pseudophylidian Skeletal muscle: Rhabdomyositis, cestodes- Lack GI tract, and panniculitis, pyogranulomatous calcareous corpuscles, within and eosinophilic, focally extensive, cysts lined by a eosinophilic with encysted larval cestodes amorphous capsule, bodies have muscle and excretory ducts

14.3

55

Donkey

14.4

56

Dog

Sparganum proliferum (larval cestode)

15.1

57

Cat

Feline Acquired Skin fragility Syndrome

Non-hyperextensible skin in contracts to EDS which is hyperextensible Skin: Epidermal and dermal Both histologically similar, but FASFS- the epidermis is thin with derma atrophy, diffuse, marked with atrophy and thin collagen bundles/ In EDA the epidermis is unaffected follicular atrophy and loss, dermal and dermis is normal thickness, but dermal collagen is abnormally celfting and subacute dermatitis arranged with red cores by Trichrome stain Sun exposed, involve hair follicles, single raised nodules with umbilicated centers/ dense keratin, suprabasilar celfts, acantholytic cells are Corps ronds (large orund cells with perinuclear halos), or Corps grains (small ovoid, intense eosinophilic with pyknotic flattened nuclei) Neural crest origin- NSE, Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin, CK20

15.2

58

Dog

Warty Dyskeratoma

Hairred skin: Warty Dyskeratoma

ddx: acantholytic SCC (extensive apoptosis is distinguishing feature)

15.3

59

Cat

Merckel cell carcinoma

Haired skin: Merckel cell Carcinoma

Merkel cells are located in the stratum basale (mechanoreceptors) with dense core granules and numerous desmosomes

15.4

60

Bandicoot

Bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis virus Type 1

Skin: Follicular and epidermal hyperplasia and dysplasia with hypergranulosis

16.1

61

White-faced Ibis

Giardia sp

Small Intestine: Enteritis, heterophilic, diffuse, with surface associated trophozoites

Malabsorption of nutrients

16.2

62

Blue Heron

Eustrongyloides

Proventriculus: Proventriculitis, granulomatous, multifocal, moderate with nematodes

Aphasmids- stichosomes (basophilic structures around esophagus). Stichocytes are esophageal gland cells. examples - Trichuris, Eustrongyloides, Aphasmids have a bacillary Diocyophyma, and Capillaria band of nuclei in the hypodermis- Adult females have one genital tract, with eggs having bipolar plugs

16.3

63

Fulvous Whistling Duck

Mycobacterium avium

Liver: Granulomas, multifocal, with acid fast bacilli Liver: Amyloidosis, diffuse, severe with moderate hepatocellular atrophy, loss and degeneration and necrosis with multifocal granulomatous hepatitis Lung: Interstitial fibrosis, multifocal, severe with fibroblast and smooth muscle proliferation type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and alveolar histiocytosis Cecum: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, myxoid Lung: Fibrosis, interstitial, nodular, multifocal, severe, with neutrophilic and histiocytic alveolitis, Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and rare intrahistiocytic Eos INIB

16.4

64

Cat

Feline Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Associated with the development of bronchoalveolar carcinoma, alveolar squamous metaplasia, sub-pleural and caudo-dorsal distribution, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia

17.1

65

Horse

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

origin- interstitial cells of Cajal- CD 117, Vim, NSE, mild SMA+

17.2

66

Horse

Equine Multinodular Pulmonary FibrosisEquine Herpesvirus-5

17.3

67

Horse

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

Placenta, allantochorion: Placentitis, necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, moderate, with squamous metaplasia, fibrin, edema, and large colonies of coccobacilli

C cellulans- Gram Pos, branching, motile, oxidase negative, catalase positive, non-acid fast bacilli

fetal lesions- pyogranulomatous pneumonia/ not seen in nocardiosis/ DDx Crossiella equi placentitis

17.4

68

Pig

Nasal turbinates: Rhinitis, necroulcerative, subacute with Porcine cytomegalovirusNote corynebacterium was glandular epithelial eosinophilic inclusion body rhinitis isolated from the turbinate INIB, osteolysis and osteonecrosis, fibrosis and granulation tissue

18.1

69

Muscovy duck

ddx: DHV Type I (Enterovirus; Picornaviridae) has been DHV Type II is considered to be an reported in mallard ducklings; astrovirus and is difficult to propagate experimental DHV Type I under laboratory conditions; DHV Type infections have been produced III is a member of the Picornaviridae, is Duck Plague Duck viral Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute, in goslings, turkey poults, antigenically distinct from Type I virus, Enteritis Virus- Anatid random, moderate, with Eosin INIB young pheasants, quail, and and can be propagated in duck (but Herpes virus- 1 guinea fowl. The viruses that not chick) embryos. A distinct serologic cause hepatitis in ducklings variant of DHV Type I, named DHV should not be confused with Type Ia, has also been described. duck hepatitis B virus, a hepadnavirus infection of older

looks like there are inclusions in the DVH- The liver is enlarged and covered with hemorrhagic foci up to 1 cm in diameter. The spleen may be enlarged and mottled. Kidneys endothelial cells as well- Avian may be swollen, and renal blood vessels congested. Diseases 36:164-168

18.2

70

Northern Bobwhite

Dispharynx nasuta

Proventriculus: Proventriculitis, proliferative and heterophilic, diffuse, marked with glandular ectasia and adult spirurids Small intestine: enteritis, lymphoblastic, transmural, with crypt loss, intraleukocytic apicomplexan merozoites, and intraepithelial gamonts, and schizonts Liver: Hepatitis, portal, lymphoblastic, diffuse, marked with intracytoplasmic apicomplexan merozoites

18.3

71

House Sparrow

Atoxoplasma

Passeriformes only- Loss of appetite, weight loss, diarrhea, loss of balance. Atoxoplasma resembles toxoplasma but is not toxoplasma. Atoxoplasma and Isospora occysts contain two sporocysts each having four sporozoites. Typical coccidian lifecycle, but Atoxoplasma sporozoites and merozoites can infect mononucleated cells and enter ciruclation and induce a lympoproliferative response.

18.4

72

Pig

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (Swine Dysentery)

Colon: Colitis, erosive, multifocal, Growers and finishers, Large Suppurative colitis, edema, hyperemia, moderate, with necrosis, luminal intestine only, mucin, fibrin, with spirochetes in colonic glands, mucin accumulation and blood, pseudomembrane, hyperplasia of goblet cells, superficial argyrophilic spiral bacteria erosions erosions, fibrin, hemorrhage

19.1

73

Ox

Bracken Fern (acute)

Bone marrow: hypoplasia, trilineage, diffuse

Ptaquilosied- norsesquiterpene ddx: Anaplasmosis, mannheimia glucoside- causes bone (laryngeal form), septicemic marrow suppression, pasteurellaosis, Leptospirosis, sweet cumulative clover, bacillary hemoglobinuria

19.2

74

Dog

Babesia sp

Pathogenesis: Tick transmission--> Parasitized Cytological preparation, peripheral erythrocytes--> Hemolysis (IV, blood smear: Moderate EV) --> Anemia, polychromasia, and anisocytosis hemoglobinemia, bilirubinemia, (regenerative anemia), with icterus --> anaerobic intraerythrocytic organisms metabolism --> Acidosis --> hypoxic cell damage --> shock -> death Brain, cerebrum: necrosis and neuronal loss, cortical, laminar, multifocal, moderate with edema and histiocytic and lymphocytic meningoencephalitis Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, fibrinonecrotizing, acute, multifocal to coalescing, marked with edema, hemorrhage, hyaline membranes, and alveolar septal mineralization

19.3

75

Ox

Nutritional Polioencephalomalacia (PEM)

Sulfates, Bracken fern, Thiaminase containing fish, altered rumen metabolism

Sulfur associated PEM in ruminantsmicrobial reduction of ingested sulfurhydrogen sulfide

19.4

76

Dog

Uremic Pneumonitis

20.1

77

Dog

Gliomatosis cerebri

Brainstem: Gliomatosis cerebri

Tumor cells resemble fibrillary atrocytes but GFAP staining is ddx: Gliosis, diffuse astrocytoma, variable- Type 1 is diffuse infiltration of the brain with no lymphoma, PNET, microgliomatosis mass lesion, Type II is a mass lesion

20.2

78

Dog

Oligodendroglioma, anaplastic

Cerebrum: Oligodendroglioma, anaplastic Kidney: Nephritis and phlebitis, granulomatous, necrotizing, chronic, multifocal, severe, with multifocal tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration Cervical spinal cord, meninges: Meningiona, chordoid (myxoid) variant

Anaplastic = cellulariy, necrosis, high MI, proloiferation of glomeruloid blood vessels

20.3

79

cat

Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP)

20.4

80

Dog

Meningioma, chordoid (myxoid)

Meningiomas are derived from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid membrane

ddx: Chordoma, myxoid chondrosarcoma, metastatic carcinoma

21.1

81

Horse

Osteochondrosis

Bone: Focal chondronecrosis and retention (delayed endochondral ossification) of growth cartilageArticular epiphyseal complex dysplasia, chronic with osteonecrosis, and infraction and marrow fibrosis

this was incidental lesionChondrocyte coagulation necrosis in both a focus of osteochondrosis latens (confined to epiphyseal cartilage) and osteochondrosis manifesta- hypothesized OC Manifesta (delayed endochondral secondary to ischemia. ossification seen grossly and on Possibly secondary to vascular radiographs) are known to resolve necrosis in cartilage canals. Cartilage cores in the deep margin of the retained cartilage indicate that cartilage mineralization and vascular invasion is taking place (doesnt happen in OC manifesta)

21.2

82

Dog

Vitamin D resistant rickets Type II

21.3

83

Ox

Osteopetrosis

21.4

84

Horse

Enostosis

22.1

85

Pig

Salt Toxicity

22.2

86

Horse

Borna disease virus (BDV)

Type II- Inherited defect in the Vitamin D receptor or a site distal to it. Bone: Failure of endochrondral Type I- inherited deficiency of ossification- Physeal dysplasia with renal 1-hydroxylase enzyme--> Reported in cats- No response to high dose Vit D or calcium disordered chondrocyte colomns responds to large doses of Vit supplementation, cats became normal and marrow fibrosis D after physeal closure In cats OP has been linked to Vit D toxicosis and FeLV/ Cattle with inherited OP--> Brachygnathia inferior, impacted molars, protruding tongue, Normal or increased numbers shorter long bones, brittle bones, short Bone: Osteosclerosis, diffuse, of osteoclasts, OC do not have vertebrae, frontal and parietal bones severe with retention of cartilage a ruffled border suggesting a are thick, cerebral hemispheres are cores functional defect rectangular with flattened dorsal surfaces, and the cerebellum is partially herniated andoptic nerves are hypoplastic Canine panosteitis- Idiopathic Bone: Intramedullary bone periosteal and endosteal bone formation (enostosis) proliferation Brain, cerebrum: Meningoencephalitis, eosinophilic acute, multifocal moderate with neuronal necrosis Brain, thalamus: Inclusion bodies (Joest-Degen Meningoencephalitis, lymphocytic, bodies) are intranuclear and ddx: WNV, JE, St Louis Enceph, multifocal, moderate- Few rarely in the cytoplasm, found WEE, EEE, VEE inclusions in the hippocampus more in the hippocampus (INIB) Brain, cerebrum: Intravascular lymphoma with fibrin thrombi and multifocal infarcts Brain, diecephalon: Suprasellar germ cell tumor T cells or Non-B NonT cells

22.3

87

Dog

intravascular lymphoma

Canine IVL is also known as Malignant angioendotheliomatosis

22.4

88

Dog

suprasellar germ cell tumor (extragonadal germ cell tumor)

ddx- Pituitary adenoma and cranipharyngioma/ Arise in the pineal gland or sella tursica- Alpha feto protein +, HCG + PlALP + 1) Pleomorphic nests of germ cells; 2) Large polygonal cells with abundant cytoplasm and lipid vacuoles in nests (hepatoid cells) ; 3) Epithelial cells reminiscent of intestinal epithelium or respiratory epithelium, with squamous differentiation and keratinization

3 diverse neoplastic cell populations

23.1

89

African Green Monkey

Klebsiella pneumonia

Ileocecocolic junction: Serositis and peritonitis, granulomatous with fibrosis

lymph node: Lymphadenitis, pyogranulomatous Skin: epidermal hyperplasia with multifocal degeneration and necrosis, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and intraepidermal aphasmid nematodes Scaled skin: Fibroblast hypertrophy, nodular with karyomegaly, basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and lmyphoplasmacytic dermatitis Iridoviridae- 1) Iridovirus; 2) chloriridovirus; 3) Ranavirus; 4) Lymphocystivirus; 5) Goldfish iridovirus Looks like dermatophyte, Cladosporium or Candida Catecholamines and receptor agonists--> Brain heart syndrome, Pheochromocytoma and sympathomimetic drug overdoses

23.2

90

African Clawed Frog

Capillaria xenopodis/ Pseudocapillaroides xenopi

23.3

91

Bluegill fish

Lymphocystivirus

hexagonal particles arranged in paracrystalline arrays

23.4

92

Tentacled snake

Chysosporium anamorph Scaleed skin: Epidermitis, of Nannizziopsis vriesii necrotizing and ulcerative, (CANV) multifocal with intralesional fungi Heart, left ventricle: Myocardial degeneration and necrosis, multifocal with histiocytic and lymphocytic myocarditis and fibroplasia

24.1

93

Horse

Clenbuterol cardiac toxicity

Cardiac glycosides inhibits sodiumpotassium ATPase pump causing disruption of membrane potential leading to muscle necrosis

Gossypol (cottonseed) or tremetol (Eupatorium or white snakeroot Hairy vetch (cattle not horses) (alcohols), Cantharidin

24.2

94

Dog

Mandibular ossifying fibroma

Intraosseous, proliferative, Gingiva, tooth, and alveolar cortical ddx: Fibrous osteodystrophy, osteoma, expansile, lytic, and invasive in bone: Ossifying fibroma fibrous dysplasia, osteosarcoma, membranous bone Cerebrum, Neuronal degeneration, necrosis, and loss, extensive with gliosis, cerebral atrophy, meningeal fibrosis, subdural hemorrhage, and eosinophilic neuronal cytoplasmic bodies Prostate gland: histiocytic sarcoma Kidney: tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration, diffuse with hemoglobin and granular casts and rare glomerular fibrin thrombi Uterus: Adenocarcinoma and Leiomyosarcoma

24.3

95

Dog

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

Subunit C of mitochondrial ATP

24.4

96

Dog

Histocytic sarcoma

DC- CD18, CD1, Cd11c(Neg in Macrophages) ICAM-1 MHCII variable CD45

E cadherin differentiates histiocytoma from sarcoma

25.1

97

dog

Hemoglobinuric nephrosis Adenocarcinoma; Leiomyosarcoma

IMHA

25.2

98

Rabbit

Conference 2007-2008

Slide

Species

etiology

Morph Dx

notes

notes/DDX

1

1

Horse

Muscle Pseudotumor

skeletal muscle: Myocyte Pseudotumor is a group of degeneration and necrosis, loss, entities: myositis ossificans, hypertrophy and regeneration with musculoaponeurotic myofiber disarray, fibrosis and fibromatosis (desmoid tumor), chronic active myositis and fibrotic myopathy West Highland White Terriers: ddx: chronic bronchiolitis, neoplasia, Generalized thickening of the and infectious diseases. Idopathic interstitium by eosinophilic pulmonary fibrosis also occurs in extracellular matrix with middle age to older cats. Equine variable inflammatory cells multinodular pulmonary fibrosis is due and type II hyperplasia: Type to EHV-5 1 and III collagen

2

Dog

Idiopathic Interstitial lung disease

Lung: fibrosis, interstitial, diffuse, marked, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and intraalveolar macrophages and multinucleated giant cells

3

Pig

Ileum: Ileitis, proliferative, diffuse, marked, with villar atrophy and Lawsonia intracellularis fusion, lymphoid necrosis, crypt herniation and crypt abscesses Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing and lymphohistiocytic, diffuse, severe, with karyomegaly and botryoid cytoplasmic inclusions Gallbladder: Cholecystitis, neutrophilic, diffuse, mild with pericholecystic edema PDNS associated with PCV-2 and PRRS with pasteurella multocida and streptococcus

4

Pig

Porcine circovirus-2

PMWS

2

5

Horse

Rhodococcus equi

Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, necrotizing, histiocytic, lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic with fibrin and hyalin membranes

Lung: Pneumonia, pyogranulomatous, focally extensive, severe, with intrahistiocytic bacilli

DAD-diffuse alveolar damagediffuse injury to type I pneumocytes, type II pneumocytes proliferation and interstitial fibrosis: Thermal injury, toxic gases, septicemia, ingested toxins (paraquat, kerosene, Brassica, perilla mint), endotoxemia, acute hypersensitivity reactions, ventilator iduced injury and chronic left heart failure virulence factors prevent lysosomal fusion and or result in premature lysosomal degranulation, survival of bacteria and death of the macrophage Ganglioneuromas- primitive neuroepithelial cells with further Neuroblastoma (CNS, PNS)derived from neuroectodermal differentiation toward neurons (if they have both neuroblasts and well neural crest cells differentiated neurons its differentiating into neuroblasts ganglioneuroblastoma) Ganglioneuroblastoma- arise from cranial and spinal ganglia or sympathetic ganglia of the ANS. Consist of ganlion cells, Schwann cells, and nerve fibers in variable levels of differentiation

6

dog

Ganglioneuroblastoma

Spleen, liver, and mediastinal mass: Neuroblastoma with multifocal poorly differentiated ganglion cells

7

Horse

Eastern Equine Encephalitis (Togaviridae, alphavirus)

Brain: Meningoencephalitis, necrotizing, neutrophilic, lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic

EEE, VEE are lethal in 90% of cases

WEE- 40% mortality

8

Horse

Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, acute, multifocal, moderate with Equine Herpes Virus-1 fibrin, edema, syncytia, and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies adrenal gland, cortex: necrosis, multifocal with rare eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions

Uterine vasculitis in small arterioles of the endometrium--> premature placental separation. Plaecntal EHV-1- Abortion, foal lesions include chorionic villous mortality, respiratory and necrosis and fibrinois vascular neurologic disease: Abortion necrosis of chorionic blood vessels after 5 months gestation. with fibrin thrombi. Virus has been detected in chorionic endothelial cells.

3

9

Mouse

Myoepithelioma

10

Mouse

Gastric intraepithelial neoplasia

11

Mouse

Medulloblastoma

Fetal infection- pulmonary EHV-3- Equine coital exanthema; edema, multifocal hepatic EHV-4- Rhinopneumonitis (but can necrosis. cause abortion less frequently) Modified epithelial cell between epithelial cells and basement membrane. They contain long cytoplasmic Neiplastic cells are positive for processes that contract upon cytokeratin, actin, calponin, and Submandibular salivary gland: sympathetic or myosin; Associated finding- Myeloid Myoepithelioma parasympathetic stimulation. hyperplasia Most commonly from submaxillary or parotid salivary glands, mammary glands, and sweat glands GIN- pre-invasive neoplastic INS-GAS mouse- gastrin priduced by lesions not grossly visible; islet Beta cells --> stimulation of Stomach, glandular: Epithelial sunonym with atypical gastric acid secretion/ increased hyperplasia and dysplasia, diffuse, hyperplasia, atypia, parietal and enterochromaffin cell marked with lymphoplasmacytic microadenoma, carcinoma in numbers --> progressive decrease in and neutrophilic gastritis situ, and dysplasia gastrin and number of cells Co infection with H. pylori leads to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia--> carcinoma PNET: derived from germinal neuroepithelial cells, and Palisading and rosettes, carrot Cerebellum: Medulloblastoma presumably from matrix cells shaped nuclei, frequent mitoses of the external granular layer Kidney: Renal dysplasia, with fetal glomeruli, fetal mesenchyme, immature tubules, tubular ectasia and cysts, and interstitial and capsular fibrosis with minimal lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis and mineralization Heart: myocarditis, lymphohistiocytic, chronic, multifocal, moderate, with necrosis and loss and basophilic intranuclear inclusions

12

Macaque

Renal dysplasia; bile duct hyperplasia

Associated with feline panleukopenia, canine herpesvirus, and BVDV, hypovitaminosis A

4

13

Dog

canine parvovirus

14

Cat

Plasmacytic pododermatitis

15

Horse

Pythium insidiosum

16

Cat

Feline Vaccine associated fibrosarcoma

5

17

Horse

Strongylus vulgaris

ddx canine myocarditis: Distemper, Neospora, Trypanosoma, Toxoplasma, Rickettsia rickettsii, Ehrlichia canis, Bartonella elizabethae, Prototheca, Borrelia burgdorferi Mott cells- gamma globulin; Plasmacytic stomatitis, Footpad: Pododermatitis, glomerulonephritis, and plasmacytic, chronic, diffuse, amyloidosis are occasionally marked, with fibrosis seen with this condition ddx: eosinophilic and Haired skin: Dermatitis and Pythium and Lagenidium are aquatic granulomatous dermatitis: panniculitis, pyogranulomatous dimorphic water molds (protists). Pythiosis, Habronema, Mast and eosinophilic with ulceraation, Infective stage is biflagellate zoosporecell tumor, Eosinophilic vasculitis, and hyphae -> form germ tubes collagenolytic granulomas features: peripheral lymphocytic aggregates, large histiocytic cells with Haired skin and subcutis: intracytoplasmacytic blue-gray fibrosarcoma material and areas of cavitation; Higher degree of pleomorphism artery: Arteritis, chronic-active, multifocal to coalescing with diffuse transmural fibrosis, mural fibrin thrombus, and intrluminal larval strongyles 3 forms: Cutaneous- L. tropica Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, (Mediteranean), membranoproliferative, global, Mucocutaneous- L. diffuse, with lymphoplasmacytic brazillensis- Central America; interstitial nephritis, protein casts, Visceral- L donovani (Europe, and intrahistiocytic amastigotes Africa, and Asia) adrenal gland: Adrenalitis, histiocytic, neutrophilic, and plasmacytic, multifocal with intrahistiocytic amastigotes

18

Dog

Leishmania infantum

19

Ox

20

Goat

6

21

OX

Ingestion, percutaenous, Lethal toxin results in TNF and IL-1 inhalation--> germination --> spleen: Congestion, acute, diffuse, encapsulated toxin-producing release and terminal shock; Edema Bacillus anthracis severe, lymphocytolysis, and factor results in altered intracellular vegetative form (Poly-Dmyriad bacilli water and ion concentrations. glutamate capsule inhibits phagocytosis) Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (Retroviridae)- CAE, OPP (maediviscna): Gag- group Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, specific nucleocapsid and chronic, diffuse, with interstitial CAE- Adults- progresive arthritis/ Kidsmatrix glycoprotein/ Caprine Arthritis fibrosis, lymphoid hyperplasia, Neurologic disease/ Pneumonia can antigenic), Pol- Reverse Encephalitis Virus and type II pneumocyte occur with either form transcriptase, Env- surface hyperplasia glycoprotein, receptro binding and entry- neutralizing antibodies P boydii: 5-8 um septate Nasal mucosa: Rhinitis, hypahe with 6-30 um terminal eosinophilic and granulomatous, conidia with a discrete outer Pseudiallescheria boydii diffuse, severe, with numerous wall, narrow or broad based fungal conidia and few hyphae budding Lung: Bronchitis and bronchiolitis, Reinfection may lead to a multifocal to coalescing with hypersensitivity reaction resembling acute bovine Dictyocaulus viviparous multifocal bronchiolitis obliterans, adult and larval nematodes and pulmonary edema/ Acute ova respiratory distress syndrome Heterobilharzia americana Small intestine: Enteritis, granulomatous, submucosa, circumferential, transumural with myriad schistosome eggs Small intestine: Villi: Necrosis, diffuse, with fibrin thrombi and myriad mixed bacilli metastrongyle features: body cavity, intestine lined by few MN cells, microvilli, accessory hypodermal chrods, coelomyarian musculature, uteri with embryonated eggs

22

Ox

23

Dog

24

Ox

7

25

Mouse

26

Rat

27

Mouse

28

Rabbit

Alpha toxin- Lecithinase Beta Toxin- trypsin labile, pore (phospholipase) that damages forming toxin causing necrosis, Clostridium perfringens cell membranes- erythrocytes, decrease dmobility of intestinal villi, Type C platelets, leukocytes, and enhanced bacterial attachment to endothelial cells villi Beta2 toxin- unrelated to Beta Epsilon Toxin: Prototoxin Iota toxin: Increases capillary toxin- enteric disease in swine and activated by trypsin and permeability (prototoxin) typhlocolitis in horses causes necrosis Liver: Hepatitis, granulomatous and eosinophilic, random and Schistosoma mansoni portal with trematode eggs and intravascular trematodes Artery, pancreas, lymph nodes: Arteritis and periarteritis, PAN- fibrinoid degeneration rats- med size arteries in mesenetery proliferative and necrotizingwith and thickening with and pancreas and testes (SD Polyarteritis nodosa mineralization and thrombosis; mononuclear cells and few spontaneous hypertensive rat strains) exocrine atrophy, draining neutrophils, and thrombosis hemorrhage Hemangiosarcoma, Heart, ventricle: Loss of P53--> No P21(G1 phase, CD31, CD34, VEGFR-2 lymphoma Hemangiosarcoma CyclinD/ CDk4) mediastinum, thymus, LN, lung: CD3, and TdT lymphoma Stage Cyclin-CDK complex Inhibitors G1 Cyclin D/ cdk 4 P16INK4a & P21 G1--> S Cyclin E/ cdk 2 P27 S--> G2 --> M Cyclin A/ cdk 2 M Cyclin B/ cdk 1 Kidney: Nephritis, Microsporidia- single cell, spore can cause vasculitis with tubulointerstitial, necrotizing, forming, intracellular, coiled polar Encephalitozoon parasitism of the endothelium; chronic active, multifocal, filament, replication within a cuniculi Granulomatous nephritis and moderate, with myriad cytoplasmic vacuole, no meningoencephalitis, microsporidia mitochondria, no peroxisomes, common in C57BL6; diffuse interstitial macrophages, MNGC, eosinophils, lymphocytes, with cuffing; Very little crystals with localized macrophages infiltrates around a tumor; multifocal infiltrates around bronchioles with large rectangular crystals in airways and minimal macrophages

8

29

Mouse

Eosinophilic crystalline Pneumonia; bronchioalveolar adenocarcinoma

Lung: Adenocarcinoma, with intraalveolar histiocytosis, multifocal, moderate with abundant intracytoplasmic eosinophilic crystals

30

Macaque

Polyoma virus

31

Macaque

Pneumocystis carinii

Large T and Small T antigen Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, (in all Polyomaviruses; lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal to Papovaviridae); Cynomolgus coalescing, moderate with Polyoma virus is related to ddx: cytomegalovirus, adenovirus multifocal tubular epithelial SV40 and causes renal karyomegaly and rare intranuclear dysfunction and nephritis in inclusion bodies immunosuppressed Cynomolgus monkeys lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, Impression smear, lung: Numerous epithelial cells, macrophages, histiocytic, neutrophilic, chronic and vacuolated cytoplasms, few neutrophils, and myriad 3-5 um diffuse, moderate, with Type II round cysts containing punctate organisms (trophic bodies) on a blue pneumocyte hyperplasia, granular proteinaceous background multinucleate giant cells, and myriad intraalveolar fungi Life cycle: Ingested sporozoites excyst in SI and invade epithelial cells--> trophozoites form--> Asexual replication follows (shizogeny) forming Schizonts containinf merozoites--> Schizonts rupture releasing merozoites--> merozoites infect other epithelial cells, and replicate eventually forming sexual stages (male /microgamete; female/ macrogamete) which unite to form oocysts Eucoleus is oviparous; Oslerus (filaroides) osleri (nodules at Crenosoma vulpis is carina) , Dirofilaria, and ovoviviparous and tends to Angiostrongylus vasorum (both inhabit the deeper bronchial arterial parasites) tree Avian Leukosis Sarcoma Virus, subgroup A- replication deficient retroviruses Myxoma is composed of embryonal connective tissues

32

Rabbit

Eimeria magna

Small Intestine: Coccidial macrogametes, microgamonts, and oocysts, intraepithelial and intraluminal

9

33

Fox

Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus

Lung: Bronchopneumonia, pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic, multifocal, severe, with bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, aphasmids, and eggs Feathered skin: Myxoma Retroviruses Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus

34

chicken

Myxoma/ Avian Leukosis Sarcoma (Alpharetroviridae)

Avial leukosis viruses, avian carcinoma viruses, avian sarcoma Mouse mammary tumor virus; Feline leukemia virus, Feline Bovine leukemia virus, human Walleye dermal sarcoma HIV, SIV, Maedi/visna, CAE, Bovine, Feline, Simian, and human foamy viruses Virulence factors: Fimbriae, non-fimbrial outer membrane proteins, hydroxamate dermonecrotic toxin- intracellular siderophores and binding proteins that mobilize iron, bacterial toxin released upon bacterial lysis that inhibits the Na/K atpase Adenylate cyclase toxin/ hemolysin-> increase in cAMP pump and causes vasocconstriction. inhibits respiratory burst and prevents phagocytosis activity on neutrophils LPS- Pyrogenic and mitogenic, causes macrophage chemotaxis and activation, and induction of tumor necrosis factor production

35

Squirrel Monkey

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Larynx: Laryngitis, necrosuppurative, subacute, focally extensive, severe, with multifocal muscle degeneration, necrosis, hemorrhage, and ulceration

Type III secretion productsInactivate transcription factor NFkB

Tracheal cytotoxin- stimulates nitric oxide production and inteferes with mucociliary function

36

Rat

Odontoma

Bone, Maxilla: Compound odontoma

Odontomas are tumors in which there is a combination of both odontogenic epithelial components and dental matrix structures such as dentin and enamel. The inductive theory of odontogenesis states that the ameloblastic epithelium promotes the surrounding mesenchymal cells to become odontoblasts. These osontoblasts produce dentin, which is necessary for the ameloblasts to form enamel.

Compound odontoma- Cords Complex Odontoma- Well Odontoameloblastoma- Contain areas of odontogenic epithelium with differentiated dentin, enamel, of ameloblastic epithelium that are intermittent complete odontogenic epithelium and separate from other areas of complex cementum (horse/rodent)- they do odontogenesis forming toothor compound odontomas NOT form tooth-like structures like structures (denticles) Ameloblastic Fibro-OdontomaBoth dental epithelial tissues and mesenchymal tissues (pulp), that are associated with enamel and dentin Papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma; granulosa cell tumor Ovary: Papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma; Ovary: granulosa cell tumor Ovarian tumors Sex-cord/stromal (gonadostromal tumors)

Dentinoma- Odontoblasts producing a calcified dentin tissue with no enamel

Neoplasms composed of only epithelium without hard tissue are Ameloblastomas. Odontomas are categorized below

10

37

Macaque

Granulosa cell tumor Thecoma Interstitial cell tumors (luteoma, lipid cell tumor, steroid cell tumor) Dysgerminoma Teratoma Embryonal carcinoma Papillary adenoma/ cystadenoma Papillary adenocarcinoma Rete adenoma Hemangioma Leiomyoma

Germ cell tumors

Epithelial tumors

Mesenchymal tumors

38

Dog

39

Macaque

40

Goat

Class I and II MHC antigens are not expressed until the Transmissible venereal Kidney: Transmisible Venereal tumor regresses (Express tumor tumor, metastatic Class II), and are infiltrated by T lymphocytes IHC supports histiocytic lineage, may be hormone dependent, benign in males, metastatic in females, 58 chromosomes (compared to normal 76) Endometriosis- Endometrial glands or stroma explanted to abnormal locations within andn outside the uterus; HistoOvary and uterus: endometriosis Endometrial glands, Endometriosis with decidualized stromal cells endometrial stroma, pigment containing histiocytes, fibrosis, ceroid, lipofuscin, and hemosiderin Placenta: Placentitis, necrotizing, PCR and IHC positive for BVDV multifocal, moderate BVDV Cytopathic BVD < 100 D

TVT expresses TGFB1 and IL-6 both of which suppress expression of MHC molecules

Histo: round to oval cells arranged in ribbons or palisades, large nulcei, central, single nucleolus, faintly basophilic cytoplasm and vacuolated.

Adenomyosis- endometrial stroma and or glands within the myometrium of the uterine wall

100-150 D

Non-cytopathic strain

< 100-125 D > 150 days Osteochondral metaplasia can occur within any synovial lined structure. Ectopic ossification requires a vascular supply and the presence of detached osseus bodies (joint mice) implies previous attachment to the synovial surface

Fetal resorption or expulsion Teratogenic- microencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, hydranencephaly, hydrocephalus, microophthalmia, thymic aplasia, hypotrichosis, alopecia, brachygnathism, growth retardation, pulmonary hypoplasia PI calves Normal immune response and clearing of virus

11

41

Dog

Osteochondromatosis

Joint capsule: Osteochondral metaplasia (osteochondromatosis), diffuse

42

Cat

Dysplasia; physeal fracture

Femoral Head: Dysplasia and fracture of physis

Epiphysiolysis in pigs is a manifestation of osteochondrosisFeline physeal dysplasia is The growth plate has focal failure of characterized by the endochondral ossification which observation of irregular extends into the metaphysis. The clusters of chondrocytes that chondrocytes retain normal are separated by abundant alignment. This differs from the feline matrix on both the epiphyseal disease in that in cats the entire and metaphyseal side of the physis is affected and the physis chondrocytes are irregular clusters that have lost their alignment

43

Guinea pig

Vitamin C deficiency (Scurvey)

Histo: Flattening of osteoblasts and failure to lay down osteoid. A lattice of vascularized calcified cartilage is formed in the metaphysis and is not replaced by bone. This scorbutic lattice is susceptible to Bone, tibia, femur: Osteochondrodysplasia, scorbutic Non-crosslinked collagen microfractures. Vit C is required for with lack of normal primary fibrils, leading to blood vessel the differentiation of osteoblasts from spongiosa, osteopenia, fragility and poor wound progenitors. There is retention of microfractures and subperiosteal healing cartilage cores and lack of hemorrhage, guinea pig ossification. MArrow is replaced by collagen poor mesenchyme, chondrocyte columns become shortened, and the physis becomes thin and uneven. The periosetum becomes thickened. Bone, radius, ulna: Hyperostosis, (sub)periosteal, circumferential, severe, landrace pig Skeletal muscle: Myositis, pyogranulomatous, multifocal, moderate with fibrosis and intracellular protozoal cysts and zoites Sub-periosteal radiating Woven bone- Immature, haphazard tabecular bone, covered by a fibers/ Lamellar bone- mature, parallel thickened periosteum/ fibers/ Laminar- outer lamellar cortical Osteoblasts are large and bone lacking haversian systems in may by syncytia large animals H americanum infects skeletal and Vectors include Amblyomma cardiac muscle, and can cause severe maculatum. Rhipicephalus periosteal bone proliferation of sanguineus is refractory to proximal limbs (similar to infection hypertrophic osteopathy) Low grade malignancy, usually metastasize by exfoliation and implasntation. Histologic presentations: Epithelioid (papillary IHC- Vim, Cyt, S-100, HMB-45, structures lined by cuboidal Negative for carcinoembryonic basophilic mesothelial cells), antigen CD15: EM shows long slender Sarcomatous (Spindle cells branching and undulate microvilli on and large anisocytotic cells apical surfaces while serous with abundant eosinophilic carcinomas have fewer variably cytoplasm and distince cell lengthened straight microvilli margins), and Biphasic(features of both epithelioid and sarcomatous) forms

44

Pig

Hyperostosis

12

45

Dog

Hepatozoon americanum

46

Dog

Mesothelioma

Fibroadipose tissue, mesentery: Mesothelioma

47

Flamingo

Visceral gout

48

Cat

Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)

Kidney, glomeruli, tubules and vessels: Amyloidosis, multifocal marked Kidney: Nephritis, tubulointerstitial, granulomatous, and heterophilic, multifocal, moderate, with protein casts and urate tophi Nasal Turbinates, maxillary bone, and hard palate with rhinitis, erosions, fibrin thrombi and bone remodeling Prostate gland: Prostatic cysts, multiple, ferret

Gout--> inflammation--> amyloidosis

13

49

Ferret

Cysts and squamous metaplasia

Secondary to adrenalassociated endocrinopathy, elevated LH--> increased estrogen and progesterone

Prostate gland: Squamous proliferation of basal cells with metaplasia, multifocal, with keratinization prostatitis, and keratinizing cysts Trachea: tracheitis, necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, moderate, with epithelial syncytia, intranuclear inclusion bodies, and intraluminal serocellular coagulum latent in trigeminal ganglion, reexpressed under stressed. ddx: Avian pox (diphtheritis), NDV, AI, Endemic forms have low Infectious bronchitis, Fowl Adenovirus morbidity and mortality, and Aspergillosis epizootic forms have high morbidity and moderate mortality Phomopsin- mitotic arrest in metaphase, inability to ddx: pyrrolizidine alkaloids, aflatoxins regenerate, progressive fibrosis

50

chicken

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT; GHV-1)

51

52

14

53

54

55

56

15

57

58

59

60

16

61

62

63

64

17

65

66

67

68

18

69

Liver: Nodular regeneration, diffuse, with megalocytosis, biliary Lamb Lupinosis reduplication, and bridging portal fibrosis Liver: Hepatitis, lymphocytic, subacute, multifocal Ovine Pulmonary Lung: Carcinoma with interstitial "pulmonary adenomatosis" type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia in Adenocarcinoma pneumonia and lymphofollicular caused by Jaagsiekte sheep alveoli and clara cell hyperplasia in Sheep (Jaagsiekte)- retrovirus hyperplasia retrovirus (JSRV) bronchioles Liver: Venous dilatation, portal and central, diffuse, with lymphangiectasia, mild arteriolar Hepatic venous Lobular dissecting hepatitisand biliary reduplication, dilatation; biliary Dog form of cirrhosis- with dissecting fibrosis, sinusoidal reduplication; sinusoidal secondary portal hypertension ectasia and capillarization, lobule capilarization atrophy, centrilobular necrosis, and lipogranulomas Spinal cord, cervical and thoracic segments: Myelitis, Primary cell target is neurons-lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal, Bobcat West Nile Virus > apoptosis mild with moderate axonal degeneration X-linked recessive defect in dystrophin gene--> membrane Skeletal muscle: Myocyte associated cytoskeletal hypertrophy, degeneration, X-linked Muscular protein in heart and skeletal hypertrophy is seen in cats, mice and necrosis, regeneration, and Dog Dystrophy the Rat terrier muscle. Increased mineralization, diffuse, severe, susceptibility to degeneration with fibrosis ane necrosis, regeneration and fibrosis. Extraintestinal pathogenic E Lung: Pneumonia, coli- pyometra, mastitis, otitis, necrohemorrhagic, neutrophilic Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factorprostatitis, bacteremia, skin Dog Necrotoxigenic E coli and histiocytic, with fibrin, edema, Necrotoxic E coli. disease, cholecystitis and and bacilli pneumonia drugs also imnplicated in EM cause ;the pathogenesis of erythema multiforme remains unknown. It appears to represent the end result of a hypersensitivity reaction to a Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, number of infectious and other amoxicillin, and ampicillin agents: viral, bacterial, protozoal, most commonly implicated. fungal, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Haired skin: Epidermal necrosis, Nonsteroidal anti(Eaton agent) infection; foods or Toxic Epidermal diffuse with subepidermal clefting, inflammatory medications are Dog drugs; immunizations; and a variety Necrosis dermatitis, dermal edema, and also implicated, and of other systemic diseases and congestion anticonvulsants, especially physical agents. Whereas drug Tegretol and phenobarbital, reactions and malignancies are are also reported. important causes of erythema multiforme in older persons, infectious diseases are the most common precipitants in children and young adults. Condition Location Characteristics Lymphohistiocytic, perivascular, and interface dermatitis with lymphocytic < 10 body surface, at least 1 satellitosis (multilevel single cell death Em minor mucosal surface surrounded by lymphocytes or macrophages) 10-50% body affected, > 1 High degree of epidermal EM major mucosal surface, < 10% inflammation, vesiculobullous lesions epithelial detachment 50% body affected, 10-30% Severe epithelial necrosis with Steven-Johnson Syndrome epithelial detachment mucosal involvement Full thickness epidermal cell death Generalized > 30% epithelial with minimal inflammation except Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis detachment when ulcerated Haired skin and panniculus: resembles Langerhans cell Feline Progressive Atypical histiocytic proliferation, histiocytosis and is divided Resembles histiocytic sarcoma; IHC Dendritic Cell diffuse, severe with low numbers Cat into epitheliotropic and nonCd18, Cd1, MHCII Histiocytosis of lymphocytes, plasma cells and epitheliotropic. mast cells. Nodules extend from ddx: Melanomas (have more spindle superficial dermis to the This one looks more Starts with single nodule and cells, Cd45-, Cd18-, MITF-M+, subcutis. , top heavy progresses to multiple nodules like Histiocytic S100+), Xanthomas, Merckel cell configuration, large round to and then to lymph node Sarcoma or polygonal histiocytic cells, and tumors (packeting, Cyt, NSE, Syn, involvement fibrosarcoma ChrA). Mast cell tumors (tryptase+), multinucleated cells may be present Haired skin: Dermatitis and Tissue cysts- 110um diameter Tachyzoites are 4-7um x 1.5-2 um furunculosis, pyogranulomatous, with 1-4 um cyst wall- Brain and may be located within multifocal, moderate, with Dog Neospora caninum Spinal Cord, rarely muscle, macrophages keratinocytes, neutrophilic folliculitis and with numerous 2 x 8 um neutrophils, endothelial cells and intraepithelial intrahistiocytic and bradyzooites fibroblasts free protozoa epitheliotropic Haired skin: Lymphoma, Dog lymphoma epitheliotrophic Bone, skeletal muscle, fibrous connective tissue, mandible: Pyogranulomas, multifocal to Actinomyces bovis/ Actinomycetes- Non-acid fast, Ox coalescing with Splendore-Hoeppli Lumpy Jaw GM +, and gram positive filamentous bacteria developing sporoblasts are encased by a bilaminated cell Kidney, tubules: Degeneration and membrane composed of an Horse Klossiella equi coccidian parasite necrosis, multifocal, moderate, overlying thin granular layer with cellular casts, and protozoa and an underlying dense inner layer Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial lymphoplasmacytic with intratubular crystals Melanocytesneuroectodermal cells, neoplasia linked to INK4 and Waf-21 genes --> reduced Chondroid or osteoid metaplasia. Vim Haired skin and subcutis: P53 and Rb function. Altered +, Cyt --, S-100 +, Alpha-1 antitrypsin Pig Melanoma Melanoma, Duroc-Hampshire expression of Cd44 and crossbred -. cadherin, and upregulation of angiogenic and other growth factors Mucocutaneous junction: Chielitis, EM: 250 um 150 um particles, proloiferative and necrotizing, oval to dumbell shaped core Goat Parapoxvirus (Orf) focally extensive, severe with surrounded by a membrane, intracytoplasmic eosinophilic lateral bodies, and a surface inclusion bodies membrane Liver: Hepatitis, granulomatous, eosinophilic with hepatocellular River Otter Microfilaria probably D immitis or D lutae degeneration and microfilaria EM: piriform to spherical Esophagus: Esophagitis, shapes, 4 anterior flagella, necrotizing, histiocytic, Mourning Dove Trichomonas gallinae undulating membrane, heterophilic, transmural, axostyle, pelta surrounding multifocal, severe, with protozoa the periflagellar canal Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute, random, multifocal to coalescing, Yersinia Beaver severe, with large colonies of pseudotuberculosis coccobacilli Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, Mycobacterium The largest granuloma has Giant Marine Toad with chromoblastomycosis multifocal, moderate with acid-fast gordonae pigmented fungi/ yeast bacill Other lesions- suppurative Hemoparasitism- Apicomplexa, endocarditis, epicarditis, Magnificent Bird of Liver: Hemorrhage and necrosis, plasmodidae: Leukocytozoon, myocarditis, and occasional Haemoproteus sp Paradise multifocal with megaloschizonts Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium endarteritis, coelomitis, and airsacculitis Haemoproteus- Schizogeny Liver: Hepatitis, portal, (merogeny) within visceral Gametocytes develop in circulating lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal endothelial cells- form very erythrocytes moderate lare pale basophilic cysttic structures (400um) Liver: Hemosiderosis anemia due to erythrocytic parasitism Leukocytozoon gametocytes also found in leukocytes, Megaloschizonts are frequently present in tissues

Plasmodium

After several cycles of invading erythrocytes, some of the merozoites The sporozoites invade In the erythrocyte, they transform into microgametocytes and The shizonts produce thousands cells of the develop into trophozoites--> macrogametocytes. These gametes of merozoites, which are released reticuloendothelial Then into Schizont --> reinfect are ingested by a mosquito where and infect erythrocytes. system --> Schizonts erythrocytes they further develop and fuse forming (liver, kidney, lungs) oocysts that develop into sporozoites. Trophozoites in the peripheral blood and Malarial pigment in the erythrocyte gametocytes or from digestion of hemoglobin schizonts in blood cells other than erythrocytes. Reticuloendothelial hyperplasia, lymphocytic infiltration, and often high numbers of macrophages containing malarial pigment in the lung, liver, kidney and spleen schizogony in liver or entry into circulating erythrocytes or leukocytes > development into microgamonts or macrogametes > insect feeds on bird > sexual maturation, fertilization, and sporogony take place in insect

Histo

Gametocytes occupy less than 50% of the host cell cytoplasm

Leucocytozoon

nsect bites bird > sporozoites in salivary gland of insect enter bloodstream

Schizonts develop in liver > release of thousands of merozoites (1 um)

second generation develops in liver and phagocytic cells throughout body > become megaloschizonts (100-200 um)

Histo

Intracellular round-toelongate gametocyte, that causes the host cell Megaloschizonts and schizonts in Usually minimal host (usually immature various organs, including liver, response; sometimes erythrocytes) to enlarge brain, heart, spleen, kidney, associated with and appear to have two gizzard, and occasionally feather lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates nuclei (marginalized pulp and multifocal necrosis host nucleus and parasite nucleus) Schizogeny (merogeny) within visceral endothelial cells- form very lare pale basophilic cysttic structures (400um) within erythrocytes, the gametocyte contains yellow to brown refractile spicules. The gametocyte occupies over 50% of the of the red cell cytoplasm, that partially encircles the nucleus.

Haemoproteus

Gametocytes develop in circulating erythrocytes

Histo

Other lesions- suppurative endocarditis, epicarditis, myocarditis, and occasional endarteritis, coelomitis, and airsacculitis

Atoxoplasma

and undergo asexual division (MEROGENY- FORMING Atoxoplasma enters the blood The resulting merozoites form stream via the vasculature of the MEROZOITES, Schizonts sporocysts microgametes and macrogametes. small of Isospora and Atoxopl are not appreciable) in Gametogony, the sexual stage of the asma invade intestinal intestine. Atoxoplasma sporocysts circulating and tissue coccidian life cycle, occurs in subsequently invade mononuclear lymphocytes, monocytes, and epithelial cells. intestinal epithelial cells leukocytes macrophages, as well as in intestinal epithelial cells

Histo

Characteristic sporozoite in the mononuclear leukocyte Identification of atoxoplasma cytoplasm. It is paleoocysts is notoriously difficult staining, round-to-oval because of structural similarity to intracytoplasmic those of Isospora sp. inclusion that compresses the host cell nucleus into a crescent shape.

Cytologic and histologic specimens reveal granulomatous to lymphohistiocytic inflammation of the heart, spleen, intestine, and At necropsy, infected birds liver.5,11 Macrophages may contain have hepatomegaly and atoxoplasma merozoites. This form of splenomegaly. Small, white the organism is round to oval, 3-5 m foci are visible grossly on the m diameter, cytoplasmic inclusion liver and heart.5,9 The that causes indentation of the host intestines may be distended cell nucleus, giving infected cells a and have translucent walls.7 characteristic appearance. Monocytes and lymphocytes containing merozoites may be seen within blood vessels on histologic sections.

70

Atlantic Cod

Nodavirus

Brain, telencephalon: Encephalitis, Brain, spinal cord and retina are Viral encephalopathy and histiocytic, multifocal, moderate, primary targets, causing vacuolation retinopathy (VER), also known with necrosis, neuronal and neuronal degeneration0 also seen as viral nervous necrosis vacuolation, and spongioform in gills and heart- necrosis and (VNN)- beta-nodavirus change lymphocytes and mononuclear cells Small intestine, mesentery: Carcinoma, anaplastic Small intestine: Enteritis, necrotizing, acute, diffuse, severe withfibrin, hemorrhage, edema, and vasculitis, and fibrin thrombi

71

Alpaca

Intestinal adenocarcinoma

72

Scarlet McCaw

Cloacal papillomatosis; Internal Papillomatosis of Herpesvirus inclusions identified as bile duct carcinoma Parrots (IPP) - progressive Psittacid herpesvirus-2. DDX: Liver: Bile duct carcinoma, scarlet (Alphaherpesvirus development of tumors in the Papillomavirus, chronic inflammation, macaw associated) oral and cloacal mucosa. vitamin A deficiency Heart, epicardium: epicarditis, fibrinous, chronic active, diffuse, severe, with granulation tissue Kidney, corticomedullary junction and medulla: Nephritis, tubulointerstitial, acute, multifocal, mild with tubular necrosis and degeneration and numerous intratubular crystals GCT- lower trachea and thought to be neuroectodermal origin, bronchi, peri- and PAS positive cytoplasmic granules, endobronchial tumors. Slow diastase resistant (secondary growing benign neoplasms, lysosomes, or phagosomes (myelin resulting in airway obstruction figures) eyes beak nares, vent, feet, (Dry form)/ Fibrinous to caseous mucosal lesions on tongue, pharynx, and larynx (wet): DDX for wet form Vit A deficiency, ILT, Trichomonas gallinae, Capillaria, and Candida albicans ddx: Mycoplasma felis, streptococcal polyarthritis with pericarditis, and mare reproductive loss syndrome

19

73

Horse

Actinobacillus spp

74

Cat

Melamine toxicosis

75

Horse

Granular cell tumor

Lung: Granular cell tumor

76

rosy finch

Avian Poxvirus

Skin: Epithelium: Intracytoplasmic inclusions with mature virions

Cutaneous form (dry pox), Diphtheroid form (Wet pox), and septicemic form

20

77

Horse

Cholangiohepatitis

Primary or Secondary Diseasedue to cholelithiasis, duodenal Liver: cholangiohepatitis, chronicSuppurative cholangiohepatitis- most inflammation, intestinal active, diffuse, severe, with bile common with cholelithiasis obstruction, neoplasia, duct hyperplasia with bridging (ascending infections)- E coli, parasitism, and certain toxins, fibrosis and cholestasis Salmonella, Aeomonas, Citrobacter such as pyrrolizidine, alkaloid and alsike clover Adrenal gland: Pheochromocytoma

78

Tamarin

Pheochromocytoma

most often non-funtional

79

Macaque

Corynebacterium

Urinary bladder: Cystitis, necrohemorrhagic, transmural, Human- C diphtheriae/ Bovine- sheep- ulcerative posthitis- C renale, diffuse, severe, with fibrin, edema, C renale and cystiditis Rhodococcus equi, C hofmanni and large colonies of bacilli other orthopoxvirus- variola (smallpox), vaccinia (smalpox vaccine), cowpox

80

Macaque

21

81

Dog

Typical - pustules- face, Glabrous skin: Dermatitis, hands, feet, mucous Monkeypox virus vesiculopustular, focally extensive, membranes, pharynx, larynx, (orthopox) marked, with acanthosis, and trachea, lung, spleen, lymph balooning degeneration nodes Haired skin: Dermatitis, necroulcerative, neutrophilic and eosinophilic, focally extensive with balooning degeneration Tongue: Glossitis, necroulcerative, neutrohilic and eosinophilic, multifocal, marked, with balooning degeneration and intralesional cocci Lung, artery: Pulmonary arteriopathy characterized by Mean pulmonary arterial Pulmonary hypertensive subintimal and medial pressure > 25 mmHg (rest), arteriopathy hypertrophy, intimal fibrosis, and and >30 mmHg (Active) cellular thickening, plexiform lesions, and arteritis

ddx: Herpes simplex type 1 and 2

secondary - increased left atrial pressure or increased pulmonary vascular resistance

Hearworm, Chronic respiratory disease, thromboembolism, vascular remodeling

Plexiform lesion= transmural destruction that is repaired by granulation tissue / n plexogenic Pulmonary arteriopathy- constrictive angiopathy, the parent muscular and complex, obstructive, and artery shows medial and intimal Dilation lesion: This plexiform proliferative vascular lesions in prethickening. The plexiform lesion lesion (center) is surrounded and intra-acinar pulmonary arteries--> develops at a branch point (arrow) by a number of dilated, empty right sided heart failure/ Histologic probably as a result of shear vascular channels (arrows) of lesions- concentric intimal cellular stress. Damage results in the post-plexiform dilation proliferation and fibrosis, non-specific transmural destruction that is lesion. medial hypertrophy, muscularization, repaired by granulation tissue fibrinoid degeneration and arteritis (=plexiform lesion). An elastic tissue stain would show loss of one or both of the elastic layers. Meninges, spinal nerve root: Metastatic choroid plexus carcinoma Cytokeratin vimentin GFAP Esophagus: Myositis, lymphoplamacytic, histiocytic, subacute to chronic, diffuse, moderate with muscle degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration Fibrovascular tissue, ventral neck: C-cell (parafollicular) carcinoma Brain, cerebrum and cerebellum: Meningoencephalitis, granulomatous, multifocal, moderate with algae Brain, cerebrum: Vasculitis and meningoencepahlitis, necrotizing, subacute, multifocal, marked, with hemorrhage, edema, fibrin, thrombi with cortical coagulative necrosis and hyphae GM2- defect in the alphaBrain, cerebrum, neurons and glia: subunit, Beta-subunit, or the Cytoplasmic vacuoles, diffuse, GM2 activator of moderate hexosaminidase Brainstem: Encephalitis, Primary Amoebic Encephalitis necrotizing, subacute, multifocal, (PAM) is the name for human moderate with hemorrhage and infection with Naegleria amoebic trophozoites fowlerii Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute, random, severe, with fibrin, hemorrhage, and hepatocellular intracytoplasmic bacilli Type III secretory Apparatus: Enteroinvasive E coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia, Erwinia Multifocal necrotizing hepatitis, and splenitis, with intranuclear inclusions ddx: Herpesvirus hepatitis, and Adenovirus hepatitis Non-contagious/ Central 200400 um / or 20-40 um adiaspore, with thick capsule ddx: Coccidioides immitis, with pyogranulomatous inflammation. The center of Rhinosporidium seeberi (mucicarmine positive) the adiospore contains amphophilic to basophilicglobules, no budding or endosporulation Swollen neurons, cytoplasmic vacuoles consisting of lysosomes distended with accumulated gangliosides, Oli Red O and Sudan Black may be positive, EM shows onion skin whorls

82

Dog

Choroid plexus carcinoma

Ependymoma Usually Negative Positive Positive Idiopathic/presumed Immune mediate- Polymyositis, Masticatory Myositis, Extraocular myositis, dermatomyositis calcitonin +/ Cell tumors in Bulls part of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Also can have hemorrhagic colitis in dogs, and mastitis in cows

Choroid Plexus Papilloma Positive Positive Usually Negative, but rarely positive Secondary- Neospora, Toxoplasma, Hepatozoon, clostridium chauvoei, ehrlichia canis, paraneoplastic diseases (thymoma), Drug induced myopathies, SLE MEN- Neural crest origiin

83

Dog

Polymyositis

84

Dog

C-cell parafollicular carcinoma

22

85

Dog

Prototheca sp

86

Deer

Aspergillus flavus

87

Kitten

GM2 gangliosidosis

88

Ox

Naegleria fowleri

23

89

Sugar Glider

Clostridium piliforme (Tyzzer's Disease)

90

Macaque

Shigella flexneri type IV

Colon: Colitis, fibrinonecrotic, subacute, diffuse, severe with edema and pseudomembrane

yersinia enterocolitica or pseudotuberculosis (Spleen, or enteritis)

91

Taita falcon

Falcon Adenovirus

Liver: Hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, single cell, random, moderate with basophliic intranuclear inclusion bodies Liver: Hepatitis, portal, lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal, moderate

92

Ground Squirrel

Chrysosporium parvum (adiaspiromycosis)

Lung: Pneumonia, pyogranulomatous, multifocal, moderate, with fungal conidia

Differential diagnosis includes other fungi of similar size and morphology, such as Coccidioides immitis and Rhinosporidium seeberi. Morphologically, C. parvum (2070 m) has a thick capsule while C. immitis (1±2 m) and R. seeberi (3±5 m) have relatively thin capsules.4 The presence of endospores occurs with C.immitis and R. seeberi, but not C. parvum.4 C. parvum infection does not produce hyphae, unlike C. immitis.4 Histochemically, the capsules of all three stain with PAS and GMS.4 The capsule of R. seeberi also stains with mucicarmine, unlike the other two.4

Infection The adiaspores occurs when the conidia (spores) are round, up to 250 m in are inhaled.1 The diameter with a 20-30 m name, adiaspore, refers to a spore thick refractile non-staining that grows in size without cell wall (Fig. 4-2). The replicating in tissues. The inhaled conidia simply enlarge in center contains amophophilic globular material. The cell the lung tissue and are wall stains dark purple with eventually removed by the the Periodic Acid-Schiff immune system; thus, the disease (PAS) stain (fig. 4-3) and is not contagious. 1,4 The most black with Grocott¶s susceptible animals are those that live in close contact Methenamine Silver (GMS) with soil

which appear grossly as gray white nodules in the lungs. The lung is the only organ known to be infected.

24

93

Dog

Massive sto submassive hepatic necrosis Myoglobinuric nephrosis

94

Dog

Liver: Hepatocellular necrosis, acute, submassive to massive, diffuse, with hemorrhage and canalicular cholestasis Kidney: degeneration and necrosis, tubular, acute, multifocal, moderate with orangered brown casts kidney: Anisotropic green brown crystals, intratubular acute tubular necrosis--> vasoconstriction, lipid peroxidation, acidification of urine Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (Men 2B in humans)- medullary thyroid carcinomas (C-cell/parafollicular), pheochromocytoma, multiple mucosal neuromas, gastrointestinal ganglioneuromatosis, corneal thickening and skeletal abnormalities

95

Dog

Ganglioneuromatosis with intussusception

Cecum: Ganglioneuromatosis with intussusception

Hyperplastic proliferation of ganglion cells, nerve fibers, and supporting cells/ Not associated with MEN as in humans

96

Dog

Pathogenesis: coagulation of Esophagus: Esophagitis, fibrin following minor proliferative, fibrinous, neutrohilic mechanical injury. The fibrin is Ligneous conjunctivitis and lymphoplasmacytic, conjunctival and mucous memebrane not removed in individuals (plasminogen multifocal, marked with ulceration, with plasminogen deficiecny, lesions; deficiency) acantholysis, granulation tissue and granulation tissue is not remodeled, and wound and subepithelial fibrin healing is arrested gills: 2 sets of 4 holobranchs on eithe side of the pharynx. Gill: Branchitis, lymphocytic and Holobrach = 2 hemibranchs granulocytic, multifocal with that project from the posterior blunting, fusion, and loss of edge of the branchial arch. lamellae, mild epithelial Hemibranchs contain hyperplaisa and adult trematodes numerous primary lamellae and secondary lamella Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous and eosinophilic, multifocal, mdoerate Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative, glpobal, diffuse, severe, with multifocal tubular degeneration and necrosis, suppurative tubulitis, tubular ectasia, and proteinosis, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis Haired skin and oral mucosa: Dermatitis and stomatitis, necroulcerative, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal, marked with vesiculopustules, epithelial dyscohesion, syncytia, and intranuclear inclusion bodies Model for asthma

25

97

Discus fish

Dactylogyrus sp

Cells on primary and secondary lamella are melanocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, mucous cells, and chloride cells

98

Rat

Granulomatous and eosinophilic pneumonia

99

Owl Monkey

Plasmodium sp

Glomerulonephritis from malaria, intersittial nephritis as underlying disease

Plasmodium- intracellular protozoan parasites

100

Macaque

Simian varicella virus (SVV)Alphaherpesvirus

Closely resembles Varicella Zoster (chicken pox)

Mild to severe lesions with pneumonia, hepatitis, and death

Conference 2006-2007 1

Slide

Species

etiology Blastomyces dermatitidis Murine coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus) Eimeria sp

Morph Dx Eye: Uveitis, pyogranulomatous, multifocal, with retinitis, retinal detachment, and yeasts Liver: Necrosis, multifocal to coalescing, with syncytia Ileum: Ileitis, diffuse with myriad coccidia

notes

notes/DDX

1 2 3

Cat Mouse Pig

4

Dog

Endometrium: Fibrosis, hemorrhage, and subacute Placental site involution inflammation with trophoblast-like cells

Histo: Syncytial masses of trophoblast-like cells with abundant vacuolated, eosinophilic cytoplasm often surroundeing vessels/ A plaque protrudes into the lumen composed of eosinophilic necrotic debris, fibrin and regenerating endometrium

2

5

Goat

Granulomatous pneumonia/ Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis European Brown Hare Syndrome (calicivirus)

Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, multifocal with hemorrhage and lymphoplasmacytic peribronchiolar inflammation Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration related to Rabbit Hemorrhagic and necrosis, periportal, diffuse Disease Virus with hemorrhage

6

Hare

7

Goat

8

Cat

rumen: Rumenitis, proliferative, and necrotizing, multifocal, Parapoxvirus moderate with epithelial balooning (Contagious ecthyma) degeneration and intracytoplasmic inclusions H5N1 Avian Influenza Liver: Necrosis, random, virus (Type A multifocal Orthomyxovirus) Small intestine: enteritis, Mycobacterium avium granulomatous, chronic, multifocal paratuberculosis with lymphangitis and edema Lymph node: Lymphadenitis, granulomatous, chronic, multifocal Fibrinous exudate distends urinary space, tubules distended by serohemorrhagic fluid and proteinaceous casts. Sparse Kidney: glomerulonephritis, focal lymphocytes in the necrotizing with hemorrhage and proteinaceous casts, glomerular interstitium. Infrequent arcuate and interlobular arterioles fibrin thrombi and neutrophilic have fibrinoid degeneration of tubulitis, tubular degeneration, the media accompanied by necrosis, and regeneration endothelial cell necrosis, thrombosis and leukocyte infiltration of the vessel wall and perivascular tissue Spleen: Vasculitis, necrotizing, diffuse with lymphoid depletion and moderate granulomatous splenitis Type III hypersensitivity or Cytotoxic T cell response

3

9

Sheep

10

Pig

Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome

11

Whitetail deer

Necrohemorrhagic colitis (Clostridium perfringesn type A) Prototheca zopfii

colon: colitis, necrotizing, diffuse, with hemorrhage Mammary gland: Mastitis, granulomatous and eosinophilic, chronic, diffuse with myriad algae Skeletal muscle: degeneration and necrosis, multifocal to coalescing, severe with histiocytic inflammation, satellite cell proliferation and interstitial hemorrhage Lung: Granulomaa, multifocal and coalescing with myriad hyphae periostium is markedly thickened by parallel and perpendicularly oriented trabeculae of immature bone with abundant osteoblastic activity Hypertrophic osteopathy in Dog: Endocarditis, Dirofilaria, Rhabdomyosarcoma of urinary bladder, Esophageal granulomas and spirocerca lupi, Hepatozoon americanum, intrathoracic neoplasia or inflammation

12

Ox

4

13

Mule deer

Capture myopathy; sarcocystis

14

Elk

Aspergillus funigatus; Hyperostosis

Bone: Hyperostosis, periosteal, diffuse

15

hare

Leporipoxvirus (hare fibroma)

Haired skin: Atypical mesenchymal proliferation, dermal, focally extensive with epithelial balooning degeneration, epithelial and mesenchymal eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions (hare fibroma) Lung: Bronchopneumonia, necrotizing with myriad bacteria Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, multifocal, random with megalocytosis and nodular regeneration and chronic portal hepatitis with biliary hyperplasia Lung: Bone marrow and fibrocartilaginous emboli, numerous Liver, spleen: Large granular lymphocytic leukemia Liver, veins: Histiocytic sarcoma Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, multifocal, random with biliary hyperplasia Spinal cord and meninges: Vasculitis, necrotizing, multifocal marked with neutrophilic and histiocytic meningitis and severe meningeal hemorrhage Liver: Hepatocellular microvesicular change, lipid-type, diffuse, severe Lung: Chondrosarcoma Lung, vessels: Intrahistiocytic schizonts, myriad with diffuse hemorrhage and edema Spleen, vessels and red-pulp: Intrahistiocytic schizonts spleen, white pulp: Lymphoid depletion Large muscular artery: Atherosclerosis, chronic, multifocal with thrrombosis Senecio: Acute: Necrosis; Chronic- Fibrosis and megalocytosis/ Chronic copper intoxication Antimitotic effect, continued nucleoprotein synthesis leads to large nucleus and cytoplasm/ Liver damage may lead to hepatogenous photosensitization (impaired excretion of phylloerythrin)

16

Dog

Escherichia coli O type 6

5

17

Sheep

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis

18 19

Rabbit rat

Bone marrow and fibrocartilaginous emboli LGL; histiocytic sarcoma

F344 rats

20

Dog

Juvenile Polyarteritis Syndrome

6

21 22 23

Bison Dog Cat

hepatic lipidosis chondrosarcoma Cytauxzoon felis

24

Dog

Atherosclerosis

Hypothyroidism

7

25

Ox

Papillomatous digital dermatitis (foot warts, hairy heel warts)

Ulceration and dense mats of invasive spirochetes: Glabrous skin: epidermal Parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, papillated, diffuse, epidermal acanthotic marked with orthokeratotic and hyperplaisa, ulceration of tips parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, of dermal papillae, superficial necrosis, chronic active colonization of the stratum dermatitis and intracorneal corneum and invasion of the bacteria stratum spinosum and dermal papillaw by spirchetes

Compare: Interdigital necrobacillosis (footrot)- deep fissures, caseous necrosis of dermis with exudative cellulitis

26

Goat

27

Dog

28

Horse

Lung: hydatid cyst with mild interstitial fibrosis Footpad: Epidermal hyperplasia with orthokeratotic and Canine Morbillivirus parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, rare (canine distemper virus) syncytia and numerous epithelial eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions Pituitary gland, pars distalis: Pituitary Adenoma adenoma Histo- chitinized cuticle, jointed appendages, striated musculature, Lung: Bronchiolitis, body cavity, digestive tract, and Gross- 1-7 mm diameter granulomatous and eosinophilic, reproductive structures, golden brown multifocal with bronchiolectasis yellow or gray cystic foci (mite refractile mite pigment, houses) throughout the and abundant anisotropic yellowgranulomatous bronchiolitis, alveolar parenchyma brown mite pigment and adult emphysema, bronchiolar smooth mites muscle hyperplasia, and interstitial fibrosis. Lung Metastrongylus sp- bronchi, swine bronchioles Protostrongylus rufescenssheep, goats bronchioles Muellerius capillaris- alveoli Filaroides osleri- trachea, bronchi Filaroides milksi/hirthi- bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli Capillaria aeophila- trachea Syngamus trachea Angiostrongylus vasorum (pulmonary arteries) Angiostrongylus cantonensis (pulmonary arteries and capillaries) Dictyocaulus filaria (bronchi, bronchioles) Dictyocaulus viviparous Dictyocaulus arnfeldi Aleurostrongylus abstrusus (bronchioles, alveolar ducts) Otostrongylus circumlitis (bronchi, bronchioles) Parafilaroides decorus (bronchi, bronchioles) Skeletal muscle: Myositis, pyogranulomatous, diffuse, marked with myocyte degeneration, necrosis, regeneration, and numerous protozoal cysts sheep, goats dogs dogs

Echinococcus granulosus

8

29

Macaque

Pneumonyssus simicola

Nasal Passage Oestrus ovis Linguatula serrata (pentastome) Pneumonyssus caninum (arthropod) Anatrichosoma sp (nematode) Halicephalobus deletrix (nematode) Syngamus laryngeus (nematode) Cephenemyia sp (Arthropod) Rhinophagia sp (Arthropod) Sheep dogs doga Nonhuman primates horses

cat, cattle Wild Cervids Old World Monkeys

birds birds dogs, foxes rats sheep, goats cattle horses, donkeys cats pinnipeds pinnipeds

30

Dog

Toxoplasma

ddx: Neospora, Toxoplasma, Sarcocystis canis

31

Cat

Brain, cerebrum: ventriculitis, and periventriculitis, granulomatous, Feline Coronavirus FIP diffuse, moderate with lymphocytic perivasculitis Bovine Coronavirus (winter dysentery) Canine coronavirus Feline Coronavirus FIP Feline enteric coronavirus Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) Porcine Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus Rat coronavirus Rat sialodacryoadenitis virus Avian infectious bronchitis Bluecomb (turkeys) Rabbit coronavirus SARS virus Epizootic catarrhal enteritis Ferret FIP like dz Gastroenteritis Enteritis Peritonitis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, panophthalmitis, granulomatous vasculitis Diarrhea in kittens Hepatic necrosis, enteritis, encephalomyelitis, syncytia gastroenteritis Vomiting wasting, and encephalomyelitis Rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonitis Sialodacryoadenitis, porphyrin, squamous metaplasia or ducts Tracheobronchitis, nephritis Enteritis, myocarditis Enteritis, myocarditis Severe acute respiratory syndrome profuse green mucoid diarrhea in adults coronavirus

32

Macaque

Amyloidosis

Small Intestine, lamina propria: Amyloidosis, diffuse, marked, with moderate villar blunting and fusion and lmyphangiectasia Sandfly- promastigote/ amastigotes multiply intracellularly in host macrophages: Promastigotes released into the host dermis are phagocytosed by macrophages--> acidity induces transformation into amastigotes. Amastigotes have a proton transporting ATPase--> parasite multiplication cause rupture of macrophages M. mycoides ssp mycoides LC type causes pleuropneumonia and septicemia, mastitis, keratitis, arthritis, or genital lesions

9

33

Mouse

leishmania amazonensis

Head, multiple cross sections: dermatitis and panniculitis, histiocytic and neutrophilic, chronic, diffuse, severe with mild rhinitis and myriad intrahistiocytic protozoal amastigotes

cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral. Amastigotes are identified within macrophages but can occasionally be found within other leukocytes, endothelial cells or fibroblasts

34

Goat

M. capricolum ssp capripneumoniae--> thorax, Lung: Bronchopneumonia, chronicMycoplasma mycoides only pleuropneumonia active, multifocal, moderate with mycoides LC type (intersittial edema and marked fibrinous pleuritis pulmonary sequestra are not prominent features) Mycoplasma species Mycoplasma bovis M. mycoides mycoides SC type M. mycoides mycoides LC type Mycoplasma capricolum ssp capripnuemoniae Mycoplasma agalactiae Mycoplasma capricolum ssp capricolum Mycoplasma mycoides ssp capri Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Mycoplasma hyorhinis Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Mastitis, arthritis, pneumonia contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis, septicemia contagious caprine pleuropneumonia Mastitis (contagious agalactia), arthritis, pneumonia Septicemia, mastitis, polyarthritis, pneumonia Septicemia, pleuropneumonia, arthritis, mastitis Enzootic pneumonia of swine Pneumonia, arthritis, polyserositis Polyarthritis

cattle Cattle goats, sheep goats Goats sheep Goats, sheep goats pigs pigs pigs

35

cat

Francisella tularensis

Spleen: Splenitis, necrotizing, acute, multifocal to coalescing, severe, lymphoid depletion and fibrin thrombi

F. tularensis ssp tularensis Type A

F tularensis ssp holarctica - type B

36

Guinea pig

Metritis with retained placenta; Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, and E coli

Guinea Pigs: discoidal, labyrinthine, hemochorial placenta. A separate subplacenta (specialized Nonspecific endometritis is common Uterus: Metritis, subacute, diffuse, segment of the chorioallantoic in the postpartum uterus- abnormal mild with hemorrhage, congestion, placenta- source of deliveries, abortion, retained placenta, edema, colonies of bacilli, and trophoblast invasion into dystocia, twinning, and traumatic retained placenta endometrium) and yolk sac injurites placenta (selective absorption and transfer of meternal immunoglobulins for fetal immunoprotection) Destroys bone as expands and is always surrounded by a ri mof bone; 2 cell typesmononuclear stromal cells with histiocytic or fibrous appearance; Multinucleate cells resemble osteoclasts; Giant cells are scattered uniformly and nuclei resemble mononuclear cells Type 1 collagen- bone fractures, joint laxity, defective dentin, scleral thining Cell type: Osteoblastic (anaplastic osteoblasts and plump to spindle shaped osteogenic precursor cells with angular borders, eccentric hyperchromatic nuclei; Chondroblastic (neoplastic bone and cartilage); fibroblastic (spindle cell population resembles fibrosarcoma) Histo: Lobules- 1) basophilic matrical cells, located at the periphery, 2) Necrotic keratinized ghost cells centrally. In the malignant tumor basal cells are invasive into adjacent stroma Factors in bone metastasis: Blood flow- vertebral columns, ribs, proximal long bones. Bones store growth regulatory factors (TGF-b), BMP, PDGF, Monocyte chemoatrrractant protein 1, stromal cell derived factor-1

10

37

Cat

Giant cell tumor of bone

Vertebra, coccygeal: Giant cell tumor of bone

ddx: Giant cell type osteosarcoma

38

Dog

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Long bone: Osteopenia, diffuse, marked with failure to develop secondary spongiosa

39

Dog

Chondroblastic osteosarcoma

Bone, skull: Osteosarcoma, chondroblastic

Matrix: Simple (osteoid and bone); Compound (Osteoid, bone and cartilage); Pleomorphic (anaplastic with small islands of osteoid)

40

Dog

Malignant pilomatricoma

Bone, vertebral body: Malignant pilomatricoma, metastatic

Epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (TGF-B)

Skeletal metastasis: Most common sites are axial skeleton and proximal ong bones

11

41

dog

Epitheliotropic lymphoma

Eye, limbus: Epitheliotropic lymhphoma with keratitis

T cell origin/ CD 3, usually CD8 + with beta-1 and 2 integrins/// Tropism for the epidermal mucosal epithelium and adnexa. Intra-epithelial Presentation: pruritic erythema and neoplastic lymphocytes are scaling, mucocutaneous ulceration, either diffusely distributed solitary or multiple plaques, infiltrative within the epithelium or form or ulcerative mucosal disease discrete aggregates (Pautriers microabscesses). Infiltration of apocrine glands, nuclei can have cerebriform morphology (mycosis cell) White granular proliferative lesion extending inwardly Superficial corneal stroma infiltrated along corneal surface from the by eosinophils, plasma cells, mast medial or lateral limbus. Can cells, macrophages extend to conjunctiva and third eyelid. Unilateral or bilateral damage to endothelial cells Hypertension leads to multifocal leading to arteriolar dilatation, retinal necrosis which involves the discontinuity of the endothelial outer retinal layers including the RPE. layer, increased permeability GFAP shows increased numbers of and insudation of plasma Muellers cells in the ganglion layer proteins into the vascular wall, and inner and outer limiting medial hypertrophy with memebranes adventitial fibrosis

42

Cat

Eosinophilic keratitis

Eye: Keratitis, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic with edema and superficial eosinophilic coagula

43

Cat

Hypertensive retinopathy

Eye, retina and uvea: vascular fibrinoid change, multifocal with fibrin, hemorrhage, and edema, mild lymphoplasmacytic uveitis, retinal atrophy, and preiridial fibrovascular membrane

44

Cat

Intravascular cellular accumulations of bland spindle cells that partially or Multisystemic in cats involving completely occlude arterioles, they Heart: Reactive the heart and brain and is Reactive are arranged in tight or loose whorls angioendotheliomatosis with fibrin fatal. (bening in humans). angioendotheliomatosis and nests. Affected vessels are thrombi vWF and Vimentin +/ whereas thickened by proliferative adeventitial Cyt CD18, Cd79, and CD 3-fibroblasts and are surrounded by moderate mucinous accumulations. Elementary Body (EB)infectious form- small electron dense nucleoid at the periphery of the EB separated from electron dense cytoplasm Intermediate body (IB) largest, upt to 1 um. Central electron dense core with radially arranged individual nucleoid fibers surrounding the core. Cytoplasmic granules tightly packed at the periphery of the IB separated from the core by a translucent zone. Humans and birds Cattle Cattle, sheep, horses cattle Sheep Horses, swine Cattle, sheep, goats, horses, dogs, rabbits Sheep, cats, guniea pigs, hamsters Cattle, pigs, muskrats, snowshoe hares Reticulate Body (RB)- larger intracellular metabolically active form. Lacy and reticular nucleus, hour glass profiles, binary fission Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, fibrinous air sacculitis, pericarditis, peritonitis/ Micro- hepatic necrosis, portal hepatitis, intracellular bacteria, splenic necrosis, splenic histiocytosis, intrahistiocytic bacteria, splenic reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia, fibrinous air sacculitis with heterophils and macrophages

12

45

African Grey

Chlamydophila psittaci

Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, random, moderate with intrahepatocellular bacteria

Psittacosis (ornithosis) Sporadic Bovine Encephalitis Polyarthritis Enzootic bovine abortion Enzootic ovine abortion Abortion Pneumonia Conjunctivitis Enteritis Lung: Bronchointerstitial pneumonia, proliferative, heterophilic and lymhpoplasmacytic with edema fibrin, hemorrhage and epithelial eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies Ophidian Paramyxovirus- ddxSuppurative and necrotizing pneumonia, not so many inclusions, syncytial cells, inclusions are pleomorphic

46

Boa constrictor

Boid inclusion body disease

affects boids and pythons- boas may be inapparent carriers, but may lead Inclusions appear as electron to CNS disease. The snake mitedense structures Ophionyssus natricis is suspected as a vector

47

Chinchilla

48

Crucian carp

Herpes simplex Type 1- oral and conjunctival infections Cerebrum: Meningoencephalitis, and encephalomyelitis in neutrophilic, lymphoplasmacytic Herpes simplex type 1 adults/ Herpes simplex type 2and histiocytic with neuronal genital and neonatal necrosis, gliosis, and eosinophilic infections/ Humans are a intranuclear inclusion bodies natural reservoir Spores (refractile) with polar Skeletal muscle: Myositis, Mechanical damage from capsules (giemsa or Myxobolus lentisuturalis necrotizing, multifocal, with pseudocysts or tissue necrosis and wright)are pathognomonic for myriad myxosporidian spores inflammation from trophozoite feeding mYxozoan Grossly- ddx: Microsporidian (all intracellular- thick walled Other dz of Myxozoan- Proliferative spores containing kidney disease, Proliferative gill sporoplasm, posterior disease, whirling disease/ black tail vacuole, xenoma), (Myxobolus cerebralis), also have a Ichthyophthirius multifilis, polar capsule lymphocystis, dermal metecercariae Head, cross section: Myositis, Gross- firm nodules with cellulitis, pharyngitis, draining fistulous tracts that osteomyelitis, meningitis, Staphylococcus aureus exude purulent discharge with pyogranulomatous and ndcrotizing (Botryomycosis) small white granules. Deep with splendore-Hoeppli and large dermis and subcutis. bacterial colonies 4 histomorphologic types- 1) Acinar/tubular/ 2) Papillarylined by multiple layers of anaplastic columnar cells/ 3) Mucinous- acinar or irregular crypts, filled with mucin/ 4) Signet ring- isolated nests of cells containing mucin

13

49

Rat

50

Macaque

Adenocarcinoma

Jejunum: Adenocarcinoma

51

Guinaea pig

Heart: Epicarditis, proliferative, with multifocal myocardial fibrosis Metastatic calcification and mineralization with mineralization of the great vessels Laryngeal and botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder are distinct clinical entity. Ionphores inhibit sodium and potassium ion transport across mitochondrial and Heart: Myocardium: degeneration other cell membranes- leading and necrosis with mineralization to mitochondrial failure, depletion of ATP, failure of calcium transport and persistent contraction Toxic glomerular vasculopathyKidney: Glomerular aneurysms mesangiolysis (direct injury to and fibrin thrombi with moderate mesangial cells and matrix), acute tubular degeneration and capillary ballooning, or necrosis and cellular and granular glomerular microaneurysm casts formation. Skeletal muscle: Rhabdomyosarcoma Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, granulomatous and eosinophilic with tubular degeneration, necrosis and regeneration adrenal gland: Adrenalitis, granulomatous and eosinopgilic Haired skin: dermatitis, lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic, and eosinophilic with acanthosis, orthrokeratotic hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and superficial dermal edema Liver: Hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis with biliary hyperplasia and pigment laden macrophages Affects- protein synthesis, oxidative damage, disruption of DNA, carcinogenesis, Necrosis from inhibition of protein and RNA synthesis Embryonal - dogs most common/ Alveolar is least common

52

Rat

Rhabdomyosarcoma

14

53

Horse

Monensin toxicosis

ddx: Vit E /Se, Exertional rhabdomyolysis, Cassia spp

54

Dog

Snake envenomation

55

Ox

Vetch toxicosis

Vetch toxicosis occurs in Toxic principle: Prussic acid- Possible cattle and horses- dermatitis, type IV hypersensitivity, or lectin conjunctivitis, diarrhea, activation initiating T lymphocyte multisystemic granulomatous activation and eosinophilic disease

56

Dog

aflatoxicosis

Bishydrofurans- B1, B2, G1, G2 Anisocytosis, karyomegaly, binucleation, and multinucleation, bile duct or oval cell proliferation, cytosegresome formation, nodular regeneration- B1 interferes with mitosis

15

57

Ox

Bovine herpesvirus 5

Brain, cerebrum: encephalitis, lymphoplasmacytic and necrotizing with glial and neuronal intranuclear inclusions

BHV-5- encepbalitis/ occasionally BHV-1 BHV-1 BHV-2 BHV-4

Encephalitic herpesviruses: OHV-2, AlHV-1, EHV-1, PHV-1/ Neironal and glial necrosis, endothelial necrosis Abortion Pseudolumpy skin dz/ herpes mamillits mammary pustular dermatitis

58

cat

Phaeohyphomycosis

Brain, cerebrum: Meningoencephalitis, necrotizing, pyogranulomatous with fibrinoid vasculitis and dematiaceous fungi Histo: Epithelial- grlandular, normal tubules, glomeruloid structures lacking capillaries/ Mesenchymal componentlobules or streams, fibrous, mucoid, adipose, muscle, cartilage, bone/ Blastemal cells- clumnps or dispersed between

59

Dog

Thoracolumbar spinal cord tumor of young dogs/ Nephroblastoma

spinal cord and dura mater: thoracolumbar spinal cord tumor of young dogs

60

Dog

16

61 62

Rat Pig

Brain, cerebellum: Neuronal and axonal degeneration with Mucopolysaccharidosis spongiosis, spheroids, and IIIA (Sanfilippo neuronal cytoplasmic eosinophilic sundrome) granular material Cholangiocarcinoma liver: cholangiocarcinoma Lung: Pleuropneumonia, fibrinohemorrhagic and Haemophilus parasuis suppurative

sulphatase deficiency

63

Pig

Streptococcus suis

Heart: Pulmonary artery: Strep suis type II- also causes Endocarditis, valvulitis, and meningitis, polyserositis, arteritis, fibrinosuppurative and arthritis, and pneumonia granulomatous with mineralization and gram positive cocci

64

Goat

17

65 66

Rat Ox

Kidney: vasculitis and perivasculitis, Malignant catarrhal lymphohistiocyticwith intimal and fever (OHV-2, CpHV-2) medial fibrinoid necrosis, hemorrhage, and a few fibrin thrombi chordoma Tail: chordoma spinal cord: vasculitis, Thrombotic leukocytoclastic, multifocal with meningoencephalitis thrombosis, axonal degeneration (Histophilus somni) and gram pos bacteria Cysts, multiple Adrenal gland : cysts,multiple Ectopic from bile ducts (ectopic hepatic tissues) Actually its liver with an extrahepatic cyst surrounded by granulomatous inflammation

67

Ferret

68

Macaque

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative, global, diffuse, tubular degeneration, regeneration, protein casts, lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis Immune complex glomerulonephritis EIA Horses Strep sp BVD Cattle Trypanosomiasis Hereditary hypocomplementemia in Sheep Finnish Landrace lambs CSF Pigs ASF Infectious Canine Hepatitis Dogs Chronic hepatitis Chronic bacterial dz Endometritis (pyometra) Pyoderma Prostatitis Dirofilariasis Borreliosis SLE Polyarteritis IMHA IM poly arthritis Mastocytoma Hereditary C3 deficiency Leishmaniasis Cats Feline leukemia virus infection Feline Infectious Peritonitis FIV Progressive polyarthritis Neoplasia Progressive membranous glomerulonephritis Aleutian dz

Mink

18

69

Dog

Pleomorphic liposarcoma Eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculitis

Haired skin and subcutis: Liposarcoma, pleomorphic Haired skin: dermatitis, folliculitis, and furunculosis, eosinophilic with mucin and mild epidermal hyperplasia Haired skin and subcutis: Panniculits, granulomatous and pallisading, marked, lymphoplasmacytic Haired skin: Collagen dysplasia, diffuse

well differentiated, pleomorphic and myxoid folliculocentric, eosinophils, ulcerative solitary nodules centered on ischemically altered degenerate or devitalized collagen fibers, with marked numbers of plasma cells subfollicular artifactual split that occurs during procurement and processing Kerion- dermatophyte fungal hyphae/ Sterile eosinophilic pustulosis has subcorneal pustules and less evere eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis Autoimmune, trauma, immunoreactive disease; Macrophages CD 11b, CD45, Cd18

70

Dog

71

dog

Palisading granuloma

72

Horse

Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia

19

73

Macaque

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Lung: Granulomas, multifocal to coalescing

Tuberculin/ MHC II/ APC--> interacts with memory cells (Th1)--> blast Type IV hypersensitivity: 8-12 transformation and proliferation --> hours, peaks at 24-72 hours Th1 cytokines (IL-12, IFN-y, IL-2, TNFa) which attract mononuclear cells (T cells and macrophages), and edema

spleen: Splenitis, granulomatous, multifocal to coalescing Spleen: Lymphoid depletion, diffuse Pancreas: NSL Liver: hepatitis, necrotizing, multifocal with fibrin and hemorrhage, edema, and eosinophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies Liver: hepatitis, portal, lymphocytic, multifocal Gall bladder, lamina propria: Edema, diffuse, marked

74

Macaque

adenovirus

Necrotizing hepatitis is rare

Inclusion body hepatitis Hydropericardium syndrome Fowl, goose, duck, pigeon, Turkey Respiratory disease Adenovirus Aviadenovirus (group Necrotizing pancreatitis 1 avian adenovirus) gizzard erosions Quail Bronchitis (Avian adenovitus type 1) Marble Spleen Disease (Adenovirus Type 2) Siadenovirus Hemorrhagic enteritis (adenovirus type 2) Avian adenovirus splenomegaly virus Frog adenovirus Egg drop syndrome (Avian Subgroup 3 avian adenovirus Ovine, bovine, Duck Possum adenoviruses Adenoviral Hemorrhagic Disease inCalifornia mule deer and blacktailed deer Reptilian adenoviruses Pheasants- splenic necrosis, respiratory edema, congestion Young turkeys, bloody droppings

Laying hens; viral replication in pouch shell gland epithelium, INIB

Atadenovirus

vasculitis with endocardial INIB, pulmonary edema, hemorrhagic enteropathy Bearded dragon, snake, chameleon Respiratory disease, enteritis, Keratoconjunctivitis Subclinical, respiratory and enteric disease secondary to immunosuppression Infectious canine hepatitis Necrotizing bronchiolitis and alveolar epithelialization CID foals; bronchiolitis, atelectasis, and pancreatitis Resp dz, pyrexia, KCS, colic, enteric dz in calves Respiratory tract disease, conjunctivitis, enteritis Pneumonia, enteritis, encephalitis, diarrhea Oncogenic in newborns, CNS lesions Pneumonitis hamsters rats Brown bear, coyotes, foxes, wolves, skunks, racoons, CAV1 epsilon toxin: inactive prototoxin in the gut, with activation by trypsin. Epsilon toxin binds endothelial cell surface receptors resulting in opening of tight junctions, disturbed transport processes, and increased vascular permeability resulting in vasogenic edema, swelling of astrocytic foot processes, hypoxia, ischemia, and necrosis. Some can be mediated by the adenyl cyclases/ cAMP system

Human adenovirus Simian adenovirus (27 viruses) canine adenovirus 1 canine adenovirus 2 Equine Adenovirus Mastadenovirus Bovine adenovirus Ovine adenovirus Porcine adenovirus Murine adenovirus Guinea pig Adenovirus Adenovirus Wildlife

75

Sheep

Clostridium perfringens Brain, white matter: Necrosis and type D (focal loss, multifocal with edema symmetrical encephalomalacia)

perivascular proteinaceous edema (microangiopathy), acidophilic accumulations of protein

76

Marmoset

Gram-negative sepsis

Tail, transverse section: Dermatitis, and cellulitis, neutrophilic and necrotizing with fibrin, edema, hemorrhage, thrombosis and myriad intraepidermal colonies of bacilli Mucocutaneous junction, lip: Hyperkeratosis, parakeratotic, diffuse, marked, acanthosis, edema of the stratum spinosum, basal cell dermatitis, focal ulcer with pyogranulomatous inflammation and surface bacteria

Superantigens (Gram pos): Class II MHC mol and V beta domains of TCR-> activation// Exogenous LPS-LPSbp--> TLR 4/ CD14/MD2--> MyD88--> TNF- superantigens- enterotoxins, TSST1, exfoliating toxin/ Endogenous RAF-6 --> Ik-B--> AP TF--> ILsuperantigens-Specific T cell 1,6,8,12,NO, PAF memebrane molecule produced during viral infections Skin- hyperkeratosis, deep fissuring of footpads/ Liver- severe vacuolar degeneration with diffuse parenchymal collapse, condensation of reticulin and nodular regeneration

20

77

Dog

Superficial necrolytic dermatitis (hepatocutaneous syndrome)

also associated with DM, glucagon secreting tumor

red white and bluehyperkeratosis (red) (parakeratotic), necrosis of stratum spongiosum, intracellular edema (white), and basal layer hyperplasia (blue)

ddx: Parakeratotic disease (zinc def, thallium tox, lethal acrodermatitis of Bull terriers, Sarcoptes scabei, generic dog food dermatosis).

78

Dog

Ependymoma

Brain- hippocampus: Ependymoma

well demarctaed, intraventricular, expands the third ventricle, mesencephalic aqueduct, and 4th ventricle, well vascularized, sheets, clusters, fascicles, indistinct cell borders, fibrillar eosinophilic cytoplasm, Pseudorosettes are common, foci of necrosis with peripheral palisades of neoplastic cells, perivascular lymphocytes

perivascular clearing

79

Cockatoo

Sarcocystis sp

Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, histiocytic and plamacytic with edema, necrosis and intraendothelial sarcocysts Brain: astrocytoma, high grade (glioblastoma multiforme) Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, multifocal to coalescing with edema and myriad intralesional yeast Pancreas: Islet cell carcinoma Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, severe, fibrin, edema, syncytia, and epithelial intranuclear inclusion bodies Esophagus: Esophagitis, necroulcerative, multifocal, fibrin, edema, intraepithelial inclusion bodies Bone marrow: Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with myelofibrosis and lymph node metastasis associated with superficial necrolytic dermatitis other products- insulin, gastrin Vimentin and GFAP- vascular proliferation, pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis

80

Moose

High grade astrocytoma

21

81

Dog

Cryptococcus neoformans islet cell carcinoma (glucagonoma)

82

Dog

83

Cat

feline herpesvirus 1

most common with calicivirus myelofibrosis is caused by cytokine production by megakaryocytes, PDGF, TGFbeta (alpha granules) other germ cell neoplasm: dysgerminoma (resemble seminomas) , choriocarcinoma (trophoblastic differentiationtrophoblastic giant cells, syncytiotrophoblasts, cytotrophoblasts, blood-filled spaces), embryonal carcinoma (may contain MNGC), yolk sac carcinoma (mesoblast and yolk sac endodermnests and ribbons of neoplastic epithelium in PAS positive materialglomerulus like structure composed of central blood vessel enveloped by germ cells within a space lined by germ cells)

84

dog

Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

22

85

Macaque

Teratoma (germ cell neoplasm)

Ovary: Teratoma

immature teratoma (teratocarcinoma) has lessdifferentiated embryonal tissues with some differentiated structures; Looks like Dermoid Cyst (Epithelial lined cyst containing keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium, and dermal collagen)

86

Goat

coxiella burnetti

Chorioallantois: Placentitis with multifocal necrosis and myriad intratrophoblastic organisms

Brucella (vasculitis)/ Chlamydophila abortus (vasculitis, cotyledonary inflammation, coccoid org)/ Toxoplasma (Primarily cotyledons)

87

Ox

Ureaplasma diversum

Placenta: placentitis, necrotizing, subacute with vasculitis, thrombosis and mineralization results from an insufficient number of caruncles (congenital disorders of endometrial organization, , or by loss of caruncles due to inflammation- primitive villus attahcments between the chorion and endometrium attempt to compensate for inadequate placentation hemosiderosis- systemic overload of iron resulting in excessive deposition of hemosiderin in different organs or tissues.

88

Ox

Adventitial placentation

Chorioallantois: Adeventitial placentation, multifocal, with edema and minimal lymphoplasmacytic placentitis

looks like granulation tissue

23

89

rhinoceros

Hemochromatosis

Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, periportal to midzonal, with moderate biliary duct proliferation, fibrosis, and hemosiderosis Pancreas: Pancreatitis, necrotizing, multifocal to coalescing, marked, with intraepithelial basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies Spleen: Lymphoid hypoplasia, severe, diffuse Liver: Hydatid cyst Spleen: Hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma

hemochromatosis is deposition of iron but is combined with a morphological or functional disturbance of the organ, tissue, or cell

90

Horse

SCID; adenovirus

Arabian/ Jack russel terriers/ X linked SCID- (basset/corgi)- gamma BALB/c mice: B,T cell chain of IL-2 receptor- T cells deficiency- DNA PKc- cant unresponsive to IL-2 stimuli rearrange receptor genes

91

Field vole

Echinococcus multilocularis Hemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma

Echinococcus multilocularismultilocular hydatid cyst (Echinococcus granulosus is unilocular hydatid cyst) CD11d/CD18 4 layers: 1) outermost compressed dermal collagen; 2) homogenous intermediate zone; 3) Host cell with peripheralized nuclei; and 4) innermost parasitophorus vacuole filled with crescentic bradyzoites

92

Dog

24

93

Donkey

Besnoitia ap

Haired skin: dermatitis, granulomatous and eosinophilic, multifocal with protozoal cysts

94

Tortoise

Gout

Kidney: Nephritis, tubulointerstitial, interstitial fibrosis, tubular loss, numerous urate tophi Intestine: enteritis, necrotizing with fibrin, edema, and numerous amoebic trophozoites Spinal cord, white matter: Axonal degeneration and loss, diffuse with digestion chambers, gitter cells, and lymphocytic meningomyelitis Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, multifocal , moderate with diffuse edema and numerous fungal spherules Haired skin and subcutis: Plasmacytoma with amyloid Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative, global, diffuse, marked, with tubular degeneration, necrosis, regeneration, proteinosis, and chronic lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis Endosporulating: Chlorella, Prototheca, Coccidioides, Rhinosporidium, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis CD45 +, AL amyloid intramural cestodes and pentastomes

95

Water snake

entamoeba invadens

96

Goat

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis

25

97

Alpaca

Coccidioides immitis

98

Dog

Plasmacytoma

99

Dog

Borrelia burgdorferi

Glomerular deposits are PAS positive/ Tichrome and congo red --

100

Rat

Phospholipidosis

Kidney, glomerulus and proximal also seen in Kupffer cells, convoluted tubules: Lamellar biliary epithelium, endothelial bodies, intracytoplasmic and cells, lungs, extracellular, consistent with renal phospholipidosis

Caused by Cationic Amphophilic Drugs: 1) Direct interaction with cellular phospholipids (binding and resists degradation)/ 2) Inhibition of the enzymes (phospholipases) that degrade phospholipids/ 3) Upregulating the synthesis of phospholipids in the cell

Conference 2005-2006 1

Slide

Species

etiology

Morph Dx Eye: Endophthalmitis, suppurative with coccobacilli and stromal keratitis Prepuce: Posthitis, granulomatous, nodular with rhabditid adults, larvae and eggs

notes

notes/DDX YACS: Yersinia, Actinomyces, Actinobacillus, Arcanobacter, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staph and strep

1

Mule Deer

Yersinia pestis

2

Horse

Halicephalobus sp

3

Barn Owl

Adenocarcinoma of Humerus: Air sac adenocarcinoma air sac

Pleomorphic epithelial cells obliterating normal bone. Forming papillary projections, tubuels and solid sheets. Mucin producing

4

Macaque

Burkholderia pseudomallei

Seminal vesicle: Vesiculitis, suppurative, diffuse Meninges, cerebrum: Vasculitis and perivasculitis, lmyphohistiocytic, necrotizing

Melioidosis Malignant catarrhal fever, OHV-2, AHV-1: lymphoproliferation vasculitis, erosive ulcerative lesions corneal edema, uveitis

Glanders is caused by Burkholderia mallei ddx vasculitis: BVD, Orbivirus, Adenovirus hemorrhagic disease, salmonella dublin, Histophilus somni

2

5

Ox

Gamma Herpesvirus

6

Ferret

Blastomyces dermatitidis

Lung: Pneumonia, pyogranulomatous with yeast

Broad based budding 10-20 um 1-2 um thick double contoured refractile wall Canine laryngeal rhabdomyoma and rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare distinct entity, most are histologically benign bu may cause respiratory obstruction possibel hepatic encephalopathy

7

Dog

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Laryngeal skeletal muscle: Rhabdomyosarcoma

8

Cat

Spongioform change Necrosis Degeneration

Brain- spongioform change Liver: Vacuolar degeneration and portal venous hypoplasia and arteriolar duplication Lung: Bronchitis and bronchiolitis with epithelial balooning degeneration and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inlcusions Liver: Cholangiohepatitis with biliary hyperplasia and piecemeal hepatocellular necrosis Skeletal muscle: Degeneration and necrosis with histiocytic myositis Lung: Alveolar proteinosis and peribronchiolar and perivascular lymphoid aggregates Subcutis: Panniculitis, granulomatous, diffuse Maxilla: Ameloblastic fibroodontoma

3

9

Mouse

Ectromelia

Orthopoxvirus: Ectromelia, vaccina, variola, monkeypox, cowpox,

susceptible strains: C3H, A, DBA, SWR, BALB/c

10

Mouse

Helicobacter hepaticus

susceptible strains: C3H, A, SCID Fibrates are lipid lowering agents, Selective Type 1 fiber Statins selectively target Type II fibers damage Mutations in surfactant proteins B or C or the Beta chain of the GM-CSF receptor Secondary PAP results from impairment of macrophages

11

Rat

Fibrate myopathy

12

Mouse

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

4

13

Ara (McCaw)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

14

Dog

Odontogenic tumor

Tumors of odontogenic epithelium without mesenchyme Tumors of odontogenic epithelium with mesenchyme Tumors predominantly of odontogenic mesenchyme

Ameloblastoma, Amyloid producing odontogenic tumor, Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma Ameloblatic fibroma/fibro-odontoma, Feline inductive odontogenic tumor, Complex odontoma, compound odontoma cementoma, cementifying fibroma

15

Bighorn Sheep

Protostrongylus sp

Lung: Pneumonia, Dictyocaulus filaria commonly lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic, affetcs goat kids and lambs and eosinophilis, with bronchiolar and causes partial obstruction smooth muscle hypertrophy and of small bronchi and type II myriad metastrongyle eggs larvae pneumocyte hyperplasia and adults Salivary gland: coagulative necrosis (infarct) with ductular hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia

Muellerius capillaris (nodular lungworm) alsoaffetcs sheep and goats forming subpleural nodules

16

Dog

Necrotizing sialometaplasia

commonly affects terriers

5

17

Macaque

Attaching and Effacing E coli

18

Horse

Malignant neoplasm Tansy mustard (Descurainia pinnata) toxicosis Brucella canis

ddx Diarrhe in NHP: E coli (ETEC, EPEC, EHEC), Shigellosis- flexneri, dysenteriae, boydii, Campylobacter jejuni and coli, Salmonella enteriditis and Small intestine: Villous atrophy tymphimurium, Yersinia and fusion, with enterocyte enterocolitica, and degeneration and adherent chort pseudotuberculosis, bacilli Cryptosporidium parvum, Proteus vulgaris, Pinworms (oxyuris and enterobius), Balantidium coli, IBD, Entamoeba histolytica Lung: Possible mesothelioma Brain: Laminar cortical necrosis with gliosis Chorioallantois: Placentitis, necrotizing with intratrophoblastic coccobacilli Lymph node and tonsil: Lymphoid depletion with sinus histiocytosis and draining neutrophilia, with intrahistiocytic botryoid inclusions Kidney: Nephritis, suppurative, embolic with coccobacilli Primary EFE- No other heart lesions/ inherited resulting in sudden death Secondary EFE- develps in conjunction with congenital cardiac abnormalities, myocarditis, glycogen storage disease and carnitine deficiency Random foci of hepatocellular necrosis containing macrophages and neutrophils mononuclear expansion of the interstitial space with few neutrophils, alveolar spaces contain fibrin, neutrhpils and erythrocytes, interlobular septa are widened by edema and fibrin Sulfur accumulating plants--> Thiamine deficiency

19

Ox

20

Dog

6

21

Pig

Porcine circovirus-2

22

Horse

Actinobacillus eqquli

23

Horse

Endocardial fibroelastosis

Heart: Endocardial fibroelastosis

24

OX

Salmonella dublin

Liver: Hepatitis, histiocytic and lymphocytic, necrotizing

Lung: Edema and hemorrhage with intraalveolar fibrin

7

25

Dog

Cirrhosis

26

Brown Pelican

Hypovitaminosis E

Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration, necrosis, and loss with parenchymal collapse, bile stasis, nodular regeneration, moderate dissecting fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis (cirrhosis) Heart; Skeletal muscle: Myofiber degeneration and necrosis with fibrosis and fatty infiltration Liver: Myeloid leukemia BXH-2 Mouse Liver: Necrosis, centrilobular and midzonal Lip: Cheilitis, ulcerative with epithelial syncytia, and Most likely Herpes simplex amphophilic to eosinophilic virus intranuclear inclusions Lung: Bronchiolitis, lymphoplasmacytic with PCD: 50% have situs inversus bronchiolectasis and bronchiolar or communicating epithelial hyperplasia, vascular hydrocephalus smooth muscle hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis Mammary glands: Adenocarcinoma Kidney: Tubular necrosis with Antiretroviral drug regeneration; Glomerular capillary thrombosis Haired skin and subcutis: Vasculitis with fibrin thrombi and superficial dermal necrosis Abomasum: Mucus neck cell hyperplasia, eosinophilic abomasitis, and trichostrongylid nematodes Thyroid gland: Medullary thyroid carcinoma Brain, cerebrum: congestion and edema, with intraendothelial rickettsia Long bone: Osteosclerosis diffuse Bone, thoracic vertebrae: Osteosclerosis with failure of modeling of primary trabeculae Mandible: Carcinoma, with vascular invasion and chondroosseus and fibrous proliferation (fracture callus) Radius and tibia of young large breed dogs- Osteoblast and osteoclast necrosis, hemorrhage and neutrophilic inflammation where primary trabeculae leave naken mineralized cartilage. Below this the trabeculae are fractured with marked osteoclast resorption and suppurative inflammation high or imbalanced calcium and phosphorus levels They always originate from epithelial tissues lining the posterior chamber, iris and ciliary body. Other lesions_ endocarditis, polyarthritis, and skin necrosis good review of leukemias

27 28

Mouse Dog

Leukemia Heatstroke

8

29

Macaque

Alphaherpesvirus

30

Dog

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesis

31 32

Rat Macaque

Adenocarcinoma Tenofovir toxicosis

9

33

Pig

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

ddx: PDNS (PRRS and PCV-2)

34

Ox

Ostertagia ostertagi Medullary thyroid carcinoma

Lack of parietal cells a problem of tissue ID- Maybe from pyloric region

Haemonchus contortus- sheep and goats, Ostertagia in cattles, Trichostrongylus axei in horses

35

Monkey

36

Sheep

ehrlichia ruminantium

Sheep, goats and cattle: Transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. Vit D toxicity or inherited failure of ostoclast activity

Fever anorexia, depression dyspnea and ataxia, Pulmonary Edema, Hydropericardium, Hydrothorax, Cerebral edema, lymph node edema, splenomegaly

10

37 38

Paca Horse

Osteosclerosis Osteoslcerosis

39

Dog

Carcinoma; Fracture callus

40

Dog

Hypertrophic osteodystrophy (Metaphyseal Osteodystrophy)

Long Bone: Osteomyelitis, necrosuppurative, acute diffues, with microfractures and acute fibrinois vascular necrosis

later lesions have fibrous tissue

Possible causes include: vaccine induced or bacterial or viral agents In cats they are made of solid sheets of bland polygonal cells with regular delicate vascular supply

11

41

Cat

Iridociliary adenoma

PAS stain highlights the delicate BM

42

Horse

43

Dog

Small intestine: Vasculitis, necrotizing with thrombi, infarcts, and cocci Neoplastic cells are positive for IN this case there is alsoa thin Spindle cell neoplasm GFAP and negative form s-100 choroid with little pigment, (Peripheral nerve sheath tumor of blue-eyed dogs loss of ganglion cells not melanoma) Streptococcus equi equi There is replacement of much of the tunica media by connective tissue containing lymphocytes, macrophages, and occasional plasma cells and neutrophils.

44

Dog

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (Lymphoplasmacytic leiomyositis)

Small intestine: Leiomyositis, lymphohistiocytic

12

45

Lamb

Peste des petits ruminants

46 47

Goat Monkey

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

Small intestine: Enteritis, necrotizing, acute, diffuse with crypt abscesses, villosu blunting and fusion, syncytia and intracytoplasmic intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies Heart: Epicarditis, pyogranulomatosu and fibrinous, chronic, severe

Francisella tularensis Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, Zygomycetes; Candida Rumen: Rumenitis, necrosuppurative, erosive, transmural, with vasculitis, thrombi and fungal hyphae Predisposing factorsAntibiotics, grain overload, IBR, BVD-mucosal disease ddx: fusobacterium necrophorum in cattle; Histomonas meleagridis in turkeys; Entamoeba invadens in reptiles, and Entamoeba histolytica in primates Metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma

48

Ox

13

49

Duck

Borrelia anserina

Liver: Necrosis, coagulative with fibrin thrombi with splenic granulomas

50

Ferret

Carcinoma with myxoid differentiation Disseminated Idioapthic Myositis cardiac paraganglioma

51

Ferret

Adrenal gland: Adrenal cortical carcinoma, with myxoid differentiation Skeletal muscle and esophagus: Myositis, neutrophilic with scattered myonecrosis Heart, right atrium: Cardiac paraganglioma

52

Dog

Neuroendocrine cells and sutentacular cells. Sympthetic or parasympathetic

Chromaffin positive = catecholamines, sympathetic Salinomycin- Potassium ionophoreinterferes with potassium transport across mitochondrial memebranes, resulting in low intracellular energy production. The Na/Ca exchange may also be disrupted allowing fatal accumulation of intracellular calcium. Calcium pumps pump cytosolic calcium into sarcoplasmic reticulum/ failure results in increased cytosolic calcium and causes myofibril hyperconttraction, ATP depletion and failed oxidative phpsphorylation resulting in mitochondrial swelling, disruption and cell death

14

53

Horse

Salinomycin toxicosis

Heart: Myocardial degeneration and necrosis, subacute with histiocytic inflammation

ionophore toxicosis- Cation transporters that embed in plasma membranes and facilitate the movement of sodium and potassium ions from extracellular fluids. Hydrogen ions move out of the cells,

54

Dog

Hypervitaminosis D

55

Ox

Sulfonamide nephrosis

Lung: Mineralization, interstitial, multifocal, with emphysema, intraalveolar edema, and histiocytosis Kidney: Tubular degeneration and Mechanical damage and local necrosis with intratubular toxic effects, from crystallizing amphophilic granular material in renal vessels Esophagus: Esophagus, necrotizing, ulcerative with intramucosal thrombi ddx: Selenium and thallium toxicosis as wellas BVDmucosal disease, FMD

56

Ox

Ramaria flavobrunnescens toxicosis

15

57

Sheep

Jaagsiekte (Ovine Pulmonary Adenomatosis)

58

OX

Nocardia sp

Lung: carcinoma, multicentric with bronchointerstitial pneumonia, suppurative, and histiocytic with retrovirus peribronchiolar lymphocyte infiltrates Lymph node: Lymphadenitis, Nocardia- gram pos, aerobis, granulomatous, multifocal with filamentous, partially acid fast, mineral and filamentous bacilli facultative intracellular Pancreas: ductal ectasia with intraluminal adult trematodes, periductal fibrosis, acinar atrophy, and granulomatous pancreatitis, centered on trematode eggs Bone, distal right tibia: Osteomyelitis, granulomatous and necrotizing with myriad fungal hyphae Bone: Necrosis with periosteal and endosteal hyperostosis

59

Ox

Eurytrema sp

60

Dog

Basidiomycetes

look like aspergillus

16

61

Trumpeter

Frostbite

62

Snake

Pentastomiasis

Mechanisms: Direct cellular damage by ice crystals--> cellular dehydration and cellular lysis Constant vasoconstriction--> local hypoxia, acidosis and Synovium: Synovitis, and cellulitis, increased viscosity --> heterophilic and histiocytic thrombosis and ischemic injury Local thrombosis and endothelial damage trigger Skin: epidermal hyperplasia, release of prostaglandins hyperkeratosis with focal ulcer and (PGF2alpha and TXA2)--> superficial fungi MORE vasoconstriction and thrombosis Liver: Pentastome nymphs and multifocal granulomas Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing with eosinophilic hepatocellular intranuclear inclusions Placenta: Atypical mesenchymal proliferation with striated muscle differentiation Chorangiomas- benign placental tumors, from fetal blood vessels or primitive chorionic mesenchyme This mass contained undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells, leading to diagnosis of placental stem cell tumor ddx Dry Pox: Proliferative, hyperkeratotic and ulcerative cutaneous lesions ddx:Wet Pox: Caseous inflammation in pharynx/ esophagus/ crop Haired skin and subcutis: Panniculitis and dermatitis, pyogranulomatous, nodular with fungal hyphae and intrafollicular arthrospores and hyphae Benign PNST: Neurofibroma Malignant PNST: Neurofibrosarcoma, (Schwanna cells and Malignant Schwannoma perineurial cells), Schwannoma Virulence factors: alpha toxin (creates a pore in cell Skin and Subcutis: Vasculitis, Exotoxins- Superantigens (stimulate T membranes), Beta toxin (Type necrotizing with dermal and cells non specifically- TSST, C Sphingomyelinase), epidermal necrosis, hemorrhage, Enterotoxin), Exfoliatin toxins (ETA, Leukocidin (pores in cell and dermal-epidermal separation ETB) membranes) Skin: Mucinosis, severe Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial Chlamydophila felis histiocytic with edema Liver, Spleen: Deg and necrosis with splenic lymphocytolysis and EMH Skin: Hemangiopericytoma, myxoid type Small intestine: Villous blunting and fusion Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, lymphoplasmacytic diffuse, with edema, alveolar histiocytosis, hemosiderosis, and intrahistiocytic yeast other lesiosn: non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, pancreatic necrosis, dermatitis, splenic lymphoid depletion in spleen and thymus

63

Owl

Herpesvirus strigis Atypical mesenchymal proliferation

64

Bongo

Chorioallantois: Fibrosis with mineralization and villar necrosis

17

65

Chicken

Avian Poxvirus

Skin: Epidermal and follicular hyperplasia, balooning degeneration and necrosis with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions

Trichophyton megninii and Knemidocoptes gallinae

Vit A deficiency, GHV-1, Trichomonas gallinae, Capillaria annulata, Candida albicans, Aspergillosis

66

Cat

Pseudomycetoma

67

Dog

Peripheral nerve sheath tumor

68

Dog

Staphylococcus aureus; mucinosis

18

69

Cat

Chlamydophila sp

70

Pig

Porcine coronavirus (Transmissible Gastroenteritis)

71

Monkey

Histoplasma capsulatum

72

Chicken

H5N1 Avian Influenza

Heart: Myocarditis, necrotizing, histiocytic

19

73

Duck

Trachea: Tracheitis, necrotizing, heterophilic, and granulomatous, transmurally with ulceration Mycobacterium osteolysis, and squamous avium; Aspergillus sp metaplasia with fungi, and bacterial cocci, bacilli Primary intraocular neuroectodermal tumors- 1) Mature NeuroepitheliumCilialry epithelium derived(adenoima, Carcinoma of X), and 2) Primitive medullary epithelium (medulloepitheliomas, and retinoblastomas)

74

Horse

Primitive neuroectoderm tumor

Eye: Primitve neuroectodermal tumor with features of medulloepithelioma and retinoblastoma

75

Cat

76

Dog

20

77

Dog

3 types of Lafora bodies: 1) branching Polyglucosan bodies are fibrillar structures without a limiting similar to Corpora amylacea, membrane, 2) Osmiophilic granules Lafora body disease Cerebellum, Purkinje cellsstain positively with PAS, in the central core surrounded by (polyglucosan bodies) Polyglucosan bodies Alcian blue, and methenamine fibrillar material, RER is affected, 3) silver Dense peripherla ring of PAS positive material Retrobulbar Pleomorphic large vesicular abundant cytoplasm, indistinct cell Retrobulbar tissue: Meningioma, meningioma borders, occasional small nests of compact swirling cells Brain,cerebrum: Asymmetric cerebral white matter, and brainstem. Lesions include Necrotizing Leukoencephalitis, necrotizing, necrosis and cavitation with astrocytosis, gemistocytes, fibrillary Encephalitis of nonsuppurative with gemistocytic astrocytes, perivascular cuffing, macrophages, microgliosis, Yorkshire Terriers astrogliosis neovascularization, gitter cells, sclerosis, swollen axons, astroglial Acute Water Brain, cerebrum: Necrosis, deprivation syndrome cortical, laminar, subacute with (salt toxicity) eosinophilic meningoencephalitis Zygomycetes Brain, cerebrum: Vasculitis, necrotizing, thromboembolic with fungal hyphae

78

Pig

79

Ox

80

Pig

Teschen disease

Porcine enteric picornavirusesTeschovirusSpinal cord: Poliomyelitis and Porcine enteric picornavirusPolioencephalomyelitis, CNS, radiculoneuritis, non-suppurative Enterovirus- no neurologic disease ventral spinal cord, with meningitis chromatolysis, gliosis and perivascular cuffing PicornaviridaeEncephalomyocarditis virus, cardiovirus genus- congestion, Porcine adenovirusmeningitis, perivascular Meningoencephalitis with mononuclear cells, neural perivascular infiltrates, and degeneration, non-suppurative microglial formation encephalitis and myocarditis in sein efetuses Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous and eosinopgilic with larvated eggs and intra-arterial adult metastrongyle nematodes, proliferative histiocytic and eosinophilic endarteritis, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, and mild eosinophilic bronchiolitis Brainstem, cerebellum: Leptomeningitis, histiocytic and neutrophilis with short bacilli Abomasum: Abomasitis, necrotizing, fibrinosuppurative and hemorrhagic, transmural with adherent short bacilli Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with adenocarcinomatous divergent differentiation

21

81

Rat

Angiostrongylus sp

82

Dolphin

Escherichia coli/ Strep zoo Clostridium perfringens A

83

OX

84

Dog

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

22

85

Dog

Ovotestis

Gonad: Ovotestis, unilateral

The abnormal gonad contained both male and female characteristics. On one edge of the gonad was a thick cord of fibromuscular tissue containing several tubular structures lined by cuboidal to low columnar epithelium with stereocilia. This structure appeared consistent with an epididymis. The majority of the gonad consisted of sheets of small aggregates of large polygonal cells containing eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm (consistent with interstitial cells) interrupted by occasional tubular structures that do not resemble normal ovarian follicles or seminiferous tubules. These tubules were lined by polygonal to spindle cells containing vacuolated basophilic cytoplasm and exhibited a mild degree of anisokaryosis (atypical sex chord stroma cells). In several tubules these cells appeared consistent with Sertoli cells

86

Dog

Uterus, endometrium: Pseudocyesis; Cystic Hyperplasia, labyrinthine, endometrial segmental, marked, with hyperplasia mucometra, periluminal necrosis and mineralization

sings of late pregnancy /early lactation in the absence of a conceptus is a pseudpregnancy Cytotrophoblasts are small, undifferentiated stem cells, Syncytiotrophoblasts are terminally differentiated multinucleated cells producing placental hormones and gas exchange

the bitch has a long diestrus period and functional CL regardless of pregnancy

87

Macaque

Placental site trophoblastic tumor

Uterus: Ovary: Placental site trophoblastic tumor

Intermediate trophoblasts are morphologically intermediate but no multinucleated cells.

PSTT: neoplasm of intermediate Epithelioid trophoblastic tumorChoriocarcinoma- biphasic population trophoblast cells- occurs at monomorphic intermediate of cytotrophoblsats and endometrial implantation site trophoblast cells resembling syncytiotrophoblasts suring pregnancy chorionic laeve Juvenile granulosa cell tumor: Solid with multifocal follcles and variable thecomatous differentiation with abundant eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm Allantochorion: Placentitis, necrohemorrhagic with pseudomembrane, squamous metaplasia and fungal hyphae Lepromatous leprosy (malignant disease) results Skin and subcutis: dermatitis and from a lack of T cell immunity- Antigen antibody complexes (from ILpanniculitis, pyogranulomatous 4) may result in vasculitis, Lacking effective CD4+ TH1 with granulomatous neuritis, focal glomerulonephritis. cells, but many CD8+ ulceration Suppressor TH2 cells which secrete IL-10, IL-4, and IL-5 Tuberculoid leprosy (benign disease) is characterized by granuloma formation with few mycobacteria- Numerous CD4+ TH1 T cells secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma Sparagnosis- plerocercoid larvae (sparagna) of Spirometra sppOuter tegument surrounding a solid but loose mesenchyme stroma with calcareous corpuscles, excretory ducts, skeletal muscle bundles, and no digestive tract Yolk sac tumors: Malignant germ cell tumors in ovary and testicle, and recapitulate different developmental stages in the normal yolk sac. Patterns range from nests and chords and papillary structures, to a reticular or microcystic pattern. Cytoplasm is clear with lipid or glycogen

88

Horse

Aspergillus sp

23

89

Macaque

Mycobacterium leprae

90

Baboon

Spirometra sp

Haired skin and subcutis: Granulomas, eosinophilic with nercosis hemorrhage and larval cestodes

91

Baboon

lung: Lymphoma with marked Simian T alveolar edema, histiocytosis and Lyphotrophic Virus -1 MNGC Endocardial Schwannoma Proliferative gill disease Heart: Endocardium: Schwannoma Gill: Branchitis, histiocytic and proliferative, with lamellar fusion blunting and loss and protozoa

92 24 93

SD Rat Catfish

Myxosporidian parasites

94

Crayfish

Baculovirus

Hepatopancreas, tubular epithelial cells: Amphophilic intranuclear Baculoviruses are large rod shaped viruses with circular ds genome inclusions with Karyomegaly, and multifocal granulomas liver: hepatocellular degeneration, nercosis, with basophilic INIB Skin: Epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis with minimal dermatitis and intracorneal fungi Heart: myocarditis, necrotizing with rare intrasarcoplasmic amastigotes Thyroid gland: Hyperplasia, adenomatous with follicular cysts and micropapillary proliferations Bursa of Fabricius, follicles: Lymphoid depletion with histiocytosis and intrahistiocytic botryoid inclusions

95

Reptile

Adenovirus (atadenovirus) Chytridiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatitidis)

96

Frog

25

97

Mac

Trypanosoma cruzi

98

Beluga whale

Adenomatous hyperplasia

99

Pigeon

Pigeon circivirus

100

Mouse

TEM: Conjunctiva: there are multiple epithelial cells that lie on a basement membrane and are covered by lalellar keratin. The cytoplasm of Conjunctiva: epithelial cell the particles are round 200-250 nm most cells contains round Ectromelia virus EM degeneration with intracytoplasmic contain an elliptical or peanut-shaped electron dense amorphous pox virions electron dense core (pox virus) inclusions that occasionally displaces the nucleus, all cells contain numerous small round electron dense particles

Conference 2004-2005

Slide

Species

etiology

Morph Dx

Gross

Histo

1

1

Goat

Caprine arthritisencephalitis virus (lentivirus)

Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, proliferative, lymphocytic with alveolar proteinosis and secondary acute bronchopneumonia

Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, lymphoid infiltration, alveolar Gross: Poorly collapsed lungs proteinosis// Other lentiviruses- Maediwith several white nodules up visna in sheep (OPP), Equine to 2 cm infectious anemia, SIV, FIV, BIV, HIV// Morbillivirus- Peste des petits ruminants B. mandrillaris- trophozoite is 15-60 um and has a rouns Lesions in the brain- fibrinoid necrosis nucleus with dense nucleolus, of blood vessels with neutrophils and more than one nucleolus can macrophages, malacia with be observed. The Cyst form astrogliosis ia 15-60 um with a bilayer and granules below the cell wall Entamoeba histolyticaaboebic dysentery in humans Naegleria fowleri- Primary Amebic and primates. Cause flask Meningoencephalitis (PAM). Found in shaped intestinal ulcers. fresh water, soil, and sewage. Hematogenous and lymphatic Inhaled. Trophozoites are 6-12 um dissemination may occur. with central nucleus and single large Trophozoites are 6-50 um in nucleolus. Cysts are not generally diameter often surrounded by found in neural tissue a clear halo and have an eccentric nucleus Gout- caused by dehydration, nephrotoxic drugs,m excess dietary protein and calcium, Vit A deficiency Humans- Nucleic acids are hydrolyzed to purines and pyrimidines. Purine metabolism creates uric acid via xanthine oxidase

2

Dog

Balamuthia

Kidney:Nephritis, interstitial, necrotizing, pyogranulomatous, with amebic trophozoites and cysts

Hartmannella spNon-pathogenic free living amoeba.

Acanthamoeba sp- inhalation, causes lung and neurologic disease (GAE)- granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Trophozoites are 10-30 um in diameter, contain an eccentric nucleus, a single nucleolus, and eosinophilic cytoplasm, with glycogen vacuoles and only one nucleolus Liver: Mineral deposition (gout tophi), with mild granulomatous inflammation Liver: Hepatocyte inclusion bodies, eosinophilic ,intracytoplasmic Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration, with single cell necrosis

3

Boa

Visceral gout, Inclusion body disease

IBD- Type C retrovirus

Uric acid is secreted by the renal tubular epithelium

4

Mouse

2

5

Lemur

6

cat

7

Ox

Adenine>hypoxanthine>xanthi ne>Uric Guanine>xanthine>uric acid>allantoic acid>Allantoin>Allantoic acid>urea acid>urea The tumor is composed of Germ cell neoplasm that differentiated nests, clusters, or ribbons of into yolk sac extra-embryonic Yolk sac Ovary: Yolk Sac Carcinoma discrete cells embedded in an structures. The yolk matrix is PAS carcinoma eosinophilic matrix positive Lesions are associated with Humans with diabetes- common persistent diabetes mellitus, opportunistic fungal infections are with exacerbation of Cryptococcus Brain: Meningitis, granulomatous, sino-orbital aspergillosis, atherosclerosis with vascular neoformans with numerous yeast rhinocerebral mucormycosis, and thrombosis and opportunistic cryptococcal meningitis fungal infection Brain: Infarcts, multifocal, acute and chronic Ddx: Feline calicivirusLung: Bronchopneumonia, oculonasal discharge, rhinitis, Toxoplasmosis- triggered by necrotizing, acute, diffuse, severe, conjunctivitis, ulcerative Feline Herpesvirusimmunosuppression, necrotizing with syncytia and epithelial stomatitis, interstitial 1 interstitial pneumonia, with Type II eosinophilic intranuclear pneumonia, necrotizing pneumocyte proliferation inclusions bronchiolitis Toxins- Paraquat (herbicide), fatal Aspiration pneumonia-from interstitial pnuemonia- gross lesions vomiting, regurgitation, include interstitial emphysema, dysphagia, post-anesthesia, bullosu emphysema, and pneumomediastinum Brain: Laminar cortical necrosis Kidney lead levels were toxic Acid fast intranuclear inclusions were with gliosis and hypertrophic 85 ppm (Ref 5-700 ppm toxic Lead Toxicosis found in the renal tubular epithelium endothelial cells range) Toxicity- Binding and inactivation of Lead in 3 forms- metallic and enzymatic sulfhydryl groups (heme salt (car batteries, lead synthesis), competition with calcium weights, paint, shot, plumbing ions (bone lead lines, neuromuscular waste, computer equipment, junction tremors and paresis), pesticide), and organic (in old alteration of Vit D metabolism. gasoline) Altered heme synthesis may result on increased serotonin production. Microsporidian lesions grossly resemble myxozoan (multnucleated forms that have enveloping primary cells which contain enveloped With telangiectasia with secondary cells, their spores have two parasitic xenomas. The polar capsules), ich (White spot parasite invades through disease caused by Ichthyphthirius enterocytes and merogeny multifilis, trophonts are large with occurs , then sporogeny uniform layer of external cilia and occurs and xenomas form: horse-shoe shaped macronucleus), Spores are 7 um or less, egg lymphocystis (Piscine iridovirus which shaped, with a posterior infects dermal fibroblasts and inhibits vacuole. mitosis, producing tremendous cellular hypertrophy) and dermal metacercariae (Cellular hypertrophy), bacterial granulomas, and neoplasia. Ultrastructurally the crystals look like Charcot-leyden crystals; Biochemically theyt are composed of Ym-1 protein (Chitinase), also known as T-lymphocyte derived eosinophilic chemotactic factor

8

Salmon

Loma salmonae

Gill: Branchitis, necrotizing and proliferative, with mucus cell metaplasia and numerous protozoal cysts

3

9

Mouse

Acidophilic Macrophage Pneumonia

Lung: Pneumonia, acidophilic macrophage

Macrophages contain eosinophilic crystals

Pneumocystis murina

Granular eosinophilic extracellular material with Bronchopneumonia, suppurative minimal associated with intra-alveolar fungal inflammation. There are two organisms forms, Trophozoites and cysts containing sporozoites Colon: Serosal fibrosis with leiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis and mild neutrophil infiltration Gastric ulcers often accompany intraperitoneal injections of chloralhydrate There is focally extensive loss of smooth muscle that normally comprises the external longitudianl layer of the tunica muscularis. There is replacement by fibrous tissue. Inflammation is minimal

10

Rat

Chloral Hydrate peritonitis

11

Macaque

Cryptosporidium sp

Liver: Choledochitis, proliferative, SIV infected primatesInfection also causes epithelial chronic active, diffuse, with mucus cryptosporidium occurs in the hyperplasia in a variety of species, cell metaplasia, apical protozoa, small intestine, biliary and and villus blunting in others. This may and multifocal mild pancreatic tracts, conjunctiva be due in part to induction of cholangiohepatitis with bile duct and lung apoptosis hyperplasia distal ileum, small raised islands progressing to confluent nodular surface with hemorrhage and necrosis. Thickened epithelium results from expansion and elongation of the crypts and absence of goblet cells

12

Rabbit

Lawsonia intracellularis

Small intestine: Enteritis, proliferative, histiocytic and heterophilic

eimeria spp

Small intestine: intraepithelial protozoa Heart: Epicarditis and myocarditis, necrotizing and granulomatous with vasculitis and pigmented and non-pigmented fungi Aspergillus- 3-5 um wide hyphae with regular septate parallel walls and dichotomous acute angle branching Primary pathogenic fungi: Blastomyces, Histoplasmosis, Cryptococus, Coccidiomycosis

4

13

Dog

Aspergillus sp

Cladosporium bantianum

14

Mouse

Lymphoma

Thymus: Lymphoma

Hemangiosarcom a

Heart: Hemangiosarcoma

15

Dog

Omentum: Omentitis, Pyogranulomatous pyogranulomatous, sclerosing, omentitis marked, focally extensive, with (Gossypiboma) fibrillar foreign material (surgical sponge) Fever: IL-1 and TNF increase cyclooxygenase--> increased PGE2--> produce neurotransmitters that increase set-point temps

most cases of disseminated Pigmented hyphae, 2-6 um Aspergillosis occur in German wide, closely septate hypahe Shepherds. Opportunistic fungi: with non-parallel walls, non- Aspergillus, Zygomycetes(Mucorales: dichotomous branching, and Rhizopus, Absidia, Mucor/ occasional thick walled Entomophthorales: Basidiobolus, vesicular swellings Conidiobolus), Pythiosis, Phaeohyphomycosis p53 is ini nucleus, prevents proliferation of cells with DNA damage- causing repair or apoptosis. When DNA damage occurs p53 levels rapidly increase and cause transcription of p21 (CDK p53 deficient mice develop T inhibitor). This prevents lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, phosphorylation of Rb preventing entrance into the S fibrosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, teratoma, anaplastic sarcoma, phase of the cell cycle. If DNA damage is repaired p53 osteosarcoma, lung adenocarcinoma, hair matrix tumor, leiomyosarcoma activates mdm2 whose product binds to and downregulates p53. If DNA repair is unsuccessful p53 initiates apoptosis through Bax and IGF-BP3. IGF-BP3 binds ILGFreceptor and bax antagonizes bcl-2 Determiners of malignancy: Selef sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to inhibitory signals (TGFB and inhibitors of Cdkinases), evasion of apoptosis (inactivation of p53), defects in DNA repair, limitless reproductive potential (maintenance of telomere length), sustained angiogenesis (VEGF), escape from immunity and rejection, and the ability to invade and metastisize Anemia- non-regenerative = anemia of chronic disease (TNF, IL-1, IFNGossypium (cotton) and boma gamma)--> decreased response to (place of concealmenterythropoietin and decreased release swahili)= Gossypiboma of EPO, and impaired availability og iron into erythron Acute phase proteins- IL-6 --> C reactive protein and fibrinogen/ IL-1/TNF--> Serum amyloid A Leukocytosis- IL-1/ TNF --> accelerated release from bone marrow post-mitotic pool

16

Chicken

Newcastle Disease Virus (Rubulavirus)

NDV- rubulavirus (Paramyxoviridae). 5 Pathotypes- Viscerotropic velogenic--> Acute and lethal with hemorrhage in GI tract. Neurotropic velogenic--> Neurologic and respiratory. Conjunctiva: Conjunctivitis, acute, Mesogenic--> acute focal, moderate, with necrotizing respiratory sometimes lethal vasculitis in young chicks. Lentogenic -> Mild or inapparent respiratory infection. Asymptomatic-enteric form manifests chiefly as gut infections with lentogenic viruses. Paramyxovirus (Bovine PI-3, Sendai virus (PI-1), Human PI1, 3), Rubulavirus (Avian paramyxovirus-1(NDV), ParamyxoviridaeSimian virus-5, Mumps, hemagglutinin/Neuraminidase Human PI-2), Morbillivirus (HN) and fusion protein (F) (Canine Distemper virus, Rinderpest, Peste des petits ruminants, Dolphin morbillivirus, Phocine distemper, Measles) The spleen red pulp is expanded by large neoplastic round cells with scant Spleen: Sinusoidal large granular amounts of eosinophilic lymphocyte leukemia with lympoid cytoplasm and round to atrophy of white pulp indented nuclei. Cells were positive for CD3 and negative for CD79a and lysozyme

gross lesions of VVND = subcutaneous and periocular edema, hemorrhagic and catarrhal tracheitis, airsacculitis, necrohemorrhagic enteritis, yolk peritonitis/ Histo= necrotizing vasculitis, thrombosis, lymphoid depletion, necrosuppurative encephalomyelitis.

Pneumovirus (BRSV, Pneumonia virus of mice, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus, Human RSV)

5

17

Dog

Large granular lymphocyte leukemia

LGL are either cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ CD3+), or NK cells (CD3-). Cytotoxic granule proteins such as TIA-1, granzyme, and perforin are used as markers. In humans LGL is thought to arise from apoptosis dysregulation due to abnormalities in the Fas/FasL pathway. It is often associated with autoimmune disorders, Epstein BArr, T-cell lymphotropic virus

18

Goat

Large bacterial colonies: Liver: Abscesses, multifocal and YAAACCSS: Actinomyces, coalescing with myriad bacilli, and Actinobacillus, random portal hepatitis, Arcanobacterium Arcanobacterium, Clostridium, neutrophilic and plasmacytic eith pyogenes Corynebacterium, abundant eosinophilic spiculated Staphylococcus, material Streptococcus Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, necrotizing, hemorrhagic and neutrophilic, global, diffuse with neutrophilic and plasmacytic tubulointerstitial nephritis, numerous fibrin thrombi, and multifocal eosinophilic spiculated material Hepatic sinusoids were expanded by a fairly monomorphic population of round lymphoid cells, with tingible body macrophages.

The spiculated material is most consistent with Splendore-Hoeppli material, but could be amyloid.

19

Guinea pig

Cavian leukemia

Lung,Liver: Leukemia, lymphoblastic

Type C retrovirus particles found, but not a definitive cause. This is a transmissible (transplantable) neoplasm in ibred strains and hybrids. Guinea pig herpesvirus may also contribute to the disease.

20

Dog

Congenital Portosystemic shunt (Portal hypoplasia)

Calculi- Ammonium bi-urates, Liver: Portal arteriolar hyperplasia urates- Erythrocytic and venule hypoplasia, moderate microcystosis is common. with lymphangiectasia, Fasting and post-prandial bile hepatocellular atrophy and fatty acids, increased ALT change, periportal and bridging (increased injury) ALP is fibrosis and bile stasis inducible, indicator of cholestasis Transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum, dog ingests the Heart: Myocarditis and epicarditis, tick, sporozoites released from Histo: typical "onion skin cysts" within pyogranulomatous, multifocal, the tick oocysts penetrate the the muscle, meronts, and with numerous protozoal cysts intestine and go ti muscle via pyogranulomatous myositis and merozoites circulation where they undergo asexual reproduction. Small Intestine: Enteritis, subacute with villous blunting and fusion and few sporozoites Sporozoites are Sarcocystis, dogs are the definitive host Type II (antibody-mediated) Type IV (cell mediated) hypersensitivity- cell surface hypersensitivity- 2 mechanisms: antigens (HLA in transplants)CD8+ cytotoxicity, and CD4 TH1 Humoral rejection- in 2 formsdelayed hypersensitivty. Direct Hyperacute (preformed antibodies to donor HLA), and pathway- CD8+ TCR recognize HLA on MHC 1(donor self ag) on Donor Acute (not previously APC's or CD4+ cells recognize sensitized)- Hyperacute antigens on Donor APC MHC II and occurs immediately with circulating antibodies reacting acitvate macrophages. The Indirect pathway- Recipient APC's take on to graft endothelium--> donor Ag, and Expresson MHCII --> Thrombosis and vasculitis. CD4+--> Cell mediated and humoral Antibodies activate immunity (type II). compliment and, ADCC (CD8NK cells-Type IV))

6

21

Dog

Hepatozoon americanum

22

Macaque

Renal allograft rejection

Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, mesangioproliferative, global, diffuse, with lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis and arteritis with intimal fibromuscular proliferation

23

Dog

Heart: Myocarditis, lymphohistiocytic, multifocal, with Canine Parvovirusmyocyte degeneration and 2 necrosis and basophilic intranuclear inclusions Rhinitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, exudate in tympanic bullae, fibrinopurulent pleuritis, peritonitis, pericarditis, meningitis, localized bronchopneumonia

24

Rat

Streptococcus pneumonia

Lung: Bronchopneumonia, necrotizing, suppurative

DDX: Corynebacyerium, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Pasteurella

Midbrain: Meningoencephalitis, suppurative with bacterial diplococci Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (Arterivirus) Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia late term abortions, stillbirths and respiratory disease in virus replicates in alveolar younf pigs- related viruses macrophages and glial cells include Equine Arteritis Virus, and Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Bacteria: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (porcine enzootic pneumonia), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniaw (porcine Parsites: Metastrongylus apri, Ascaris pleuropneumonia), suum. Haemophilus parasuis (Glassers dz), Pasteurella multocids, Strep suis type II, Mycobacterium avium, bovis, and tuberculosis, Salmonella cholersuis and typhisuis. Tumorogenesis: Initiation-permanent DDX: metastatic uterine DNA mutations -non-lethal adenocarcinoma. VX2 (irreversible) induced by carcinoma was established environmental carcinogens or viruses from a carcinoma induced in a (targets include growth promotors, rabbit by the Shope tumor suppressor genes, and Papillomavirus- anaplastic apoptosis genes, DNA repair genes. carcinoma compoised of And Promotion- enhance the poorly differentiated proliferation of initiated cells, and may keratinocytes that do not predispose to further mutation- do not keratinize. affect DNA directly and are reversible Eight determinants of malignancy- self-sufficiency of growth signals, insensitivity to growth -inhibitory signals, evasion of apoptosis, defects in DNA repair, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, and evadeing the immune system. lesions include hepatic necrosis with suppuration, necrotizing enteritis in the distal ileum and cecum (excepot in Rabbit where the cecum and colon are targets, and necrotizing myocarditis) Lesions are most frequent in the pancreaticoduodenal artery and medium sized arteries of the mesentery, pancreas and testis. Histologically there is thickening of the tunica media and infiltration by monocytes (CD68+)and neutrophils. With Movats pentachrome the quantity of intimal proliferation and disruption of elastic laminae are noticeable.

7

25

Pig

Porcine pneumonia: viral- Swine Inlfuenza, PCV-2, Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus

26

Rabbit

VX2 Carcinoma

Stomach: Carcinoma with intravascular emboli

27

Horse

Clostridium piliforme

Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, random with intrahepatocytic bacilli

28

Monkey

Polyarteritis nodosa

Pancreas: Arteritis, histiocytic and lymphocytic, necrotizing with fibromuscular proliferation

In Rats- Sprague Dawley and Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat Strains, and in rats with late stage chronic nephropathy.

8

29

Ferret

Subendocardial myocardium exhibits degeneration and necrosis with fibrosis. Bases of papillary muscles and innre Dilative Heart, myocardium: Degeneration, third of the myocardium of the Cardiomyopathy necrosis with replacement fibrosis left ventricle are most severe. Mild diffuse infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells as well as neutrophils

Cause- idiopathic or associated with hyperadrenocorticism. HCM and valvular diseases are common in older ferrets.

30

Cat

Cytauxzoon felis

Brain, cerebrum, lung: Intramonocytic schizonts

31

Macaque

Islet cell tumor

Pancreas: Islet cell tumor (beta)

Alpha- glucagon

32

Sheep

Ovine adenovirus

Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, proliferative, subacute, diffuse, with epithelial and pneumocyte cytomegaly, syncytia and basophilic intranuclear inclusions

Aviadenovirus- FowlAV-1 (Inclusion body hepatitis in chickens), Fowl AV-4 (Hydropericardium syndrome chickens), GooseAV-1-3

9

33

Alligator

West Nile Virus (Flavivirus)

Colon: Colitis, histiocytic and heterophilic

Piroplasms may be found in erythrocytes in later stages or persistently infected cats. Apicomplexan in the family Anemia, iceterus, fevers, hemorrhage Theileriidae. The natural reservoir is the Bobcat. Ticks are ingested or the cat is innoculated by the tick Neuroendocrine pattern with basal nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm, mitotic index is Neoplastic cells release insulin low. IHC Chromogranin A, inappropriately leading to Insulin. EM-Numerous hypoglycemia and neuroglycopenic polymorphic granules siezures, weakness, dullness, and containing dense rectangular abnormal behavior crystalline core separated from the limiting membrane by a distinct halo (beta cells) delts- somatostatin, enterochromaffin cells- serotonin vasoactive intestinal peptide Mastadenovirus- CAV-1(ICH), CAV-2 (ICTB), EqAV-1,2 (Mild except in CID foals), BovAV-1,2,3,9,10 (Enzootic EM- virions in paracrystalline pneumonia), OvAV-1,2 (Mild resp, arrays; syncytia and enteric), GoatAV-1,2 (mild resp ent), Langahans cells are not PorAV-1,5 (Enteritis and typical. encephalitis), Guinea pigAV-1 (Pneumonitis), MouseAV-1,2 (Enteritis and encephalitis), SimianAV1-25, HumanAV -1-51 Siadenovirus- FrogAV-1, Atadenovirus- OvAV-7 (mild resp, TurkeyAV-3 (hemorrhagic ent), BovAV-4-8 (Enzootic pna), Black enteritis), PheasantAV-1 tail deer AV-1 (Pulm edema, (Marble spleen dz in hemorrhage, vasculitis), DuckAV-1 pheasants) (Egg Drop Syndrome chickens) Flavivirus- encephalitis in humans, birds, horse, other Gross lesions- Birds- meningeal mammals and reptiles. Dogs, hemorrhagem myocardial pale foci, Rabbits, guinea pigs, splenomegaly, intestinal mucosal hedgehogs and sheep do not hemorrhage, white foci in kidneys. develop encephalitis Histo- Birds- hemorrhage in cerebellar foli with degeneration and necrosis of the cerebellar molecular layer and purkinje cells. Lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis, necrotizing myocarditis, and enterocolitis

Horses- Neurotropism (brainstem). Polioencephalomyelitis

34

Chicken

Avian Brain: Encephalitis encephalomyelitis lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal EM- Virions in crystalline DDX: END (peripheral chromatolysis), virus with gliosis neuronal degeneration, arraye of 22-25 nm in purkinje WEE, Rickets, Encephalomalacia and (Picornaviridae- necrosis and pancreatic lymphoid cells riboflavin deficiency hepatovirus) infiltrates Picornavirus: Aphthovirus (FMD), Enterovirus (SVDV), Porcine enterovirus-1 {PolioencephalomyelitisAEV- Central chromatolysis teschen}, Avian enteroviruses {Avian and dense lymphocytic encephalomyelitis, hepatitis}, infiltrates in the muscle of the Coxsackievirus {Meningitis, proventriculus, ventriculus, myocarditis, poliomyelitis}, Rhinovirus myocardium and pancreas (Bovine and human), Hepatovirus (Simian hepatitis A, and Human Hepatitis A) CardiovirusEncephalomyocarditis virus (elephants swine), Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus AL: Plasma cells, Ig light Kidney: Amyloidosis, glomerular, chains (complete or Amyloidosis diffuse, global, and interstitial with fragments). Seen with multiple tubular proteinosis myeloma or other immunocyte dyscrasia Nephritis, interstitial, AB: Beta amyloid- Alzheimers, lymphoplasmacytic/ Pelvic vein cerebral plaques thrombosis with mineralization Prion diseases: Lung: Bronchopneumonia, histiocytic with many adult and larval metastrongyles, bronchiolar Pulmonary inflammation Didelphostrongylu mucus cell hyperplasia, associated with free larvae, s hayesi atelectasis, bronchiolar and not adults. alveolar smooth muscle hypertrophy Normal fetal bone Circumferential lamellar, (plexiform cortical simple primary osteonal, Normal appositional growth bone) plexiform, and saltatory Plexiform- multiple widely spaces lamina of periosteal woven bone. The spaces in between fill in with compact Primary Osteonal- anastomosing lamellar bone- In the Horse, vascular haversian canals compaction can form osteons surrounded by concentric lamellae (saltatory formation) with the forming Haversian systems orientation of the osteon and its vessels being perpendicular to the long axis of the bone Salmonellosis in birds: 2-3 weeks old/ Pullorum disease= S pullorum, and Fowl Bone: Osteomyelitis, Typhoid= S. gallinarum: granulomatous and heterophilic, Lesions are splenomegaly, multifocal, marked with medullary hepatomegaly, and caseous bone sequestrum, trabecular resorption, periosteal new bone material in yolk sacs, arthritis, pericarditis, hydropericardium. formation, and colones of The most common coccobacilli Salmonella from waterfowl is typhimurium

35

Dog

AA: from Serum Amyloid A, acute phase protein from liver, chronic inflammatory conditions, IAAP- Islet associated amyloid peptide- Pancreas- Type II diabetes

36

Opossum

Smooth muscle hyperplasia is prominent (reminiscent of cats with aleurostrongylus abstrusus)

10

37

Ox

Laminar- circumferential lamellae

In calves the compaction of the plexiform bone are oriented parallel with the convex surface of the bone without the formation of osteons

38

Heron

Salmonella typhimurium

Serotypes classified based on somatic (O), capsular (Vi), and flagellar (H) antigens

Cholerasuis-Septicemia, typhimurium- fibrinonecrotic button ulcers/ Dublin-fibrinous Tendons: Tenosynovitis, chronic cholecystitis in Ox and Sheep/ enterocolitis in pigs, horse, ruminants/ active, proliferative septicemia in foals and calves, lambs Enteritidis- enterocolitis in sheep and primates, rodents Calcium deficient- disorganization and Long bone- failure of Rickets: Birds- Calcium, thickening of physis with small zone endochondral ossification and phosphorus, Vit D deficiency/ of hypertrophy. Bone marrow often retained cartilaginous cores with as well as excess calcium and has fibrous tissue and osteoclasts are increased osteoid seams/ fracture phosphorus abundant. Parathyroid gland w/ callus hyperplasia Phosphorus deficiency- Large zone of hypertrophy with defective mineralization of Vitamin D rickets- lengthening and hypertrophic cartilage and disorganization of the proliferating wide unmineralized osteoid zone and variable lenghtening and seams extending into the dysplasia of the mineralizing zone. primary spongiosa. The primary spongiosa is short thick Osteoclasts are reduced, ands cartilgae columns. Parathyroid gland osteoblasts are increased. hyperplasia. Often parathyroid gland atrophy. Domestic animal rickets- Vit D Thickening of physis, disorganization, or Phosphorus deficiency, failure of mineralization of the chronic renal disease, or cartilage and osteoid. fluorosis Pathogenesis: Rheumatoid factors (IgG, IgM), are produced in response to unknown stimulus. Immune complexes form with unknown Paw, bones and joints: antigens, ingested by neutrophils that Collagen Induced Arthritis and Polyarthritis and osteomyelitis release lysosomal enzymes which Adjuvant Induced Arthritis= with cartilage erosion, destroy articular cartilage and reduce Models mimicking subchondral pannus, cortical proteoglycan production. Loss of Rheumatois Arthritis resorption, periosteal fibroplasia, proteoglycans increases mechanical reactive bone formation trauma to cartilage, dying chondrocytes activate MMP's (gelatinases, collagenases) result in digestion of the cartilage. Non-erosive- SLE, Type III hypersensitivy from pyometra, otitis externa. Also have synovitis and glomerulonephritis. There is minimal villous hypertrohpy and pannus formation, no atricular cartilage destruction even though there are neutrophils in the synovial fluid. Cats- large bowel diarrhea and ulceration of the colon. Same organism that causes reproductive failure in cattle

39

Heron

Rickets

40

Mouse

Polyarthritis, osteomyelitis (Rheumatoid arthritis)

Erosive arthritis- Rhematoid, bacterial

11

41

Cat

Tritrichomonas fetus

Cecum: Typhlitis, necrotizing, histiocytic, neutrophhilic, and lymphoplasmacytic, transmural, with granulation tissue and myriad protozoa

Tritrichomonas foetus- 3 anterior flagella, 1 posterior flagellum, an undulating membrane, and single nucleus, stout axostyle, and stout costa. Bovine- genital trichomoniasis-> balanoposthitis, purulent. Vaginitis, endometritis, cervicitis, abortion, pyometra, placentitis-white to yellow flocculent exudate, placental thickening, and hemorrhagic cotyledons Variant of polypoid cystitis in which eosinophils are the predominant component. -hyperplastic, ulcerated transitional epithelium, a nodule of fibrous connective tissue confined to the propria/submucosa, vascularity, eosinophils, granulopoiesis, cystitis glandularis and Brunns nest Primary copper toxicosisinherited metabolic disorder. Secondary copper toxicosis results from an underlying pathologic process that leads to an abnormally high intake, increased absorption, or reduced excretion of copper

42

Dog

Polypoid eosinophilic cystitis

Urinary bladder: Polypoid cystitis, eosinophilic

Synonyms: fibroma, fibrous polyp, eosinophilic cystitis, polypoid eosinophilic cystitis, cystitis with fibroplasia, and mesenchymal tumor with inflammation.

43

Ferret

Copper toxicosis

Liver: Cirrhosis- Multifocal necrosis, nodular regeneration, fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia, canalicular cholestasis, lipidosis, EMH, and eosinophilic refractile hepatocellular cytoplasmic granules

Dietary copper- Absorbed from the proximal SI via carrier mediated transport. Bound to metallothioneins in intestinal epithelium. To portal circulation bound to albumin and other proteins -->liver and some to kidney. In liver copper is used or excreted. ATP7B is needed for incorporation into ceruloplasmin and biliary excretion.

Copper storage diseaseSecondary Copper toxicosis- copper Wilsons dz in humans (liver, retention secondary to cirrhosis in cornea, brain- deficiency in humans, chronic active hapatitis in ATP7B, a copper transporting Doberman pinschers- copper ATPase), Long Evans accumulates in portal areas. Skye Cinnamon rats (LEC) and terrier hepatitis- intracanalicular Toxic Milk Mice (animal cholestasis with copper accumulation, models of Wilsons dz), hepatocellular degeneration and Bedlington Terriers (MURR1 cirrhosis (centrilobular accumulation) gene), Unknown in WHWT Eccrine carcinoma (atrichial)independent of the hair follicle. Ducts open directly onto the epithelium in merocrine type or other type of secretion. Found in glabrous skin (footpads) , frog, carpus of pigs, nasolabial region of ruminants. Paraquat- herbicide- Alveolar capillary endothelium is spared, toxic to type 1 and 2 pneumocytes. Toxin is actively taken in by cells, and causes cyclic oxidation-reduction generating large amounts of free radicals including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals. apocrine glands- epitrichial or paratrichial- Differentiation of eccrine carcinoma from apocrine acrcinomaEccrine- secretory coil- single layer, and ductular segment- 2 layers of nonsecretory cells. Carcinoembryonic antigen is present in both the ductular and secretory portions in eccrine carcinoma.

44

Dog

Adenocarcinoma

Foot Pad- Adenocarcinoma

12

45

Dog

Paraquat toxicity

Lung: Interstitial pneumonia, hemorrhagic with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and interstitial fibrosis

Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial lymphoplasmacytic with glomerular sclerosis Cattle hepatotoxins- BlueLiver: Hepatocellular degeneration green algae, Cestrum spp and necrosis, centrilobular and (atractylosides) (C diurnum midzonal causes calcinosis), cocklebur, poison peach, sawfly larvae kidney: Tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration with interstitial fibrosis and mineralization with crystals Oxalates- Fungi, ethylene glycol metabolites, Halogeton, Sarcobatus, Rheum, Oxalis, Rumex:: Chronic hepatotoxins- aflatoxins, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, sporidesmin, lantana, nitrosamines, Oxalates- Alizarin Red S (+ red at 7.0 but neg at 4.2), Insoluble with 2M acetic acid// CaPo4, CaCo3 both + with Alizarin red at 4.2 and 7.0 and soluble with acetic acid

46

Ox

Cestrum sp toxicity

47

Dog

Oxalosis/ melamine cyanuric acid

(ethylene glycol--> glycoaldehyde--> glycoxylate -- Melamine/cyanurate- Oil Red O + at 72 hrs, Alizarin Red Negative at 4.2, :> oxalate, glycine, and Von Kossa Negative, IR spectroscopy formate). As water is different. reabsorbed from renal tubules calcium oxalate precipitates Bracken fern associated squamous cell carcinoma 1) Acute high dose Bracken 2) Chronic low dose toxicity: fern: Bone marrow aplasia, Intermittent hematuria-enzootic Rumen: Squamous cell carcinoma thrombocytopenia, hematuria and is related to neoplasi neutropenia 3) Squamous cell carcinoma Other Bracken fern diseases- Bright of the upper GI tract- base of blindness in horses and pigs, the tongue, esophagus, cardia Thiamine deficiency and rumen BPV-1: UB tumors, BPV-4: Upper GI tumors, benign and malignant with Quercetin synergism

48

Ox

13

49

Rabbit

Cell mechanisms of Ultrastructure of acute doxorubicin anthracyclines- vasoactive, toxicity- numerous vacuoles, Heart: Myocardial vacuolar cytotoxic effects of local free mitochondria (onion ring shaped Adriomycin toxicity degeneration, necrosis, and loss radicals, inhibition of nucleic cristae), swollen sarcoplasmic with multifocal fibrosis acid synthesis and protein reticulum, myofibrillar loss, separation synthesis, disturbed calcium of intercalated discs. metabolism in cardiomyocytes Plants- Cardiac glycosides, Lantana camara, Gossypol, Cassia occidentalis, Hairy vetch, Calcinogenic plants, Vitamin E selenium deficiency, cantharadin

Bone Marrow: Hypocellularity

Ionophores- Monensin, Lasalocid

Testes: Degeneration and atrophy Infectious canine hepatitis (Canine Adenovirus -1) Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, centrilobular with intranuclear inclusion bodies Tropism for endothelium, Recovering dogs will develop an mesothelium, hepatocytes, immune complex uveitis (Type III) macrophages; Gall bladder resulting in unilateral or bilateral edema corneal adema Trypanosoma theileriPhylum Sarcomastigophora-> class Zoomastigophorrea- 30-35um protozoa with tapering ends, -> order Kinetoplastida -undulating membrane with a > family flagellum, central nucleus and large Trypanomastidae --> marginal kinetoplast genus trypanosoma--> subgenus megatrypanum

50

dog

51

Ox

Trypanosoma theileri

Peripheral blood smear: Trypomastigotes and relative lymphocytosis

Bovine leukemia virus 52 Dog Transitional cell carcinoma

Experimental infection with BLV, expansion of CD5+ and IgM + B lymphocytes Urinary bladder: Transitional cell carcinoma, papillary and infiltrating Bone, metaphysis: Osteomyelitis and periostitis, plasmacytic and histiocytic with reactive bone formation, periosteal fibroplasia and myriad intrahistiocytic amastigotes Clinical manifestation of Visceral leishmaniasis--> amastigotes are 2-4um round to oval chronic, cachexia, cutaneous with clear cytoplasm and a kinetoplast lesions, hepatomegaly, perpendicular to the nucleus. The splenomegaly, kinetoplast is a specialized lymphadenopathy, joint mitochondia. lesions Leishmania infantumFoxhounds in US: Th1--> IFNy --> activates Macrophages and kills parasites. Th2 --> IL4, IL-10 and IL-13 which inhibit the activation of macrophages and stimulate immunoglobin production which may result in immune complex deposition

14

53

Dog

Leishmania spp

DDX: Histoplasma capsulatum, Sporothrix schenckii, Trypanosoma cruzi (in muscle/parallel kinetoplast), Toxoplasma gondii

54

Foal

55

Dog

Also causes ulcerative enteritis. There are virulent and avirulent strains. Virulent Rhodococcus equi Lung: Bronchopneumonia, strains have VAP (virulence Lymphadenitis in swine, sheep, cattle, (gram Pos pyogranulomatous, multifocal, associated plasmid). llamas, and cats facultative severe, with myriad intrahistiocytic Pyogranulomatous intracellular) coccobacilli pneumonia often appears with abscessation, lymphadenitis, and less commonly osteomyelitis. DM1 (type 1- loss of Chloride channel from membrane surface due to improper Skeletal muscle: Myocyte Cardiac conduction abnormalities, splicing, leading to degeneration and necrosis, hyperexcitabliity), and DM2 cataracts, diabetes, testicular failure, multifocal, moderate, with Muscular and hypogammaglobulinemia; Goat (proximal myotonic regeneration, variation in fiber dystrophy myotonia- chloride channel reduced myopathy), central nuclei, size, satellite cell proliferation, and conductance and hyperexcitabliity angular atrophic fibers, endomysial fibrosis hypertrophic fibers, necrotic fibers, fibrosis, and deposition of adipose tissue. CIC-1 (chloride channel- fainting goat, miniature schnauzer);; X-linked Duchenne MD (Dystrophin defectdystrophin connects the contractile proteins to the ECM);; Felines have duchenne with muscular hypertrophy

Muscular dystrophies-(X-linked, autosomal MD, and myotonic dystrophy)

Myotonia- sustained involuntary contraction of a group of muscles

56

Ox

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Pestivirus)

Rumen: Rumenitis, erosive, multifocal, subacute, with singel cell necrosis, and hydropic degeneration of epithelial cells

Acute BVD Diarrhea: NCP in immunocompetent 6 months to 2 years; Before 100-125 days (immunotolerance and PI); After 150-200 days (Immunocompetent, have antibodies, unthrifty)

CP Transplacental infectionsBetween 50-100 days (death abortion), Between 100-150 (congenital defects)

DDX: Rinderpest (Morbillivirus)Intranuclear/intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, syncytia; Malignant Persistent infections: NCP in utero catarrhal fever (Herpesviridae-alpha) (before 125 days) --> conjunctivitis with corneal edema, immunotolerance--> CP infection/ Chronic MD--> alopecia and lymphoblastic necrotizing vasculitis; mutation in NCP --> erosions of hyperkeratosis (neck), chronic IBR BHV-1, alpha-epithelial necrosis oral and nasal mucosa. erosive lesions in mouth and and INIB; ORAL LESIONS only- FMD Esophagus, rumen, abomasum, skin, hooves, and horns. (Picornaviridae-aphthovirus), VS omasum, cecum, colon, (Rhabdoviridae, Vesiculovirus), interdigital cleft Bluetongue (Reoviridae-Orbivirus); Bovine Papular stomatitis (Parapoxvirus); NecrobacillosisNeospora- Tachyzoites, tissue cysts, and oocysts. Tachyzoites are 6 x 2 Brainstem and cerebrum: um, cysts are oval upt o 107 um Meningoencephalitis, IHC negative for Toxoplasma. (CNS), Tissue cysts have thick 4um lymphoplasmacytic and N caninum does not develop wall and enclose 8 x 2 um eosinophilic, multifocal, moderate within a parasitophorus Bradyzoites, Dogs shed unsporulated with protozoal cysts and vacuole (Toxoplasma does), oocysts, and once outside sporulate. tachyzoites Ingested sporocysts spread to many tissues and encyst as bradyzoites in tissue cysts Haired skin: dermatitis, proliferative, lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic with hyperkeratosis, intracorneal pustules, epidermal intracellular edema, and epidermal intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies

15

57

Dog

Neospora caninum

58

Goat

Contagious ecthyma (Ovine parapoxvirus)

comparative: Bovine parapoxvirus Sheep and goats, transmitted (Bovine papular stomatitis- mouth through fomites, zoonotic, and esophagus, and pseudocowpoxoral, teat and eyelids, and feet teats and milkers nodules).

59

Dog

Fucosidosis

canine fucosidosis is a lysosomal storage disease affecting English Springer Spaniels. Mutation (frameshift) of canine Ganglion: Vacuolar change, fucosidase gene. The enzyme neuronal, with multifocal is present normally in plasma, lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis leukocytes, and other tissues, resulting in defective degradation o fwater soluble glycoproteins, containing fucose. Lysosomal enzymes (acid hydrolases) are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and then uniquely processed in the golgi apparatus --> modification (address labelterminal mannose-6phosphate) --> bind to inner golgi membrane --> segregate to lysosomes Disease Type 2- Pompe Disease GM1 gangliosidosis GM2 gangliosidosis Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease Variant AB Hexosaminidase-alpha subunit Hexosaminidase-beta subunit Ganglioside activator protein Arylsulfatase A Galactosylceramidase Glucocerebrosidase Sphingomyelinase alpha-L-iduronidase L-iduronosulfate sulfatase Deficiency of phosphorylating enzymes essential for the formation of mannose-6-phosphate recognistion marker Alpha-fucosidase alpha-mannosidase beta-mannosidase Enzyme Deficiency alpha-1,4 glucosidase GM1 ganglioside Bgalactosidase

Males may be infertile, onset of 6 months, and is progressice, individuals don¶t survive beyond 4 years. Vacuoles are large single and displace the Nissle substance. Some are empty and contain fine floccular material.

Lysosomal storage diseases results in accumulation of partially degraded insoluble metabolites.

Storage Diseases Glycogenosis Sphingolipidoses

Accumulating Metabolites Glycogen GM1 ganglioside, Galactosecontaining oligosaccharides GM2 ganglioside GM2 ganglioside, globoside BM2 ganglioside Sulfatide Galactocerebroside Glucocerebroside Sphingomyelin Dermatan sulfate, heparin sulfate

Sulfatidoses

Metachromatic leukodystrophy Krabbe disease (Globoid cell leukodystrophy) Gaucher disease Miemann-pick disease

Mucopolysaccha ridoses (MPS)

MPH I H (Hurler) MPH II (Hunter)

Mucolipidoses (ML) Other diseases of complex Carbohydrates

I-cell disease (ML II)

Mucopolysaccharide, glycolipid

Fucosidosis Mannosidosis

Fucose-containing sphingolipids and glycoprotein fragments mannose-containing oligosaccharides mannose-containing oligosaccharides Cholesterol esters, triglycerides unknown

Other Lysosomal Storage Disease

Wolman disease Neuronal Ceroid-lipofuscinosis

Acid lipase Unknown ddx: Xanthomatous meningioma- mesoderm and neural crest contribute to the formation of the meninges. Most are meningothelial or psammomatous and many have cholesterol depostis. The xanthomatous change is often the result of lipid accumulation in meningeal cells, rather than by infiltration by macrophages (lipid laden). Meningioma cells positive with S100, PAS, and cytokeratin

60

Cat

Cholesterol granuloma

Brain, cerebrum, and meninges: Cholesterol granuloma

AFIP interpreted the lesion in the submitted sections as cholesterol granuloma

16

61

Macaque

Endometriosis

ddx: 1) Adenocarcinomacotton top tamarin-colitis --> adenocarcinoma, 2) Retroperitoneal fibromatosisyoung animals, aggressive proliferation of highly vascular fibrous connective tissue, ileocecal junction, associated with Gammaherpesvirus (RFHV) and Oncovirus Simian Type D retrovirus (SRV-2) Colon; mesentery: Endometriosis which induces both retroperitoneal fibromatosis and SAIDS- histologically there are proliferating fibroblasts arranged in ill defined bundles with occasionally interweaving patterns within a disorganized matrix of collagen and reticulum fibers.

Speculations on pathogenesis: 1) Regurgitation theory- retrograde menstruation or reflux of endometrial tissue through fallopian tubes, with subsequent implantation and proliferation of viable endometrial fragments in abdomen; 2) Metaplastic theory- Endometrial tissue arises directly from coelomic epithelium; 3) Vascular or lymphatic dissemination theory- explains presence of lesions in the lungs and lymph nodes

Secondary: strictures causing weight loss, resulting from chronic hemorrhage and menstruation of the ectopic endometrium, with abdominal adhesions.

Endometriosis- normal endometrial glands and stroma occur in abnormal locations outside the uterine cavity. (choristoma)

Most commonly in the pelvic Microscopic lesions- variably sized cavity, grossly lesions are foci of normal uterine glands soft, red to brown or white surrounded by typical endometrial tissue adherent to the serosa stroma, scattered bands of fibrous of the pelvic organs. tissue. Require 2 of 3 to be present: Common sites include 1) endometrial glands, 2) endometrial ovaries, uterine tubes, urinary stroma, 3) hemosiderin pigment bladder, the bowels.

62

Donkey

Besnoitia sp (besnoitia benneti)

Haired skin: Dermatitis, chronic active and eosinophilic with moderate intradermal protozoal cysts

Dermis- 0.5 to 1 mm diameter protozoal cysts within greatly distended and flattened fibroblasts (Vim +, SMA -), cysts have 25um thick hyaline internal capsule and are engorged by hundreds of fusiform bradyzoites, 8-9 um long and 1-2 um wide. There are variable numbers of macrophages around the intact cysts and larger numbers of macrophages mixed with lymphocytes and lesser numbers of plasma cells surrounded by ruptures cysts

Moderate perivascular interstitial lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells and eosinophils.- Speculated transmitted by biting insects

Sarcocystidae- Toxoplasma, Sarcocystis, Neospora, Hammondia, Cystisospora, Frenkelia, Atoxoplasma, Besnoitia Pathogenesis: M cell invasion/ attachment to mucosal epithelial cells-> phagocytosis --> hemolysin --> release of organism into cytoplasm -Shigella- gram negative, non> migrate along actin filaments// motile, aerobic, facultative Shiga toxin release during host cell anaerobic bacilli in lysis--> stops host cell protein Enterobacteriaciae. Nonsynthesis (inactivate the 60S enteric Shigella infectionsribosomal subunit- similar to Ricin gingivitis, air sacculitis, and toxin). Toxins can also induce abortion apoptosis, LPS mediated release of IL1, TNF a, leading to vascular damage leasing to renal failure (Hemolytic uremic syndrome) Fubgal hyphae are 2-4 um, septate, non-parallel, acute and dichotomous branching, and yeastlike swellings Rhipicephalus sanguineous--> E canis --> monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils-> endothelial invasion --> vasculitis--> chronic infection -> pancytopenia, plasma cells within bone marrow/ Other conditions: Perivascular plasma cells, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, interstitial pneumonia, glomerulonephritis

63

African Green Monkey

Shigella spflexneri, dysenteriae, boydii, sonnei

Colon: colitis, necrotizing, subacute with fibrinohemorrhagic pseudomembrane

64

Dog

Ochroconis Kidney and liver: gallopavaPyogranulomatous nephritis and phaeohyphomycos hepatitis with necrosis, and is vasculitis and dematiaceous fungi

65

Ehrlichia canis

Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, membranous, global with multifcoal plasmacytic interstitial nephritis

German Shepherd--> severe hemorrhagic disorder

17

66

Elephant

67

Bison

68

Pig

Group Cestode Trematode Acanthocephalan Nematode Arthropod Pentastomes Nematodes

Pericardial effusion with widespread petechia and Elephant Liver: Hepatocellular ecchymoses, Endotheliotropic degeneratrion and necrosis, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates herpesvirus centrilobular, diffuse, with throughout the heart and (Elephant endothelial cell eosinophilic tongue. Amphophilic to Herpesvirus- 1,3) intrnuclear inclusion bodies basophilic intranuclear inclusions in endothelial capillaries Endotheliotropic viruses--> Equine Viral Ateritis Virus, Equine Hendra Virus, Equine Orbivirus (AHS), Cervid orbivirus (EHD), Ovine Orbivirus (Bluetongue), Hamster parvovirus, Rat parvovirus (Kilham rat virus), Canine adenovirus type 1 (infectious canine hepatitis), Porcine adenovirus, bovine adenovirus, and adenovirus of deer Sarcoma Skeletal muscle, heart, kidney: Vimentin, Desmin, Actin, (Rhabdomyosarco Sarcoma (rhabdomyosarcoma) in Myoglobin, PTAH, = Striated ma) a bison muscle Eggs ingested --> L2 intestine-Pancreas: Pancreatitis, > hepatic portal system --> L3 neutrophilic and eosinophilic with molt --> Lung and molt to L4 -vasculitis, fibrinous peritonitis, > swallowed and develop into Ascaris suum necrotizing steatitis, focal mural adults. Milk spots from duodenitis, pancreativ duct migration of L3 through liver. ectasia. Ulceration, intrluminal Stongylus equinus (horse) --> adult ascarid. diabetes Body cavity GI tract Striated muscle --+ + + + Aphasmids

ddx: Encephaloomyocarditis virus, orbivirus, salmonellosis, vitamin E deficiency, other bacterial septicemia

Coelomyarian, uninucleate intestinal epithelium, thick shelled eggs in coelom

Phasmids

Special features Calcareous corpuscles, scolex, --tegument Suckers, tegument, blind ceca, yolk + -gland, hermaphroditic Hypodermis, lemniscus, two muscle --layers, proboscis cuticle, musculature + -Chitinized exoskeleton, jointed + + appendages, tracheal tubes Chitinized exoskeleton, digestive + + glands, sclerotized openings Hypodermal bands (with associated nuclei), Single Genital tract; esophageal glands that form a stichosome; No lateral chords Holomyarian musculature, Tichuris bipolar plugged eggs hypodermal bacillary bands, Eustrongyloides operculated eggs Dioctophyma operculated eggs At least 2 reproductive tracts; Lateral chords Rhabditoids and Oxyurids rhabditoid esophagus with corpus isthmus and bulb Strongyloides Platymyarian muscles; uninucleate intestinal cells paired genital tract, uninucleate eggs, most embryonated; Females only in disease In lung of host, Intestines have black/yellow pigment, lateral chords are vacuolated, females contain developing larvae in uteri

Rhabdias

Pelodera Halicephalobus

Strongyles

Single reproductive tract Thin cuticle, lateral alae in most; Oxyuris thick shelled oblong eggs cuticle, occasionally ridged, intestine composed of a few Platymyarian, chitinized buccal cavty, thick smooth cuticle, eggs True Stongyles thin shelled with orula (syngamus have thick shells) Platymyarian, Thin cuticle, Longitudinal ridges in cuticle, eggs are thin shelled and contain a morula Coelomyarian, smooth external cuticle, accessory hypodermal chords, L1 in tissue of host; thick shelled eggs

Trichostrongyles

Metastrongyles

Spirurids

all adult females produce Coelomyarian, Eosinophilic fluid in thick shelled (except draschia pseudocoelom; cuticle with spines, and thelazia), embyonated plaques or ridges eggs small and produce distinctive larvae called microfilariae or thick shelled embryonated eggs in utero Lateral alae, Coelomyarian, Larval lateral chords may fill the pseudocoelom, eggs with uninucleate zygote Muscles like doughnuts, proboscis with hooks eggas have 3 layered shells Coelomyarian; cuticular ridges, lateral internal ridges; lateral chords are small replaced by hypodermal tissue (blocky lateral chords), very small intestine

Filarids

Ascarids Thick Body wall with channel system

Acanthocephala

pseudocoelom, no GI tract

69

Deer

Yersinia pestis

Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing, suppurative with vasculitis and large bacterial colonies Kidney: Nephritis, necrotizing, suppurative, with vasculitis and large bacterial colonies

vasculitis not explained

3 clinical manifestations: often a continuum from bubonic (lymphadenomegaly), pneumonic (from inhalation), septicemic

18

70

Dog

Superficial necrolytic dermatitis

Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, lymphoplasmacytic with mineralization Superfiical necrolytic dermatitis (hepatocutaneous Paraneoplastic syndrome, occurrring Skin, footpad: Superficial syndrome): Skinlesions- basal with glucgon secreting tumors, or dermatitis with basal epidermial hyperplasia, epidermal pallor, more commonly hepatopathy. Dogs hyperplasia, epidermal pallor, and and parakeratotic are hyperglycemic and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis hyperkeratosis, and severe hypoaminoacidemic liver disease Liver: Severe lobular collapse with nodular regeneration, vacuolar hepatopathy, mild portal fibrosis, and bile duct proliferation, and marked canalicular bile stasis

71

Horse

Haired skin: Hyperplasia, epidermal, focal, marked with Equine molluscum large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic contagiosum inclusion bodies (molluscum (Molluscipoxvirus) bodies)

Mulloscipoxvirus (equivalent or related to human Molluscum Contagiosum virus). Intracellular 1-2 um organinsms in fibroblasts, follicular and epidermal keratinocytes, sebocytes, apocrine ductular epithelium, endothelium, macrophages, adipocytes, myocytes and erector pili muscles Inclusions found in several cell types, epithelial and mesenchymal, and macrophages Major hosts Humans Numerous: Humans, cattle, buffalo, swine, rabbits Numerous: Cattle, humans, rats, cats, gerbils, large felids, elephants, rhinoceros, okapi Geographic Distribution Eradicated globally worldwide Neospora reacts with T gondii antibodies (weakly), but they differ ultrastructurally. A toxoplasma like organism forms schizont-like organisms with a residual body, and rhoptries are several and electron dense

72

Dog

Toxoplasma gondii

Haired skin and subcutis: Dermatitis and vasculitis, necrotizing, with intra- and extracellular tachyzoites

73

Sheep

Sheep pox virus

Genus Orthopoxvirus

Haired skin: Dermatitis, hyperplastic, with epidermal and follicular keratinocyte ballooning degeneration with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions and sheeppox cells Virus Variola virus (smallpox) Vaccinia virus

Cowpox

Europe, asia

Capripoxvirus

Suipoxvirus Leporipoxvirus

Molluscipoxvirus Yatapoxvirus Avipoxvirus Parapoxvirus

Cervidpoxvirus BRSV (Paramyxoviridae, pneumovirinae)

19

74

Calf

75

Ox

Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni)

Camels Asia, Africa Mice, voles Europe, asia Numerous: Squirrels, Monkeypox Western and central america monkey, anteaters, great apes, humans Horses- Neurotropism Uasin Gushi Disease Virus Eastern Africa (brainstem). Polioencephalomyelitis Tatera poxvirus Gerbils Western Africa Raccoon poxvirus Raccoons North America Vole poxvirus Voles California Seal poxvirus Grey seals North Sea Sheeppox virus Sheep, goats Africa, Asia Goatpox virus Goats, sheep Africa, asia Lumpy skin disease virus Cattle, Cape Buffalo Africa Swinepox virus Swine Worldwide Rabbits (Orytolagus, and Myxoma virus Americas, Europe, Australia Sylvilagus) Rabbit (shope) fibroma virus Rabbits (Oryctolagus and Americas, Europe, Australia (Fibromatosis) Sylvilagus) Gray Squirrels, and Squirrel Fibroma Eastern US woodchucks Hare fibroma European hares Europe Humans, horses, Molluscum contagiosum virus Worldwide Chimpanzees, kangaroos Yabapox virus Monkeys, humans West Africa Tanapox virus Monkey, Humans West Africa Fowlpoxvirus Chickens, turkerys, others Worldwide Ovine Parapoxvirus (contagious sheep, goats, humans worldwide ecthyma) (ORF) Pseudocowpox Cattle, humans worldwide Bovine Papular stomatitis Cattle, humans worldwide (Bovine parapoxvirus) Auzdyk virus Camels Africa, Asia Seal parapoxvirus seals, humans Deerpox Ungulates NA Lung: Pneumonia, Also, bronchitis and bronchointerstitial, acute, peribronchitis, viral antigen is virus lacks neuraminidase, attach via multifocal, moderate, necrotizing found in respiratory membrane glycoprotein G bronchitis and bronchiolitis, with epithelium, and type 1 and 2 syncytia, and intracytoplasmic pneumocytes and sometimes eosinophilic inclusion bodies macrophages Heart: Myocarditis and epicarditis, suppurative, perivascular and ddx: Salmomnella, E coli, vasculitis is a hallmark, but random with vasculitis, thrombi, Erysipelothrix, Clostridium pathogenesis in poorly understood myocardial degeneration and Chauvoei necrosis, and colonies of coccobacilli life cycle: unsporulated oocysts are shed in feces and sporulate in the environment. Ingestion of sporulated oocysts leads to sporozoite Colon: Colitis, lymphoplasmacytic excystation, and invasion of and eosinophilic, diffuse, epithelial cells, forming moderate with crypt loss, trophozoites, and undergo regenerative hyperplasia and asexual multiplication ectasia and myriad intracellular (schizogony, merogony). coccidia Merozoites are released and infect other epithelial cells forming gamonts (micro and macrogamonts with gametes inside). Animal Cattle Coccidia E. bovis E ahsata E. bauensis E ovinoidalis E. christenseni E. arloingi E. ninakohlyakimovae E. leukarti I. suis I. canis I. felis Organ affected 1st gen schizont- Jejunum 2nd Gen schizont- Cecum and colon Small Intestine Small Intestine Ileum/Large intestine Small Intestine Small Intestine Large intestine Small Intestine Small Intestine ileum, colon occasionally small intestine, colon occasionally Colon Bile ducts ileum and cecum ileum and cecum Duodenum Mid intestine Mid intestine Ceca ceca mid intestine colon,rectum kidney Mid-intestine 3 distinct syndromes: Systemic (septicemic), Encephalitis, and abortion

Camelpox virus Ectromelia (Mousepox)

76

Ox

Eimeria zuernii and ellipsoidalis

Sheep

Goats Equine Swine Canine Feline Mice

77

Calf

Listeria monocytogenes

E. falciformis E. steidae Rabbit E. intestinalis E. flavescens E. acervulina E necatrix Chickens E maxima E tenella E adenoeides Turkey E meleagrimitis E gallopavonis E truncata Geese & ducks E anseris gram Pos rod intracellular Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute, bacterium. This calf also had random, severe with myriad bacilli BVDV infection. Brain, cerebellum: Purkinje and granular cell degeneration and loss (cerebellar cortical abiotrophy), with wallerian degeneration in the folia of the white matter and mild gliosis of cerebellar nuclei 1. leptomeninges, spinal: fibroplasia with vascular hyalinization, and multifocal arachnoid cell proliferation 2. Dura, spinal: Osseous metaplasia, focal 3. Spinal cord, ventral funiculi: Axonal degeneration and loss, mild, with dilated myelin sheaths, axonophagia, and rare spheroids

20

78

Horse

Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy

Neither folial dysplasia nor neuronal heterotopia occurs in dogs, cattle, sheep, Yorskshire pigs, cerebellar cortical Arabian horses, Gotland ponies. Kerry abiotrophies. Purkinje cells blue terriers are unique in that the are affected first, followed by caudate nucleus and substantia nigra redeuction in granular cell are also affected. layer. Proliferation of astroglia with gliosis of molecular layer

79

Dog

Leptomeningeal proliferation, dural ossification

synonym: ossifying pachymeningitis

80

Goat

Not only degeneration but copper deficiency: Congenital ectopia with moderate (swayback) Gross- small liquefactive numbers of Purkinje cells in Cerebellar cortical Brain, cerebellum: Purkinje and necrosis or gelatinous areas. the molecular layer. This abiotrophy granule cell degeneration and Microscopically- white matter indicates this disease began (Copper loss, with Purkinje cell ectopia and destruction and central chromatolysis in-utero when the Purkinje deficiency) molecular gliosis in the red and vestibular nuclei. cells were still migrating from Demyelination of the motor tracts of the germial layer adjacent to the spinal cord. the 4th ventricle Acquired (enzootic ataxia): lesions limited to large neurons of the brain Brainstem, medulla, spinal cord, Secondary copper deficiency- and spinal cord, but may have well and ventral column: Neuronal Molybdenum, sulfur, and iron defined lesions in the cerebellum, degeneration (central can interfere with copper including patchy cerebellar chromatolysis) with gliosis utilization hypoplasia, necrosis and Purkinje cell loss and depletion of the granular cell layer. Spina bifida is a form of rachischisis/cleft vertebral canal. Dysraphism is a failure of a fusion of a raphe- general a neural tube fusion disorder (spinal cord). Most cases of spina bifida have a closed neural tube. Neural tube closure occurs as a bidirectional process occurring multifocally in both the spinal cord and brain. The caudal spinal cord develops by secondary neurulation via a growth of neural cells caudally, not from a tube. The lumbosacral spinal bifida occulta in this case is probably the result of a defect in this secondary neurulation process. the pathogenesis is though to involve 1) abnormal proliferation of neural tissue 2) focal ischemic injury, 3) idiopathic maldevelopment of the tail bud.

81

Calf

Spina bifida

Myeloschisis, spina bifida occulta, spina bifida cystica with meningocele, and spina Spinal cord: Myelodysplasia with bifida with duplication of spinal roots, chronic myelomeningocoele apply to suppurative meningitis, the vertebral defect. Amyelia, granulation tissue, and numerous diatematomyelia, bacteria hydromeyelia, and dysraphism apply to the spinal cord defect.

21

82

Dog

Candida albicans

Eye: endophthalmitis, pyogranulomatous, with retinal detachment, lens rupture, intracorneal abscess, numerous yeast and pseudohyphae

Candida- Yeast (blastospores, candidiasis is mainly a blastoconidia), pseudohyphae, and disease of keratinized hyphae in tissue. Branching septate 3epithelium in young animals.. 5 um hyphae

83

Dog

Renal dysplasia

Cortex is irregularly contoured with zones of dilated tubules. KidneyL Dysplasia with severe Histologic features- fibrosis, interstitial fibrosis, persistent immature glomeruli, large netanephric ducts and primitive columnar-lined (mesonephric mesenchyme, fetal glomeruli, ducts), immature ducts lined cystic glomerular spaces, tubular by flattened hyperchromatic ectasia, degeneration and loss, cells, and poorly differentiated and chronic lymphoplasmacytic (immature) mesenchyme. May pyelonephritis have renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney: Tubular necrosis with intraluminal crystals

Increased susceptibility to pyelonephritis- caused by canine herpes virus, feline panleukopenia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, porcine hypovitaminosis A. Golden retrievers, Lhasa apsos, Shih Tzus, Boxers, Finnish harriers, dutch kookier, and Cocker spaniels.

84

Dog

Prototheca

85

Dog

Carcinoid

Prototheca reproduce by asexual endosporulation and have a characteristic microscopic appearance. Histologically there are intra- and extracellular organisms that may be either small single Heart: Myocarditis, granulomatous Cows- Prototheca zopfii endospores with granular cytoplasm and necrotizing, multifocal, mastitis, Cats-Prototheca or large sporangia that are round to moderate, with numerous wickerhamii cutaneous form, oval, 8-20 um in diameter, have clear extracellular and intrahistiocytic Dog- hemorrhagic 2-4 ym thick wall and contain multiple algae enterocolitis (2-20) wedge shaped endospores arranged radially. The shells eventually rupture leaving empty theca (mother shells) in sections. PAS and GMA positive Endosporulation- Chlorella, Rhinosporidium, Coccidioides/ Prototheca are achlorophyllosu algae and can be differentiated from chlorella ultrastructurally. Carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors arising from dispersed neuroendocrine cells in the GI Gastroenteropancreatictract, liver, pancreas neuroendocrine tumor --> urogenital and Neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma, tracheobronhcial systems. Gall bladder: Carcinoid May synthesize and secrete gastrointestinal carcinoids (carcinoid), and pancreatic neuroendocrine polypeptides and biologically tumors active amines including Serotonin (5-HT) (flushing, hypotension, diarrhea, wheezing), somatostatin, gastrin, histamine Diagnosis: argyrophilic, NSE +, Chromogranin A +, Synaptophysin +, (hepatic and biliary carcinoids Cytokeratin -), EM intracytoplasmic secretory granules which are round, composed of an electron dense core, and surrounded by an electron dense membrane Placentitis, necrotizing, suppurative with multifocal vasculitis, thrombi, and mineralization Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, neutrophilic, random Campylobacter fetus fetus is most common. DDX: Flexnira rappini causes similar lesions Toxoplasma (Cotyledons but is sporadic only), Chlamydophila, Brucella ovis, target lesions

22

86

Sheep

Campylobacter jejuni

Organism
Campylobacter jejuni Toxoplasma gondii Neospora caninum Chlamydophila abortus

Placental lesions Gross
C= friable, yellow IC= edema, exudate C= pinpoint white foci of necrosis IC= edema C= necrosis IC= normal

Histo
Often vasculitis, severe inflammation, Gram Negative bacteria Chorionic epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia with rare intracellular zoites Zoites rarely seen within trophoblasts

Fetal lesions
Liver: Target lesions

Focal necrotic lesions in brain, liver, kidney, lung Multifocal encephalitis with gliosis and necrosis

C=necrosis IC= brown exudate

Necrotizing placentitis with neutrophilic vasculitis and necrotic foci in lungs, liver, muscle organisms in trophoblasts IC necrotizing placentitis with gram negative rickettsial organisms within chorionic epithelium Vasculitis; gram negative bacilli intra and extracellularly Severe, diffuse necrosuppurative placentitis with gram positive bacteria within chorionic epithelial cells

Coxiella burnetti

C= less affected IC= thick yellow with exudate

Inconsistent; lymphocytic infiltrates in lungs, kidneys, liver

Brucella ovis

C= necrosis IC=Brown exudate

nonspecific

Listeria monocytogenes

C= necrosuppurative IC= necrosuppurative

Hepatomegaly with numerous 1mm yellow necrotic foci

87

Dog

88

Mouse

89

Rat

Typically regress via IgGmediated immune response, however metastasis does IHC- Lysozyme, Vimentin, ACM1 occasionally occur; (mononuclear phagocyte stem cells), Vulva: transmissible venereal TVT Karyotype= 58-59 Alpha-1 antitrypsin (marker for bening tumor chromosomes with 13-17 and malignant histiocytes) metacentric (compared to normal canine 78 with 2 metacentric) previous synonymsmyoblastoma/ PAS positive Dogs- Granular cell tumors in tongue/ granules/ IHC + vimentin, SGranular cell Seminal vesicle: Granular cell Horse= lungs/ Mice and rats= repro 100, NSE/ EM = packed tumor tumor tract, brain, meninges lysosomes, and phagosomes (myelin bodies) Staging of seminiferous Rat Stage 1-VII characterized by a tubules: Spermatogonia single layer of pachytene (proliferating diploid germ spermatocytes and 2 populations of Testis, seminiferous epithelium: Ethylene glycol spermatids (both round and Degeneration, necrosis, and loss, cells), Spermatocytes (meiotic monomethyl ether -tetraploid- germ cells), and elongate). At stage VIII, step 19 segmental with multinucleated toxicosis round to elongate spermatids spermatids are released into the germ cells (differentiating haploid germ lumen and the round (step 8) cells) spermatids begin to elongate At stage IX through XIII tubules have two layers of Stage XIV tubules have luminal spermatocytes (the luminal spermatocytes undergoing meiotic layer being large pachytene division to secondary (diploid) spermatocytes, and the spermatocytes, and then (haploid) basilar layer smaller round spermatids, and basilar preleptotene, leptotene, and spermatocytes progressing to the zygotene spermatocytes), and pachytene stage. a single layer of elongating spermatids Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, lymphohistiocytic, chronic, diffuse, Ovine progressive severe with perivascular and pneumonia peribronchiolar lymphoid (Lentivirus) hyperplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia Lung: Bronchopneumonia, suppurative, multifocal, moderate, with focally extensive abscess Histo: Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, with perivascular and peribronchial cuffs often Other lentiviruses, SIV, FIV, BIV and with germinal centers, smooth Equine Infectious Anemia muscle hyperplasia, interstitial fibrosis, and microatelectasis, central area of necrosis with many small aggregates of gram-positive cocci around the periphery

23

90

Sheep

Retroviridae, lentivirus- OPP is related to Maedi-visna, and CAE CAE- leukoencephalomyelitis (young goats), Chronic proliferative arthritis and synovitis (Adults), less commonly mastitis and interstitial pneumonia (adults). CAE has alveolar acidophilic, proteinaceous, to lipoproteinaceous material and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia Neurotoxic and hepatotoxic. Brain lesions in the frontal and pariteal lobes, Blood vessels may be degenerate, necrotic with thrombi. Liver may have centrilobular necrosis

OPP other lesionslymphofollicular mastitis, Type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia is chronic proliferative arthritis, non-suppurative not a feature meningoencephalitis, and vasculitis

91

Horse

Leukoencephalom Brain, cerebrum: Necrosis, white alacia matter (leukoencephalomalacia)

Moldy corn poisoning, Fumonisin B1 (fusarium monoliforme) Pathogenesis- vascular damage- Fumonisin inhibits ceramide synthase--> decreased sphingolipid accumulation, disruption of cellular membranes, lipid peroxidation, inhibits macromolecule synthesis and DNA syntheis

92

93

24

94

95

Spleen: Splenitis, necrotizing with common after SIV infections marked lymphoid depletion and Cytomegalovirus (Type D retrovirus), Macaque myriad cytomegalic cells and (betaherpesvirus) immunocompromise eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions Kidney: Nephritis, necrotizing, Leptospira lots of lymphocytes with few interstitial , lymphocytic, interrogans plasma cells and Goeldi's Marmoset multifocal, moderate with serotype Ballum macrophages neutrophilic tubulitis Lung: Pneumonia, Respiratory system- similar to mammals- Left lung is vestigial except bronchointerstitial, in Boas- The right lung has a posterior avascular portion known as granulomatous, heterophilic, Ophidian the air sac which regulates pressure inside the body cavity. The Rattlesnake diffuse, severe, with multifocal Paramyxovirus anterior portion of the lung contains faveoli separated by thin septa necrosis, epithelial hyperplasia lined by type I and II pneumocytes and rare eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions Microscopic findings- cellular debris Gross lesions: lung and exudate in airways, type II Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, hemorrhage, necrotic debris, pneumocyte hyperplasia, thickening lymphocytic, histiocytic with pancreatic hyperplasia, of faveolar septa, epithelial cells with tubular degeneration and necrosis hepatic granulomas, intracytoplasmic inclusions Esophagus: Epithelial necrosis with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions ddx: mycosis, Actinomyces Staphylococcus Heart: Myocarditis, and Nocardia (gram pos aureus pyogranulomatous with fibrosis, Porpoise filamentous. Acid fast (Botryomycosis) and Splendore-Hoeppli material nocardia) Heart, epicarditis: lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic

96

Betta fish

Nephroblastoma

Kidney: Nephroblastoma

Features: Triphasic: Myxomatous mesenchyme; interspersed primitive tubules. Or glomerular-like buds; nests of cells resembling metanephric blastema

rarely contain non-epithelial tissuemuscle, cartilage, bone and fat

97

Goeldi's Monkey

Swim bladder of siamese fish is ventral to kidney Spirurids: small thick shelled embryonated egg, cuticular ornamentations around the Oral mucosa: Intraepithelial adult Gongylonema sp spirurids with minimal lymphocytic buccal cavity, coelomyarian musculature, uninucleate inflammation intestine cells, lateral chords may be quite large Pterygodermatites sp Intraluminal and submucosal nematodes characteristic lateral alae anteriroly other intraepithelial parasites: Capillaria sp, Anatrichosoma sp, Trichosomoides sp

ddx: adenocarcinoma of the swin bladder

25

98

Horse

Equine recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis

Skeletal muscle: Degeneration and necrosis

ddx: exertional rhabdomyolysis, EPSSM, nutritional myopathy, ischemic myopathy, Cassia occidentalis PSSM ruled out by negative Pas (coffe weed), ionophore stain; ERER dx by increased CK, AST (monensin, lasalocid), and in severe cases myoglobinuria clostridial myositis (malignant edema), protozoal myopathy, Strep associated myopathy

99

Pheasant

Heterakis spp

Cecum: Typhlitis, nodular and Prominent spindle cell nodulesCarriers of histomonas meleagridisgranulomatous, multifocal, eithe granulomas or fibrous moderate with marked hyperplasia- not producing necrotic foci in cecum and liver; 15-20 um oval bodies mesenchymal infiltration and adult collagen, not smooth muscleand larval nematodes histiocytic? Kidneys, glomeruli, and tubules: cystic change, diffuse Dilation of all renal tubules, obscuring of cortico-medullary junction. Reduced numbers of glomeruli,

100

Deer

Polycystic kidney disease

liver has marked biliary hyperplasia

101

Skunk

Ciliated respiratory epithelium: Canine Distemper Degeneration and necrosis with virus intracytoplasmic and intranuclear (Morbillivirus) viral inclusions

EM: Ciliated epithelial cells; ICIB= amorphous aggregates of moderately electron dense other findings- vacuolar granular material, and less degeneration= mild dilatation o fSER frequently by amorphous and perinucelar cisterna, los of apical aggregates of tubular-like microvilli, low numbers of secondary structures. Nuclei- dispersal lysosomes and cellular debris in the of chromatin, One cell had luminal surface INIB= parallel, stacked arrays of electron dense, tubular to filamentous material

102

EM description

1. Brief decription Number and arrangement, plasma of the normal membrane, surface decorations, features which cellular junctions, cytosol, allow one to endoplasmic reticulum, identify the cells lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclei 2. Describe cellular alterations degeneration, necrosis

3. Describe Inclusions, dense deposits, anything removed bacteria, viruses, other organisms or added Organelle Normal Features Plasma membrane Cilia, villi, loss of surface specialization, cytoplasmic blebs, types and locations of intercellular junctions presence of myelin figures; inclusions Swelling, dilatation; detachment of ribosomes, Low amplitude swelling/ high amplitude swelling; matrix flocculent densities; swelling; rupture pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, viral inclusions bacteria, parasites, fungi, algae Irreversible changes Disruption of cellular membranes Marked dilation; large amorphous densities

Cytosol

Rarefaction (swelling): Relative amounts of SER to RER; increased amounts of SER Relative number and location;calcification; vacuolation; rupture Relative number; Clumped, dispersed, or marginalized chromatin; heterochromatin, euchromatin, Intranuclear or intracytoplasmic inclusions Reversible changes Blebbing, blunting, distortion; loosening of intercellular attachments Swelling, rarefaction, small amorphous densities Dilation, detachment of ribosomes Chromosome clumping Cell swelling, creation of myelin figures

SER/RER

Mitochondria Lysosome Nucleus

Other Organelle Plasma membrane Mitochondria ER Nucleus

Other

Pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis Cell swelling, lysosomal swelling, disruption of lysosomes, increased myelin figures

AFIP
Conference 2003-2004 1 Slide 1 Species Dog etiology Heritable Morph Dx amelanotic globe spindle cell iridal tumor of blue eyed dogs Glaucoma, secondary Bladder: Cystitis, necrotizing, fibrinosuppurative, with fibrinoid necrosis and mixed bacteria Fibromuscular tissue: Cellulitis, pyogranulomatous with mamillated nematode eggs pseudoreosettes, fine fibrous trabeculae; IHCinsulin+; Ischemic nerve cells; elongated Pancreatic islet cell granular mass in left lobe of pancreas microglial cells (rod cells) ; necrosis confined to carcinoma, neuronal necrosis superficial laminae; death by release of excitotoxins (aspartate) not glutamate Arthropod-percutaneous innoculation, mucous ddx- clostridium piliforme, Salmonella, membrane penetration, ingestion, or inhalation; liver necrosis Yersinia, Toxoplasma, Listeria, Macrophages disseminate the organism; can Tularemia cause vasculitis Liver: centrilobular necrotizing hepatitis with regeneration; and Bridging portal fibrosis with lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic cholangiohepatitis and biliary hyperplasia (TNF) Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, disease caused by cytokines (IL-1, TNF) from macrophages cause DIC, (calicivirus) this presentation is uncommon; adult rabbits are 100% fatally infected; submassive necrosis of the liver leading to loss of coagulation factors; virus replicates in hepatocytes; fatty degeneration is from severe hypoxia coinciding with DIC Gross Histo

vimentin +, GFAP +, S-100 Cobblestone mucos in bladder, distended ureters, oeriurethral tissue D Renale: Terminal anus and mouth surrounded by 2 circles of 6 papilla; eggs have thick had abscesses and granulomas; mamillated shell Large nematode found in retroperitoneal space

2

Harbor seal

Dioctophyma renale

3

Dog

Neoplastic, metabolic

4

Varying hare

Francisella tularensis

2

5

ZIKA-hybrid Rabbit

RHDV

6

Wood duck

DHV (AHV-1)

eosinophilic intranuclear and Ulcerative esophagitis, intracytoplasmic inclusions (these are lymphoid necrosis, epithelial found only in AHV-1, Mareks (GHV-2), hyperplasia and cytomegalovirus causes hypercalcemia by Pyogranulomatous dermatitis macrophagic production of PTHrp, with ulceration and fungal also macrophages can convert 25 D3 hyphae to 1,25 D3 (via alpha-1-hydroxylases) ddx- Pythium insidiosum

7

dog

Oomycosis (lagenidiosis)

broad irregular branching sparsley septate hyphae; Similar to Zygomycetes

8

dog

Neoplastic

Malignant histiocytosis, with hematophagia

Systemic histiocytosis- non-neoplastic perivascular cuffs; cutaneous histiocytosis and cutaneous histiocytoma are reactive proliferative disseminated histiocytic sarcoma, diseases; Malignant fibrous histiocytoma has lysozyme positive, MH is inherited in features of fibroblasts and histiocytes; localized Bernese Mtn dogs, histiocytic sarcoma is the local dermal form of MH/DHS Photosensitization secondary to liver injury, or mycotoxin induced liver injury Kleingrass (Panicum), Agave, Tribulus, Narthecium, Nolena, Brachiara, Avena sativa, Drechslera companulate

3

9

sheep

Metabolic

Cholangiohepatitis with intraluminal crystals, periportal fibrosis; necrotizing hepatitis, multifocal random, neutrophilic Type 1- Ingestion of plants with photodynamic substances (St Johns Worthypericum), Buckwheat (fagopyrum), and Bishops weed (Ammi majus)

Type 2- Defect in Porphyrin metabolism- congenital porphyria = uroporphyrinogen III cosynthetase deficiency discolored teeth and bones, aneima--; congenital protoporphyria = ferrochelatase deficiency (limousin cattle photodermatitis)

Type 3- Hepatic injury that interferes with the excretion of bile, and increased phylloerythrin (chlorophyll breakdown)--> solar dermatitis

10

bovine

Mycoplasma bovis

Brain- meningoencephalitis, ddx-otitis media in calves= pyogranulomatous with haemophilus somnus, pasteurella hemorrhage and whote matter multocida, streptococcus, necrosis actinomyces, railletia auris (ear mite) spleen looks enlarged with Lymphoid atrophy, mesenchymal cell proliferation and secondary infections: Isospora, toxoplasmosis, reticuloendothelial intranuclear multifocal lymphoid necrosis with bordatellosis, canine adenovirus 2 inclusions (eosinophilic) nuclear inclusions in utero infection 1-4 mo with NCP mucosal colitis, neutrophilic, BVDV = PI or abortion, postnatal with crypt abscesses, and with No vasculitis in this case DDX- coronavirus infection with NCP BVDV = transient 2crypt necrosis 3 week infection. ddx- juvenile pustular psoriasiform dermatitis (perivascular eos and neuts, pustules, parakeratosis), eosinophilic dermatitis with exudative epidermitis (bacteria, epidermal hyperplasia and corneal pustules, para and hyperkeratosis orthokeratotic), and zinc responsive dermatitis (severe parakeratotic hyperkeratosis) other adenoviruses- CAV-2 (necrotizing bronchiolitis secondary to immunosuppression), EAV-1(arabian foals with SCID- necrotizing bronchiolitis), Avian AV-1 (inclusion body hepatitis in birds, hydropericardium syndrome, hepatocellular necrosis), and 2 (Marble spleen disease in pheasants and hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys)

11

dog

Canine distemper virus

12

calf

BVD

4

13

pig

Sarcoptes scabei

14

dog

CAV-1 (infectious canine hepatitis)

Hepatic necrosis with intranuclear inclusions

vaccination with CAV-2 vax protects against both CAV-1 and 2, but dogs may still get mild tracheobronchitis from CAV-2 infection

15

bovine

Medullablastoma

expansile, unencapsulated, sheets of monomorphic densely packed round to polygonal cells, form pseudorosettes around BV bronchointerstitial pneumonia, necerotizing, with hyaline membranes

medulloblastomas are primitive neuroectodermal tumor of cerebellar originwithout cerebellum ddx is Prim ddx- PEM, trauma, Haemophilus NeuroEctodermal Tumor- ; pseudoreosettes somni, rabies, Listeria, lead poisoning around BV, Homerwright rosettes, FlexnerWintersteiner rosettes; S-100 positive, NSE neg, GFAP neg Influenza A- equine -1 (H7N7) or Influenza A/ equine 2 (H3N8) disorganized fibroblastic proliferation infiltrating the fat and superficial TMproliferative and sclerotic formsedematous and myxomatous areas are seen as well- perivascular lymphocytes, plasma cells and histiocytes

16

foal

Equine Influenza A2

5

17

Cynomolgus monkey

SRV-2 type D

Atypical mesenchymal proliferation (retroperitoneal fibromatosis)

Late stage animals often develop SAIDs, and presence of herpesvirus (gammaherpes RFHV)

18

C57bl/6B2m /microglobulin knockout mouse Rhesus monkey WAS -/mouse wild pigeon

Polyoma virus (Papovavirus)

Malignant spindle cell neoplasm, mixed carcinoma

don¶t occur except in nude mice

19 20 6 21

SIV Helicobacter hepaticus Lead toxicosis

Meningoencephalitis, granulomatous

virus found in macrohages, endothelium, white matter and cerebellum

22

bovine SpragueDawley rats C57BL6 mouse

Microcystin toxicosis

23

cisplatin toxicity

24

Acetominophen toxicity

7

25

dog

grape or raisin toxicty

26

dog

neoplastic, endocrine

27

dog

Sarcocystis/ neosporosis

Proliferative colitis and also cause hepatitis proctitis Proximal renal tubular crop dilation of unknown pathogenesis epithelium, acid fast intranuclear inclusion bodies hepatic necrosis, periacinar to cyanobacteria (cyclic peptides) -target toxin inactivates enzymes that regulate massive with vacuolar liver; Alkaloids target nervous system cytoskeletal elements degeneration and lipopolysaccharides Renal tubule epithelial necrosis and cast formation with tubular ectasia toxic effects are result of metabolite NAPQI (from Cyt P450), depleted Centrilobular hepatocellular cats are particular sensitive due to lack of glutathione reserves leading to necrosis glucuronyl transferase, they cant conjugate it oxidative damage kidney- acute tubular nephrosis with regeneration; mineralization of st functional pheochromocytomas are pheochromocytoma, left cuboidal to polyhedral cells with fine connective rare, leading to norepinephrine release adrenal gland, hemorrhagic tissue septae, IHC chromogranin and --> CHF, pulmonary edema, colitis synaptophysin + ventricular fibrillation, hypertension pyogranulomatous and necrotizing myositis with metrocytes within immature tissue cysts in dogs are unusual as cysts and internal septae they are the definitive hosts separating mature organisms into compartments within cysts hepatic necrosis periportal and centrilobular with lymphohistiocytic periportal hepatitis Polyserositis- meningitis, fibrinoipurulent with encephalitis, perivascular lymphoplasmacytic Liver- granulomatous hepatitis, with intrahistiocytic bacilli, and nodular hyperplasia labradors are more sensitive;

28

dog

carprofen toxicity

8

29

Pig

Haemophilus parasuis

affects pisg 4-8 weeks old. Gram coinfection with PCV-2 and Pasteurella negative rod, microaeophilic, requires mucltocida; DDX- Mycoplasma hyorhinus, Strep heme and NAD suis II, Salmonellosis, Gram positive and acid fast. Require Actinomycetales- Actinomyces, Nocardia, activation of macrphages by IFN-y by Rhodococcus, Corynebacterium, Dermatophilus, CD4 T cells Streptomyces

30

CB-17-SCIDBeige mouse CB-17-SCIDBeige mouse Prairie dog

mycobacterium sp.

31

mycobacterium sp. Lung: necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia with syncytia, and eosinophilic ICIB Brain: Vasculitis and meningoencephalitis, necrosuppurative, with thrombosis:: Necrotizing encephalitis with gliosis, vasculitis, and hemorrhage, and thrombosis Metatarsus- focal retention of physeal cartilage with metaphyseal infarction vertebrae and long bones: Chondrodysplasia Orthopoxvirus genus, causes fibrinonecrotic bronchopneumonia with necrotizing vasculitis in macaques Equine arboviral encephalitis, Togaviridae, ss RNA env:: Gray matter lesions, cerebral cortex, thalamus and hypothalamus, neuronophagia, mostly neutrophilic with EEE Trauma caused infarction which prevented formation of primary spongiosa born with kyphosis and roman nose (Twin was normal)-believed to be a defect in the gene FGFR3 Mosquito vector, humans and horses are dead endo hosts, since viremia is not sufficient for transmission to new mosquitoes:: WNV-ventral and lateral horns of spinal cord; JEVneutrophilic encephalitis, EHV-1 causes vasculitis Normal- proximal metaphysis is thin where remodeling, and chondrification of blood vessels is normal where they enter the physeal cartilage

32

Monkey pox

33

Horse

EEE

9

34

Horse-foal

Osteochondrosis and physitis/epiphysitis Spinder Lamb Syndrome: Autosomal redcessive

35

Sheep

36

Dog-elkhound

Chondrodysplasia of Norwegian Elkhounds

37

Cat

delayed closure of physis

10

38

Reindeer

OvHV-2: MCF Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Mouse Hepatitis Virus Hepatocellular carcinom Coronavirus TGE Amyloidosis Microsporidium- Glugea anomala

39 40 41 11 42 43 44

Owl Monkey MouseC57Bl/6 Chimpanzee Pig Dog- shar pei Fish- 3 spined stickleback

DDX- locoweed (astragalus or Oxytropus), parbendazole, Veratrum californicum (cyclopia at 14D), wild parsnip (bent leg) inherited autosomal recessive: DDX- lysosomal Disproportionately short limbs, short storage diseases, English springer sp with GM1 Chondrodysplasia/Chondroos trunks, disorganized endochondral gangliosidosis (beta-galactosidase); seus dysplasia ossification, and zone of chondrocyte Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS1) in Plott hounds proliferation, with inclusions (alpha-L-iduronidase) Femoral head: Physeal Similar lesions- slipped physis, Feline metaphyseal osteopathy- delay in physis fracture, with fibrosis, woven Legg_Calves_Perthes, canine closure in neutered male cats bone formation and synoval metaphyseal osteopathy (HOD), hyperplasia trauma Kidney: Interstitial nephritis, ddx: AHV-1, CpHV-2, bluetongur, EHD Typical MCF lesions include lymphoproliferation, lymphocytic with vasculitis in deer (orbivirus), BVD (pestivirus), mucosal disease, and vasculitis and perivasculitis, and tubular Rinderpest (Morbillivirus) mineralization Heart: Myofiber degeneration also had underlying hypertension and loss, with fibrosis Spleen: Necrosis, multifocal, with syncytial cells Liver: Hepatocellular carcinoma Jejunum: Atrophic enteritis, villous blunting and fusion Kidney: Amyloidosis, interstitial and glomerular Body- Xenomas (xenoparasitic complex) Immunosuppressed mice unencapsulated, infiltrative, lipid vacuoles, negative CEA staining < 10 days. Neonates have tall villi (7:1 or 9:1), Familial reactive amyloidosis in shar pei no intermediate host is required, Microsporidia- obligate intracellular parasites, ruptured spores from xenomas can extrusion apparatus, (encephalitozoon cuniculi) infect new hosts

45

Owl Monkey

Atherosclerosis

Brain: meningeal arteries research suggests that it is the result contain atheromatous plaques of a chronic inflammatory process which are focal. The intima initiated by endothelial injury due to has a fibrous cap and a hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stress central necrotic lipid rich core in other species causes of proliferative gastritis = Ostertagia Ostertagii in cattle, Ostertagia circumcinta in sheep, Nochtia nochti in non-human primates, trichostrongylus axei in horses, hyostongylus rubidus in pigs, and Ollulanus tricuspis in cats ddx- Polyoma virus, adenovirus, Chlamydophila, Salmonella, Clostridium piliforme, circovirus, trematodes, aflatoxin, Adenovirus and Polyomavirus- INIB basophilic Arthritis, tenosynovitis, myositis, reactive bone and tophi Gout tophi are small clumps of radiating crystals surrounded by macrophages gross PD- hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, necrosis, hemorrhage

12

46

Corn Snake

Cryptosporidium

Gastric mucosal hyperplasia with plasmacytic gastritis

47

Amazon Parrot

Pacheco's Disease, Psittacid Herpesvirus

Massive hepatic necrosis with syncytial cells, eosin INIB and hemorrhage GHV-1 = ILT, GHV-2 = Mareks, AnatidHV-1 = duck plague (DVE) Granulomatous inflammation, amorphous material, bone remodeling Uric acid is the product of Purine metabolism by xanthine axidase

48

Frilled Lizard

Articular gout

49

Cloud Rat

3-8 mcm with mucopolysaccharide capsule, , narrow based budding, Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing pseudohyphae, branched septate Cryptococcus neofprmans and granulomatous hypahe- capsule inhibits plasma cells, macrophage phagocytosis and leukocyte migration. Simian cytomegalovirus and Balantidium coli (trophozoites) Colon: Multifocal proliferative and suppurative colitis with INIB ICIB fatal in immunospuuressed animalsinflammatory pseudotumors results from influx of neutrophils and proliferation of mucosa Oil red O positive lipid droplets: ddxinfiltrative lipomas, anaplastic carcinomas, baloon cell melanomas, Cytokeratin Negative, PAS negativeResemble Malignant fibrous histiocytoma except with little collagenous stroma BRSV is Paramyxovirus- ICIB and Syncytia-// INIB also found in this case (Adenovirus) CMV is betaherpesvirus {Others include Porcine Herpes - 2 (inclusion body rhinitis), Caviid Herpes- 1 (guinea pig cytomegalovirus)}. Balantidium coli also seen, Bacteria also seen.

13

50

Rhesus Macaque

51

Dog- poodle

Liposarcoma

Lingual frenulum: Pleomorphic liposarcoma

52

53

14

56

57

58

Lung: Fibrinopurulent Necrosis of epithelium/syncytia/INIB, bronchopneumonia/ neutrophils and fibrin bronchinterstitial pneumonia Bull calf BRSV (Paramyxovirus?) with bronchiolitis syncytial cells, ICIB Spleen: Lymphocytolysis and Macrophage phagocytosis of spores-Cynomolgus vasulitis and Brain: Meningitis > LN-> germination->bacilli toxins-> Bacillus Antracis monkey with myriad gram positive Lethal Toxin (LT-Inhibits MAPK) and bacilli Edema Toxin (ET) Lung: Interstitial pneumonia, Thrombosis in arteries with adult necro-suppurative with parasites- PDGF--> endothelium id thrombosis and microfilaria Dog Dirofilaria immitis damaged PDGF released causing and intravascular adult proliferation of smooth muscle Dirofilaria immitis Nutritional myopathy, white Heart: Myocardial necrosis, Bull calf muscle disease, vit E and with fibrinoid vasculitis, and Se deficiency edema Necrotizing and ulcerative enteritis/typhlitis, pyogranulomatous, fibrinoid uncommon syndrome of localized Kitten FIP vascular necrosis; transmural enterocolitis lymphadenitis and serositis, pyogranulomatous

59

Bovine

ddx: extrinsic allergic alveolitis --> dust from moldy hay with micropolyspora and thermoactinomyces; Fog fever--> Tryptophan Lung: Interstitial pneumonia, ipomeanol toxin (edema factor), converted to 3-methylindole in rumen--> lung --> with edema and emphysema, generation of free radicals within Type Moldy sweet potato toxicityclara cells convert to 3-methyleneindolenine via mononuclear, with 1 pneumocytes and bronchiolar Fusarium solani and P450--> damages cell membranes of hypertrophy and hyperplasia epithelia, and causes edema by oxysporum bronchiolar cells and type 1 pneumocytes and of respiratory epithelium and toxicity to endothelium and formation increased alveolar permeability; reinfection occasional syncytia of hyaline membranes syndrome-hypersensitivity to lungworm; Perilla mint toxicity, stinkwood, rape, kale, turnip tops; nitrogen dioxide from silage etc Spread by sandflies (phlebotimus and lutzomyia), Stomoxys and clinical signs include lymphadenitis, fever, Rhipicephalus may be vectorscutaneous ulcers- secondary demidicosis, and Leishmania is phagocytosed by macrophages and transforms into an may develop concurrent cutaneous and visceral syndromes. Later immune mediated amastigote in the phagolysosome, glomerulonephritis causes renal failure. Ddx = pumps protons out and evades Trypanosoma cruzi, Histoplasma, Toxoplasma compliment by binding c3b and resisting c5-c9, and scavenge free radicals Two forms of Pox- dry (nodular cutaneous lesions) and diphtheritic (fibrinonecrotic mucocutaneous) Bollinger bodies- eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions; ddx- wet pox= Trichomonas, candidiasis, Vit A Deficiency

15

60

DogFoxhound

Leishmania donovani

Spleen: Splenitis, histiocytic and lymphoplasmacytic with intrahistiocytic protozoa

61

chickens

Gallid Herpesvirus-1 (Infectious Laryngotracheitis) / Avian Pox

Necrotizing laryngotracheitis, proliferative, histiocytic, lymphocytic with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions Malignant melanoma can have desmoplastic, neurotropic, or osteochondrogenic differentiation

62

Dog-Spaniel

Malignant melanoma with chondroid metaplasia

This had areas that looked like epulis, and was Melan A negative; Junctional activity, melanin and positive melan A stain differentiate from osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma

gray horses, sinclair mini pigs (cutaneous), duroc, and spontaneously regress in pigs

63

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Streptococcus agalactiae Necrotizing fasciitis

Skeletal muscle: Myositis, necrotizing, fibrinosuppurative, hemorrhagic with myriad cocci

Beta-hemolytic strains are most pathologic- S. agalactiae is alpha hemolytic (Lancefield group B)

Lancefield groups A and G are mostly responsible for necrotizing fasciitis in humans.; Alpha hemolyitc and non-hemolyitic are less virulent. Alpha-hemolysis = partial lysis and reduction of hemoglobin giving it a greenish tinge around the edges. Beta-hemolysis is complete lysis and a halo of clearing extending beyond the colony Renal failure --> decreased excretion of phosphate --> hyperphosphatemia --> Hypocalcemia --> hyperparathyroidism

16

64

Dog - Brie sheepdog

Congenital renal dysplasia and Fibrous Osteodystrophy

65

B6 129 S6Cybb mouse

Staphylococcus sppcoagulase positive (Botryomycosis)

66

Fennec (Vulpes zerda)

Capillaria aerophila

67

SpragueDawley rats

Granular cell tumor

Renal Dysplasia with severe fibrosis, fetal glomeruli, and 14 weeks old, presented for PU/PD tubular adenomatous vomiting and siezures hyperplasia; Mandible: Fibrous osteodystrophy Mandible, tongue, skeletal muscle, tooth: Osteomyelitis, glossitis, myositis, Mouse with disrupted oxidase periodontitis, cytochrome b gene--> cant generate pyogranulomatous, with superoxide splendore hoeppli material and bacterial colonies Lung: Pneumonia, pyogranulomatous and Capillaria- live in bronchi and trachea, eosinophilic with adult hypodermal lateral chords (bacillary nematodes and numerous bands), and a row of esophageal bipolar plugged embryonated glands called stichocytes forming a eggs; Bronchitis and stichosome bronchiolitis, catarrhal, lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic with fibrosis PAS positive diastase resistant granules; NSE, S-100, Vimentin +, Malignant uterine granular cell GFAP Neg;;EM- densely packed tumor lysosomes and phagosomes (myelin figures) Vertebral body and lung: Chordoma distal axial skeleton, arise from residual notochord;;; Keratin and Vimentin +, NSEand S-100 +/-

Most commonly Staph aureus- lesions follow skin trauma, begin as microabscesses, progresses to pyogranulomas with splendore hoeppli material

other resp tract parasites: Crenosoma vulpis, globei (racoons), mephiditis (Skunks), striatum (hedgehogs), filaroides osleri, Aleurostrongylus abstrusus

Rats- granular cell tumors in meninges and uterus// Dogs= tongue/ Horses= lung

17

68

Fischer 344 rat Fischer 344 rat

Chordoma

Polygonal cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles (Physaliferous cells), 3 components- central trabecular bone, cartilgae zone, physaliferous cells at the periphery within a mucinous matrix

69

same Gram Positive facultative intracellular bacillus- 3 syndromes-- septicemia, encephalitis, and abortion (also conjunctivitis and mastitis) Abortion syndrom- late term, via hematogenous spread undulating ribbons and nests between proliferating fibrous tissue, epithelial cells form acini with mucin causes abortion or weakness, symmetrical thyroid enlargement, Intra and extracellular acid fast gram negative bacilli Taenia crassiceps- canids and felids as definitive host, rodents most common intermediate hosts, and become infected by ingesting oncospheres from feces often perivascular distribution, most severely heart, spleen, and skeletal muscle' diagnosis requires greater than 50% mucinous material; Gastric adenocarcinoma may be induced by Helicobacter mustelae (model for human H pylori) iodine def--> incre TSH; Iodine excess --> interference with thyroxinogenesis --> low T3,T4 levels --> Incr TSH IL-12 (mPh) --> TH1 -->IL-2, TNF-a,IFN-y (T,NK) --> upregulates mPh --> PDGF, TGF-b -> stimulate fibroblasts and collagen synthesis circling disease- organism enters oral mucosa and travels trigeminal nerve, lands in pons and medulla with microabscesses and lymphocytic meningitis

70

Holstein OX

Listeria monocytogenes

Necrotizing hepatitis, suppurative Necrotizing nephritis, suppurative Mucinous adenocarcinoma with metastasis to lymph node; Intestine- lymphocytic enteritis Thyroid gland: Diffuse hyperplasia (goiter) Spleen, Liver, BM, mammary gland: Granulomatous inflammation with granulomas Subcutis and Skeletal muscle: Granulomatous and eosinophilic cellulitis and myositis Heart- Pancarditis, necrotizing, lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic, with periganglioneuritis Pulmonary artery: Arteritis/ endarteritis, chronic with adult filarial nematodes Brain: Meningoencephalitis, necrotizing and granulomatous/ lymphoplasmacytic Occlusive (reactive) vascular endothelial proliferation in several organs; intravasulat pseudoangisarcoma Kidney: Fat emboli with hemorrhage and granulomatoyus inflammationAutosomal recessive in siamese cats

71

Holstein OX

Listeria monocytogenes

72

Ferret

Mucinous adenocarcinoma

73

Lmousin calf

Iodine deficiency

18

74

Wallaby

Mycobacterium avium complex

75

Red Ruffled Lemur

Cysticerciasis

Features include hooks, calcareus corpuscles, single bladder, one scolex,

76

Fish Crow

WNV

Flaviviridae- can be transmitted by several insect species and mechanical vectors

Splendidofilaria caperata Parma (whitefronted) Wallaby

adult embedded in tunica media

77

Toxoplasma gondii

15-60um protozoal cysts PAS and GMS positive

also flund myocarditis, hepatitis, bacterial esophagitis In humans it is benign and associated with erythematoyus macules and plaques. It is multisystemic in cats and fatal

19

78

cat

Endotheliomatosis

Factor VII relAg+

79

Siamese cat

Feline hyperlipemia/ primary hyperlioproteinemia/ hyperchylomicronemia

fasting hyperlipemia, xanthomas, peripheral neuropathy, deficiency of lipoprotein lipase

Recessive lipoprotein lipase deficiency: must be fed a low fat diet

80

Domestic Rabbit

Shope Fibroma virus: Leporipoxvirus, Poxviridae (benign self limiting, non neoplastic to all rabbits)

Subcutis: Atypical mesenchymal proliferation with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions

4 poxviruses: Myxoma, Shope fibroma, Hare fibroma (all leporipox), and Rabbitpox virus (orthopox). Arthropod vectors for all but Hare EM showed inclusions- fibrillary fibroma (unknown). Inclusions are common to regular aggregates of moderately electron dense material arranged in all but Rabbit pox; Myxoma virus is serious: NA long strands or bundles, or of finely rabbits (Sylvilagus) are natural hosts (resistant) but can transmit to European cottontails granular aggregates;;Immature virions(Oryctolagus) with severe disease and high spherical 250 nm with electron dense mortality- Hare fibroma is a diseas of european content and an outer envelope hares (lepus genus, and Oryctolagus are susceptible) Secondary to trauma or phacoclastic uveitis without trauma; Epithelial cell origin Candida are dimorphic with yeast phase normally inhabiting GI tract, URT, genitals. They reproduce by budding and proliferate as blastoconidia (budding yeat like cells), or as pseudohyphae, and branhced septate hyphae

81

Cat

Feline ocular sarcoma (post traumatic sarcoma)

invasive densely cellular neoplasm of spindle cells in bundles and whorls, in some cases osseus or chondrous differentiation, the lens is ruptured.

1) Long standing lens rupture (embedded lens material) (2) Circumferential distribution

20

82

dog

Candida spp

Brain: encephalitis, granulomatous, with hyphae

83

bovine

fibrovartilaginous emboli (FCEM)

Spinal cord: Infarct, with fibrocartilaginous emboli, and most found in large breed dogs (Type 2 disc disesae) necrosis of gray and white matter Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia Thalamus: Necrosis, caused by exotoxin of C perfringens D multifocal with spongiosis and (epsilon toxin)/ also called chronic edema enterotoxemia. Alpha toxin, gas gangrene, Intravascular hemolysis (yellow lamb disease), colitix X maybe, food borne illness Alpha, beta, epsilon, Enterotxemia in lambs, calves, and foals (lamb dysentery- acute hemorrhagic enteritis <2 weeks old). Alpha and beta- adult pathgogen of sheep (struckhemorrhagic enteritis- first few weeks) , goats and cattle as well as lambs folas and calves and piglets (<8 days). Alpha and iota- Intestinal disease in calves, lambsm and rabbits cerebrum: lymphoma, T cell Skin: follicular atrophy, diffuse, with epidermal hyperplasia with mild lymphocytic perivascular dermatitis Lambs on well fed heavy milking ewea are most susceptible. Epsilon toxin acts on vasular endothelium --> edema in basal ganglia, thalamus, internal capsule, substantia nigra, subcortical white matter, and cerebellum

84

Lamb

Clostridium perfringens type D

Type A

Clostridium toxins

Type B

Alpha toxin

membranes, hemolysis and necrosis

Type C

Beta necrosis and increased vasular permeability

Type E

Epsilon iota also cutaneous involvement Pancreatic exocrine adenocarcinoma, and biliary duct carcinoma can cause paraneoplastic alopecia for unkown reasons complete follicular atrophy on the ventrum and smooth glistening gross appearance are diagnostic for this condition.

85

Raccoon

Lymphoma

21

86

Cat

Paraneoplastic alopecia

87

dog

Immune mediated dermatitis

Skin/ MC junction: Dermatitis, ddx: Pemphigus erythematosis and cheilitis, superficial (crossover from pemphigus to lupus), lymphoplasmacytic with Pemphigus foliaceus (Both have intracorneal pustules subcorneal pustules and acantholysis) Furunculosis and intraepithelial pustules containing bacteria Skin: Vesicular dermatitis, multifocal, severe with balooning degeneration, epithelial syncytia and eosinophilic ICIB (Guarnieri bodies) ddx; Mucocutaneous pyoderma and Discoid Lupus Erythematosus DLE: lichenoid interface dermatitis, hydropic degeneration of basal cells, thickened basement membrane, acantholysis, mononuclear inflammation

discoid Lupus

88

Tamarin

Cowpox virus (orthopox)

Aside from orthopox viruses, these can cause disease in humans: Parapoxviruses: Orf, pseudocowpox, bovine papular stomatitis

cats can be infected and transmit virus

89

Bovine

Dermatophytosis

Haired skin: Dermatitis and folliculitis (or perifollicular and Trychophyton verrucosumTrichophytin- causes epidermal hyperplasia and perivascular), lymphocytic and keratinolytic branched septate hyphae follicular hyperplasia (hyperplasia and eosinophilic, chronic, focal and penetrate hair cuticle hyperkeratosis) with hyperkeratosis and intracorneal pustules Nasopharynx: Rhinitis, necrotizing and suppurative with intralesional fungi Lungs: Bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and peribronchitis, lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic and pneumonia with intra-airway adult stongyles Aspergillus hyphae are 3-6 um wide with septae with parallel walls and dichotomous branching comparative pathology: horses- guttural pouch mycosis and abortion, Birds- air sacculitis, and tracheitis, Cattle- abortion, mycotic dermatitis in fetuses, rumenitis; Canine- rhinitis Metastongyle- intestine is composed of few multinucleate cells with microvillous border with coelomyarian musculature. Lateral chords and female reproductive tracts with eggs containing developing larvae

22

90

Sprague Dawley Rat

Aspergillus fumigatus

91

Feral pig

Metastrongylus sp (lungworms)

hypertrophy of bronchiolar smooth muscle

92

Fish grayling

Saprolegnia

Iridophoroma

93

bovine

BHV-4

23

94

dog

SIPS (Subinvolution of Placental sites)

95

Horse fetus

Encephalitozoon spp

96

CD1 Mouse

Decidual reactions

97

Dog

Hermaphrodite

Freemartin

Oomycete- grossly white to grey Skin: Ulcer, locally extensive colorless aseptate hyphae proliferative cotton-like growth on skin with superficial zoosporangia or gills Chromatophoromas are contractile pigment cell tumors arising from Other pigments masses: Melanophores (black dermal chromatophores, most are Scaled skin and skeletal or brown), iridophores with colorless pigment benign. Iridophoromasa re muscle: Iridophoroma (purines), erythrophores (red), xanthophores characterized by olive-green granular (yellow) pigment which is bi-refringent in polarized light Mammary gland: Galactophoritis, probably secondary to bacterial BHV-4 is gammaherpesvirus (Mastitis, abortion, necrosuppurative with mastitis metritis, vaginitis, enteritis, pneumonia) eosinophilic INIB in ductal epithelium and bacteria with squamous metaplasia Alphaherpes virus- BHV-1 (IBR, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, balanoposthitis), BHV-2 (Mammilitis), BHV-5 (encephalitis) Uterus: SIPS, or ulceration, Persistent bloddy discharge postnecrosis and hemorrhage with partum- 7-12 weeks--Looks invasion by placental histologically similar to normal trophoblast cells involution but takes longer. Placenta: Multifocal necrosis Spores are ingested and inject sporoplasm into with mild placentitis, host cell--> Asexual merogony --> differentiation Free and intraepithelial protozoa-lymphocytic with gram into sporoblasts (sporogony)--> develop into Oval 1-2 um, obligate intracellular positive birefringent (like spores in a parasiophorus vacuole --> rupture parasite toxoplasma) and release into ECM Uterus: Decidual reaction Other proliferative mouse uterus lesions: uterus was enlarged with multiple (deciduoma) with myometrial Histiocytic sarcomas, Schwannomas; Note: 2 nodular foci- deciduoma in the infiltration and endometritis, lumens, one filled with neutrophils, the wall is endometrium suppurative filled with spindle cell. Peripheral zone of ovarian tissue and SRY gene is essential for testicular a central zone of testicular tissue. differentiation, and MIS for Muellerian duct Goands: Bilateral ovotestis Germinal cells only in the ovarian degeneration (however in humans 80% of parts intersex are XX) Female born as a co-twin to a male and is XX/XY chimera Common gross findings are vestigial (?), anastomoses between Central atrophic seminiferous tubuels, intersittial seminal vesicles, stunted ovaries, placental circulations allow hypoplastic vagina, enlarged clitoris, cells, and epididymis, surrounded by developing androgens to influence female follicles and lack of communication between development, thereby the vagina and uterus supressing female genital development Heart: Pyogranulomatous and necrotizing myocarditis, with fingal hyphae and chlamydospores or intercalary swellings (chlamydoconia) colon: Necrosuppurative colitis with ICIB and occasional syncytia, diphtheritic membrane, lymphoid necrosis, crypt herniation Pseudallescheria boydii and its asexual form Scedosporium apiospermum (Microascasceae) most often a result of penetrating trauma and respiration in immunocompromised patients. Includes cutaneous and systemic lesions. It is virtually indistinguishable from Aspergillus

24

98

Dog

Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium apiospermum

99

bovine

Rinderpest

DDX- BVD (pestivirus), FMD (Picornavirus), IBR (Alpha herpes), MCF (Gamma herpes), Morbillivirus of ParamyxoviridaeVesicular Stomatitis (Rhabdovirus), Peste des necrotic stomatitis and gastroenteritis petits ruminants (Paramyxovirus), Bluetongue (reovirus; small ruminants) Life cycle: Adults live in vascular system after migrating thorugh parenchymal organs--> eggs in mesenteric vessels --> penetrate intestinal mucosa --> pass out in feces --> Miracidia released into water --> penetrate into snails --> form sporocysts --> develop into cercariae --> leave snail and penetrate the skin of mammals

100

dog

Heterobilharzia americana

Pancreas: Pancreatitis, granulomatous, with nodular regeneration, interstitial fibrosis, and trematode eggs

Heterobilharzia- spherical to oval ova with miracidia in pancreas and intestine.

Male and female are permanently coupled, eggs produce the most severe lesions, Comparative: Schistosoma bovis and microgranulomas in the liver, spleen, brain, and japonicum are the most pathogenic in others. Adults can cause eosinophilic cattle and sheep endophlebitis with intimal proliferation and thrombosis affects middle aged cairn terriers and may be unilateral or bilateral. Eye: Uveal melanosis, diffuse, with peripheral synechiae, Melanocytes and melanomacrophages proliferate in the filtration angle, retinal atrophy and episcleral tissue, and subconjunctival detachment and KCS tissues, ocular fundus, and meninges. Esophagus: Esophagitis, proliferative with gastric intestinal metaplasia, glandular abscesses and hyperplasia Kidney: Membranous glomerulonephritis with fibrosis and protein casts and tubular ectasia Typically it consists of a mix of gastric Cornifying epithgelium transforms to a mucoid cardia-type mucosa and intestinal secretiing and glandular epithelium, but no goblet cells. It is a sequel to chronic parietal cells. also seen are squamous gastric reflux and it is associated with metaplasia of submucosal ducts the risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma Ultrastructure: Amyloid deposits are irregular non-branching fibrils, Collagen= well organized fibrils with cross-banding; Immune complexes= electron dense granules ICIB were hard to recognize, virus accumulates in cytoplasm of macrophages, mononuclear cells, and histiocytes (in immunosuppressed animals viral antigen can be found in nucleus as well) Ricin derived from Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), results in inhibition of protein synthesis

101

Dog

Melanocytic glaucoma

25

102

Rhesus Macaque

Barret's Metaplasia

103

nu/nu Mouse

Spontaneous circulating ANA glomerulonephritis

104

Pig

PCV-2 with cyclosporine (induced PMWS)

Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis with cholestasis

DDX: hepatosis dietetica, aflatoxicosis, cocklebur intoxication, gossypol intoxication, pyrrolizidine alkaloid, PCV-2,

105

African Green Monkey

Ricin Toxicity

Lungs: Pneumonia, fibrinohemorrhagic, interstitial, necrotizing, with vasculitis

AFIP
Conference 2002-2003 Slide Species 2002-2003 etiology Disease Notes

1

1

Horse

Rhodococcus Equi

Granulomatous/ pyogranulomatous hepatitis foals 1-3 months old, acquired by inhalation The pulmonary form is more with intracellular and extracellular gram positive or ingestion and spreads through common than the intestinal form, rods- virulence factors- Vap A generates macrophages. Most commonly results in and hepatic abscessations are humoral response and there is blockage of bronchopneumonia with lymphadenitis, and uncommon. Hypopyon has been phagosome-lysosome fusion, also necrotoxins less ffrequently ulcerative colitis, reported in systemic cases and recruitment of macrophages osteomyelitis and hypopyon Obese monkeys that lose weight fast --> fatal fasting syndrome; Pancreatic islets of Langerhans include: Diabetic patients have Alpha, Beta, delta, and F cells and hyperglycemia and impaired enterochromaffin cells- (insulin secreted by chemotaxis, impaired adherence Beta cells) and phagocytosis, and impaired killing of microorganisms

2

Macaque

Fatal fasting syndrome

Esophagitis, necrotizing and ulcerative with superficial yeast and pseudohyphae

Diabetes Thyroid C cell carcinoma

Hepatic lipidosis Islet amyloidosis, pancreas Neuroendocrine pattern tumor in the neck; rarely lining follicles filled with colloid, and variably positive for calcitonin

3

Dog

Thyroid C Cells-Parafollicular cells, Often associated with multiple endocrine or Ultimobranchial cells are most neoplasms in Bulls and elevatved circulating commonly seen in old Bulls, calcitonin levels, In dogs usually nonhorses, and lab rats, IHC + functioinal (MEN-Pheo, C cell carcinoma, Calcitonin and Chromogranin A and Pituitary tumors)

4

Calf

Mannheimia hemolytica

Fibrinonecrotic bronchopneumonia, oat cells (clusters of degenerate neutrophils with streaming nuclei)

Leukotoxin--> lethal to leukocytes and platelets of ruminants by the Endotoxin activates macrophages to release formation of cell membrane pores TNF, IL-1B, and IL-8 (similar oat cells found in Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia)

BRSV and BVD 3 microscopic variations: 1) mesenchymal cells originating from Circumscribed concentric neoplasm with the periodontal ligament 2) abortive 2 neoplastic cell types- Stellate Reticulum epithleial cells arranged in interdigitating cords Ameloblastic odontoma tooth structures originating from and Ameloblastic epithelium, and forms surroundign stellate cells; and a smaller area of ameloblasts and odontoblasts, and enamel (toothlike structures) poorly differentiated tooth components 3) well differentiated squamous cells bounded by loose stroma Bacterial bronchopneumonia Lung: Bronchopneumonia with abscess and bronchiectasis, suppurative, and pleuritis

5

Mouse

6

Rat

IFA- CAR bacillus, Parvovirus, Rat ELISA- CAR bacillus, Mycoplasma Coronavirus/////////////////////////////////////////////C pulmonis, and Rat Coronavirus ulture: Bordatella bronchiseptica, E coli, and (Sialodacryoadenitis) Staph aureus

M Pulmonis- common Corona virus- Pos sense, single CAR- Gram negative, motile rod causes ciliary cause of stranded, RNA virus, causes self stasis, goblet cell hyperplasia, bronchiectasis, bronchopneumonia with limiting lmyphoplasmacyutic bronchiolitis, and mucopurulent bronchiectasis and inflammation and necrosis of bronchopneumonia lymphoid hyperplasia salivary and nasolacrimal glands PMWS= 1) wasting 2) lymphoid PCV-2 alone is often subclinical, Add Liver: Necrotizing hepatitis with ito cell depletion or lymphohistiocytic Parvovirus = fatal disease///////////////////////// proliferation, apoptotic bodies, bile stasis and granulomatous inflammation in any PCV-1 is non pathogenic but may cause bridging fribrosis organ 3) PCV-2 in the lesions abortions Comparative : Chicken anemia virus is immunosuppressive, PBFD is progressive results in malformed beaks and feather loss and immunosuppressioin, Pigeon Circovirus causes lymphocytosis leading to immunosuppression, Porcine Parvovirus = SMEDI (Stillbirth, Mummification, Embryonic Death, Infertility) WNV typically in grey matter of brain and grey and white in spinal cord- EEE is white matter only in spinal cord

7

Pig

PCV-2 / PRRS

8

Horse

West Nile Virus

Meningoencephalomyelitis, lymphocytic and neutrophilic with neuronal necrosis

Flavivirus transmitted by Mosquitoes, horse is dead end host (not viremic to spread)Clinical signs similar to EEE and EPM, JEV, Borna, Rabies---------EHV-1 (histologically) causes ischemic myeloencephalopathy

9

Goat

Bacillus cereus

Necrotizing mastitis with gram positive sporeforming bacilli with hemorrhage

B cereus can casue skin and joint Staph aureus is most common, infections, meningitis, septicemia, with Mannheimia, Pseudomonas pneumonia, endocarditis, and intraocular and coliforms and Avocado leaf infections- Produces toxins like enterotoxin, toxicity hemolysin, PLC, emetic toxin

10

Dog

11

Antelope

12

Squirrel

13

Rat

14

Goat

15

Sprague Dawley Rat

16

Whale

Dilation of lacteals, hypercellular villi with lymphocytes plasma cells, macrophages in muscularis and Intestinal Intestinal lymphangiectasia with granulomatous Most comon cause of Protein losing serosal layers. Lymphatic vessels lymphangiectasia lymphangitis enteropathy in dogs are dilated and surrounded by macrophages lymphocytes and plasma cells Focal areas of fibrosis (healed Membranous glomerulopathy or Fibrosis with infarcts), interstitial inflammation, Renal Fibrosis glomerular sclerosis and interstitial nephritis thickening of Bowmans capsule, sclerosis of glomerular tufts cellular infiltrate concentrates around the blood vessels and glomeruli-----------DDX for MCF = All other organs had vasculitis with BVD (pestivirus), Bluetongue and Ovine Herpesvirus-2 Kidney: Arteritis, fibrinonecrotic, lymphocytic, meningoencephalitis and periportal hepatitis Epizootic Hemorrhage Disease (MCF) with periglomerular interstitial nephritis ----------Gammaherpesvirus replicates in T (Orbivirus), and Rinderpest cells (Morbillivirus), anf FMD (Aphthovirus), Vesicular Stomatitis (Vesiculovirus) Leporipoxviruses include Rabbit Haired Skin: Epidermal hyperplasia with Shope Fibroma virus, Squirrel Leporipoxvirus Transmission via arthropod orthokeratosis and balooning degeneration with fibroma virus, Hare fibroma virus, ICIB and dermal mesenchymal cell proliferation and Myxoma virus Soman is an organophosphate that inhibits Cholinesterase, resulting in Salivation lacrimation, bronchoconstriction, rapid accumulation of acetylcholine siezures. Neuronal necrosis is due to Soman toxicity Brain: Neuronal necrosis increased glutamate release and hypoxia and hyperstimulation of both from prolonged siezures central and peripheral cholinergic sites Heart: Myocardial degeneration and necrosis with neutrophilic and histiocytic myocarditis 10-80um spherules, double Inhalation of arthrospores, spherules Lung: Pyogranulomatous pneumonia with contoured birefringent walls, 2-5 develop and rupture releasing endospores Coccidiodes immitis Coccidioides immitis spherules um endospores. PAS and spreading infection. demonstrates internal structures Multicentric lesion in Rats affecting the liver, spleen, lung, uterus--Kidney: Histiocytic sarcoma, intravasular and Glomerulosclerosis was also seen (chronic Older SD rats predisposed to this. Histiocytic sarcoma interstitial progressive glomerulopathy) Often an increased fibroblastic component Zygomycetes- Non-contagious, saprophytic, opportunistic pathogens gain entry by wound-Brain: Vasculitis, necrotizing with suppurative Zygomycetes vasculitis ddx: Aspergillus and Pythium Hyphae are broad upt to 10 um, encephalitis and fungal hyphae infrequently septate, non-parallel and thin walled, with nondichotomous branching Airsac: Pyogranulomatous airsacculitis with hyphae and conidiophores Ubiquitous saprophytic opportunistic pathogen. Hyphae are parellel walled, 3-6 um with dichotomous branching conidiophores: 5-8 um diameter up to 300 um in length, become flask dhaped (20-30 um in diameter), single row of Phialides which produce radiating chains of conidia

17

Emu

Aspergillus fumigatus

18

Pigeon

Seminoma

Bilateral seminoma- occasionally malignant and negative for c-kit and PLAP (in locally invasive. Clinical presentation inclideslethargy, anorexia, increased respiration, contrast to human seminomas) diarrhea, and abdominal distension

19

Turtle

benign (mature) or malignant (immature) based on anaplasia or the presence of undifferentiated Mixed germ cell tumor Ovary: Mixed germ cell tumor (teratoma), elements. Teratocarcinomas are (teratoma, yolk sac mature and immature, and 10% yolk sac tumor undifferentiated malignant tumor) neoplasms containing features of teratomas and embryonal carcinomas and choriocarcinomas

20

Swan

Phaeohyphomycotic pneumonia (Cladiosporium bantianum)

21

Horse

Sporothrix schenkii

Hyphae- 7-9 um wide, septate, nonparallel and brown to green pigment. From cultures ID base typically cutaneous infections but can occur Granulomatous pneumonia, heterophilic, with don chains of smooth brown or in lung and brain. Melanin is the pigment pigmented hyphae pigmented ellipsoidal, unbranched and a virulence factor conidia arising from septate conidiophores DDX: 1) Equine cutaneous lymphangitis (Burkholderia mallei- glanders), and Skin: Pyogranulomatous dermatitis and Burkholderia pseudomallei 3 clinical manifestations: lymphangitis with pseudocarcinomatous Lymphocutaenous, fixed cutaneous (pseudoglanders) 2) Equine Ulcerative epidermal hyperplasia and intralesional yeast Lymphangitis (Corynebacterium and disseminated (Sporothrix schenkii) pseudotuberculosis), 3) Equine Epizootic Lymphangitis (histoplasma farciminosi) DDX: Discoid lupus, SLE, Pemphigus, and vitiligo Arctic breeds and chows most affected Auto-immune Type IV hypersensitivity to melanin in humans

22

Dog

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada- Eye: Uveitis, granulomatous with intrahistiocytic Like_syndrome melanin pigment with slcera involvment Skin: Dermatitis, superficial and periadnexal, histiocytic and lymphoplasmacytic with marked pigmentary incontinence and hyperkeratosis

23

Cat

Mycobacterium avium

M avium is an obligate intracellular parasite, gram positive and acid Small Intestine: Granulomatous enteritis with fast- Cats are more susceptible to intrahistiocytic bacilli M bovis than M tuberculosis or avium Liver: Granulomatous hepatitis with intrahistiocytic bacilli and severe centrilibular necrosis Release from hypobiotic state is synchronized by the loss of adults//// Lymphoplasmacytic colitis/ fibrinonecrotic colitis L3 is infective --> ingested --> lose Strongyle Larvae ar characterized by a with myriad intralesional cyathostome larvae cuticle and enter mucosa of pseudocoelom, platymyarian meromyarian (small strongyles)/ Lymphadenitis, Peritonitis, intestine where they are musculature, few multinucleate cells and histiocytic and neutrophilic surrounded by fibrous capsule lacking mature goands Necrotizing splenitis with intranuclear inlcusions; Spleen, Lymphoid depletion Cecum and colon: Intestinal spirochetosis, apically attached elongated bacteria Remains latent in WBC's; ddx- CMV, Adenovirus

24

Horse

Cyathostomes

25

Macaque

Cytomegalovirus

26

Macaque

Brachyspira pilosicoli

attachment and damage to Inflammation is minimal, causes erosive and enterocytes, limited to large ilcerative typhlocolitis in pigs intestine, spread to lamina propria, phagocytosed to macrophages

27

Dog

Hereditary Nephritis (HN)breeds: Samoyeds, english cocker spaniels, Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with inherited defect in the basement Hereditary nephropathy miniature bull terriers; Basement membrane (Type IV) collagen fibrosis and mild lymphoplasmacytic interstitial (Alports syndrome) membranes can be compared to those seen resulting in progressive nephritis in immune-mediated glomerulonephritis glomerulonephritis and renal failure Gross Lesions: Edema and petechia, Hemorrhagic nephritis of geese ascites, hemorrhagic enteritis and Kidney: Tubulointerstitial nephritis, necrotizing (HNEG): 4-10 weeks old, sudden nephritis:: Histo- detachment of the tubular with hemorrhage and focal urate accumulation death, dyspnea, diarrhea, CNS epithelium. Does not produce obvious signs, inclusions Malignant lymphoma, leukemia and hemangioma of the lymph node Eye, Retina, photoreceptor layer, outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer- degeneration and loss Cloacal bursa: Lymphoid depletion, diffuse Result of decreased acitivity of cGMP-phosphodiesterase

28

goose

Goose Hemorrhagic Polyomavirus

29

Rat

Malignant lymphoma hemangioma

30

Mouse, FVB/NJ Chicken

Retinal degeneration Infectious bursal disease virus

31

Loss of photoreceptor layer (apoptosis), decrease in retinal vasulature----there are 16 known mutations primarily targets immature B cells, Bursa is IBDV serotype 1 (Birnavirus), grossly enlarged due to edema, hyperemia, infection of 3-6 week old chickens and hemorrhage

32

Macaque

Yersinia sp

Y. enterocolitica, and infect M cells and colonize the mucosal pseudotuberculosis are associated lymphoid tissue, bind to B1 Necrohemorrhagic enteritis and peritonitis with enteroinvasive and cause diarrhea, integrins (adherence to cells and ECM). lymphangitis, fibrin thrombi dehydration, anorexia, and weight Extracellular survival is mediate dby YopH,T loss, necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis and E (disrupts macrophage cytoskeletons) and lymphadenitis Other large colony forming bacteria include: Actinomyces, DDX: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Arcanobacter, Clostridium, Entamoeba histolytica Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus (YAACSS) OI lesions include- osteopenia, Dentinogenesis imperfects (DI) can occur excessive bone fragility, skeletal inconjunction with Osteogenesis imperfecta or deformity, joint laxity, translucent as a separate disease teeth, otosclerosis, and blue-tinged sclera Multifocal necrotic areas with central eosinophilic material surrounded by MNGC, perivasculat histiocytes and lymphocytes, Histo features of DI: irregular arrangement and reduction in numnbers of dentin tubules, Basophilic lines (mineralization fronts), pre-dentin layer in irregular in thickness and stains weakly, the Odontoblasts are small and disorganized

33

Llama

Dentin dysplasia (Dentinogenesis imperfecta)

34

Iguana

Cellulitis

Osteomyelitis, granulomatous, Osteolysis, Fibrous metaplasia, osseus and chondroid metaplasia

ddx: Salmonella (gram negative)

35

Dog

Reactive bone Osteomyelitis / Canine Grossly, firm diffuse swellings of Necrosuppurative Osteomyelitis with trabecular Hypertrophic the distal radial and ulnar fractures and extra-periosteal fibro-osseus Osteodystrophy metaphyses, and tibia;l proliferation and retained cartilage cores (Metaphyseal metaphyses osteopathy) degenerative chondrocytes were irregular, Metaphyseal plates were mildly calcified cartilage was poorly formed, most Chondrodysplasia and dyshematopoiesis (ILchondrocytes in the resting zone were thickened and had many cartilage 1B, FGF, BMP) pyknotic. The chondroid matrix was canals lined with flat shaped cells granular or fibrous not smooth gross: huge size, abdominal Histo features: primitive glomeruli, enlargementreported in humans, dogs, abortive tubules, loose spindle cats, horses, sheep, swine, chickens, stroma, mixed differentiation to rabbits, and rats---DDX in rats includes, striated muscle, collagen, cartilage, renal carcinoma and renal mesenchymal bone, and adipose tissue tumor

36

Holstein OX

Chondrodysplasia

37

Rat

Nephroblastoma

Embryonal nephroma, Wilms Tumor

38

Hamster

Mesothelioma

Study of SV40 induced lymphoma in hamsters (polyomavirus). Oncogenic DNA virus causes leukemia, lymphoma, mesothelioma, pulmonary involves the serosa mesentery forms many exophytic papillary fronds--carcinoma, osteosarcoma, pituitary tumors, pancreas and is contiguous with Morphology- epithelioid, sarcomatoid, and thyroid tumors and persistent renal infections in the mesothelium of the peritoneum mixed (biphasic) monkeys\ Tag (large T antigen) can inactivate tumor suppressor gene products like p53 and rb Transverse section of the abdomenepidermis and epidermal Stomach: dysplasia, segmental, p63 knockout appendages are absent, the mouse outermost cells in the skin are spindle shaped (exposed dermis), Dysplasia with erosion and ulceration; p63 knockout- required for maintanenece of progenitor cells (homologous to p53); limb truncation is due to failure to maintain apical ectodermal ridge (stratified epithelium)

39

Mouse

Epithelial dysplasia

Keratinocytes are columnar with keratohyaline granules,

Epidermal hypoplasia

40

Dog

lymphocytes, plasma cells, Cervical spinal cord: Meningitis, Can be found in any dog breed with macrophages, periarterial with loss Beagles, Bernese MTn Dogs, and Boxers Beagle Pain Syndrome pyogranulomatous with fibrinonecrotic arteritis of cellular structure in arterioles and mild lymphoplasmacytic myelitis overepresented and accumulation of neutrophils DDX: Pug dog encephalitis (non-suppurative, necrotizing, cerebral hemishperes), Old dog encephalitis (lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing, demyelination, rare inclusions), GME (lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic perivascular cuffing, with nests of epithelioid macrophages in the cuffs, white matter and meninges Grossly white nodules looked like neoplasia, but composed of macrophages neutrophils plasma cells and MNGC. Most macrophages were filled with yeast

41

Horse

Histoplasma capsulatum

Lung: Pneumonia, pyogranulomatous, with intrahistiocytic yeast

42

Calf

Renal Dysplasia

Renal dysplasia with decreased glomeruli, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, tubular epithelial hypertrophy, hyperplasia and disorganization and chronic interstitial nephritis

autosomal recessive claudin deficiency (tight junctions)

43

Dog

DRIPS clade: Dermocystidium, Rosette agent, Ichthyophonus, Psorospemium------DDX: Nasal mucosa: rhinitis, proliferative, with Coccidioides, Prototheca, Chlorella( Rhinosporidium Rhinosporidium seeberi erosion and ulceration, squamous metaplasia and numerous sporangia and throphocytes sporangia and endospores stain with GMS, PAS, and Gridley, but only the wall of Coccidioides stain with PAS

granulomatous mucous membrane disease, forming a polypoid mass; 1) the trophocyte (juvenile sporangia) is 10-100 um, with 2-3 um hyalinized wall, a central nucleus (karyosome) and prominent nucleolus. 2) Intermediate sporangia lack nucleus and have thicker wall. 3) Mature sporangia are from 100-400 um with wall, no nucleus, and contain numerous endospores (2-10um)

44

Ox

other possible lesions: initial Comparative: H agni in goats (resp and widespread vasculitis and vascular mammary infections), H parasuis (fibrinous necrosis (LPS polyserositis, polyarthritis), H. Histophilus somni Fibrinonecrotic bronchopneumonia with endotoxin);;septicemia, thrombotic paragallinarum in chickens (infectious (Haemophilus somnus) interlobular edema and numerous coccobacilli meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, coryza, upper respiratory tract infection, pleuritis, myocarditis, reproductive infraorbital sinusitis) failure, arthritis Well circumscribed mass of fat, Teratoma: multiple germ lines, Ectoderm muscle, nervous tissue, sebaceous (nervous, oral and nasal mucosa, glands, hairshafts, follicles, and epidermis), Mesoderm (CT, muscle, bone, large cysts within the adrenal urogenital, cardiovascular), Endoderm cortex. Dense fibrous connective (Gastrointesstinal epithelium, respiratory tisse epithelium, and glands)

45

Ferret

Teratoma

Left adrenal gland: teratoma, mature (well differentiated)

46

Calf

Lactic acidosis

Grain overload, ruminal lactic acidosis: --> overgrowth of Strep bovis, and Lactobacillus spp --> increased lactic acid -> low pH below 5 --> volatile Fatty Acids produced in early stages --> absorbed and epithelial hyperplasia with vesicles. cause rumen stasis --> dehydration results Reticulum: Reticulitis, with multifocal ulceration Neutrophils from increased rumen osmolality--> systemic acidosis results and circulatory collapse occurs--> secondary bacterial and mycotic infections can result, and rumen mucosa sloughs

47

Dog

Malignant lymphoma, angioinvasive

ddx: injection site reaction, atypical Skin: Dermal and subcutaneous angioinvasive Lymphomatoid granulomatosis= histiocytic proliferation, lymphohistiocytic lymphoma (T cell) with lymphohistiocytic angiotropic lymphoma. Subdivided inflammation, histiocytic sarcoma, malignant vasculitis and necrosis into angiocentric and angioinvasive histiocytosis.

48

Horse

Rabies virus

trigeminal ganglion: ganglionitis, nonsuppurative, diffuse, with neuronal degeneration, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions (Negri bodies)

ddx: rabies (ss (-) RNA), EEE, WEE, VEE, WNV, EHV-1, Sarcocystis neurona, EIA

EE's can have suppurative inflammation early, VEE and EEE can have necrotizing vasculitis with thrombosis; EPM there is necrosis axonal swelling and hemorrhage with eosinophils and macrophages; EIA can occasionally have non-suppurative to granulomatous encephalomyelitis centered on ventricles and leptomeninges

different variants exist (skunk, Replication initially in myocytes then Spinal cord: Poliomyelitis, non-suppurative, wit raccoon, and bat) Bat variant spreads to sensory neurons and to the hemorrhage and vacuolation, neuronal causes most human cases; bites CNS. Then goes to salivary gland degeneration, and inclusions are undetected or spread through epithelium and replicates then buds into the aerosols saliva Kidney- Tubular necrosis, segmental and medullary, with granular casts (along with multifocal hepatic necrosis) cows ate ash from pile of burned feceposts (wood preservativecopper-chrome-arsenate) cocklebur (Xanthium spp) carboxyatractyloside- inhibits oxidative phosphorylation and binds adenine nucleotides

49

Ox

Arsenic toxicity

arsenic ingibits sulfur containing amino acids and binds to sulfhydryl groups as in pyruvate dehydrogenase and alphaketoglutarase (no oxidative phosphorylation ddx: cestrum parqui, Helichrysum, trema, Microcystis aeruginosa, blue-green algae, rift valley fever

50

Ox

Xanthium toxicity

Liver: Necrosis, centrilobular to midzonal, diffuse, with congestion and hemorrhage

51

Ox

Vicia villosa tocicity (Hairy Vetch)

Vicia (legume; seeds and vegeatative): Lesions also found in: kidneys, cyanogenic glycosides, photosensitization: adrenal glands, lymph nodes, Heart: Granulomatous and eosinophilic 3 clinical manifestations- a) acute spleen, periportal liver, mammary myocarditis, with myocardial degeneration and neurological, b) swelling and mucosal gland, thyroid gland, ovaries, necrosis (toxic myocarditis) eruptions, cyanosis, cough, followed by uterus, lungs, leptomeninges, death, c) systemic granulomatous perivascular encephalitis inflammation (SGI) with dermatitis incidental finding Blocks DNA/RNA/ and protein synthesis: toxicity to heart not related to anti-tumor Adriblastin (anthracyclin antiobiotic properties: DDX- nutritional deficiency, Heart: myocarditis, necrotizing, non-suppurative and chemotherapeutic): AKA metabolic disorder, chemical and plant with amyloidosis of small arteries doxirubicin toxicity, brain injury/ Puppies- herpes, parvo, morbillivirus, Vit E se deficiency

Sarcocystis sp

52

Dog

Adriblastin toxicity

53

Cockatoo

Adenocarcinoma

birds do not have cutaneous adnexal glands other than the uropygial gland; the sections contain a decalcified humerus with Humerus: Mucinous carcinoma of air sac origin/ a well-differentitated mucinous air sacs are lined by single layer of Adenocarcinoma, cystic and mucinous with carcinoma seen as large papillae epithelium supported by mesothelial serosa. stromal osseous metaplasia` containing acini with mucinous columnar epithelium within air-sacs lined by squamous epithelium (with transformation from squamous to mucinous epithelium can be seen)

54

Lizard

Entamoeba invadens

Aboeba is transmitted by ingestion Trophozoites are 10-15 micrometers with Liver: Necrotizing and granulomatous hepatitis of cysts shed from feces. The single nucleus with single central endosome with intralesional protozoa/ amoeba trophzoites cysts develop into trophozoites in and a ring pf peripheral granules; Cysts are and trematode eggs the intestine and invade the 11-20 mcm with 4 nuclei (member of the E mucosa of the GI tract Histolytica group) Apicomplexan parasite: (conoid, Liver: Mononuclear cell proliferation, rhoptries, polar rings, micronemes, multinodular, with intracytoplasmic protozoa subpellicular microtubules)- Self and intravascular monocytic cytoplasmic limiting disease except in fledglingsprotozoa causes hepatosplenomegaly grossly due to the protozoa Lung: Granulomatous pneumonia with suppurative bronchopneumonia, bronchiectasis and interstitial fibrosis, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia cervix: Squamous cell carcinoma HPV- oncogenic papillomavirus produce E6 and E7 oncoproteins which inhibit tumor suppresion genes p53 and Rb E6 binds to p53 and accelerated its degradation, E7 binds and inactivates Rb thereby deregulating the G1/S checkpoint

55

Thrush

Atoxoplasma sp

Mononuclear cell proliferation 56 Hedgehog Mycobacterium sp

57

Macaque

Squamous cell carcinoma

58

Dog

Sex-cord stromal tumor, luteinized

Ovary: Sex-cord stromal tumor, luteinized

Most tumors arise from the subsurface Sex-cord stomal tumors are epithelial structures (papillary adenoma, derived from- the normal hormone papillary adenocarcinoma, cystadenoma, secreting apparatus (Granulosa cyst adenocarcinoma///Germ cell tumors thecal cell tumor, and interstitial include- dysgerminoma, teratoma, and cell tumor (luteoma) embryonal carcinoma 3-5um yeast forming pseudohyphae; ddx: Strep zooepidemicus, E coli, Lepto, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Aspergillus, Absidia, mucor, rhizopus, Candida, Histoplasma, EHV-, EAV

59

Horse

Candida spp

Chorioallantois: Necrotizing and suppurative placentitis with intralesional yeasts and pseudohyphae Chorioallantois: necrosuppurative placentitis with branhcing filamentous bacteria

60

Horse

Nocardoform placentitis

61

Sea Bream

Myxidium leei

Myxozoan parasite- distinguished from other protozoa by the presence of polar capsules and Intestine: Enteritis, lymphocytic, diffuse, with valved multicellular spores during intraepithelial protozoa their life cycle- Use PAS or Giemsa to demonstrate polar capsules, Acid Fast stains demonstrate mature spores Prototheca- 5-20 um with thin cell Intestine: enteritis, pyogranulomatous with algal wall with large sporangia containing organisms multiple Heart: Myocarditis, pyogranulomatous, multifocal with algal organisms other lesions- choroid retina, subretinal space, mastitis is cattle, dermatitis in cats and humans Malignant mammary tumors in rats include adenoarcoma and carcinosarcoma also with suppurative peritonitis In mice carcinomas are most common whereas fibroadenoma's are rare Pig, hamster, rabbit, birds, in mice Citrobacter rodentium causes rare colonic hyperplasia and bacteria are extracellular P. zopfii and P wickerhamii

62

Dog

Prototheca sp

63

Rat

Fibroadenoma

Mammary Gland: Fibroadenoma

64

Rabbit

Lawsonia intracellularis

Ileum and Jejunum: Enteritis, proliferative and histiocytic with intracellular bacteria

65

Mouse

Chronic progressive nephropathy

Membranous glomerulitis, lymphoplasmacytic Gastric dilatation and chronic vasculitis and perivasculitis, tubular nephropathy in mice exposed to degeneration and regeneration, casts, interstitial dirty bedding nephritis Nasal Cavity: Adenocarcinoma presence of numerous glandular structures and continuity of these cells with the supporting cells Phalloidin- interacts with actin in GI DDX- Acetominophen, Microcystis, smooth muscle;; AmatoxinsCocklebur, Cycad palm, Aflatoxin, Phenol, alpha amantin- binds to RNA pol II Carprofen and inhibits protein synthesis

66

Macaque

Adenocarcinoma

67

Dog

Amanita phalloides toxicity

Liver: Hepatocyte degeneration and loss, centrilobular to mid-zonal

68

Rabbit

Myxoma virus (myxomatosis)

69

Dog

Canine Lyme nephritis

Myxomavirus- LeporipoxvirusUnique Histo features- proliferation of cells Skin, ear: Atypical mesenchymal proliferation, South american type and in the walls of BV, and large stellate myxomatous, with epithelial hyperplasia and Californian type that causes lethal myxoma cells:::: Other Leporipoxviruses= balooning degeneration and intracytoplasmic disease of myxomatosis in Shope fibroma, hare fibroma, Squirrel inclusion bodies (myxomatosis) European rabbit- transmitted by fibroma arthropods kidney: Glomerulonephritis, distinguishing features- simulataneous membranoproliferative, global, diffuse with other lesions- skin, CNS, heart, glomerulonephritis, tubular necrosis and tubular dilation, proteinosis, necrosis and joints regeneration, tunular dilation and regeneration and mild lymphoplasmacytic lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis interstitial nephritis

70

Pig

Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Other Swine Helminths: Stomach worm Acanthocephalans- Lack digestive (Hyostrongylus rubidus), Roundworm tract, have a thick hypodermis, (Ascaris suum), Strongyle lacunar channels, proboscis and (Oesophagostomum dentatus), Whipworm Small Intestine: eosinophilic granuloma with lemnisci. eggs are oval with 3 (Trichuris suis), Kidney worm (Stephanurus intralesional acanthocephalan; or Enteritis, envelopes; Vertebrate must ingest dentatus), Lungworm (Metastrongylus apri), necrotizing and pyogranulomatous transmural an invertebrate with an infective Cestodes (Taenia hydatigena, Taenia acanthor (cystacanth stage). solium/Cysticercus cellulosae, Adults embed in the intestine wall Echinococcus granulosus), Trematodes and may perforate the intestine. (Fasciola hepatica, and gigantica, and in the lung Paragonimus kellicotti)

71

Sheep

Listeria gain entry via damaged mucosa or Spinal cord: Myelitis, suppurative, subacute, Malacia of grey matter, skin and through the trigeminal nerve to the focally extensive with multifocal meningitis and hypertrophic microglia, vessels brain; focal gliosis and microabscesses Listeria monocytogenes few gram positive bacilli (virulence factorshave hypertrophic endothelium and (neutrophils) and central necrosis usually hemolysin, listeriolysin-O (intramacrophagic perivascular cuffing restricted to the brain stem (Pons medulla, multiplication) thalamus and spinal cord).

72

Calf

Spongiosis

DDX: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase mutation; death in 6 days), Canavan disease in humans; Staining with luxol fast blue Brain: white matter and brainstem- Spongiosus, indictaes myelin preservation (not typical of Canavan dz), Congenital cerebral diffuse edema (horned herefords), Citrullinemia (holstein-fresian), BSE (vacuolation in neuropil and neurons in brainstem nuclei)

73

Cat

74

Dog

75

Rabbit

76

Pig

77

Dog

Adult, aged cats in the DDX- hemangiosarcoma, caudoventral abdominal wall and mammary glands; Grossly it is red- lymphangiosarcoma (call it angiosarcoma to Feline ventral abdominal Skin: feline ventral abdominal angiosarcoma avoid controversy of blood vs lymphatic black, plaque like with angiosarcoma origin). serosanguinous exudation and varies from firm to soft Haired skin: Panniculitis, lymphofollicular and proposed pathogenesis: focla complement granulomatous, with pseudocyst formation, and Toy or small breeds, especially mediated cutaneous vasculitis of deep rare intrahistiocytic amphophilic foreign Post-rabies vaccination poodles, and develops 3-6 months dermal and subcutaneous arterioles; material, with marked adnexal atrophy, mild alopecia post vaccination vasculitis is not always present. epidermal hyperplasia, and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis bening neoplasm of adult rabbits. Basal cell tumors should recapitulate the basal cell layer of Basal cell tumor the normal epidermis. WHO Haired skin: Basal cell tumor (trichoblastoma) (trichoblastoma) classifes trichoblastoma as a beingn tumor showing differentiation to primitive hair germ of the developing follicle Haired skin and subcutis: Dermatitis, transmitted by the pig louse ddx: vesicular skin diseases; they can be necrotizing or ulcerative and proliferative or Suipoxvirus (hematopinus suis) or mosquito; ruled out by inclusions, balooning acanthotic with balooning degeneration. suipoxvirus in the family poxviridae degeneration and epithelial proliferation Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions Kidney: Arteritis, granulomatous, segmental Transmural necrotizing ddx: Borrelia burgdorferi, Leptospira with moderate multifocal plasmacytic and inflammation to small to medium interrogans, Ehrlichia canis, sized muscular arteries= Polyarteritis nodosa histiocytic interstitial nephritis, focal neutrophilic Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Rickettsia medullary nephritis and multifocal interstitial polyarteritis nodosa. Believed to be rickettsii fibrosis Type III hypersensitivity Leptospirosis- Interstitial Ehrlichia- Interstitial lymphoplasmacytic Lyme- glomerulonephritis with tubular dilation lymphoplasmacytic nephritis, with nephritis centering on glomeruli, and histiocytic inflammation, ddx morphs and necrosis and regeneration with plasmacytic vasculitis at the neutrophilic tubulitis and tubular lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis corticomedullary junction degeneration and necrosis Greyhounds- idiopathic cutaneous and rena Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever glomerular vasculopathy causing cutaneous (rickettsia)- Necrotizing vasculitis ulceration, limb edema, and peracute renal E cuniculi- Plasmacytic to granulomatous of small veins, capillaies and glomerular sclerosis. This resembles interstitial nephritis and may cause arterioles with perivascular hemolytic-uremic syndrome of humans. granulomatous arteritis neutrophils, lymphocytes and Kidney lesions include fibrin thrombi within macrophages glomerular capillaries, necrosis and hemorrhage. Phase 1 is suppurative and Phase ARDS- adult respiratory distress syndrome. 2 has hyaline membrane formation Characterized by diffuse alveolar and Lung: Bronchiolitis, necrotizing, with diffuse and fibrosis (interstitial capillary damage. Relase of TNF and IL-8 necrotizing fibrinous interstitial pneumonia and pneumonia). Injury to respiratory by macrophages results in further tissue multifocal black isotropic intrahistiocytic and mucosa can be due to heat, gases, damage, edema, fibrin, and hyaline extracellular pigment or soot. Loss if ciliary funtion and membrane formation mucosal edema are early changes. Adenom with atypia was diagnosed based histologic features vary from invasion of the sclera or choroid and a low papillary to solid and pigmented to mitotic rate and a solid pattern; PAS stain non-pigmented. They rarely distinguishes this from metastatic metastasize regardless of carcinoma (cells or iridociliary neoplasms appearance of malignancy are surrounded by BM)

78

Dog

Smoke inhalation toxicity

79

Dog

Iridocilliary adenoma

Eye, Iridociliary adenoma with atypia

80

Dog

Renal dysplasia- disorganized development Kidneys: Cysts, glomerular, with glomerular tuft of renal parenchyma due to anomalous Glomerular polycystic Usually cystic dilatation of tubules atrophy and multifocal chronic interstitial differentiation. Fetal glomeruli, immature kidney disease is more common. nephritis with fibrosis tubules, primitive mesenchyme, persistent metanephric ducts

81

Mouse

Erythroleukemia (Spleen focus forming virus- retrovirus)

Granulocytic and monocytic leukemias are anatomically located in both red and white pulp. Neoplastic cells are positive for hemoglobin Neoplastic cells of erythroleukemia Spleen, red pulp: Erythroleukemia, NIH swiss peroxidase (erythroid lineage), negative ofr are in the red pulp only and form mouse lysozyme (myeloid), and neg for CD79a and sheets of erythroid precursors that CD3 (lymphoid) replace myeloid progenitors and megakaryocytes with compression of periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths spleen: Extramedullary hematopoiesis

82

Horse

Iron toxicosis

Clin path- Iron transported in blood Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration and Hyperammonemia is caused by decreased bound to transferrin and by necrosis, centrilobular to midzonal, with oval cell hephaestin and ceruloplasmin. Ironfunctional hepatic mass ( decr. ammonia --> and biliary proliferation, megalocytosis and urea) resulting in hepatic encephalopathy typically occupies 1/3 of the intracytoplasmic golden brown pigment transferrin.

83

Goat

Myelofibrosis

Fibroplasia of the bone marrow in dogs it is associated with congenital with little to no fat- loose fibrous pyruvate kinase deficiency, marked EMH in Bone Marrow: Myelofibrosis, diffuse, moderate connective tissue and fusiform to response to anemia (due to myelophthisis); stellate fibroblasts with Dacryocytes are seen in peripheral blood hemaotpoietic islands. (tear drop shaped poikilocytes) IN arabian foals an inherited T and B lymphocyte funtional abnormality (PK Native UK breed "Fell Pony"mutation) (SCID). X-linked SCID also Lung: bronchiolitis and peribronchiolitis with Inherited B cell deficiencyoccurs in Basset Hounds and Corgi's adenoviral inclusions (No explanation of decreasing progressively- also has (normal T cell numbers but they are nonganglionopathy) anemia, ganglionopathy and responsive to mitogenic stimuli due to a immunodeficiency defect in the gamma chain of IL-2 receptor

84

Pony

Fell Pony anemia, immunodeficiency, ganglionopathy

85

Horse

Dysplastic gangliocytoma (Lhermitte Duclos Disease, cerebellar dysplasia)

Cerebellum: Dysplastic gangliocytoma, or cerebellar dysplasia

Resemble Lhermitte-Duclos Disease (LDD) in humans

Widened folia, Purkinje cells are rarely recognized, normal granular cell layer is not apparent, spongiosis in white matter. Border between molecular layer and granular layer is indiscernible. The thickened granular layer contains cells with clear nuclei and prominent nucleoli

86

Ox

Spinal muscular atrophy

Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is Possible causes- mutation of survival motor Spinal Cord: Ventral motor neuron a LMN disease- neurofibrillary neuron gene (SMN), or persistence of degeneration, necrosis, loss with central accumulation involving the neurons apoptosis by mutation in gene for Neuronal chromatolysis, satellitosis, and glial nodules of the ventral horn and brain stem. Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein (NAIP)

87

Dog

Infarction

edema and vacuolar change Result of vascular stenosis induced by affecting the folia. A central area Cerebellum: Necrosis, focally extensive, with atherosclerotic lesions, dirofilaria migration, near the medulla is necrotic and spheroids (infarction) hypercoaguable states associted with small arteries near this lesion are nephritic syndrome affected by endothelial hyperplasia

88

Pig

DDX: CSF (Flavivirus), ASFV (Asfarviridae), Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV, Coronavirus), Ontario encephalomyelitis virus and Rabies PEV (picorniviridae). Lymphocytic (Rhabdovirus), Pseudorabies (Herepes), Porcine Spinal cord: Myelitis, non-suppurative, and histiocytic cells in neuropil with Cocksakie virus B5 (Picornaviridae-Swine poliencephalomyelitis Vesic Dis), Porcine rubulavirus multifocal with neuronal necrosis and radiculitis cuffing. Motor neurons are (Porcine Teschovirus) (Paramyxoviridae), PRRSV (Arteriviridae), degenerating encephalomyocarditis virus (Picornaviridae) Bacterial meningoencephalitis (Strep suis, Haemphilus parasuis, Salmonella cholerasuis), Salt Poisoning Ventriculus- Ventriculitis, necrotizing, heterophilic and lymphohistiocytic with koilin degeneration and intraepithelial intranuclear inclusion bodies (Adenovirus) Group 1 Adenovirus- Inclusion body hepatitis, hydropericardium syndrome, gizzard erosion, necrotizing pancreatitis Group 2 Adenovirus- Turkey hemorrhagic enteritis, and Marble Spleen Disease in pheasants// Group 3 includes egg drop syndrome in chickens Periosteal proliferation of irregular and anastomosing bony trabeculae causing compression of the surrounding musculature

89

Chicken

Avian adenovirus -1

90

Raccoon

Hypertrophic osteopathy

Most ofetn associated with Radius and ulna: Periosteal exostoses, intrathoracic disease. Diaphyseal circumferential, severe, with muscular atrophy regions of long bones affected, and fibrosis also phalanges, ribs, vertebrae Pathogenesis of HO- hypoxia--> Skeletal muscle: Nematode larvae, increased blood flow to periosteumintrasarcoplasmic (trichinella) and protozoal -> osteogenesis. Cutting Vagus cysts- Sarcocystis) nerve cuases regression

91

Frog

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Skin: Epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis/ proliferative dermatitis with intraepidermal fungal organisms (phylum chytridiomycota)

Animals may have abnormal skin Primarily infects the ventral parts of the sloughing and ulceration. There is body; Three forms of Thalli- uninucleate, minimal inflammation multinucleate, and zoosporangium Uronema is an uncommon free living opportunistic ciliated protozoan of marine fish that causes acute myodegeneration and myositis, ulcerative dermatitis and occasionally meningitis and encephalitis

92

Wolf Eel

Uronema marinum

Skeletal muscle: Myositis, histiocytic, diffuse with hemorrhage and numerous ciliated protozoa

Tetrahymena causes similar lesions in freshwater fish

93

Rat

Cystitis; Pyelonephritis

Urinary bladder: cystitis, diffuse with urothelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia Kidney: Pyelonephritis with urothelial hyperplasia, tubular ectasia, cell casts and intrapelvic coccobacilli

Uroliths develop from precipitation Proteus sp can split urea via urease leading of salts or other minerals and are to hyperammonuria and lowers the pH usually associated with an organic favoring calcium phosphate and struvite nidus uroliths rats were fed a toxin

94

Rat

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia

Liver: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia with bilary hypertrophy and periportal fibrosis

95

Pig

PDNS- Gross lesions- 1.5 to 4 motnsh old- skin has round erythematous macules, papules,m Porcine Dermatitis and Haired skin: Vasculitis, necrotizing and Histologically- necrotizing vascultis with and plaques distributed over the Nephropathy syndrome suppurative diffuse, with multifocal dermal and infarction and necrosis from the submucosa perineum and hind limbs ventral (PCV-2) epidermal necrosis (infarcts) to the epidermis thorax and abdomen and ear margins; Kidneys have petechia and are swollen and pale Kidney: Glomerulitis, fibrinous and necrotizing, suppurative, with multifocal vasculitis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and proteinosis

PRRS may play a role as well 2 tissue forms of Pneumocystis: trophozoites and cysts containing sporozoites

ddx- skin lesions- Erysipelas

96

Mouse

Pneumocystic carinii

Lung: Granulomatous pneumonia with intraalveolar fungal cysts Thymus: Hypoplasia/ lymphoid hypocellularity

97

Dog

Osteosarcoma

Eye: Osteosarcoma

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is an osteoid producing mesenchymal neoplasm that arises in soft tissue without primary bone or periosteal lesions. Secondary changes in Primary tumor, with no metastasis the eye include- retinal detachment and atrophy, pre-iridial fibrovascular membrane, peripheral anterior synechia, corneal edema, and vascularization, cataractous change and hyphema ddx; Acanthomoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria sp, and Entamoeba histolytica Acanthamoeba and Balamutha can cause encephalitis and pneumonia and have two tissue forms, trophozoites and cysts

98

Macaque

Acanthomoeba sp

Lung: Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, necrotizing with amebic trophozoites and cysts

Pneumocystic carinii

Naegleria has 3 forms- trophozoit, Entamoeba histolytica infects the lower GI Lung: Interstitial pneumonia, histiocytic diffuse flagella, and cyst- CNS pathogen in tract of humans, dogs, and cats (E with intra-alveolar fungal cysts humans invadens in reptiles) Microscopic criteria for dysplasiafetal glomeruli and tubules, Kidney: Renal dysplasia characterized by fetal nephrons, primitve mesenchyme, persistent persistent mesenchyme, persistent metanephric duct and fibrosis ; also there is metanephric ducts, atypical tubular epithelium, and pyelonephritis, suppurative with coccobacilli osseous/cartilaginous metaplasia Absent the classic dumbell shaped Electron Micrograph- Bronchiolar ciliated and A-Type inclusions- Round moderately virion; A and B type Cowpox non-ciliated respiratory epithelium; degeneration inclusions and confused them for dense, coarsely granular intracytoplasmic with intracytoplasmic viral inclusions and inclusions reticulate and intermediate bodies extracellular fibrin and cellular debris of Chlamydophila sp Pox- double stranded DNA viruses; Cowpox (Orthopoxvirus genus) (used by Jenner as Small pox vaccine, now we use vaccinia) B-Type- Within A type inclusions- coarsesly granular, less dense, representing viral nucleoprotein with developing crescents of membranes

99

Dog

Renal Dysplasia

100

Mouse

Cowpox virus (orthopox)

Conference 2000-2001

Slide

Species

etiology

Morph Dx

Gross

Histo

1

1

Dog

Protein Losing enteropathy

Small Intestine: Lymphangiectasia with thin with thin haircoat, abdominal fluid, granulomatous serosal surface of intestine had dilated lymphangitis, and crypt lymphatics ectasia with neutrophilic and histiocytic inflammation

Soft Coated Wheaton Terrier is predisposed to PLE and PLN. This dog had hypoproteinemia and DIC; Lymphatic dilation with inflammation Acid fast stains showed curved rods, Mycobacteria were cultured (tuberculosis); Cord factor and Wax D contribute to hosts granulomatous response;

2

Cat (no tissue on slide)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Skin: Dermatitis and panniculits, granulomatous

firm alopecic partly ulcerated intracutaneous nodules

3

Sheep

Chlamydia (chlamydophila) pecorum

Enzootic Abortion in Ewes; focally extensive loss of trophoblast ,ayer replaced by nuclear and cell debris, Chorioallantois: Placentitis, Cheeselike debris, thickening of fibrinoid necrosis of superficial necrotizing with severe cotyledons, edema of intercotyledonary arterioles with perivascular leukocytes, vascultiis areas in the tunica media were neutrophils, and fibrin thrombi in the lumens. Vasculitis is diagnostic for Chlamydia Pathogenesis: Enteri digestive tract or respiratory tract, organisms spread hematogenously to the placenta. Organisms traverse capillary walls of maternal placenta and enter extravasated blood in lacunae. Chlamydia infect syncytiotrophoblasts forming colonies of elementary bodies in cytoplasmic vacuoles. They also replicate in the endometrial epithelium.

Within endosome bound inclusion bodes that fail to fuse with host lysosomes, elementary bodies transform to reticulate bodies and multiply and rely on host cell mitochondria.

4

Horse

Nutritional myopathy

Skeletal muscle and tongue: Myodegeneration and necrosis with mineralization and histiocytic myositis

pale, gritty with chalky appearance

White muscle disease, Vitamin E and Selenium deficiency (nutritional myopathy). Electrolye abnormalitiesHyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia; Myoglobinuria can be differentiated from hemoglobinuria by the addition of saturated ammonium sulfate, which will precipitate and remove the color caused by hemoglobin but not myoglobin ; Comparative Path: Mulberry heart dz; Hepatosis dietetica, hemolytic anemia in pigs, Steatitis (yellow fat disease) in cats horses and pigs, exudative diathesis with cerebellar hemorrhage in poultry, intestinal lipofuscinosis in dogs

2

5

Horse

Equine Viral Arteritis (arterivirus)

Necrotizinf vasculitis--> increased Large Artery: Vasculitis, vascular permeability; Respiratory necrotizing, with chronic Yellow discoloration of subcutaneous replication and alveolar macrophages -fibrosing perivascular and and mesenteric fat, yellow brown fluid > lymph nodes, endothelial replication, perineurial inflammation and in abdomen, fibrin, ecchymoses systemic distribution--> necrosis of edema tunica media DDX: EHV-1, African Horse Sickness Abortion--> decrease blood flow, (Orbivirus), Paramyxovirus (Hendra), vascular constriction, Getah virus Ovary and Mesovarium: Endometriosis, multifocal, with paraovarian cysts Lesions consist of both glands and Ectopic endometrial tissue responds to stroma. May be seen in the uterine cyclic hormonal stimulation and can serosa and adjacent pelvic structures, bleed and cause fibrous adhesions urinary bladder, lymph nodes, liver and making it hard to distinguish from lung retroperitoneal fibromatosis

6

Macaque

Endometriosis

7

Pig

8

Cat

3

9

Rabbit

10

Pig

11

Dog

Lung: Bronchointerstitial pneumonia, other lesions- lymphoid depletion and necrosuppurative, and Alveoli filled with macrophages and granulomatous lymphadenitis; PRRS histiocytic with neutrophils. Airways surrounded by PCV-2/PRRS (Arterivirus) and PCV-2. PMWS is intrahistiocytic amphophilic lymphocytes and eosinophils found in younf pigs. to basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions Kidney: Acute tubular nuclei are pyknotic, cytoplasm is Acute tubular necrosis/ necrosis, with regeneration, vacuolated. Basement membranes are tubular protein and granular Easter lilly intact. Easter lilly Toxicity casts Haired skin: Atypical causes fibromas in Sylvilagus and mesenchymal proliferation Leporipoxvirus(Poxviridae)related to Oryctolagua spp- rare in hares (Lepus)with eosinophilic Shope fibroma/ myxomatosis virus and to hare and mechanical transmission by biting intracytoplasmic inclusion Leporipoxvirus squirrel fibroma viruses arthropods. Cell mediated immunity bodies and heterophilic causes regression inflammation Heart: Epicarditis and subepicardial myocarditis, Haemophilus parasuis Polyserositis and DDX: Mycoplasma hyorhinis, fibrinous and necrotizing (Glasser's) meningoencephalomyelitis. Streptococcus suis type II //Lung: fibrinous and necrotizing pleuritis Kidney: Amyloidosis, generalized, glomerular and amyloidosis with aortic thrombosis. Nephrotic syndromemultifocal medullary// Renal amyloidosis/ Usually AA amyloid, indiopathic from Hypoproteinemia, Nephritis, interstitial, Aortic thrombosis SAA. Proteinuria leads to coagulative hypercholesterolemia, lymphoplasmacytic with disorders. hypoalbuminemia, tubular mineralization// Aterial thrombosis, fibrosis Uterus: Adenocarcinoma of Uterine adenocarcinoma endometrium// Endometritis, suppurative, multifocal Common in cats, progestin may be a factor

12

Cat

4

13

Macaque

Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcoma range from strap like musce cells to rounded anaplastic ddx of nests and cords: neuroendocrine cells. The presence of binucleate Leiomyosarcoma, epithelioid carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma cells, nuclear folding, and vacuolation of cells hints a smooth muscle origin. Spleen: Necrosis, infarct with intrlesional bacilli and necrotizing vasculitis Salmonella uses fibriae and pilar adhesins to enter M cells and survives in macrophages lesions: fibrinonecrotic enterocolitis, button ulcers, interstitial pneumonia, hepatic necrosis or granulomas (paratyphoid nodules) septicemia

14

Pig

Salmonella cholerasuis

15

Cat

FHV-1/ Mycoplasma felis

16

Red Fox

Sarcoptes scabei var canis

5

17

Llama

Yersinia pestis

Lung: Bronchointerstitial pneumonia, necrotizing, and fibrinous, with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and Alpha-herpesvirus is primarily cytolytic rare syncytia and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation Haired skin: Proliferative and hyperkeratotic strong Type 1 hypersensitivitydermatitis, eosinophilic and vasoactive amines, complement neutrophilic with intracorneal activation, eosinophils acarids, cocci and yeast (Sarcoptes) Lung: Necrotizing replicates in monocytes but destroyed pneumonia, embolic with by neutrophils bacterial bacilli Kidney: fibrosis, interstitial, multifocal, mild with tubular dilation, proteinosis, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis Spontaneous disease of guinea pigs causing bilaterally irregular and pitted kidneys Septicemia, vasculitis, thrombosis, PTAH showed intravascular fibrin strands and clumps consistent with DIC: Large colony bacteria= Yersinia, Actinomyces, Actinobacillus, Arcanobacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus Wi-1-adhesion protein upregulated in yeast IHC for Immunoglobulin positive = Plasma cell tumor require disruption of mucosal barriers; Fimbriae bind to specific cell surface receptors on other bacteria create a complex that inhibits neutrophil phagocytosis and bactericidal activity

BHV-1 (IBR), EHV-4, GHV-1 (ILT)

spread by flea bites or inhaled or swallowed directly

18

Guniea pig

Nephrosclerosis with mineralization

may be arteriosclerosis and proliferative endarteritis: Am J Pathol. 1970 July; 60(1): 103±118.

19

Pig

Actinobacillis suis

Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, embolic, with bacterial bacilli

DDX: Salmonella cholerasuis, Erysipelothrix, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Leptospira pomona, Haemophilus parasuis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, E coli, Strep suis hypercalcemia due to granulomatous inflammation--> metabolism of 25hydroxycholecalciferol --> 1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol

20

Cat

Blastomyces dermatitidis Plasma cell tumor

Lung: Pyogranulomatous pneumonia with budding yeast DDX: Histiocytoma,Merkel cell tumor Haired Skin: Dermatitis and panniculitis, pyogranulomatous, with colonies of filamentous bacteria (sulfur granules) Haired skin: Panniculitis, necrotizing, suppurative and histiocytic with focal intrahistiocytic yellow pigment

6

21

Dog

22

Cat

Actinomyces viscosus

Neutrophil chemotaxis, macrophage activation, and B lymphocyte hyperplasia

23

Cat

Pansteatitis (yellow fat dz)

Gross the SQ fat is firm and yellow brown due to ceroid pigment

diet high in unsaturated fatty acids and deficient in Vit E

24

Cat

Toxoplasma gondii

Haired skin: Dermatitis, necrotizing, subacute, with Protozoa zoites are 1-2 um wide and 2epidermal hyperplasia, 6 um long- with pyogranulomatous subbasilar clefts, epidermal inflammation degeneration, necrosis, and intracellular and extracellular tachyzoites cutaneous lesions- alopecia, pruritis// Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis// Splenomagaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy, intestinal ulceration Apolipoprotein E deficient mouse// Watanabe rabbits have a heritable hyperlipidemic disorder and hyperchlesterolemia (Defect in LDL receptor)

7

25

Dog

Spleen: Splenitis, histiocytic with plasmacytosis, Leishmaniasis, visceral lymphoid hyperplasia and intrahistiocytic amastigotes Haired skin: Dermatitis, xanthogranulomatous, with acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and ulceration

DDX- cytology- Sporothrix, histoplsmosis

26

Mouse

Xanthoma

27

Rabbit

Pasteurella multocida

28

Chicken

Infectious laryngotracheitis (AlphaherpesvirusGallid Herpes 1)

Lung: Bronchopneumonia, Strain virulence is the major necrotizing and suppurative, pneumonic ands septicemic disease ic determinant of disease. Mucoid strains with pleuritis and numerous aused by serogroup A > D are better able to colonize bacilli airborne transmission, infects Lung: Bronchopneumonia, respiratory epithelium, loss of goblet necrotizing, heterophilic and cells, and cilis, submucosal edema, lymphohistiocytic, with syncytial cells, and lymphocytes, syncytia and eosinophilic plasma cells, and macrophages intranuclear inclusions infiltrate, then cytolytic destruction of and desquamation Stomach: Mucosal neck epithelial cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy with edema, granular cell loss, superficial protozoal organisms 2-6 um intracellular, extracytoplasmic location within parasiophorus vacuoles containing trophozoites which proliferate asexually by merogeny, then sexually by gametogeny. Zygotes produce sporulated oocysts with 4 sporozoites.

8

29

Boa

Cryptosporidiosis

30

Cat

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ, multicentric

characteristics- cellular atypia, mitotic ddx: actinic keratosis figures more than 3 cell layers above (clinical presentation is the basal cell layer, dyskeratotic different- pale skin only, less keratinocytes, disorderly maturation of haired areas) the epidermis Haired skin: Fibropapilloma, feline sarcoid Eye: Malignant Rhabdoid tumor Kidney: Histiocytic sarcoma with tubular epithelial cell hyaline droplets BPV-1 large polygonal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Paranuclear globular inclusions composed of intermediate filaments liver of males, and uteri of females. Mac-2 +, Lysozyme +/// erythrophagocytosis, MNGC

25% invade, but no metastasis, some have Papillomavirus antigen

31

Cat

Feline fibropapilloma (sarcoid) Rhabdoid tumor, malignant

32

Horse

Vim+, Cyt+/-, GFAP +/-, Neg for Demin and SMA

9

33

Mouse

Histiocytic sarcoma

34

Rat

Tubular hyaline droplet may be causes by release of nephrosis lysozyme Lung: Malignant neoplasm, Mammary carcinoma, perivascular and subpleural metastatic SD rat

Tamoxifen- antagonist of estrogen receptor in mammary gland radiation induced endothelial injury --> protein rich exudate and expansion of alveolar septae. Fibrin strands and lsoughed epithelium form hyaline membranes and are eventually replaced by collagen (fibrosis). Irradiation causes depression in local tissue plasminogen activator levels.

35

Rhesus

Radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis

Lung: Fibrosis, interstitial, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar histiocytosis, and multifocal multinucleate cells

I would have called this histiocytic pneumonia

36

Alpaca

Haired skin: Dermatitis, orthopoxviruses infect a lot of species. proliferative and necrotizing Proliferation is due to viral gene with balooning degeneration product homologous to EGF. VI Orthopoxviral dermatitis and numerous epithelial serology, EM required to differentiate intracytoplasmic inclusion closely related orthopaoxviruses. bodies Sporangia- (mature) up to 300 um and contain manu 2-10um endospores;;; Endospores are released and develop into trophocytes (up tto 100 um) with a single nucleus and prominent nucleolus::::Prototheca, Chlorella, and Coccidioides also reproduce by endosporulation Affects rabbits of the Orytolagus genus (not Cottontails Sylvilagus) ot Lepus Genus////// Apoptotic cells- shrinkage, chromatin margination, blebbing, nuclear condensation, fragmentation. Detection of apoptosis by TUNEL and EM

10

37

Horse

Rhinosporidium seeberi

Nasal Mucosa: Inflammatory Polyp with sporangia and tophocytes

DRIPS clade: Aquatic protists parasites. Dermocystidium, The Rosette Agent, Ichthyophonus, and Psorospermium

38

Rabbit

Rabbit Calicivurus (Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease)

Severe loss of hepatocytes is thought to lead to DIC. (large release of Liver: Hepatocellular thromboplastins). Hepatocellular death dissociation, Necrosis, is by apoptosis (no significant diffuse, to submassive with inflammation). Apoptosis has been apoptosis reported in macrophages, endothelium, monocytes, lymphoid organs, and heart Lung: Hemorrhage, multifocal with occasional thrombi

39

Rat

40

Monkey

necrosis, macrophages, neutrophils, Herderian GlandL and porphyrin pigment with evidence of Sialodacryoadenitis Dacryoadenitis, necrotizing, regeneration. After 1 week of infection virus (Rat Coronavirus) subacute, diffuse, severe squamous metaplasia is with squamous metaplasia pathognomonic Lung: Bronchopneumonia,necrohe Bordatella adhere to cilia, replicate and cause morhagic and bronchiseptica stasis and host cell necrosis fibrinosuppurative with cilia associated coccobacilli Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (johnes) villus atrophy and edema, SI: Enteritis, granulomatous, malabsorption and filtration secrcetion, diffuse, severe, with hypoproteinemia, aortic subintimal intrahistiocytic bacilli fibrosis and mineralization, ileocecal lymphadenopathy, lymphangitis

ddx: Strep pneumoniae, Legionella, Pasteurella, Haemophilus influenza, measles, simian varicella, cytomegalovirus

11

41

Ox

42

Pig

Brain: Cerebral cortical necrosis, laminar with edema, and Water deprivation; Salt lymphoplasmacytic and toxicosis eosinophilic encephalitis and mineralization F18 fimbriae and Shiga toxin 2 e, susceptibility is determined by the presence of F18 receptors (coincides with weaning). vascular medial necrosis, in brain stem, submucosa, GI tract and mesocolon ddx: Porcine herpesvirus-1 (pseudorabies), Salmonella meningoencephalitis, Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Salt toxicosis, and PCV-2 lesions of cerebellar hemorrhage chicks, quail, duck, pheasants, and guinea fowl. Transovarian transmission, Gross lesions- sepsis, congestion, caseous yolk material, white nodules in the lungs, fibrinous pericarditis, swollen joints, hypopyon Toxin binds to crypt enterocytes and is absormbed into blood, binds to susceptible vasculature (fucosyltransferase). Receptors are glycolipids (Gb4) expressed in many organs affected by ST2e//// Stx2e binds to both endothelium and media or arterioles

43

Pig

Shiga toxin-2e E coli (Edema disease)

SI: Vasculitis, necrotizing, fibrinoid, multifocal, moderate

Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2 are homologous to Stx2e--> hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans

44

Chicken

Salmonella pullorum (pullorum disease)

12

45

Dog

Angiostrongylus vasorum

46

Marmoset

Hepatic lipidosis

Joints and tendon sheath DDX: Mycoplasma synoviae, Ovary and Mesentery: Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella Oophoritis and egg yolk multocida, Erysipelothrix peritonitis, granulomatous rhusiopathiae:: Ovarian ddx: E coli, and heterophilic with bacilli Staph, Strep, P multocida, and other salmonella Lung: Pneumonia and Adult worm causes proliferative Indirect life cycle- L1 coughed into pleuritis, granulomatous, endarteritis, eggs and larvae cause pahrynx, excreted in feces--> slugs fibrosing, diffuse, with capillary obstruction and damage and and snails--> L3--> dogs ingest L3 and arteritis, thrombosis, pneumonia, infarcts////pathogensis of they penetrate the alimientary tract and infarction, hemorrhage, arteritis is not well understoof/// go to LN --> L5 in LN--> migrate to metastrongyle larvae and Pulmonary fibrosis and induration, right ventricle and pulmonary artery via eggs and few intravascular hydrothorax, hydropericardium, hepatic portal vein/// Recently also found in adults stasis with ascites Canada Fatal Fasting Syndrome- adult Old ddx: hepatic steatosis from World primate females, overweight with Liver: Hepatocyte vacuolar hypothyroidism, diabetes, toxemia/// short period of anorexia leading to change, lipid type, diffuse This animal had gastric mucormycosis death. Lipidosis in renal tubule epithelium as well circulating antibodies are not protective against infection. Cytopathic effect in lung epithelium. Can lead to bronchiolitis obliterans and obstructive bronchiectasis. BRSV interstitial pneumonia, hyaline Lung: Pneumonia, membranes, alveoalr epithelialization activate cells can activate compliment-bronchointerstitial, > C3a and C5a and induce are common findings with syncytia and multifocal, with interlobular bronchoconstriction, neutrophil inclusions pathognomonic///////DDX: edema, epithelial syncytia, Parainfluenza 3 (paramyxovirus) also chemotaxis and mast cell activation -eosinophilic intracytoplsmic can cause syncytia and eosinophilic > Histamine, PAF, LT/// C5 a activates inclusions inclusions lipoxygenase pathway in neutrophils and macrophages --> bronchoconstriction and increased vascular permeability (edema and emphysema) Heart: Pancarditis, necrotizing, lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic, multifocal Culex pipiens is vector: ddx: Exotic Newcastle (Chckens and turkeys), Flaviviridae arbovirus (Japanese HPAI, EEE(arbovirus) (Emus highly encephalitis complex) sensitive), chickens, turkeys and emus were not affected by WNV large numbers of well developed renal in chickens nephroblastoma is induced tubules with many primitive glomeruli by myoblastosis associated and scattered mesenchymal tissue and retroviruses. Can invade the spinal increased hematopoietic tissue cord in puppies) can procude insulin, glucagon, or gastrin (humans)- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome- GI ulceration due to extreme gastric acid secretion "kunkers"- vascular sequestra or necrotic cores; grossly resembles malignant edema, exhuberant granulation tissue, sarcoid, severe habronemiasis

47

Ox

BRSV (pneumovirus, paramyxoviridae)

48

Flamingo

West Nile Virus

13

49

Trout

Nephroblastoma (genetically predisposed)

Kidney: Nephroblastoma

50

Cat

Pancreatic Islet cell tumor

Pancreas: Islet cell tumor with amyloid, and atrophy, lobular exocrine atrophy with duct hyperplasia, peripancreatic fat necrosis with mineralization and steatitis Colon: Colitis, eosinophilic and granulomatous, transmural, diffuse, with granulation tissue and hyphae

51

Horse

Pythium insidiosum

Pythium is a protist. Infection of zoospores occurs through invasion of damaged tissue, penetrating wounds, or ingestion of contaminated water

52

Capuchin

Francisella tularensis

Lung: Bronchopneumonia, histiocytic and neutrophilic, Francisella tularensis biovar tularensis diffuse, with type II (Type A) is significant in human pneumocyte hyperplasia and disease in NA fibrinous pleuritis

14

53

Falcon

3 forms in brids: visceral, muscular and Skeletal muscle: Sarcocysts nervous// Sarcocystis falculata is a Sarcocystis encephalitis with multifocal myofiber likely possibility (Opossom is definitive degeneration and necrosis host) Brain: Encephalitis, endopolygeny- multiple zoites radiating lymhoplasmacytic and off a central organisms- distinctive heterophilic, necrotizing with feature of some apicomplexans (not gliosis and coccidia Toxoplasma) Lung: Pneumonia, fibrinonecrotic, chronic diffuse with peribronchiolar lymphoid hyperplasia and marked septal and avleolar edema Haired skin: dermatitis, lmyphohistiocytic and neutrophilic, with epidermal and follicular epithelial hyperplasia, dermal mesenchymal cell proliferation, epithelial balooning degeneration, intracytoplasmic inclusions Kidney: Tubular dilatation with interstitial mesenchymal proliferation, epithelial balooning degeneration, and epithelial and mesenchymal inclusions carbohydrate galactan- similar effects to endotoxins; ddx; acute mannheimiosis, Pasteurella multocida types B and E (hemorrhagic septicemia);; Chronic diseaseActinobacillosi, echinococcus cysts, foreign bodt, fungal pneumonia

54

Ox

Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides SC

gross lesions- marbling, pleuritis, interlobular fibrinous edema

55

Squirrel

Squirrel Poxvirus (leporipoxvirus)

genus includes shope fibroma, and myxoma virus or rabbits

56

conure

Squamous cell carcinoma spindle cell sarcoma, Avian retrovirus

15

57

Chicken

basaloid is an apt description- papillary Esophagus, adjacent to the surface colonization by yeast 3-6 um), infiltrative, transmural, prominent basal proventriculus: Squamous pseudohyphae, and puaci-septate cell component and papillary cell carcinoma hyphae (3-5 um) (Candida) hyperkeratosis Retroviridae, Alpharetrovirus, Avian Spleen: Spindle cell bundles of spindle cells with abundant type C retrovirus (Avian Leukosis virus, cytoplasm and collagen fibers sarcoma and Avian sarcoma virus) Heart, small intestine, kidney: Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, membranous, global, multifocal, with minimal interstitial fibrosis frequent change in broilers without retroviruses

58

Dog

59

Horse

60

Goat

16

61

Baboon

Small intestine: Necrosis, lecithinase (Alpha toxin)- hemolytic and villar, diffuse, with focal cytotoxic: Enterotoxin is released upon hemorrhage and numerous lysis of sporulating cells surfcae adherent bacilli Multisystemic granulomatous Haired skin: dermatitis and inflammation (systemic granulomatous disease of horses) or equine panniculitis, granulomatous, Vicia bengelensis (Hairy diffuse, with ulceration, sarcoidosis. Similar disease has been vetch) hyperkeratosis, and attributed to ingestion of citrus pulp. intracorneal microabscesses In cattle there is often a prominent eosinophilic component Liver: Degeneration, hepatocellular, diffuse, anemia, depigmentation, moderate with lipid type copper deficiency and achromotrichia, osteoporosis, vacuolar change, bridging Molybdenosis malformed growth plates, liver portal fibrosis, biliary changes, demyelination, gi ulcers hyperplasia, and granular golden brown pigment Colon: tunica muscularis usually asymptomatic; gross lesions and submucosa, Schistosoma mansoni include serosal granulomas in colon granulomas with and Oesophagostomum hemorrhage, hemosiderin, and cecum and mesentery, may cause peritonitis hematoidin and few nematode parasites Colon: Colitis, granulomatous, multifocal with schistosome eggs Clostridium perfringens A Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lung: Granulomas, caseous and epithelioid, multifocal with granulomatous ulcerative bronchiolitis M bovis and M tuberculosis have not yet been reported in USA elephants

this was an experimental study--> fatty liver necrosis, bridging portal fibrosis, bile duct proliferation

Schistosoma is usually an incidental finding; High tissue eosinophilis and MNGC are typical in man and baboon; Antibody and Th1, Th2, cytokines help resist infection

62

Elephant

63

goldfish

Hoferellus carassi Trunk Kidney: Tubular (kidney enlargement hypertrophy and epithelial disease, Polycystic hyperplasia, diffuse with kidney disease, kidney apical cytoplasmic protozoa bloater) and few granulomas Tongue: Glossitis, necrotizing and ulcerative, focally extensive with Herpesviral, necrotizing epithelial eosinophilic glossitis (alpha) intranuclear inclusion bodies, syncytia, and superficial bacterial colonies

Myxosporan-2 host life cycle, infective Early stages of trophozoites in renal stage develops in oligocete worm epithelium have been shown to induce (annelid)--> release actinosporea tubular hypertrophy and epithelial forming an aurantiactinomyxon spore-hyperplasia > infect goldfish kidney, trophozoites develop in the renal epithelium

64

Tortoise

usually involve the oral cavity

17

65

Ox

Osteosclerosis BVD

osteoclastic dysfunction- lack of hydrolytic enzymes or their secretion local mediators of resorption include ILinto the bone interface, defects in the Bone, metaphysis: 1, IL-3, IL-6, IL-11 and GM-CSF. ruffled brush border or its bony Osteosclerosis, multifocal BVDV is known to induce production of with retained cartilage cores attachment or interface with stem cell soluble IL-1 inhibitor differentiation, interference with matrix mineralization or osteoclast binding Haired skin and PhalanxAdenocarcinoma with cilia and goblet cell differentiation Bone: Osteopenia of compact bone, diffuse with endosteal and myxoid fibrosis, periosteal osteocartilaginous proliferation PAS positive cells differentiate from SCC Vit D required for intestinal absorption of calcium and regulation of calcium and phosphorus balance. Requires sunlight UVB (290-315 nm) Dietary supplement alone is inadequate. Skin temperature is important. Synovial chondroid metaplasia or synovial chondromatosis- chondral or osteochrondral nodule formation in synovial tissue and may form joint mice. This happens without any inflammation but may contribute to degenerative joint disease

66

Cat

Metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma

67

Lizard

fibrous osteodystrophy

68

Dog

Synovial chondromatosis

Synovium: hyperplasia, diffuse with mutifocal nodular cartilaginous metaplasia

primary is less common, secondary synovial chondromatosis occurs after traumatic degenerative or inflammatory joint diseases.

18

69

Horse

70

Gazelle

Small Intestine: Enteritis, proliferative, histiocytic, and Entry of bacteria into cells is an active neutrophilic, moderate with Some coccidosis and foreign body process of uptake through the cell villar blunting and fusion, abscess; Lawsonia lesions are membrane into endocytic vacuoles, Lawsonia intracellularis crypt abscesses and dependent on a particular mix fo The bacteria then release from the numerous intraepithelial intestinal microflora. vacuoles and replicate in the argyrophilic curved bacilli cytoplasm (Lawsonia) Stratified squamous epithelium (Skin)8-43 um, EM showed cholorplasts, Granulomatous dermatitis Other ddx: Rhinosporidium, chlorella dermatitis Chlorella contain Pas positive granules with granulation tissue and Coccidioides ddx: Prototheca numerous endosporulating algae Peroxisomal hypertrophy and proliferation (EM) Liver: Hepatocellular hypertrophy with marked peroxisomal proliferation and hypertrophy Granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and Ultrastructurally- 2-3 times the size, loss of cytoplasmic basophilia, increased number of peroxisomes (0.5increase dmitoses, increased 3 um) elongated and fill the cytoplasm. binucelate cells and karyomegaly, foci ER is dilated and contains scant of necrosis with hemorrhage osmophilic (Proteinaceous) material TGF-B are known to induce chondrogenic or osteogenic expression in mesenchymal cells: Osteomas are a peripheral highly cellular periosteumsolitary benign tumors on the head that like zone surrounds well formed blend with underlying bone and are catilage and bony trabeculae lined by composed of essentially normal numerous osteoblasts mature well differentiated bone typically formed by intramembranous ossification

71

Rat

72

Dog

Malignant melanoma with reactive bone

Oral mucosa: Malignant melanoma with reactive bone

19

73

Dog

Lipid storage disease

Liver: Histiocytosis, diffuse Canine lipid storage disesae of fox Lipid containing macrophages in with lipid vacuolation and terriers- lipid stored in lysosomes, in tissues- liver, spleen, lymph nodes, villicholesterol clefts, necrosis, humans there is an inherited enzyme Lipid shows birefringence and mineralization dieficiency. Spleen: Histiocytosis, diffuse with lipid vacuolation and cholesterol clefts Odontogenic tumors in Tg.AC mice is expansile unencapsulated mass that 35%. They come in three patterns- 1) invades teeth and bone. Long Primarily mesenchymal cells in a anastomosing chords (2 cells thick) dense fibrous -like matrix, 2) loose Mandible, orla mucosa, and and thin ribbons of cuboidal epithelial stroma surrounded by anastomosing subepithelial connective cells, closely associated with loose cords of epithelial cells with squamous tissue: Odontogenic tumor undifferentiated stroma. Epithelium is differentiation, 3) Odontomas forming pallisading and sometimes show mineralized tooth structures by well squamous differentitation. Remnant differentiated odontoblasts and islands of bone and tooth are present. ameloblasts. Kainic acid is isolated from the seaweed Digenea simplex. Structurally Lesions typically found in CA1 and Cerebral cortex: Occipital related to domoic acid, it can cross the CA3 of hippocampus, amygdala, and pyriform lobes, blood brain barrier causing neuronal septum, entorhinal cortex, medial hippocampus, Neuronal cell death. Damage approximates thalamus, pyriform cortes, and midline necrosis, multifocal temporal lobe siezures and Alzheimers hypothalamus. disease. Adenomas- cytologic atypia and lack Polyps- well formed glands and crypts, Small Intestine: Adenomas, of differentiation characterize most of which show differentiation into multiple adenomas/ Carcinoma- anaplasia plus mature goblet or absorptive cells invasion Min mouse is model for APC mutations result in increased B Familial Adenomatous catenin in epithelial cells inducing Polyposis (FAP)- an intestinal epithelial cell hyperplasia and inherited AD gene- APC a inhibit migration of these cells out of th tumor suppressor gene crypts Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, multifocal, moderate with numerous encapsulated yeast Lung: Bronchiolitis, cetacean lungs- cartilage rings down to thick mucoid capsule is thought to granulomatous and terminal airways (aid in re-inflation eosinophilic, focal, moderate interfere with antigen presentation and after deep dives), Capillaries present with bronchiectasis and causes lack of immune response on both sides of alveolar septae intraluminal metastrongyles Spleen: Splenitis, histiocytic, diffuse, with numerous intrahistiocytic bacilli and lymphoid depletion Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, histiocytic, diffuse, with numerous intrahistiocytic and intramonocytic bacilli reaction to injury hypothesis-proposes endothelial injury, cause dby hyperlipidemia, initiates a cascade of increased endothelial permeability, intimal lipid accumulation, platelet and monocytic adhesion, migration of smooth muscle cells into the intima, smooth muscle proliferation, synthesis of extracellular matrix components, and accumulation of lipid in macrophages and smooth muscle cells and extracellularly

74

Mouse

Odontogenic tumor

75

Rat

Kainic acid induced neuronal necrosis

76

Mouse

adenoma; Multiple intestinal neoplasia mutation (Min)

20

77

Porpoise

Cryptococcus neoformans

78

Pheasant

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

79

Walrus

Atherosclerosis

Heart: Coronary Arteries, Atherosclerosis, moderate with intimal foam cells, cholesterol clefts, fibrosis, mineralization, and luminal attenuation

Heart: Myocardium, Replacement fibrosis, multifocally extensive

80

Cat

Plasmacytoma with amyloid

Stratified squamous epithelium overlying fibrous AL type amyloid is derived from plasma connective tissue and cells and contains abundant Ig Light skeletal muscle (gingiva per chain contributor) Plasmacytoma with amyloid Coliform mastitis- severe, acute post calving, and dry off infection. Envoronmental contaminants enter the relaxed teat sphincter. Deer adenovirus has tropism for endothelial cells- ulceration of mouth, forestomachs, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage

21

81

Ox

82

Moose

83

Antelope

Mammary Gland: Mastitis, necrotizing, acute, diffuse E coli mastitis with interlobular edema, necrotizing lymphangitis, and intra-alveolar bacteria Large Intestine: Vasculitis, necrotizing, acute diffuse, Adenoviral hemorrhagic moderate with endothelial basophilic intranuclear disease inclusions, hemorrhage, and edema Lung: Vasculitis, necrotizing, acute, diffuse, with interstitial edema, hemorrhage rare fibrin thrombi and basophilic inclusions Buccal mucosa, salivary glands, haired skin: Stomatitis, necrotizing, Fusobacterium focally extensive, severe, necrophorum with mineralization, and myriad filamentous bacilli, and colonies of cocci Rumen: Rumenitis, necrotizing, acute, focally extensive, severe, with myriad filamentous bacteria

secondary oral and ruminal abscesses with Fusobacterium and Arcanobacterium

Adenoviral Hemorrhagic DiseaseClosely related to Bovine Adenovirus -3

ddx- bluetongue, Jabaraki, EHD (orbivirus)

Systemic necrobacillosis, often isolated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Initial cases with draining foot lesions contaminated ground water, and minor lesions in the mouth allowed colonization

84

Horse

Cystic adenomatous allantoic hyperplasia

Chorioallantois: hyperplasia, allantois is normally nonglandular and adenomatous and cysticm nonsecretory. The proliferative lesion allantoic, multifocal with may be secondary to chronic placental inflammation disorders. Chorioallantois: Allantochorionitis (placentitis), necrotizing with many filamentous bacteria Chorioallantois: Placentitis, cotyledonary and intercotyledonary. Necrotizing, subacute, with vasculitis and myriad intracellular bacteria Rickettsiae are small coccoid to bacilli shaped organisms ddx: Chlamyidophila abortus, and Brucella, spp Coxiella is a member of Rickettsiaceae. Q fever in humans is characterized by atypical pneumonia, fever, hepatitis Brucella ovis and C. abortus does not affect intercotyledonary areas and placentome Animals get infected through Coxiellacontaining feces of ticks. Infectioin in the flock spreads by aerosol or eating placentas. Sheeo cattle and goats are reservoirs.

22

85

Sheep

Coxiella burnetti placentitis

86

Goat

Lung: Pneumonia, Peste Dea Petit ruminants/ Rinderpest bronchointerstitial, with type (cattle)- morbiliivirus- Oral erosions, Peste de petit ruminants II pneumocyte hyperplasia, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, dehydration, (Morbillivirus) syncytial cells, intranuclear and death. Rinderpest usually does not and intracytoplasmic progress to pneumonia, but PPR does eosinophilic inclusions Lymph node: Hemorrhage, Flaviviridae, pestivirus- may appear widespread vasculopathy leading to medullary with similar to African Swine Fever, hemorrhage and infarctions erythrophagocytosis and erysipelas, and septicemic hemosiderosis salmonellosis Lymph node: Lymphoid depletion Cerebrum and meninges: MCF viruses: WTD-MCF virus Ovine Herpes virus-2 Vasculitis, lymphocytic, (gammaherpes), OHV-2, AHV-1, CpHV(MCF) diffuse, mild to moderate 2 with perivascular edema Haired skin: Dermatitis, H capsulatum var capsulatum is 2-4 African large form histoplasmosis- H. granulomatous, nodular, um, Coccidioides is smaller than capsulatum var duboisii. Natural multifocal and coalescing, Histoplasma duboisii, Coccidioides is 5-25 um infection reported in baboons and capsulatum var duboisii with ulceration, epidermal spherules, Blastomyces is similar in humans. 8-15 um diameter with thick hyperplasia, and numerous size and shape but has broad based walls and single narrow based buds intrahistiocytic yeast budding and lack of chain formation Ruminants- negri bodies found most consistently in purkinje cells/ Carnivores- hippocampal cells/ Initial Spinal cord: Myelitis, non furious vs paralytic formreplication is in muscle then suppurative, multifocal with Polioencephalomyelitis and transmission to motor neuron perivascular hemorrhage, ganglioneuritis, non-suppurative. Rabies synapses, and retrograde axoplasmic and neuronal eosinophilic Negri bodies are round 2-8 um they flow to the CNS. Then there is intracytoplasmic inclusion may contain internal basophilic centrifugal spread to the peripheral bodies stippling and and peripheral halo. nerves and salivary glands. The virus replicates in the acinar epithelium and buds into the lumen. Gross ddx: Caseous lymphadenitis Liver: Granulomas with (Corynebacterium ovis). Opportunistic intrahistiocytic coccobacilli, pathogen, ubiquitous. Goats can be portal hepatitis, Rhodococcus equi infected with innocuous strains lacking lymphoplasmcytic with VapA. Goats may be inherently biliary hyperplasia susceptible Trabeculat bone, epithelial lined spaces, connective M bovis- Mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis, tissue and stratified Auditory bulla- Severe chronic synovitis and genital infections, otitis Mycoplasma bovis squamous epithelium: suppurative otitis media media similar to pigs with Mycoplasma Necrosis and inflammation, hyorhinis suppurative with ractive bone formation Classical Swine Fever (Pestivirus) Neuronal vacuolar degeneration Cerebellum and brain stem: Autolytic changes resulted in Neuronal vacuolation and vacuolation surrounding Purkinje cells; degeneration, multifocal, DDX- metabolic storage disease moderate DDx: Familial lower motor neuron disease, neuroaxonal dystrophy, leukoencephalomyelopathy

87

Pig

88

Pig

23

89

Baboon

90

Ox

91

Goat

92

Ox

24

93

Dog

94

Deer

Encephalopathy with rosenthal fibers

Rosenthal fibers tend to accumulate beneath the pia mater, around blood Cerebellum: Encephalopathy thought to represent a chronic vessels, and ependyma of both grey with numerous Rosenthal metabolic stress response to unknown and white matter. Composed of Alpha fibers and demyelination deleterious stimuli B- crystallin (related to Heat shock protein) Proliferative disease of microglia or macroglia cells. Regarded as neoplastic, diffuse, insidious growth . gliomatosis cerebri blends with surrounding neuropil, and may be Cerebellum and brainstem: Can be perivascular. Microglia are a constituent part of the phagocytic and detected only by subtle enlargement of Gliomatosis cerebri immunocomponenet system of the the infiltrated stuctures CNS and are believed to originate from bone marrow derived macrophages. In utero infections with Parvovirus, Progressive loss of purkinje cells with BVD, CSF and toxins may result of Cerebellum: Purkinje cell decrease in overall mass is hallmark of cerebellar hypoplasia by producing degeneration and loss of cerebellar cortical abiotrophy. Because degeneration and necrosis of germinal purkinje cells with secondary of the nutritive synaptic link of Purkinje cells which histologically results in granular cell loss and cells with granular cell neurons loss of disorganization of Purkinje cells and molecular layer atrophy purkinje cells results in reduction og disruption of normal architecture. (cortical abiotrophy) granule neurons. When severe there is Cerebellar abiotrophy affects the atrophy of the molecular layer cerebellum after it has developed fully. Urinary bladder: Ulceration, Other lesions: myocardial degeneration diffuse, with mucosal and necrosis fibroplasia and neovascularization StomachL Epithelial degeneration, necrosis and loss with subacute gastritis Large Intestine: Colitis, subacute, diffuse, moderate, Hepatomegaly with multifocal random necrosis. Bacteria can be seen in with crypt epithelial hepatocytes, myocardium and hyperplasia, goblet cell loss, intestinal epithelium and intraepithelial filamentous bacilli cyst is lined by keratinized squamous epithelium similar to oropharyngeal ddx: Pharyngeal puch cysts, epithelium. The cyst wall contains parathyroid cysts, branchial cysts, numerous primitive epithelial ducts ultimobranchial duct cysts, follicular that merge into normal appearing cysts, and salivary mucocoeles. follicles. Foreign body may cause abscess. Myelocytomatosis- bone marrow intersinusoidal spaces are filled with primitive myeloid stem cells and Myelocytomatosis, myeloid leukosis, neoplastic myelocytes that appear to and myelocytoma are all neoplastic arrest their differentitation at the nonconditions cause dby Avian Leukosis granuloated or granulated level. Virus -J. Meat type chickens are the Neoplasms often extend through the traget cell periosteum forming distinctive soft friable nodular masses often at costochondral junctions DDX: Plasmacytoma, histiocytoma, IGG mediated regression. Some mast cell tumor, lymphoma, progrssive tumors evade imune system melanoma. The uniform chromatin by secreting a tumor-associated pattern, lack of cell nuclear atypia, antigen that blocks antibody multifocal individiual necrosis, were development. compatible with TVT Cytomegalovirus (betaherpes) is a ddx: virus is found in macrophages, endothelium and epithelial cells. Affected tissues have necrosis with neutrophils, inclusions are eosinophilic.

95

Dog

Gliomatosis cerebri

96

Dog

Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy

25

97

Horse

Cantharidin cystitis

98

Hamster

Clostridium piliforme

99

Sheep

Fibrovascular tissue: Ectopic thyroid gland and squamous epithelial lined cyst Thyroglossal duct cyst (thyroglossal duct cyst) with chronic active inflammation, ulceration and granulation tissue

100

Chicken

Avian leukosis virus type J (Myelocytomatosis)

Ovary: Myelocytoma

26

101

Dog

Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT)

AFIP: Mucocutaneous junction: Transmissible venereal tumor

102

Rhesus

SIV infection causes Lung: Pneumonia, immunosuppression. Most adenovirus bronchointerstitial, infections are systemic, but some have necrotizing, with type II Adenoviral pneumonia tropism for respiratory epithelium or pneumocyte hyperplasia, enterocytes. Persistent infectionsin fibrinous pleuritis, and pharyngeal lymphoid tissue can serve basophilic nuclear inclusions as source of infection. Chorioamnion: Chorioamnionitis, Group B strep was isolated from the neutrophilic, with fibrinoid stomach, and Group G strep was found vasculitis, and extracellular in the vagina cocci Lung: Pneumonia Nasal Cavity: Neuroblastoma, olfactory

103

Rhesus

Chorioamnionitis bacterial

ACA- Acute Chorioamnionitis (humans) caused by numerous bacteria

104

Rat

Neuroblastoma

sysnonyms: episthesioneuroblastoma, cells are small to medium sized, round olfactory neuroepithelioma/ to oval or polygonal, with scant neuroepithelial caricnoma cytoplasm, and hyperchromatic nuclei

27

105

Cat

Histamine cuases loosenign of mucosal epithelial tight junctions Lung: Bronchitis and allowing more allergen to reach mast bronchiolitis, exudative, Bronchial gland hyperplasia and cells. Parasympathetic vagal eosinophilic and Eosinophilic bronchitis lymphoplasmacytic, diffuse, smooth muscle hypertrophy or airways stimulation inducec bronchosontriction moderate with pulmonary and arteries (similar lesions found with and increased mucus production; Late and bronchiolitis (feline Toxocara canis larvae, and arterial fibromuscular phase pf Type 1 hypersensitivityAsthma) hypertrophy and eosinophilic Aleurostrongylus abstrusus) leukocytes migrate in, epithelium endarteritis, periarteritis and produces eotaxin, and eosinophils pleuritis damage airways and cause airway constriction Haired skin: Dermatitis, lichenoid (interface), lymphocytic, diffuse, with basal cell hydropic degeneration and necrosis (Civatte bodies) and intraceorneal pustules The most characteristic lesions in sub-epidemal clefting may be seen in hydropic degeneration of the basal cell severe cases, pigmentary incontinence occurs results from release of melanin layer with lichenoid inflammation. Civatte bodies are a feature of all from basal cells. Adnexal atrophy can lichenoid dermatosis and are apoptotic occur along with acanthosis and basal cells (hypereosinophilic) hyperkeratosis (ortho and para)

106

Horse

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

107

Rabbit

Hypervitaminosis D

Skeletal changes- Marked short term increase in D--> increased osteoclastic Hypercalcemia- decreased excitability activity//Prolonged toxicity causes the og GI tract, skeletal muscle, cardiac Kidney: Mineralization of matrix to become tangled and fibrillar arrhythmias, interferes with ADH and Bowman's capsules, with higher affinity for hydroxyapatite. renal transport of sodium and chloride interstitium, tubular Resulting in a deeply basophilic into the interstitium. May result in basement membranesm and ground substance. Eventually osteoid vasoconstriction of renal vessels, renal vessels replaces the matrix. Usually it is tubular epithelium mitochondia are intermittent resulting in broad resting damaged lines separating large depostis of abnormal osteoid Bone: Osteosclerosis Spleen: Splenitis, histiocytic, diffuse, moderate with lymphoid depletion, intranuclear inclusionss Fatal disease of nestlings and budgerigars. Gross- subcutaneous hemorrhage, dehydration, subserosal hemorrhages. Histo- kayomegaly, pannuclear inclusoions, most prominent in splenic macrophages Characteristic feature is acute macrophage infection within splenic periarteriolar sheaths

108

Parrot

Avian Polyomavirus

28

109

Salmon

110

Mouse

111

Macaque

112

Cat

29

113

Boa

Liver: Necrosis, submassive, and hemorrhage, diffuse with rare intranuclear inclusions Posterior kidney: Protozoa, Other diseases of Salmonids with Myxosporidiosis numerous, glomerular and Myxozoans include whirling disease (Parvicapsula intratubular with multifocal (Myobolus cerebralis) amd proliferative minibicornis) tubular degeneration and kidney disease (PKX agent phylum Myxozoa) necrosis Teratoma Testis: teratoma Teratomas seen mostly in 129 strain Liver: Swelling and large vessels of the liver contain vascuolar degeneration, hepatocellular, diffuse with immature hematopoietic cells// Filoviral Monocytes and macrophages secrete infections are characterized by minimal TNF, IFN gamma, IL's proteases, free Marburg virus (filovirus) scattered single cell host response with absolute necrosis, and eosinophilic radicals cause disease lymphopenia intracytoplasmic inclusions, and edema Duodenum: Enteritis, transmural, Zygomycosis pyogranulomatous to granulomatous with fungal hyphae Malignant lymphoma Liver, spleen: Malignant (boid inclusion body lymphoma disease) IBD- inclusions in epithelial cells of most tissues and occasionally in Liver: Eosinophilic inclusion lymphocytes. Type C retrovirus. bodies, intracytoplasmic Secondary bacterial infections, Neurologic signs Liver, spleen: Granulomas with bacterial colonies Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, Mycobacterium avium granulomas; amyloidosis Liver: amyloidosis, diffuse, with hepatic cord atrophy and necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis Cecum: Typhlitis, necrotizing, transmural with edema and amoebic trophozoites AA amyloid due to chronic mycobacterium infection amoebae are scarce and usually found in small clusters within colonic mucus and may exhibit erythrophagocytosis. Iron hematoxylin and trichrome stains can aid in identifying them from macrophages. a bening proliferation of chondrocytes composed of hyaline or myxohyaline cartilage and usually arising from cartilaginous tissues.

114

Duck

115

Iguana

Entamoeba invadens

116

Python

Chondroma

Trachea: Chondroma Sacral Spinal cord: Meningitis, and polyradiculitis, granulomatous, multifocal, moderate with rhabditoid nematode adults, larvae and eggs

30

117

Horse

Halicephalobus gingivalis

118

Rhesus

Pancreas: Pancreatitis, Simian necrotizing, chronic active, immunodeficiency virus multifocal with duct with Adenovirus hyperplasia and eosiniphilic intranuclear inclusions Retinal atrophy Eye, retina: Atrophy, outer segment, diffuse Urinary bladder: cystitis, polypoid, chronic, diffuse, with transmural hemorrhage and multifocal fibroplsaia

lymph node- sinus histiocytosis

119

Mouse

heredity, age, light iduced causes

multifocal to diffuse interstitial infiltrates of mixed inflammatory cells with degeneration and necrosis of exocrine pancreatic cells with interstitial fibrosis. Islet cells are not affected. FVB/N and C3H mouse is homozygous for the rd1 geneElevated cGMP

120

Cougar

Cystitis polypoid

calcium oxalates are not common in cytitis. Struvites can cause blockage

Conference 1998-1999 1

Slide

Species

etiology

Morph Dx

notes

notes/DDX Other Rahbditids- Perlodera strongyloides (dermatitis), Stongyloides westerii, and Cephalobus sp

1

Equine

Kidney: Nephritis, granulomatous, multifocal with fibrosis, tubular Halicephalobus deletrix ectasia, and many adult and larval rhabditid NA causes of Equine Optic nerve: Neuritis, necrotizing, verminous encephalitisgranulomatous, diffuse, severe, Hypoderma bovis, hypoderma with epineurial and perineurial lineatum, Strongylus vulgaris, fibrosis and many adult and larval and Draschia meagstoma, rhabditid nematodes Setaria spp

1

ddx: Ataxia: Trauma, Degenerative myelopathy, Wobblers syndrome, Neoplasia, various infectious agents

1

2

Canine

Pythium insidiosum

Colon: Colitis, ulcerativem pyogranulomatous, and eosinophilic, chronic, severe, diffuse, with few hypahe

Pythium: branching, rarely septate, 5-10 microns with nearly parallel walls; Water ddx: Zygomycetes/ Pythium is not molds form motile flagellate infectious because the infective form zoospores, and have walls (zoospore) is not known to form in with cellulose and betatissues glucan, without chitin or ergosterol- chemotherapy with fungal azoles is not effective

1

3

Salmon

Nutritional cataract

Salmonid Lens: spherical ball consisting of 3 tissues: 1) encapsulating sheath of noncellular transparent material, which is secreted by 2) the underlying physiologically active cells, Fish cataracts: Dietary deficienciesnucleated and capable of Eye, lens: Cataractous change, Tryptophan, thiamine, riboflavin, zinc, division. 3) Immediately circumferential, moderate to Vitamin A, and Vitamin C, / beneath these active cells, severe, with epithelial hyperplasia Envoronment- gas supersaturation, and by far the greatest volume and fibrous meataplasia cold, excess sunlight, UV rays, consists of lens fibers- long Organisms- Trematode metacercariae slender transparent, nonnucleated, cells lying in layers. The fish lens is inelastic and must be drawn toward the retina by the retractor lentis muscle to accomodate vision Cerebrum, hippocampus: choriomeningoencephalitis, acute to subacute, multifocal with vasculitis Rickettsia rickettsii- tick-borne obligate intracellular parasite carried by Dermacentor andersoni, D. variabilis, or Amblyomma americanum HumansMeningoencepahlitis, myocarditis, hepatitis, DIC Haired skin and subcutis and skeletal muscle: Dermatitis, pannniculitis, and myositis, necrotizing, suppurative, chronic, focally extensive, severe, with multiple mineralization Im injection--> muscle necrosis in Rats, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, marmosets. Intraperitoneal injections are better Endothelial cells are the target --> vasculitis, Platelet aggregation, Thrombocytopenia, bleeding, splenomegaly, edema of medullary respiratory center--> death

1

4

Canine

Rickettsia rickettsiiRocky Mountain Spotted Fever

1

2

5

Rat

Ketamine induced muscle necrosis

2 2 6 Rabbit Freunds Adjuvant induced pneumonia Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, Lesions result from mineral oil multifocal, and coalescing, or mycobacteria moderate, with lipid vacuoles

2

7

Mouse SJL

2

Malignant Lymphoma: Lymph node: Malignant lymphoma Autoimmune myositis Skeletal muscle, myocytes: Lymphoma and inflammatory degeneration, necrosis nd muscle disease develops regeneration, multifocal, mild, with spontaneously in 100% of SJL histiocytic, and neutrophilic mice inflammation Cerebrum, white matter: Demyelination, diffuse, moderate, with gliosis, axonal swelling, histiocytosis, and intrahistiocytic flocculent material (globoid cell leukodystrophy) Synonyms: galactocerebrosidosis, galactosylceramide lipidosis, Krabbes disease

2

8

Canine

globoid cell Leukodystrophy

Cairn terriers, West Highland White terriers, Mini Poodle, Bluetick hound, Beagles

3

9

Feline

Blastomyces dermatiditis

Haired skin and subcutis: Dermatitis, and panniculitis, and Skin lesions commonly result pyogranulomatous, diffuse, from disseminated infection severe, with ulceration acanthosis, furunculosis, and yeasts Small intestine: enteritis, subacute, diffuse, mild, with multifocal villar fusion, multifocal epithelial necrosis, and villar tip epithelial intranuclear inclusions Lymph node: Lymphoid necrosis

3

10

Canine

Minute virus of canine CPV-1

CPV-1 causes mild enteritis, myocarditis and pneumonia

death less than 3 weeks old

3

3

11

Feline

Cytauxzoonosis

Spleen: Histiocytosis, intravascular, with intrahistiocytic protozoal schizonts

Piroplasmida and family Theileriidae; Large schizonts of C felis develop in macrophages; Trophozoites are ring forms and present in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes

3

12

Canine

Mycobacterium avium

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Liver: Hepatitis, granulomatous, portal, central, and multifocal with intrahistiocytic bacilli Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, perivascular with intrhisitocytic bacilli Disease Classic Tuberculosis Mycobacterium M. tuberculosis M bovis M. Afrincanum M microti M avium-intracellulare M avium paratuberculosis M genevense M leprae M lepraemurium M fortuitum M chelonaw lesions Mf granulomas/ tubecles

MAC/ Avian Mycobacterium

Diffuse granulomatous systemic disease Diffues granulomatous enteritis Neuritis localized skin infections

Leprosy Atypical mycobacteriosis

4

13

Skunk

Infectious Canine Hepatitis, CAV-1

Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse with mild multifocal acute hepatitis and CAV-1- Hepatocytes, Kupffer vasculitis, numerous cells, and Endothelium hepatocellular intranuclear inclusions, and rare endothelial intranuclear inclusions Kindey: Nephritis, necrosuppurative, multifocally extensive with necrotizing vasculitis, and fungal hyphae Oral mucosa: Hyperplasia with numerous kpoilocytes, vacuolar degeneration, and few intranuclear inclusions

Injury to liver, kidney, and eye

4

14

Canine

Aspergillus terreus

german shepherd E7 protein binds to Rb--> insufficient inhibition of cell growth --> DNA synthesis triggered, and cell cyle engages

4

15

Primate

Focal epithelial hyperplasia, papillomavirus

4

16

Feline

Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing with Feline Viral alveolar edema, few syncytial Rhinotracehitis, FHV-1 cells, and numerous eosinophilic INIB Heart, myocardium: Vasculitis and perivasculitis, lymphohistiocytic, and plasmacytic with vsacular fibrinoid necrosis and mild interstitial edema, and myocardial necrosis Lungs: Interlobular edema, alvelar edema, endothelial syncytia, fibrinoid necrosis, perivasculitis Kidneys: Vasculopathy with endothelial syncytia Haired skin: Vasculitis, and perivasculitis, necrotizing, neutrophilic and eosinophilic, with hemorrhage, multifocal epidermal necrosis and mild epithelial hyperplasia Skeletal muscle and fibroadipose tissue: Plerocercoid (Sparagnum) with multifocal myosittis, eosinophilic and steatitis Spinal cord: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor Buccal mucosa: Ameloblastoma CD45 RA (B cell) + (many large atypical cells) ihc: Syn+, GFAP +, NFP -, Astrocytomas are Syn --

5

17

Bovine

BVD Pestivirus

cytopathic strain

5

18

Equine

Equine Hendravirus, Paramyxovirus

vascular mural necrosis and lymphoid infiltration

5

5

19

Porcine

PRRS, arterivirus

IHC studies suggest link to PDNS

5

20

Porcine

Plerocercoid, sparganum (Sparganosis) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor Odontogenic neoplasm

6 6

21 22

Canine Rabbit

6

23

Canine

6

24

Feline

T cell rich B cell lymphoma, eosinophil Liver: Malignant B cell lymphoma, rich (Diffuse large B cell T cell rich with tissue eosinophilia lymphoma) Lung: Pleuritis, pyogranulomatous, diffuse, severe, with multifocal Rhodococcus equi pyogranulomatous pneumonia, diffuse atelectasis, and numerous intrahistiocytic gram positive coccobacilli Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Haired skin, dermis and subcutis: Thrombosis, fibrinoid necrosis, and acute vasculitis Skeletal muscle: Thrombosis, fibrinoid mecrosis and acute vasculitis, multifocal moderate with diffuse hemorrhage Monensis toxicity, ionophore, and Sarcocystis Skeletal muscle: Degeneration and necrosis, diffuse, with multifocal histiocytic and neutrophilic inflammation and few Sarcocystis

CD 3 + small to medium cells

Rhodococcus is Gram + Variably Acid Fast

7

25

Porcine

Erysipelothrix: small Gram POS, Non-spore forming, pleomorphic bacillus, facultative anaerobe

7

26

Equine

Monensin: Alters membrane transport of Na+ and K+, leding to Calcium disruption, Mitochondrial failure, enregy depletion, increased cellular calcium

7

27

Bovine

7

7

28

Equine

8

29

Primate

8

30

Tilapia

8

31

Baboon

Chorioallantois: Placentitis with multifocal necrosis, vasculitis, and Arcanobacter pyogenes numerous intracellular and extracellular bacilli Lung: Intrabronchiolar and intraalveolar bacteria, histiocytes, amorphous debris, yellow pigment,a nd epithelial cells Haired skin: Dermatitis, Papillomatous digital proliferative, and verrucous with PDD and IDD in diary cows dermatitis multifocal epidermal hydropic are similar. (Spirchetes??); degeneration and intraepidermal Pelodera strongyloides filamentous bacilli and argyrophilic spirochetes Haired skin: Intrafollicular and superficial rhabditid nematodes Pulmonary Thick tegument, calcareous Lung: Granulomas, eosinophilic mesocestodiasis, corpuscles, parenchymatous with larval cestodes mesocestoides sp body, invaginated unarmed larvae (Coenurus) scolex, suckers. Brain; Meninges; otic labyrinthe; pericardium; skeletal muscle: Streptococcus iniae Inflammation, histiocytic and septicemia lympoplasmacytic with intrahistiocytic cocci Gill: Branchitis, lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal with epithelial hyperplasia Kidney: Tubular epithelial Babesiosis; Radiation hemoglobinuric nephrosis degeneration and necrosis with effect from babesia hemolysis proteinaceous casts, and debris, intraeryhtrocytic piroplasms Kidneysm heart, Atrium, LI, Arteries: Fibrinoid necrosis with Radiation effect- endothelium perivascular hemorrhage and is most sensitive fibrin Kidney: Glomerulopathy, Radiation effect membranous, global, multifocal Heart: Contraction band necrosis and fibrosis Large Intestine: Hemorrhage in lamina propria

8

32

Salmon

Infectious salmon anemia, orthomyxovirus

trunk kidney: congestion and hemorrhage, diffuse

ISA- OrthomyxovirusReplicates in endothelial cells, endocardium, and leukocytes.

Severe anemia, leukopenia, congestion, liver necrosis, ascites, pale gills, petechia

Liver: Degeneration and necrosis, multifocal Kidney: Necrosis, tubular epithelium, multifocal Toxins: Furans, Chlorinated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrrolizifine alkaloids, paraquat, 3methylindole, naphthalene

9

33

Mouse

Naphthalene toxicity; clara cell necrosis

Lung: Bronchiolar epithelium: Degeneration and necrosis, scute, diffuse

Clara cell is primary target due to high concentration of P-450 enzymes

9

34

Equine

Oak toxicity

9

35

Rabbit

Renal cell carcinoma

9

36

Equine

Equine dysautonomia

Kidney: Tubular degeneration and Tannins and their metabolites- Tannins--> digallic acid--> gallic acid necrosis, diffuse, with hyaline, concentration highest in young and pyrogallol (reducing agents)--> granular, and cellular casts, leaves and the shells of green hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, tubular ectasia, tubular acorns. Toxic mechanism is hematuria, and SQ hemorrhgae and regeneration, and diffuse poorly understood hemolysis. congestion Azotemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, Gross: Kidneys are large pale hypochloremia, hyperkalemia, with petechia and congested hypocalcemia, and medulla, perirenal edema hyperphosphatemia Kidney: Renal cell carcinoma Dogs: Vomiting, dysuria, Ganglion: Neuronal degeneration Chromatolysis, swollen nuclei, regurgitation, mydriasis, elevated and necrosis, diffuse, with satellite karyolysis, and third eyelid, dry mucous membranes, cell proliferation and mild hypereosinophilia, purulent nasal discharge, anorexia, multifocal lymphocytic cytoplasmic vacuoles, axonal and weight loss, dysuria, purulent ganglioneuritis swelling and spheroids nasal discharge, anorexia, and weight loss, elevated third eyelid

9

Cats (Key-Gaskell): 50% have ED: incr heart rate, pathcy sweating, bradycardia, dry mucous drooling membranes; fixed dilated pupils, reduced lacrimation

10

37

Rat-SHR

Hypertenisve arteriopathy

Mesentery, arteries: Arteriopathy, fibrosis, medial hypertrophy, Similar to polyarteritis nodosa fibrinoid necrosis, thrombosis, arteritis Haired skin, ear: Dermatitis, histiocytic and lymphoplasmacytic, diffuse, severe, with ulceration, serocellular hemorrhagic crust, and intrahistiocytic protozoal amastigotes Leishmania amastigotes survive and replicate in the macrophage phagolysosome. The PH is maintained by a proton secreting ATPase. Leishmania- 2 x 5 um spherical or ovoid with round eccentric nucleus and rod shaped kinetoplast lying perpendicular to the nucleus, both basophilic with HE, nucleus is red with Giemsa Adult - cuticle with lateral internal ridges, that project into hypodermal chords, coelomyaria, polymayarian musculature, which is divided by flattened hypodermal chords and a pseudocoelom containing an intestine with small lumen and two reproductive tubes. both cause type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, syncytial cells and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusiona. Measles has systemic manifestations-- gingival necrosis, erythematous macules and rash, lymphadenopathy,

10

38

Guinea pig

Cutaneous leishmaniasis, cutaneous

Organisms bind C3b and resist lysis by C5-C9

10

38

Trypansoma- Kinetoplast is parallel to the nucleus, and is larger and more basophilic. Toxoplasma tachyzoites are 4-6 um with basophilic nucleus, and lack a kinetoplast, and may be found in leukocytes, epithelial cells, and stromal cells, and endothelial cells

10

39

Canine

Peripheral dirofilariasis, Dirofilaria immitis

Subcutis, fibroelastic arterites: Arteritis, chronic active, focally extensive, moderate with periarteritis, fibrin thrombus, and intraluminal adult nematode

10

40

Primate

Respiratory syncytial virus, pneumoniavirus; Streptococcus

Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, acute to subacute, diffuse, severe, with type II pneumocyte hyperplaisa, edema, syncytial cells, and cocci

RSV- paramyxoviridaepneumovirus; DDX measles (morbillivirus)

11

41

Canine

Malignant pleomorphic round cell tumor (favor T cell)

Brain stem: Malignant pleomorphic round cell tumor B-mannosidosis in Salers cattle is a rapidly fatal, inherited lysosomal storage disease resulting in Causes severe demyelination in brain, accumulation of in contrast to Alpha-mannosidosis oligosaccharides and cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, renal epithelium, thyroid, and macrophages Endocardium and subendocardium are Interstitial pneumonia occurs expanded by edema with low frequently in cats with EMC with Left numbers of neutrophils, Ventricular Endocardial Fibrosis lymphocytes and occurring as a sequela. macrophages Young cats < 4 yrs; Respiratory distress, rare hindlimb paralysis, stressful event Restrictive Cardiomyopathy: Endomyocardial fibrosis, myocardial interstitial fibrosis, myocyte hypertrophy, and nyocardial necrosis

11

42

Bovine

Beta-mannosidosis (Salers crossbred)

Lymph node: Histiocytosis, diffuse, moderate with intrahistiocytic vacuoles

11

43

Feline

Feline endomyocarditis

Heart: Endomyocarditis, neutrophilic and lymphoplasmacytic, subacute, diffuse,

11

44

Canine

12

45

Canine

Similar to Leigh's disease: Also have vascular lesionsFamilial Alaskan Husky Thalamus: Cavitation and vascular endothelial (Sled Dog) necrosis, focally extensive, with proliferation and sparing of the encephalopathy gitter cells and mild gliosis neuronal perikarya in the thalamus Probably secondary to cerebral cortex: Necrosis laminar, ischemia and hypoxia from focally extensive with gliosis siezures Cerebellum: Purkinje and granular cell loss, multifocal, segemntal with moderate gliosis Oral mucosa: stomatitis, proliferative, eosinophilic and Eosinophilic granuloma Similar to the cats, may occur granulomatous, focally extensive, complex in mouth and on skin with collagen degeneration and ulceration

hereditary or hypersensitivity may predispose

12

46

Ferret

Yersinia pestis, yersiniosis

flea bites are routes of transmission; Yersinia pestis- non-motile, Organisms is destroyed in Lymph node: Lymphadenitis, non-spore forming, facultative, neutrrophils, but survives in necrotizing, suppurative, diffuse, anaerobic, gram-negative, macrophages; Yop encodes a type II severe, with numerous bacilli bipolar coccobacillus secretion apparatus and is necessary for replication in macrophages Ingestion or inhalaltion: organisms have already Oral is most common in cats, ferrets, acquired the phagocytosis and carnivores resistant capsule and thus have a shorter incubation time

12

47

Feline

Ciliary body adenocarcinoma

Eye: Ciliary body adenocarcinoma Kidney: Proximal convoluted tubular epithelium: Degeneration, multifocal, moderate, to severe, with cytoplasmic vacuolation, variably electron dense acicular crystals, and electron dense rhomboidal and globular bodies Haired skin: Benign hair follicle tumor with few intranuclear inclusions

Cytokeratin and Vimentin +, S100 --, PAS + BM The intracytoplasmic bodies are 2um hyaline inclusions seen in rat hyaline droplet nephropathy; The acicular crystals are cyclodextrininduced nephrosis in male rats

cytokeratin is variable

12

48

Rat

Cyclodextrin toxocity; Hyalin droplet nephropathy

13 13 13

49

Hamster

Benign hair follicle tumor; Polyomavirus inducedTrichoepithelioma

50

Rat

Malignant interstitial cell tumor

13 13

51

Rat

Packets of polygonal cells with abundant bright eosinophilic cytoplasm, granular, round central nuclei streptococcal Suckling neonatal rats, poor Small intestine; Numerous luminal enteropathy (Group D haircoats, diarrhea, low epithelium adherent cocci strep) mortality Testis: Interstitial cell tumor, malignant Haired skin, pinna: dermatitis, eosinophilic, mastocytic, lymphocytic, and plasmacytic, chronic, diffuse, hyperkeratotic crust, intracorneal pustules, intracorneal mites thyroid gland: Hyperplasia, follicular, severe

Placental Alk Phos Neg, PAS negative ddx: IDIR (Rotavirus), Tyzzers, Salmonella

13

52

Canine

Sarcoptes scabei

mites or eggs seen

14

53

Equine

Hyperplastic goiter, congenital

inadequate maternal thyroid hormone corssing placenta--> fetal TSH--> thyorid hyperplasia

dystocia, retained placenta, and prolonged gestation

14

54

Canine

Portosystemic shunt

Hepatic encephalopathy secondary- toxic to astrocytes, ammonia metabolized to Liver: Arteriolar hyperplasia, glutamine= toxic. GABA portal, diffuse, moderate with synthesized by GO bacteria, portal vein hypoplasia, and lobular Spongioform change of white atrophy matter, Alzheimer Type II cells (small clusters of swollen astrocytes, with clear nuclei) Liver: Fibrosis, dissecting, diffuse, moderate, with hepatocellular degneration, and loss, Lobular dissecting hepatitis: 3 lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic, months to 5 years, copper and neutrophilic hepatitis, negative, increased reticulin canalicular cholestasis, and biliary hyperplasia Heart and diaphragm: myositis, necrotizing, lymphohistiocytic, Tissue cysts: thin 0.5 um wall, subacute, multifocal, moderate 10-100um in diameter, with intracellular and extracellular muscle, liver, retina, brain protozoa heart and skeletal muscle: Degeneration, vacuolar, severe, regeneration

Ammonium and uric acid crystals (ammonium biurates) especially in alkaline urine.

14

55

Canine

Chronic hepatitis

14

56

Llama

Toxoplasma gondii

Tachyzoites: 4-6 long crescentic

15

57

Mouse

Type 2 Glycogen Storage Disease

alpha-glucosidase (branching enzyme)

Type II glycogenosis: deficiency of lysosomal acid maltase (alpha 1,4 glucosidase)--> abnormal storage of glycogen in lysosomes of all organs: it¶s the only lysosomal disase of the glycogenoses seminal vesicle: elongated fronds of basophilic epithelium, and small amounts of eosinophilic secretory product

15

58

Rat

Seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma

Seminal vesicle: Adenocarcinoma

adjacent to the coagulating gland: smaller papillary projections and forms a pale eosinophilic secretory substance compared to the seminal vesicle

15 Gastric metaplasia, adenomatous hyperplasia Stomach, glandular: hyperplasia, A mixture of parietal cell, chief adenomatous, focally extensive cell, and mucous neck cell with mild multifocal hyperplasia lymphoplasmacytic gastritis Liver: Necrosis, random, multifocal to coalescing with syncytia and mild neutrophilic inflammation Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous, and necrotizing, diffuse, severe with cavitation and mineralization Lung: Endothelial degeneration and hypertrophy, diffuse with multifocal vasculitis, interstitial pneumonia, edema, and endothelial intranuclear inclusion bodies Liver: Hepatitis, granulomatous, necrotizing, multifocal with numerous protozoa Cecum: Typhlitis, lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic, and heterophilic, diffuse, with protozoa Testis: Interstitial cell tumor, malignant Enterotropic strains only effect enterocytes, Respiratory strains are polytropic (liver)

15

59

Mouse

15

60

Mouse

Mouse hepatitis viruscoronavirus

No INIB?

16

61

Marsupial

Mycobacterium avium

16

62

Cervid

Adenociral vasculitis and pneumonia, adenovirus Histomonas meleagridis; Heterakis gallinarum

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease

16

63

Avian

16

64

Hedgehog

Maligngnat interstitial cell tumor with omental metastasis

Most canine tumors are inactive, but active ones are associated with perianal gland hyperplasia, prostatic

Adipose tissue (omentum): Interstitial cell tumor, malignant Brain stem: Encephalitis, subacute, multifocal, moderate Listeria monocytogenes with microabscesses, hemorrhage, and mild meningitis

17

65

Equine

Gram positive facultative anaerobic bacillus Pseudohyphae- chains of yeast-like cells remaining attached end to end with prominent constrictions. True Hyphae are tubular and have parallel walls. Blastoconidia are thick-walled, spherical structures which measure 812 um

17

66

Feline

Candida albicans

Urinary bladder: Cystitis, ulcerative, pyogranulomatous, diffuse, severe, with necrotizing, vasculitis, and many hyphae, pseudohyphae, and yeasts

Kidney: Nephritis, tubulointerstitial, pyogranulomatous, multifocal, moderate, with vasculitis, fibrin thrombi and few yeasts 17 67 Porcine Liver: Hepatitis, random, Salmonella cholerasuis necrotizing, acute, multifocal with fibrin thrombi Kidneys: Nephritis, interstitial, Citrus pulp associated granulomatous and eosinophilic, hypersensitivity multifocal, moderate Heart: Myocarditis and epicarditis, granulomatous and eosinophilic, multifocal, moderate, with myofiber degeneration, necrosis, and loss, and pericardial steatitis Spleen: Splenitis, nodular, granulomatous, and eosinophilic Liver: Hepatitis, portal and periportal, lymphohistiocytic, and eosinophilic, diffuse, moderate with portal phlebitis, and mild biliary hyperplasia arterioles and small arteries: medial hypertrophy, loss of Pulmonary hypertesion can also internal elastic lamina, tunica result from any abnormality that intima hyperplasia, lumen restricts blood flow through the lungs. occlusion, hyperplastic Lung: arteriopathy, plexiform, RVD with RHF follows (cor endothelium forms tufts of Plexiform (Hypertensive multifocal, moderate with diffuse, pulmonale). Hypoxia can cause small glomerulus-like capillary arteriopathy), and PDA congestion, and multifocal pulmonary hypertesion )high altitude channels that span the lumens alveolar edema disease)- Causes pulmonary of dialted arterioles arterioles to constrict--> hypoxia--> resembling a web acidosis --> vasoconstriction (plexogenic), and fibrosis of alveolar interstitium Selenium toxicity Spinal cord: Ventral gray horns: Neuronal necrosis, bilaterally symmetrical Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, acute, diffuse, severe, with syncytial cells, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions, edema and hemorrhage and fibrin Dyskeratosis, hoof and nail deformity ddx: 6-amininicotinamide (6-AN) which produces nicotinamide

17

68

Bovine

Pyrexia, dermatitis, and hemorrhage with similarities to hairy vetch toxicity. Possible causes- Citrinin (mycotoxin), Mycotoxin T2, ochratoxin A, di-ureidoisobutane (DUIB) (A feed additive), sweet vernal hay containing dicoumarol

18

69

Canine

18

70

Porcine

18

71

Equine

Equine Herpesvirus-1

late term abortions, neurologic disease, upper and lower respiratory disease

18

72

Rat

Theophylline toxicity

degeneration and necrosis of germ Testis: degeneration and necrosis, Theophylline- related to cells, multinucleated spermatids, and germ cells, with numerous caffeine and theobrominespermatocytes, and hemorrhage, multinucleate spermatic giant relaxes smooth muscle of interstitial edema. Myocardial cells, and multifocal pulmnary vasculature, cardiac degeneration and necrosis, premature spermatoceles stimulant and diuretic. involution of thymus, right atrial cardiomyopathy Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous and eosinophilic, peribronchiolar and perivascular, multifocal, moderate, and perivascular edema

19

73

Rat

Idiopathic granulomatous pneumonia

cause unknown

19

74

Canine

SCID, lymphoid hypoplasia

Welsh Corgi/ X-linked SCID= IL-2 Thymus and lymph node: receptor deficiency; Normal B cells nd hypoplasia, lymphoid, diffuse, with DNA Protein Kinase deficiency IgM; T cells reduced, and IgG and IgA extramedullary hematopoiesis are reduced or absent Liver: Hyperplasia, biliary and oval Ferrochelatase is the last cell, portal and periportal with enzyme in the heme lymphocytic and neutrophilic biosynthesis pathway portal and periportal hepatitis, individual hepatocyte necrosis, (catalyzes insertion of Ferrous iron into protoporphyrin) and intracellular brownn globular anisotropic pigment Mammary gland: Hyperplasia, ductal and stromal, diffuse Bone: Necrosis, coagulative, focally extensive with chronic suppurative osteomyelitis, and physitis, and fibrosis Looks similar to mammary fibroepithelial hyperplasia (progesterone related) in catsProtoporphyria- in cattle do not devbelop hepatic disease/ Photosensitivity is observed/ and unlike porphyria in cattle, no discoloration of teeth is seen

19

75

Mouse

Ferrochelatase deficiency, erythropoietic protoporphyria

19

76

Rabbit

Cyclosporin toxicity, mammary gland hyperplasia Osteomyelitis, physitis, and infarction, Salmonella

cyclosporine has negative effect on progesterone levels

20

77

Bovine

Salmonella dublin, or Arcanobacterium pyogenes

20

78

Feline

Osteochondromatosis

Scapula: Osteochondromatosis

Cartilage-capped, partially ossified protuberances or exostoses, that are multicentric. Human giant cell reparative granulomas represent reactive non-neoplastic lesions thought to occur as the result of intraosseous or subperiosteal hemorrhage/ but does not extend through the cortex of the affected bone

do not occur on bones of intramembranous origin; cells arise form periosteal mesenchymal cells in lesions of intramembranous bone

20

79

Avian

fibroma with osteoclastlike giant cells

Bone: Fibroma with numerous osteoclast-like giant cells

20

80

Canine

Cervical tumoral calcinosis (Calcinosis circumscripta)

Cervical vertebral fascia: Granulomas, calcareous (calcinosis circumscripta), with fibrosis and chondro-osseous metaplasia Chronic toxicity- rough Kidney: necrosis and regeneration, haircoat, malodorous diarrhe, tubular, diffuse with granular and anemia, steriltiy, enlargement of long bone epiphyses, hyalin casts fractures, aspermatogenesis Kidney: Interstitial nephritis, lymphoplasmacytic Liver: necrosis, disseminated Liver: Cholangiohepatitis, neutrophilic, diffuse

21

81

Bovine

Acute Molybdenum toxicity

21

82

Ovine

Phalaris toxicity, Brain stem, neurons: Brown neuronal lipofuscinosis granular pigmentation, perinulcear

Phalaris and Trachyanra are known to induce intense lipofuscin in neurons of the thalamus, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. Kidneys had hemoglobin casts.

Other lipofuscin diseases include Gomen disease in horses, and inherited ceroid-lipofuscinosis. Sheep copper accumulationexcessive copper intake, low molybdenum levels, presence of pyrrolizidine alkaoids predisposes to outbreaks

21

83

Ovine

Liver: Necrosis, centrilobular to copper and pyrrolizidine submassive with hemorrhage and alkaloid toxic intrahistiocytic light green/brown hepatopathy pigment/ megalocytoss Liver: biliary hyperplasia and bridging portal fibrosis

21

84

Bovine

Microcystis aeruginosa

Liver: Necrosis, massive, with hepatocellular dissociation and hemorrhage

gross lesions include icterus, fatty liver (acute) or cirrhotic (chronic), photosensitization

Microcystins are inhibitors of protein phosphatases--> hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins, rearrangement of intermediate filaments and microtubules, disorganization of the cytoskeleton and dissociation. Also necrosis of endothelial cells

22

85

Primate

SIV, Cytomegalovirus, Bordetella

Lung: Bronchopneumonia, necrotizing and suppurative, acute, focally extensive, severe with pleuritis, hemorrhage, and bacilli Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, subacute, focally extensive, moderate with multinucleate giant cells, and few eosinophilic and basophilic intranuclear inclusions

Bordetella bronchiseptica

SIV and Cytomegalovirus

22

86

equine

Small Intestine: Enteritis, proliferative, subacute, diffuse, Proliferative severe, with mild, submucosal enteropathy, Lawsonia edema, and multifocal villar like bacteria fusion, crypt herniation, and crypt (intracellularis) abscesses Spinal cord: demyelination, Canine Distemper virus multifocal, severe, and moderate (Morbillivirus), non-suppurative meningomyelitis, demyelinating and few glial eosinophilic encephalitis intranuclear inclusions Leptospira interrogans, renal and hepatic Kidney: Nephritis, tubulointerstitial, neutrophilis, and lmyphoplasmacytic, multifocal, with erythrophagocytosis Liver: Hepatitis, portal, lymphoplasmacytic, diffuse with multifocal centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis and erythrophagocytosis Heart, epicardium: Granuloma, with mature and immature fungal spherules Heart: Fibrosis, interstitial, multifocal with multifocal myofiber atrophy and karyomegaly common findings in aged macaques and incidental Rare argyrophilic spirochetal bacteria were identified within hepatic sinusoids and renal tubules

22

87

Feline

22

88

Bovine

23

89

Primate

Coccidioides immitis

23

90

Cervid

Mycobacterium bovis Hepatitis and hepatic amyloidosis, presumed Campylobacter coli

Lymph node: Granuloma, caseocalcareous Liver: Granulomas, heterophilic with amyloidosis ddx: Mycobacterium avium, E Diagnosis: Acid Fast, Grams, Warthis coli, Salmonella, Starry all negative'/ Cultures grew Campylobacter campylobacter coli

23

91

Avian

23

92

Porcine

Stephanurus dentatus

20-40 mm long; Platymyarian, fibrous and adipose tissue, meromyarian, lateral chords, periureteral: Eosinophilic pseudocoelom, large intestine granulomas, with globule with multinucleated cells and leukocytes, and adult nematodes, thick eosinophilic microvillar and aggs border, thinwalled morulated eggs Nasal chonchae: Rhinitis, necrotizing, suppurative, diffuse with thrombi and vasculitis Aerobic, non-sporeforming, gram -negative bacillus. Obligate parasite resp=glanders/ Skin = farcy/ spreads along lymphatics, pyogranulomatous infalmmation

24

93

Equine

Burkholderia mallei (Glanders)

24

94

Caprine

24

95

feline

24

96

Cervid

Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, with type II Peste des Peitis pneumocyte hyperplasia, syncytial similar to rinderpest in cattle ruminants cells, eosinophilic intranuclear (Morbillivirus) inclusions and intracytoplasmic inclusions Haired skin: Dermatitis, proliferative and necrotizing, diffuse, with neutrophilic, Poxvirus dermatitis histiocytic, and fibrinous (cowpox-like panniculitis, necrotizing vasculitis, orthopoxvirus) and intracytoplasmic epithelial fibroblastic and histiocytic inclusions Small intestine and colon: Enterocolitis, subacute, diffuse, In some sections there is Sheep Associated MCF, severe, with follicular lymphoid necrotizing vasculitis affecting depletion, transmural edema, OvHV-2 medium-sized arterioles in the crypt abscesses and crypt submucosa and serosa. necrosis, loss, regeneration Copper deficiency, cerebral edema form Cerebrum: Neuronal necrosis, cortical, acute, diffuse, with edema Copper as cofactors: superoxide dismutase, cytochrome oxidase, lysyl oxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase Neurologic disease: Swayback (congenital), Enzootic ataxia (delayed onset), cerebral edema Syn--, NFP --, GFAP --, Epsilon protoxin--> activated by proteases --> increased vascular permeability, and tissue necrosis cause unknown Neuronal necrosis with axonal degeneration and secondary demyelination

25

97

Ovine

cerebrum, vessels: Necrosis and mineralization, multifocal Oligodendroglioma, anaplastic Cerebrum: Oligodendroglioma, anaplastic

England- Cerebral edema, autofluorescence, herniation High cellularity, necrosis, high mitotic rate, proliferation of glomeruloid vessels

25

98

Canine

25

99

25

100

26

101

Focal symmetrical Cerebellum, peduncles: Necrosis, encephalomalacia Ovine hemorrhage, and edema, (clostridium perfringens bilaterally symmetrical, extensive type D Hereditary Spinal cord: Poliomyelomalacia, Canine australian polioencephalomyelopa bilaterally symmetrical with cattle dog thy sparing of motor neurons Squamous cell carcinoma, and Haired skin: Squamous cell Rat fibrosarcoma collision carcinoma, and fibrosarcoma tumor

26

102

Cervid

Follicular dystrophy, toothpaste hair disease

Haired skin: Follicular dystrophy

Coiled and fragmented hair shafts in hair follicles, follicles are thickened, misshapen, and S shaphed shafts conforming to deformed follicles. Scattered lymphoplasmacytic inflammation

Hair shaft disorders: Menkes kinky hair syndrome, inherited copper deficieen, trichothiodystrophy (sulfur deficiency), amino acid deficiencies (trichorrhexis invaginata)

26

103

Canine

Erythema multiforme

26

104

Mouse

Type 2 Harlequin ichthyosis

Haired skin: dermatitis, interface, chronic active and eosinophilic, focally extensive, moderate, interface dermatitis, apoptotic transepidermal apoptotic keratinocytes at all levels of keratinocytes, lympocytic the epidermis, hyperkeratosis, satellitosis, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and epidermal hyperplasia Haired skin: Hyperplasia, inherited keratin accumulation infundibular and epidermal, --> fish-like scales/ diffuse, moderate, with compact abnormalities in keratinocyte orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and adhesion in the stratum acanthosis corneum Liver: Vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and loss, centrilobular, diffuse, with hemorrhage, biliary hyperplasia, and intravascular hematopoietic cells Periportal: turkeys, ducklings, chickens, adult rats, and cats; Midzonal: Rabbit; Centrilobular: swine, cattle, dogs, guinea pigs Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, chronic, diffuse, mild, with abundant alveolar and intra-airway eosinophilic flocculent material Lung: Pneumonia, embolic, necrotizing, acute with hemorrhage and large bacterial colonies Liver and kindey: Embolic necrotizing inflammation with coccobacilli Cerebrum: Meningoencephalitis, lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic, diffuse, mild to moderate with multifocal vasculitis, and rare neuronal degeneration and necrosis Cerebrum: Meningoencephalitis, necrotizing, pyogranulomatous, multifocal, moderate Kidney: Tubular ectasia and tubular epithelial hyperplasia, multifocal, moderate, with numerous intracellular and extracellular myxosporidia with interstitial nephritis, lmyphoplasmacytic and heterophilic Liver: Hepatitis, granulomatous, necrotizing, diffuse, severe with fungal spherules Pancreas: Pancreatitis, granulomatous, with abundant necrotic debris Small intestine and pancreas: Granulomas, multiple with trmatode eggs Heart: Myocarditis, granulomatous, multifocal with protozoal megaloschizonts Fibrovascular tissue: Liposarcoma with metastasis to lung Thymus: Thymitis, granulomatous, diffuse, moderate, with lymphoid hypocellularity, and multifocal necrosis, edema and hemorrhage Allantochorian (Cotyledon): Placentitis, necro-suppurative, acute, diffuse, moderate with necrotizing vasculitis, fibrin thrombi and numerous extracellular bacilli Lung: Bronchitis, and bronchiolitis, lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic with lymphoid follicles, chronic interstitial pneumonia, and interstitial fibrosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans Haired skin: Atypical plasma cell infiltrate (plasma cells tumor with amyloid) Lymph node: Pyogranulomatous,eosinophilic, necrotizing, with splendore-hoeppli material mycotic lymphadenitis Footpadm abd adjacent haired skin: Parakeratosis, diffuse, severe with moderate epidermal hyperplasia, multifocal superficial dermatitis, dermal edema, and intracorneal bacterial colonies typical in nasal cavity with occasional extension into cerebrum Inhibits protein RNA synthesis-> necrosis and fatty change, lipid peroxidation. Epoxide form causes mutagenic and carcinogenic and DNA binding properties

27

105

guinea Pig

Aflatoxin B1 Mycotoxin

27

106

Canine

Pneumocystis carinii

27

107

Antelope

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis septicemia

27

108

Equine

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis, alphavirus (flaviviridae)

neutrophils and vasculitis

28

109

Hamster

Prototheca zopfii

achlorophyllic algae; ddx chlorella

28

110

Turtle

Myxosporea (Myxozoa), renal myxosporosis

Multicellular spheroid Myxosporean infections- Whirling dz structures, 10 um in diameter, (myxobolus cerebralis), renal and spores have one binucleate or blood sphaerosporosis in cyprinids 2 uninucleate sporoplasms, 1- (Sphaerospora renicola); Proliferative 6 polar capsules, and a shell kidney disease (Myxidium lieberkuhni)

28

111

frog

Mucor amphiborum, zygomycosis spirorchis sp, Schistosomiasis

Dimorphic fungus: ddx: Prototheca, coccidioides immitis Separate sexes, nonoperculated eggs

28

112

Turtle

29

113

Avian

Leukocytozoon caulleryi

Megaloschizonts: 100-200um multiloculated and contain 1 um circular basophilic merozoites

29

114

Feline

Liposarcoma with pulmonary metastasis

29

115

Bovine

Epizootic bovine abortiondeltaproteobacter

Lymphadenitis, granulomatous, multifocal necrosis

Spleen: Necrosis, multifocal to coalescing, with fibrin

29

116

Bovine

Bacillus licheniformis

30

117

Bovine

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis Atypical plasma cell infiltrate, favor plasmacytoma with amyloid conidiobolus sp zygomycosis

30

118

canine

30

119

Canine

30

120

Canine

Superficial necrolytic dermatitis, hepatocutaneous syndrome

Chronic hepatic disease, Diabetes mellitus, glucogon secreting tumors

[

Conference 1996-1997

Slide

Species

etiology

Morph Dx

notes

notes/DDX Acute poisoning- periacinar necrosis and endothelial damage/ Chronic toxicity- bridging portal fibrosis/ and in sheep leads to elevated copper levels/ In pigs causes pulmonary emphysema- interstitial damage

1

1

Bovine

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity- Senceio, Crotalaria, Heliotropium, Amsinckia

Liver: Fibrosis, portal and bridging, diffuse, severe, with diffuse, perivenous fibrosis, and obliteration, biliary hyperplasia, and mild megalocytosis

Nuclear and cytoplasmic gigantism (megalocytosis)Antimitotic effect (similar to Aflatoxin and nitrosaminesother alkalating agents)

1

2

Chickens

Cryptosporidium baileyi or meleagridis

Cryptosporidium attaches to Bursa of Fabricius: Bursitis, acute, the glycocalyx of the epithelial diffuse, mild, with surfacecell, and surrounded by a associated protozoa membrane of host origin Mesentery: Mesenteritis, granulomatous, and necrotizing, chronic, focally extensive, severe, with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli Fusobacterium is normal inhabitant o fthe anaerobic ruminal environment. It is a secondary invader requiring mucosal damage for colonization. Ruminal acidosis is common predispoing factor to invasion and spread to the liver.

Respiratory vs intestinal form

1

3

Feline

Mycobacterium aviumintracellulare

1

4

Lamb

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Liver: Necrosis, coagulative, multifocal and focally extensive, perivascular and random with necrotizing vasculitis and numerous extracellular filamentous bacteria

Other diseases caused by fusobacterium= necrotic stomatitis, naval ill, pneumonia in calves, and foot rot in ungulates

2

5

Eider Duck

Zinc toxicity

Zinc-ingestion syndrome: Hemolyitc anemia, pancreatic Pancreas: Exocrine parenchymal ductular necrosis, interlobular loss, diffuse, moderate with fat necrosis, atrophy, fibrosis, regeneration, fibrosis, and ductular hyperplasia, ductular hyperplasia necrotizing enteritis, and renal tubular necrosis Serosa: Serositis, fibrinosuppurative, subacute, moderate, to severe with gram negative bacilli

2

6

Boa constrictor

Boid inclusion body disease; Zygomycetes

Intestine: Enteritis, ulcerative, necrotizing, granulomatous, multifocal, severe, with fungal hyphae Intestinal epithelium, Lymphocytes, intestinal ganglion cells of myenteric plexi: Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies Subcutaneous tissue, neck: Granulomas, multifocal, with intrahistiocytic lipid

Broad, thin walled, infrequently septate, pleomorphic hypahe from 520 um wide, and irregular right angle branching Major histologic lesions: Nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with neuronal degeneration, gliosis, and demyelination

2 2

7

Emu

xanthoma or injection site panniculitis

2

8

Cynomolgus monkey

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)

3

9

Pig

Leptospirosis

3

10

Quarter horse

Red Maple Toxicosis

Sulfatides: Prevents fusion of phagosome with lysosome/ LAMVirulence factors: Cord factor heteropolysaccharide inhibits Lung: Bronchopneumonia, (trehalose dimycolate)macrophage activation by IFNgranulomatous, multifocal, surface glycolipid responsible gamma and induces macrophages to moderate, with caseous necrosis for serpentine growth pattern secrete TNF-alpha which induces and mineralization in vitro fever and IL-10 which suppresses T cell proliferation Acute severe disease sometimes from Leptospires penetrate exposed the bacteremic phase (young mucous memranes or water animals) --> Hemolysis, softened skin, and invade Kidney: Nephritis, hemoglobinuria, icterus, pulmonary blood- Leptospires cleared tubulointerstitial, chronic-active, congestion, meningitis, acute tubular from blood but not proximal diffuse, moderate necrosis// Chronic disease- abortion, convoluted tubules, vitreoius, infertility, interstitial nephritis, CSF, and genital tract recurrent uveitis, recurrent tubular necrosis Kidney: Necrosis, tubular, acute, Hemolytic syndromemultifocal, moderate with methemoglobinemia and granular, intratubular, brightly Heinz body formation/ only eosinophilic material and dried leaves are toxic hemoglobin crystals Liver: Hepatitis, portal and bridging, chronic, multifocal, moderate, with granulomas, trematode eggs, intravascular trematodes Rumen: rumenitis, necrotizing, acute, diffuse, severe, with hemorrhage, edema, and focal arteritis Ingestion or percutaneous absorption (insecticides, herbicides, wood Topical toxicosis: dermatitis, necrosis preservatives)--> vascular and sloughing injury, congestion, hemorrhage, edema, petechia

3

3

11

Webster Mouse

Schistosoma mansoni

3

12

Bovine

Arsenic Toxicosis

4

13

Sheep

Scrapie

4

14

Ferret

Chordoma

Brain stem: Neuronal vacuolation, Early in the disease, animals are alert but excitable, and may have multifocal, with mild astrocytosis, seizures. Later, paresthesia may develop, manifested as agitated and multifocal axonal rubbing against posts and trees and nibbling at feet and legs. There is degeneration progressive dysmetria, emaciation, and finally paralysis and death. neoplasms arising from remnants of the notochord nfiltrative, multilobulated masses with and have been reported in the each lobule composed of three mink, ferret, rat, cat, dog, and components: closely packed human. vacuolated (physaliferous) cells, Immunohistochemically, Haired skin, subcutis: Chordoma cartilage, and bone. The three physaliferous cells stain components are often arranged strongly positive for both concentrically, with physaliferous cells vimentin and keratin, and surrounding cartilage with a central weakly positive for S-100 core of bone. protein and neuron specific enolase There is often bronchiolar smooth muscle hyperplasia, catarrhal and eosinophilic bronchiolitis, hyperplasia of submucosal glands and smooth genus is ovo-viviparous; 1-10 muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia mm diameter nodules, which within pulmonary arterial walls. The represents nests of eggs and granulomatous alveolitis and catarrhal larvae bronchiolitis gradually regresses. However, the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the smooth muscle in arteries, bronchioles and alveolar ducts persists.

4

15

Cat

Aelurostongylus abstrusus

Lung: Pneumonitis, subacute to chronic, multifocal, minimal, with numerous metastrongylid nematode eggs and larvae, bronchiolar smooth muscle hyperplasia, submucosal gland hyperplasia, and marked arterial medial hypertrophy and hyperplasia

4

16

Dog

Cryptococcus neoformans

thin-walled, slightly basophilic and spherical, with single narrow-based buds. The Nasal conchae: Rhinitis, fungus is surrounded by a granulomatous, multifocal, severe, wide clear zone; the shrunken with numerous yeast, etiology capsular material stains consistent with Cryptococcus positively with mucicarmine neoformans and the fungal wall stains with PAS Spleen: Splenitis, granulomatous, multifocal, mild, with numerous yeast high cellularity, pleomorphism, necrosis, subpial spread, cortical infiltration, necrosis surrounded by "pseudopalisades" and areas of glomerulus-like endothelial proliferation. Recent evidence suggests that vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) is secreted by malignant astrocytes perhaps in response to hypoxia.

5

17

Macaque

Astrocytoma (Glioblastoma)

Cerebrum: Astrocytoma, high grade (glioblastoma multiforme)

5

18

Tamarin

Measles (Morbillivirus)

Colon: Colitis, necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, moderate, with crypt herniation, lymphoid depletion, syncytial cells, and intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies,

Measles virus is a morbillivirus of the paramyxovirus family

epithelial necrosis, epithelial syncytial cells and intranuclear inclusion bodies

5

19

Marmoset

1. Pancreas: Pancreatitis, chronicThese animals become infected when they ingest an arthropod Trichospirura active, multifocal, moderate, with intermediate host (most likely cockroaches) containing the encysted leptostoma- nematode intraductal adult and larval spirurid infective larval stage (L3). The L3 migrate to the pancreatic ducts nematodes where they mature into adults. Embryonated eggs travel down the Urinary bladder: Cystitis, transmural, acute, multifocal, moderate The histopathologic features are those of a neuroepithelial neoplasm with glial processes forming neuropil-prominent perivascular pseudorosettes. The differential diagnosis based on the H&E sections was ependymoma versus paraganglioma. The absence of immunohistochemical staining for synaptophysin supports ependymoma nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, and parotid adenitis in warm-blooded vertebrates Nodules within the skin and subcutis are the most characteristic finding; however, most affected animals have multifocal, roughly circular, necrotic areas on the muzzle and in the respiratory tract, buccal mucosa, forestomachs, abomasum, uterus, vagina, teats, udder, and testes. Generalized lymphadenopathy is also a common finding. Skin lesions must be differentiated from lesions caused by pseudo-lumpy skin disease, insect bites, ringworm, actinomycosis, nocardiosis, streptomycosis, dermatophilosis, demodicosis, onchocerciasis, and besnoitiosis.

5

20

Wistar Rat

Ependymoma

Spinal cord: Ependymoma

6

21

Foal- Horse

Rabies- Rhabdovirus

Cerebellum: Encephalitis, nonsuppurative, minimal, with neuronal eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies

6

22

Cow

Vasculitis can result from viral infection of endothelium, pericytes and probably other Haired skin, pinna: Dermatitis, cells in blood and lymph periadnexal, necrotizing, subacute, vessels. Infarction may occur multifocal, moderate, with Capripox virus, Lumpy in severe infections. LSD virus necrotizing vasculitis and skin Disease is present in skin nodules, intrahistiocytic eosinophilic normal appearing skin, lymph cytoplasmic inclusions nodes, liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle, saliva, and semen of infected animals.

6

23

Gazelle

Coxiella burnetti

Microscopically, placental trophoblasts lining the cotyledonary villi are distended by small, approximately 1æm diameter, basophilic, intracytoplasmic organisms. The differential diagnosis for intratrophoblastic organisms in cases of placentitis includes Coxiella, Placenta: Placentitis, necrotizing, Brucella, Campylobacter, and Chlamydia. Of these, only Coxiella acute, multifocal, moderate, with burnetii and Chlamydia stain positively with Gimenez or modified acidfocal vasculitis and intracellular fast stains. The morphology of the intracytoplasmic organisms on organisms Gimenez-stained sections should differentiate C. burnetii from Chlamydia since C. burnetii appear as pleomorphic, or thin, rodshaped structures, while chlamydial elementary bodies are uniformly small and round.

6

24

Horse

The differential diagnosis Kidney: Nephritis, granulomatous, includes Halicephalobus, focally extensive, severe, with Strongyloides and numerous adult and larval Cephalobus. All three have a Halicephalobus deletrix rhabditid nematodes, breed not rhabditiform esophagus; specified, equine, etiology however, only Halicephalobus consistent with Halicephalobus has a reflexed ovary and a deletrix pointed tail. Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, chronic, multifocal, mild to moderate, with interstitial fibrosis and tubular dilatation. Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, Lethal toxin is composed of two proteins, lethal factor (LF) and peracute to acute, diffuse, protective antigen (PA). Edema toxin is composed of an edema factor moderate, with multifocal (EF), a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase, and PA. Edema hemorrhage, fibrin, and myriad toxin is presumed to be responsible for the edema seen around bacilli, cutaneous lesions and other sites of infection Spleen: Splenitis, peracute to acute, diffuse, moderate, with lymphocytolysis, fibrin, and myriad bacilli Ruminants are most susceptible to the disease which is a brief septicemic form. Humans are intermediate, and horses, pigs, dogs and cats are less susceptible with frequent localized infections (pharynx, skin, intestine, lungs). Sources of infection other than soil include contaminated animal products (bone meal, wool, hair, hides, and vegetable (peanut) proteins) Megakaryocytes characteristically stain with PAS and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. They will also be negative for Sudan-black and myeloperoxidase. Using immunohistochemistry these cells stain with platelet-specific antibodies to GPIIb/IIIa and vWF. he perivascular cuffs are composed of histiocytes and varying numbers of lymphocytes, and plasma cells in a network of reticulin fibers (demonstrated with a reticulin stain) Non-effusive FIP is thought to occur in cats that develop humoral immunity, and partial cellular immunity; partial cellular immunity limits the level of virus replication and dissemination. The granulomatous lesions of non-effusive FIP occur around small foci of virus-laden macrophages. Non-effusive FIP occurs with 1/4 the frequency of the effusive form. A recent article describes an uncommon intestinal form of non-effusive FIP that grossly resembled a neoplasm and occurred within the colon or at the ceco-colic junction. chizonts have been reported in many tissues but are most common in the lung, myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle; less frequent sites include liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Mature schizonts produce merozoites which invade neutrophils and monocytes and form gametocytes

7

25

Sheep

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

7

26

Dog

Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME)

Lymph node, prescapular: Megakaryoblastic leukemia

7

27

Dog

Brain: Meningoencephalitis, histiocytic and lymphoplasmacytic Skeletal muscle with serosal surface: Serositis, pyogranulomatous and fibrinous, diffuse, moderate, with vasculitis Liver: Peritonitis, pyogranulomatous and fibrinous, diffuse, moderate, with subcapsular and portal hepatitis and vasculitis. Kidney: No significant lesions.

7

28

Cat

FIP virus coronavirus

8

29

Dog

Hepatozoon canis

keletal muscle: Degeneration and atrophy, diffuse, moderate, with multifocal chronic-active myositis, vascular proliferation, and multiple protozoan cysts,

vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineous, the brown dog tick

8

30

Horse

Cryptococcus neoformans

Chorioallantois: Placentitis, histiocytic, diffuse, mild, with numerous yeasts, Thoroughbred, equine, etiology consistent with Cryptococcus neoformans.

The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of mucopolysaccharides which are thought to inhibit macrophage phagocytosis and antigen-antibody interactions, providing an explanation for the lack of inflammation.

8

31

Cat

Cytauxzoon felis

n pulmonary venules, large (40 m diameter) intravascular Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, macrophages with abundant foamy cytoplasm contain schizonts of subacute, diffuse, moderate, with Cytauxzoon felis. These intracellular schizonts are filled with intramonocytic, intravascular numerous 1-5 m basophilic merozoites. Some pulmonary venules are schizonts, Domestic Shorthair, characterized by fibrinoid necrosis with degenerate leukocytes within feline, etiology consistent with the walls//The schizonts of Cytauxzoon develop within macrophages Cytauxzoon felis. while Theileria and Gonderia have their leukocytic stage in C. difficile is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that produces two protein exotoxins: toxin A (Tx-A) and toxin B, which have different physicochemical and biological properties. Both are lethal toxins when administered parentally to experimental animals, and the minimum lethal dose is about the same for each (~100 fold less than that for C. botulinum toxin). The role of toxin A and toxin B as lethal toxins remain unclear, but what is known is that toxin A is responsible for nearly all changes within the gastrointestinal tract. Toxin B is known to be cytopathic in tissue culture. Toxin A causes a marked increase in leukocyte adherence and emigration accompanied by albumen leakage, mast cell degranulation, release of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and platelet activating factor (PAF).

8

32

Landrace Pig

Clostridium difficile

Colon: Colitis, acute, diffuse, moderate, with erosions, vasculitis, marked transmural edema, and marked venular neutrophilic margination and emigration

9

33

Hedgehog

Herpesvirus

1. Liver: Necrosis, multifocal to coalescing, random, with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies and syncytia. 2. Liver: Vacuolar change (lipid type), diffuse, moderate. 3. Liver: Hepatitis, portal, subacute and eosinophilic, mild. 4. Liver, sinusoids: Extramedullary hematopoiesis, multifocal, small amount.

The hepatic necrosis associated with syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies is typical of herpesvirus infections

9

34

Dog

Angiotropic lymphoma

Brain: Ectasia, vascular, multifocal, with thrombosis and atypical intravascular mononuclear cells

Angiotropic large-cell lymphoma has been reported in humans and dogs and is a rare, generally fatal disease characterized by massive proliferation of neoplastic lymphocytes within blood vessels, often in a subendothelial location. Although scattered extravascular nodules of neoplastic cells can be seen, this is a predominantly intravascular neoplasm. The neoplasm has a predilection for vessels of the skin and central nervous system, but any organ can be involved. Characteristic pathologic features are thrombosis and infarction.

9

35

Mouse

9

36

Mouse

Fibronectin is a large (400 kd) multifunctional glycoprotein associated with cell surfaces, basement membranes, and pericellular matrices. It Glomerulonephritis is produced by fibroblasts, monocytes, endothelial cells, and other cells. Fibronectin binds extracellular matrix components (collagen, fibrin, heparin, and proteoglycan) via a specific tripeptide (arginineglycine-aspartic acid) domain and to cells via integrin receptors to signal cell attachment, locomotion, and differentiation. The binding of Helicobacter hepaticus is a recently identified bacterium Colon: Colitis, proliferative, that has been associated with erosive, chronic-active, diffuse, a chronic-active hepatitis in Helicobacter hepaticus moderate, with crypt dilatation and certain strains of inbred mice abscesses and has been linked to the development of hepatic adenomas and Granulosa cell tumor Ovary: Granulosa cell tumor

Kidney, glomeruli: Eosinophilic mesangial deposits and hyalinization, segmental, multifocal Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal, mild.

10

37

Mouse

10

38

SD RAT

Corynebacterium kutscheri

Lung: Pneumonia, necrosuppurative, multifocal, moderate, with gram-positive bacilli,

Lesions in epizootic rat infections develop from pulmonary embolism, whereas mouse infections more typically result in septic embolization of the joints, liver, and kidney. Although C. kutscheri can be encountered as a primary pathogen, the most common scenario is unmasking of a latent infection by experimental modulations that lower host resistance or impair immunocompetence. In addition to those listed by the contributor, ectromelia and salmonellosis, and deficiencies of vitamin B complex (particularly biotin and pantothenic acid) have been incriminated as predisposing factors. Macroscopically, the growth pattern of E. multilocularis in primates simulates that of a malignant neoplasia. In the center regressive changes Histologically, numerous irregular occur, but peripheral small vesicles are found embedded in proliferation continues a dense stroma of connective tissue indefinitely. Thus, a with focal mineralization. They are progressively enlarging mass lined with a barely discernable inner of mainly necrotic tissue with germinal epithelium and prominent a relatively thin zone of viable outer PAS-positive membrane, both proliferating parasite is of which are of parasitic origin. produced. In the natural Intraluminal scoleces with goldenintermediate host, proliferation brown hooklets bud off. of the vesicles is curtailed with little further increase in size.

10

39

Ape

Echinococcus multilocularis

Liver: Hydatid cyst, multiloculated, with hepatocellular loss, fibrosis, and mild granulomatous hepatitis, Barbary ape (Macaca sylvana), primate. - etiology consistent with Echinococcus multilocularis.

10

40

Chinchilla

Endometrial venous aneurysm

Uterus, endometrium: Aneurysms, venous, multiple, with thrombosis Uterus: Hyperplasia, endometrial, multifocal, mild. Swainsononine, Indolizidine alkaloid- Astragalus, Oxytropids, Swainsonia-Locoweed poisoning is biochemically distinct from the genetic disease because swainsonine also inhibits Golgi mannosidase 2, an Brain: Vacuolation, neuronal, enzyme involved in the diffuse, moderate, with minimal posttranslational trimming multifocal axonal sheath swelling modifications of the glycan and scattered spheroids moiety of glycoproteins. As a result, abnormal proportions of different types of glycoproteins are produced, and stored oligosaccharides are larger than those in the genetic disease.

11

41

Quarterhorse

Neuraxonal dystrophy, Locoism, Locoweed, Alpha Mannosidosis

inhibitor of lysosomal a-mannosidase, swainsonine induces a form of amannosidosis which is microscopically and ultrastructurally identical to genetic a-mannosidosis of man, cattle (Angus, Murray Grey, Tasmanian Grey, and Galloway), and cats (Persian). As a consequence of amannosidase inhibition, there is storage of water-soluble oligosaccharides that contain mannose and N-acetyl-glucosamine within the vesicles of a variety of cells, particularly neurons, macrophages, and pancreatic exocrine cells. In the later stages of the disease, axonal degeneration is evident, particularly in the cerebellar roof nuclei and posterior brain stem.

11

42

Cow

Bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis (BPDD)

Skin, interdigital: Dermatitis, chronic-active and eosinophilic, diffuse, moderate, with marked pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and myriad argyrophilic spirochetes

The lesions of papillomatous digital dermatitis are differentiated from those of interdigital Fusobacterium necrophorum infection ("foot rot") in that they are confined to the dermis and do not produce the deep necrosis associated with "foot rot". BPDD occurs as solitary, circumscribed, red, exudative, painful, 2 cm to 4 cm diameter lesions on the heel bulb. Chronic lesions may take on a verrucose or hairy appearance simulating a fibropapilloma.

11

43

Haddock fish

Gas embolism of the choroid gland- Gas Bubble Disease

Choroid gland (rete): Emphysematous change, diffuse, severe, with retinal detachment and degeneration, and multifocal granulomatous inflammation, hemorrhage and necrosis, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus)

Exophthalmos - diagnosed by the detection of gas bubbles within tissues . The pathogenesis of GBD differs from The Bends in that it reflects a chronic exposure to low level supersaturation, whereas, in decompression disease, the pressure differences are greater and changes occur over a relatively short period of time. Fish equilibrate with the dissolved gas, usually nitrogen, that then comes out of solution into the bloodstream, forming gas emboli in a variety of tissues, especially those with large capillary beds, such as the gills and eyes. In fry, the yolk sac is commonly affected. In acute cases, small gas bubbles initially form in the choroid gland of the posterior uvea, which later increase markedly in size. In subacute and chronic cases, localization of gas bubbles in retrobulbar and periocular sites are frequent. During the acute phase of GBD, ocular lesions are limited to anatomical displacement of tissue and local degeneration of compressed tissues. Subacute sequelae include the formation of anterior synechia, cataract, and suppurative panophthalmitis. During chronic stages, large retrobulbar gas bubbles cause severe exophthalmia and distortion of the globe with stretching of the optic nerve and retinal vessels. Damage to the blood vessel supplying the eye often leads to thrombosis and perivasculitis.

11

44

Pig

Swine Flu

The classic disease is caused by the viral subtype H1N1, which contains distinct Lung: Pneumonia, antigenic variants which may bronchointerstitial, fibrinonecrotic, circulate concurrently in pig acute to subacute, diffuse, populations in different parts moderate, with type II pneumocyte of the world. Subtype H1N1 is hyperplasia and multifocal the primary agent of swine vasculitis, influenza in North America. Subtype H3N2 is prevalent in Europe.

12

45

Mouse

Pancreatic acinar carcinoma

Pancreas: Carcinoma, acinar cell

12

46

Mouse

Rear leg: Tenosynovitis, Immune complex proliferative, lymphohistiocytic and mediated synovitis and neutrophilic, diffuse, moderate, vasculitis. with cellulitis, perineuritis, periostitis, and osteolysis

12

47

Mouse

Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, Immune complexmembrano-proliferative, global, mediated diffuse, moderate, with crescents, glomerulonephritis and marked necrotizing vasculitis, and vasculitis.- Type III multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic hypersensitivity perivasculitis and interstitial nephritis, Characteristic microscopic findings include: (1) intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (ICIBs) most commonly in epidermis, pancreas, and intestine, often multiple inclusions per cell; (2) skin: early-focal epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and spongiosis with ballooning Eyelid: Conjunctivitis, degeneration and ICIBs. Later, subacute, focally extensive, necrosis, ulceration, and dermal moderate, with necrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate; (3) liver: Liver: Necrosis, hepatocellular, intraepithelial intracytoplasmic multifocal random coagulation multifocal, random, with bacterial inclusion bodies. necrosis with minimal inflammation, emboli, Lung, colon, uterus, and hepatocellular syncytia and ballooning vagina: Necrosis, multifocal, degeneration at margins with ICIBs; minimal to severe. (4) spleen: focal necrosis involving both lymphoid follicles and red pulp; (5) intestine: erosions almost to the base of the mucosa, frequently adjacent to lymphoid follicles; and (6) occasional focal necrosis of visceral organs and bone marrow degeneration. Spleen: Necrosis, multifocally extensive, with bacterial emboli. Lung: Bronchopneumonia, necrosuppurative, subacute, diffuse, severe, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, pleuritis and colonies of cocci Trachea and larynx: Laryngotracheitis, necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, severe, with syncytial cells and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies Unlike other herpesviruses, natural transmission is exclusively aerogenic. The virus has an affinity for the respiratory epithelium and viremia does not develop Disseminated visceral coccidiosis-- Histologically, granulomatous nodules contain numerous parasitized mononuclear cells with both merogonic and gametogenic stages of eimerian coccidia. In one study, many of the granulomatous foci were noted within the adventitia of blood vessels, suggesting hematogenous dissemination of the infection. scattered, large, neoplastic cells with abundant finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, round open-faced nuclei and sometimes large single nucleoli. These cells stained well with cresyl violet and are interpreted to be neurons. Ganglioneuromas are benign neuroectodermal tumors that contain both Schwann cells, which predominate, and neurons. The differential diagnosis for this lesion might include tanapox (benign epidermal monkeypox), Yabapox, marmoset pox, and molluscum contagiosum. Grossly, the differential diagnosis would also include tuberculosis, melioidosis, mycotic granulomas, and papillomatosis.

12

48

Mouse

Ectromelia virus (Orthopoxvirus)

13

49

Rabbit

Staphylococcus spp

13

50

Chicken pullets

Infectious Laryngotracheitis virus (Alpha herpes)

13

51

Sandhill crane

Eimeria gruis and/or Eimeria reichenowi.

Liver: Hepatitis, histiocytic and lymphoplasmacytic, random, moderate, with extensive hepatocellular loss, and intrahistiocytic protozoa,

Although Eimeria sp. infections are generally diseases of the intestinal tract, a few species can develop at extraintestinal sites

13

52

Pigeon

Ganglioneuroma vs schwannoma

Feathered skin, top of head: Ganglioneuroma, pigeon, avian

14

53

Cynomolgus monkey

Monkeypox

Tongue: Glossitis, necroulcerative, subacute, with vesicles, pustules, and intracytoplasmic inclusions, cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) Liver: Hepatitis, subacute, multifocal to coalescing, moderate, with hepatocellular degeneration, necrosis and loss, and endothelial syncytial cell formation, Lung, vascular endothelium: Syncytial cells.

14

54

Balb c mouse

Mouse Hepatitis VirusCoronvirus

Lesions associated with enterotropic strains include necrotizing enterocolitis resulting in lesions similar to coronaviral enteric syndromes of other species. As in other species, the most severe clinical signs of disease are found in neonates

14

55

Shetland Sheepdog

Mixed malignant apocrine gland carcinoma

Eye and adjacent tissue: Malignant mixed tumor of apocrine gland,

The tumor of the ocular The tumor was considered to be of adnexa is composed of ductapocrine origin based upon the forming epithelial cells with following criteria: eosinophilic decapitation luminal secretion cytoplasm of tumor cells, decapitation and spindle-shaped luminal secretion, intracellular PAS myoepithelial cells. With positive and diastase resistant chondrous and osseous granules, and the presence of metaplasia intracellular iron- positive granules. vineyard fumigant and in the recovery of chlorine gas in the chemical industry. More significant amounts are found in industrial waste, generated mainly from the manufacture of tetra- and trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride.

14

56

Rat

exachloro-1:3-butadiene (HCBD) toxicity

Kidney, proximal tubules: Degeneration, necrosis and regeneration, multifocal, moderate

15

57

Cat

Toxoplasma gondii

The renal damage seen in the rat following HCBD is similar to that described with a number of other nephrotoxic agents such as mercuric chloride, dl-serine, dl- ethionine, lysinoalanine, and cisplatinum Small intestine: Enteritis, There are two distinct phases of the life cycle, the enteroepithelial transmural, chronic, diffuse, cycle which occurs only in felids (definitive host), and the extrasevere, with extensive villar loss intestinal phase which occurs in both definitive and intermediate and collapse, and numerous hosts. The enteroepithelial cycle usually begins following ingestion of protozoal tachyzoites, tissue cysts and occasionally upon ingestion of sporulated oocysts; zoites are then released and penetrate into the epithelial cells of the small intestine. A series of genetically determined asexual generations (endodyogeny) takes place followed by a sexual cycle (gametogony). After a male gamete fertilizes a female gamete, a wall is formed around the fertilized female gamete forming an oocyst. Oocysts are shed in the feces, and after exposure to air, sporulate. Oocysts contain two sporocysts, each of which contains four sporozoites. Kittens are most likely to become infected and disseminate oocysts. Thereafter, most kittens develop protective immunity and do not shed oocysts with subsequent exposure. Mesentery: Mesenteritis, chronic, Sporulation of the oocyst takes between 1 and 5 days depending diffuse, severe, with numerous upon environmental conditions. The entire life cycle can be completed protozoal tachyzoites within three days after ingestion of tissue cysts; however, after ingestion of tachyzoites or sporulated oocysts by cats, the complete life cycle to oocyst formation is usually delayed for 3 weeks. Presumably, sporozoites and tachyzoites invade and multiply in intestinal and extraintestinal tissues forming bradyzoites. In tissues of cats, cysts rupture releasing bradyzoites that return to the intestine and continue the cycle as if tissue cysts had been ingested. The life cycle of T. gondii in extraintestinal tissues is the same for all intermediate hosts and cats. After ingestion of tissue cysts or The cells are usually cuboidal and may have "clear", eosinophilic or basophilic cytoplasm. They may be arranged in solid sheets, papillary projections or tubules, and may line cystic spaces. All of these patterns may occur in a single tumor. No prognostic value is associated with any pattern.

15

58

Cat

Renal carcinoma

Kidney: Renal cell carcinoma,

15

59

Owl

Aspergillus sp

1. Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing, multifocal to focally extensive, eucocytozoon infestation was observed in the circulating leukocytes subacute, severe, owl, avian of all organs examined. The life cycle of these parasites is discussed etiology consistent with by Levine (1985). The parasite is transmitted by black flies (Simulium Aspergillus sp. spp.).Sporogony takes place in these flies and the infective sporozoites invade parenchymal organs of birds and undergo schizogony. The schizonts infect leukocytes or, in certain species of 2. Air sac: Airsacculitis, Leucocytozoon, red blood cells, and develop to gametocytes. The necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, gametocytes in leukocytes have elongate or round forms or both, severe, with fungal hyphae depending on the species. These parasites occupy almost all the etiology consistent with cytoplasm pushing the nucleus aside. The nucleus remains as an Aspergillus sp. elongate basophilic structure on the side of the cell.

Leukocytozoon

3. Lung, blood cells: Microgametocytes and macrogametocytes, intracytoplasmic, numerous, etiology consistent with Leucocytozoon sp.

Leucocytozoon in blood cells can readily be differentiated from other common avian hemoparasites, but in tissue sections, schizonts of Leucocytozoon must be differentiated from Haemoproteus and Plasmodium.

15

60

Sheep

Copper intoxication

Primary ruleouts should Fibrosis, bridging, portal to portal include: copper, aflatoxins, and portal to central, diffuse, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, severe, with multifocal chronic nitrosamines, sporodesmin, hepatitis, biliary hyperplasia, and phomopsin, Alsike clover, and marked canalicular cholestasis, the triterpines of Lantana sp. Heart, myocardium: Degeneration, acute, multifocal to coalescing, severe, horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata), avian. Liver: Necrosis, coagulative, centrilobular, bridging, diffuse, with hepatocellular vacuolar change (lipid type).

16

61

Puffin

Vitamin E deficiency, nutritional myopathy

16

62

Rat

16

63

Dog

16

64

Mink

1. Haired skin and subcutis: differential diagnoses were Sarcoma, histiocytic, Long Evans considered: malignant fibrous rat, rodent. histiocytoma, malignant 2. Kidney, capsule: Sarcoma, Histiocytic sarcoma pleomorphic fibrous histiocytic. histiocytoma, and histiocytic 3. Kidney, proximal tubules: sarcoma Intracytoplasmic hyaline droplets, diffuse, numerous. Brain, cerebellum: Atrophy of germinal, molecular, granular, and Cerebellar abiotrophy Purkinje cell layers, segmental, with Purkinje cell degeneration, necrosis, and loss Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute, Fusobacterium necrophorum Fusobacterum focally extensive, severe, with is a gram-negative, nonnecrophorum and hemorrhage, emphysema, sporulating, filamentous, Clostridium perfringens fibrinous capsulitis, and numerous obligate anaerobe filamentous bacteria, Nephroblastoma Kidney: Nephroblastoma, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), piscine. Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, chronic, multifocal, moderate, with multifocal glomerulosclerosis and periglomerular fibrosis.

17

65

Rainbow trout

17

66

Cat

Pseudomycetoma/ Dermatophytic mycetoma

Haired skin: Dermatitis and panniculitis, pyogranulomatous, focally extensive, severe, with mycelial pseudo-granules, and abundant intrahistiocytic debris,

17

67

dog

Lobular dissecting fibrosis

Liver: Hepatitis, chronic, diffuse, his lesion is distinct from classic cirrhosis in which there is prominent portal bridging fibrosis, bile duct reduplication, and multifocal nodular severe, with lobular dissecting regeneration. This disease process should be regarded as a specific fibrosis, canalicular cholestasis, reaction pattern in the liver of the neonatal and juvenile dog, mild biliary hyperplasia, multifocal comparable to neonatal hepatitis in humans. The differential intrahistiocytic pigment, diagnosis for this lesion would include copper toxicity, copper storage hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration, and individual cell disease, aflatoxicosis, and infectious diseases such as those caused by canine adenovirus 1 and Leptospira spp. necrosis Placenta: Placentitis, necrotizing, Many of the conference participants favored a protozoal infection with Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum. The differential diagnosis subacute, diffuse, severe, with also included Candida sp., Histoplasma capsulatum, and Sarcocystis intracellular and extracellular cruzi. Positive staining with GMS and the presence of occasional yeast and pseudohyphae, etiology pseudohyphae confirm the contributor's diagnosis. consistent with Candida sp n immunohistochemical stains performed at the AFIP, neoplastic cells did not stain positively for factor VIII-related antigen. Neoplastic cells were also negative for lysozyme, glial fibrillary acidic protein, smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein, desmin, and cytokeratin. Liver; mesentery: Sarcoma, poorly Although the origin of this neoplasm could not be determined, the differentiated differential diagnosis includes malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma. 1. Eye, iris, ciliary body, and filtration angle: Fibrovascular membrane, pre-iridal and postiridal, with entropion uveae and anterior peripheral synechiae, mixed breed, canine. 2. Eye, retina, sclera, cornea, and iris: Atrophy, diffuse, moderate. 3. Eye, lens: Cataractous change, subcapsular. These neoplasms have been associated with myasthenia gravis, polymyositis, myocarditis, and dermatitis. Thymomas are rarely reported in cats. Several of the reported cases contained cysts lined by thymic epithelial cells, most often of the fusiform type, that were separated by prominent fibrous bands . Mast cells, which are preseent in small numbers in the normal feline thymic medulla, can be numerous in feline thymomas./ Normal thymic epithelial cells produce several small polypeptide hormones including thymosin, thymopoietins, thymic humoral factor, thymulin, and the thymostimulins. Thymulin is interesting, since it is a zinc-containing peptide that can partially restore T cell function in thymectomized animals. Thymic epithelial cells also secrete IL-1.

17

68

Cow fetus

Candida parapsilosis

18

69

Cat

Hemangiosarcoma/ Poorly differentiated sarcoma

18

70

Dog

18

71

Cat

Thymoma

Thymus: Thymoma, cystic, with marked mastocytosis,

18

72

Chicken

Eimeria necatrix

Small intestine: Enteritis, proliferative, subacute, diffuse, moderate, with villar atrophy, necrosis, hemorrhage, and coccidial schizonts

Eimeria necatrix has a typical eimerian life cycle. After ingestion of an oocyst, it is crushed in the gizzard and sporozoites are released. Sporozoites enter cells in the mucosa of the intestine and begin the cell cycle leading to reproduction. At least two generations of asexual reproduction, called schizogony or merogony, lead to a sexual phase, where small, motile microgametes seek out and unite with macrogametes. The resulting zygotes matures into oocysts, which are released from the intestinal mucosa and shed in the feces.

19

73

Cat

Osteopetrosis

Bone, site unspecified: Osteopetrosis, diffuse, severe, with failure of modeling, domestic shorthair, feline.

Bone, marrow: Hypercellularity, diffuse, moderate, with myeloid hyperplasia and erythroid hypoplasia

Osteopetrosis secondary to FeLV infection has been reported in cats. C-type retrovirus particles consistent with FeLV were detected in association with the plasma membranes of osteocytes and osteoblasts and embedded in the osteoid. Virus particles were also found within megakaryocytes of the bone marrow.

Osteopetrosis secondary to type-C retrovirus has been described in cats, mice, and chickens. In cats, there is defective osteoclasis, whereas in mice and chickens the disorder is primarily osteoblastic. Avian osteopetrosis is probably the best characterized example of a bone disorder caused by a type-C retrovirus; however, it is not a true osteopetrosis because the increased bone formation is subperiosteal rather that medullary and results from osteoblastic activity rather than defective osteoclasis.

19

74

Lamb

Vit E selenium deficiency

The differential diagnosis for this lesion includes vitamin E/selenium Skeletal muscle, pelvic limb (per deficiency, toxic myopathies caused by the systemic effects of plant toxins (Cassia sp., Karwinskia sp., gossypol), feed additives contributor): Degeneration and necrosis, multifocal to coalescing, (monensin), and metallic or nonmetallic toxins (copper, cobalt, iron, silver, cadmium, zinc, thallium, mercury, selenium, tellurium, and with regeneration, fibrosis, sulfur), the local action of injected toxic substances (chloramphenicol, mineralization, and histiocytic oxytetracycline and iron preparations), bluetongue virus, and inflammation exertional rhabdomyolysis. One characteristic finding in vitamin E/selenium deficiency is the presence of a fine stippling of mineral in Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism is caused by factors that tend to lower the levels of serum ionized calcium and to increase the output of parathormone (PTH). It is most common in young, rapidly growing animals that are fed rations low in calcium and relatively high in phosphorous. This metabolic disorder is a compensatory mechanism directed against a disturbance in mineral homeostasis induced by nutritional imbalances, ie. low serum calcium, excessive phosphorus with normal or low calcium, inadequate amounts of vitamin D3. The significant end result is hypocalcemia which result in parathyroid stimulation. Parathyroid glands undergo cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Increased levels of PTH result in a poorly understood interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. PTH secretion results in hyperplasia and Maxilla; nasal turbinates: Osteodystrophy, fibrous, diffuse, activation of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts do not have PTH receptors. Their resorptive activity is probably controlled by a complex system severe, dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), camelid. that involves the response of undifferentiated cells of osteoblastic lineage which possess receptors for to PTH. These undifferentiated cells may interact with osteoclasts through a paracrine effect resulting in stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption. Increased levels of PTH also cause diminished renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus and increased reabsorption of calcium. Bone resorption is accelerated and release of calcium elevates blood calcium levels to the low-normal range. Continued ingestion of the imbalanced diet sustains the state of compensatory hyperparathyroidism, which leads to progressive development of the metabolic bone disease. There is increased resorption of cancellous bone and cortical bone, together with the proliferation of fibrous tissue (fibroblasts have PTH receptors).

19

75

Camel

Metabolic Bone Disease, Hyperparathyroidism

Nasal turbinate: Rhinitis, subacute, multifocal, mild.

New bone is formed in a radial fashion by the periosteum, increasing the size of the bone. The spaces between the trabeculae are constantly filled with connective tissue. The new trabeculae may remain mineralized or may partially mineralize only to be again resorbed and replaced, repeatedly and irregularly. A similar process occurs in the endosteum, replacing the medulla and marrow with fibrocellular tissue that contains irregular trabeculae. As the original compact bone is broached from both surfaces, it is steadily and completely replaced by fibrous tissue causing enlargement of bones such as those of the skull or mandible. Subperiosteal cortical bone resorption results in bowing deformities and multiple folding fractures of affected bones, articular collapse and deformity of structures such as the vertebrae and ribs.

19

76

Horse

Congenital Hyperplastic Goiter (thyroid hyperplasia)

hyroid: Hyperplasia, follicular, diffuse, severe (hyperplastic goiter)

Clinical features common to affected foals include prognathism, ruptured common digital extensor tendons, forelimb contracture, and severely retarded ossification and crushing of the carpal and tarsal bones. Hypothyroid foals are typicallyaffected at birth, are often weak and require assistance to stand and may have a grossly enlarged thyroid.

20

77

Rhesus Monkey

Cryptosporidium

1. Trachea; bronchi: Tracheobronchitis, lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic, diffuse, moderate, with luminal epithelial hyperplasia, 2. Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, subacute, diffuse, moderate, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and rare cytomegalic/karyomegalic cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. B. bronchiseptica colonizes ciliated cells of the respiratory tract. This results in a suppurative rhinitis and possibly pneumonia that eventually changes into a lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis and chronic pneumonia. In chronic lung lesions, there can be prominent peribronchial and peribronchiolar fibrosis. B. bronchiseptica is associated with conchal atrophy (atrophic rhinitis) and can induce moderate to severe conchal atrophy experimentally In the dog, the most common causes of pleuritis are Actinomyces, Nocardia, and Bacteroides spp. Mixed bacterial infections are common and a variety of organisms may be present, including Corynebacterium spp., Pasteurella spp., E. coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Pseudomonas spp., and streptococci.

Cytomegalovirus

20

78

pig

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Lung: Pneumonia, necrohemorrhagic, fibrinous, diffuse, severe, with vasculitis, fibrin thrombi and cilia-associated bacilli

20

79

Beagle

Pyothorax, pleuritis

Lung: Pleuritis, chronic-active, proliferative, diffuse, severe, with diffuse atelectasis and fibrinocellular thrombi

20

80

Dog

Canine Adenovirus-1

This dog died of hemorrhage probably caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)--There is inflammatory edema of the iris, ciliary body, and corneal Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute, propria with viral antigen in all multifocal to coalescing, severe, but the cornea; cellular with hemorrhage and rare infiltrates of the iris and basophilic intranuclear inclusion filtration angle are principally bodies, mixed-breed, canine, plasma cells. This lesion etiology consistent with canine represents a local type III adenovirus type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to virus-antibody complex deposition in the small blood vessels of the ciliary body and iris, and the resulting interference with normal fluid exchange

CAV1 is unusual among the adenoviruses, in that it is capable of causing severe generalized disease affecting including liver, lung, eye, brain, and kidney. CAV1 is distinct from canine adenovirus type 2, which usually causes a mild respiratory infection in the dog. Coyotes, wolves and raccoons are also susceptible to CAV1. CAV1 has special tropism for endothelium, mesothelium, and hepatic parenchyma.

21

81

Monkey

Coxiella burnetti

Lung: Bronchopneumonia, fibrinosuppurative and histiocytic, subacute, diffuse, severe, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and fibrinosuppurative pleuritis, In mature animals, A. suis infection can be confused with erysipelas. In neonates and suckling pigs, These animals may have Liver: Hepatitis, peracute to acute, A. suis causes an acute and erythematous skin lesions, fever, and necrotizing, random, multifocal, rapidly fatal septicemia; death inappetence. Abortion, metritis, and moderate, with bacillary emboli can occur within 15 hours meningitis have also been reported in sows n the soil, C. immitis occurs as a saprophytic mycelial phase which gives rise to readily aerosolized arthroconidia. In host tissue 1. Vertebra, fourth lumbar (per arthroconidia transform into spherules that gradually enlarge up to 20contributor): Osteomyelitis, 100 µm in diameter. Rarely, spherules may reach up to 200 µm in granulomatous, diffuse, severe, diameter. The nuclei within the spherule divide to form numerous with multiple granulomas, uninucleate endospores, 2-3 µm in diameter (endosporulation). When osteonecrosis, new bone released from the spherule, each endospore will form a new mature formation, and fungal spherules, spherule at 37°C, or a mycelium at room temperature. In the body, Belgian Malinois, canine, etiology the endospore may mature at the site of release or spread to other consistent with Coccidioides tissue via lymphatics or the blood. Endospores are not considered immitis. infectious to other animals (arthroconidia from the mycelial phase are highly infectious), 2. Skeletal muscle: Myositis, granulomatous, focally extensive, moderate, with granulomas, myofiber atrophy, fibrosis, and regeneration. 3. Bone marrow: Hyperplasia, myeloid, diffuse, moderate. 1. Haired skin: Atypical mesenchymal proliferation, nodular, with epidermal hyperplasia, ballooning degeneration, spongiosis, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), rodent. 2. Haired skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue: Steatitis, granulomatous, multifocal, moderate. 3. Haired skin, deep skeletal muscle: Myositis, chronic, multifocal, mild, with myofiber atrophy and regeneration. Cloacal papillomas are quite common, especially in Amazon parrots, and there are reports of concurrent bile duct carcinomas. A viral origin has been assumed but so far a papillomavirus has been isolated only in chaffinches, bramblings and a Timneh African grey parrot. Herpeslike virus particles were seen in a cloacal papilloma of an orange-fronted conure. In the grey squirrel, multiple fibromas have been reported to occur in the skin, heart, lung, kidney, liver, mesentery, testes, and lymph nodes. The pathogenesis of the disseminated squirrel fibroma is not completely understood, but it is believed that the virus spreads hematogenously.

21

82

Pig

Actinobacillus suis

21

83

Dog

Coccidioides immitis

21

84

Grey Squirrel

Leporipoxvirus-Squirrel pox

Inclusions in epithelium only

22

85

McCaw

Psitttacine Herpesviruscloacal papillomatosis

1. Liver: Cholangiocarcinoma, military macaw (Ara militaris), avian.

22

86

Channel Catfish

2. Oropharynx: Papilloma. Gill: Branchitis, proliferative and Proloferative Gill histiocytic, diffuse, moderate to Disease- myxozoan and severe, with protozoan spores, a species of channel catfish (Ictalurus Aurantiactinomyxon punctatus)

Proliferative gill disease (PGD) of channel catfish occurs throughout commercial catfish

22

87

Cat

Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis is defined as permanent, abnormal dilatation of bronchi. It occurs most frequently as an acquired lesion secondary to some form of bronchitis or bronchopneumonia. A severe suppurative Lung: Bronchiectasis and bronchitis damages and weakens the bronchial wall which leads to bronchiolectasis, diffuse, severe, pooling of exudates in the bronchial lumen. Inflammatory processes with bronchiolar plugs, mild in more distal airways and alveoli contribute to lower airway bronchiolar gland hyperplasia, and obstruction and atelectasis. The loss of alveolar tissue leads to mild neutrophilic, histiocytic, and traction on the wall of airways during inspiration which contributes to eosinophilic bronchiolitis airway expansion. The bronchitis may be of infectious or allergic etiology, secondary to aspiration or another abnormality such as immotile cilia syndrome.

22

88

mink

The conference participants agreed with the contributor's diagnosis Lung: Pneumonia, and comments. Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a common pathogen bronchointerstitial, subacute, in dogs, other canids, mustelids, procyonids, and viverrids. Recently, diffuse, moderate, with type II Canine Distemper Virus major outbreaks of canine distemper have occurred in javelinas pneumocyte hyperplasia, syncytia, and intranuclear and eosinophilic (collared peccaries) in the United States, and in big cats in Africa and North America. intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies Small intestine: Enteritis, necrotizing, acute, diffuse, severe, Hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis in newborn foals has been reported to be caused by the following Clostridium species: Clostridium Clostridium perfringens with necrotizing vasculitis, fibrin perfringens type C, Clostridium perfringens type B, Clostridium thrombi, diffuse transmural type C sordelli, and Clostridium difficile. edema, and myriad mucosal adherent bacilli

23

89

Quarterhorse

23

90

Dog

Gastric Heterotopy

Jejunum: Heterotopic fundic gastric mucosa, segmental, with goblet cell hyperplasia, and mild multifocal subacute inflammation

Heterotopia of the gastric mucosa is extremely rare in animals, having been noted in the Beagle breed and the cat. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in Beagles has only been reported in the small intestine. In humans, heterotopic gastric mucosa can occasionally be found in the intestinal tract, most commonly in the duodenum, but also in the jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum. In most cases, the heterotopic gastric tissue is identified as an isolated finding in the intestinal mucosa, but may be a component of more complex malformations such as Meckel's and other small bowel diverticula, enteric duplications, and various other congenital malformations. In dogs, heterotopic gastric mucosa has only been reported in the jejunum.

23

91

Dog

Meningioma

Brain, cerebellum: Malignant meningioma, pigmented,

n humans, pigmented meningiomas have been reported in the past; however, recent immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies have shown these tumors to be melanocytic. The existance of true melanotic meningioma has been questioned. Primary melanocytic neoplasms of the meninges are recognized in humans and animals. In the present case, pigmented malignant meningioma and meningeal malignant melanoma were included in the differential diagnosis There are numerous, large, approximately 10-15 µm diameter fungal hyphae which are branching, septate, nondichotomous, with bulbous projections. Occasional vessels have perivascular, vascular, and luminal fungi with inflammation.

23

92

Penguin

Zygomycetes- Rhizopus

Lung: Pneumonia, necrogranulomatous, fibrinohemorrhagic, diffuse, severe, with necrotizing vasculitis and fungal hyphae, Magellanic penguin, avian, etiology consistent with a mucoraceous zygomycete.

24

93

Guinea Pig

Metastatic mineralization

1. Liver: Mineralization, midzonal and multifocal, moderate, with multifocal coagulative necrosis, Hartley guinea pig, rodent. 2. Liver, hepatocytes: Vacuolar change (lipid type), periportal to midzonal, diffuse, mild.

Metastatic calcification occurs most often in guinea pigs over 1 year of age. Dietary factors such as low magnesium and high phosphorous and calcium intake have been implicated in this syndrome. High calcium or high phosphorous diets appear to interfere with magnesium absorption and metabolism

24

94

dog

Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS)

The characteristic histologic findings are ischemic necrosis of Salivary gland, mandibular: salivary lobules and secondary squamous metaplasia of salivary Necrosis, coagulative, diffuse, with ducts. The palatine glands are most commonly affected. multifocal neovascularization and Salivary gland infarction / NS has been reported in at least six small rare multifocal squamous breed dogs which included the Jack Russell Terrier, Wirehaired Fox metaplasia of ductular epithelium Terrier, West Highland White Terrier, and Pomeranian.

24

95

Ox

Lechiguana/ Proliferative fibrogranulomasPasteurella granulomatis.

Subcutis and skeletal muscle: Panniculitis and myositis, fibrosing, chronic-active, diffuse, severe, with multifocal eosinophilic microabscesses, Splendore Hoeppli material, bacterial colonies and mineralization

he correlation between the distribution of lesions of Lechiguana and those caused by Dermatobia hominis suggests that this parasite may have a role in transmitting or initiating the disease. Histologically, the Bovine focal proliferative subcutaneous mass consists of well fibrogranulomatous vascularized mature connective panniculitis (Lechiguana) is a tissue, multifocally calcified and disease affecting cattle in infiltrated by numerous eosinophils southern Brazil and is and lesser numbers of lymphocytes, characterized by rapidly plasma cells, and neutrophils. growing, large solitary Numerous microabscesses composed subcutaneous swellings mainly of eosinophils are found within occurring mostly over the the connective tissue. The mass scapula or adjacent areas extends into adjacent skeletal muscle destroying myofibers; scattered myofibers are found entrapped within the connective tissue mass. Lymphatics within the mass are dilated and filled with eosinophils. Calcific bodies are often found within the caseated centers of granulomas, are readily stained with H&E and the PAS reaction and resemble yeast-like cells. When apposed, these bodies may look like budding yeast, and their laminated structure creates the illusion of a thick cell wall or capsule. Calcific bodies do not stain with GMS or Gridley's stains.

24

96

Black Crake-Avian

Nocardiosis

Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing, granulomatous, multifocal to coalescing, severe, with necrotizing vasculitis and filamentous bacilli,

gram positive, 0.5 to 1.0 m wide, branching, occasionally beaded, filamentous organisms were visible in the necrotic centers. These organisms were acid-fast with the Fite-Faraco method, but not with the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain.

25

97

Ruffled Lemur

Proliferative bone disease

Bone, ulna: Hyperostosis, periosteal, chronic, focally extensive, severe, with cortical osteopenia

he lesions in the case presented here represent chronic periosteal new bone formation with involvement of the diaphyseal, metaphyseal, and periarticular regions. The new bone formation resembles that seen in hypertrophic osteopathy, except that the lesions are more widespread. The cancellization of the underlying cortex likely represents stress shielding of the cortical bone by the periosteal new bone. The lemur in this case was also found to have membranous glomerulonephritis and chronic interstitial nephritis but BUN and creatinine were not elevated. No thoracic or abdominal lesions was found, as might be associated with hypertrophic osteopathy. The cause of the proliferative bone lesions seen here and reported in other lemurs is undetermined.

25

98

Sheep

Listeriosis occurs in 3 distinct syndromes: 1) abortions, 2) septicemia with visceral abscesses, and 3) encephalitis. Abortion in ruminants usually occurs in late gestation, and is not associated with illness of the dam. Septicemic disease with visceral abscessation is recognized Brain, brain stem: Meningoencephalitis, subacute, in neonatal ruminants. Encephalitic listeriosis occurs mostly in adult ruminants, although younger ewes are at higher risk than aged ewes. multifocal, moderate, with Listeria monocytogenes microabcesses, neuronal necrosis, In encephalitic listeriosis, the organism has marked affinity for the brain stem, primarily the pons and medulla, as was present in this and numerous bacteria, case. There is evidence that the organism gains entrance to the brain via cranial nerves, particularly the trigeminal, rather than via a hematogenous route. Eye: Panophthalmitis, Based on histomorphologic granulomatous, multifocal, and epidemiologic findings, moderate to severe, with the organisms are most likely periocular skeletal myositis, of the Mycobacterium aviumsteatitis, optic neuritis, and myriad intracellulare complex (MAIC). bacilli, Myoepitheliomas most frequently arise in the parotid and submaxillary salivary glands, and expand the subcutis of the ventral neck. They can also be associated with the mammary, Harderian, and preputial glands. These tumors can become very large, with cystic chambers containing a pink to brown serous fluid. This fluid is not secretory in nature, but forms through liquefaction of the neoplasm. The most consistent finding in horses with clinical signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a generalized chronic bronchiolitis. Emphysema is less common. Constant features of the chronic bronchiolitis are epithelial hyperplasia, goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchiolar fibrosis, and infiltration by lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lumina of bronchioles are narrowed by accumulation of exudate and peribronchiolar fibrosis. Mucus is usually a major component of the exudate. The presence of eosinophils is quite variable ranging from very few to numerous. It is worth mentioning that cats have no perianal (hepatoid) gland which is a peculiar anatomical structure of dog. Accordingly, based upon the morphologic features, we suppose that the origin of the present tumor is the anal sac-associated sebaceous gland. The contribution of the sweat gland, the other glandular structure associated with the anal sac, was eliminated as the histologic criteria of the present tumor are different from that of apocrine carcinoma.

25

99

Cat

Mycobacterium sp

25

100

Mouse

Myoepithelioma

Haired skin: Myoepithelioma, malignant

26

101

Horse

Respiratory hypersensitivityHeaves COPD

Lung: Bronchiolitis and bronchitis, lymphoplasmacytic, diffuse, moderate, with airway epithelial hyperplasia, diffuse congestion, and multifocal alveolar edema,

26

102

Cat

Perianal sebaceous carcinoma

Haired skin, perianal area: Carcinoma, sebaceou

26

103

Cat

Cholangocellular carcinoma

Liver: Adenocarcinoma,

26

104

Antelope

Amyloidosis consists of about 90% fibril proteins and 10% glycoprotein (P component). AL (amyloid light chain) is derived from 1. Liver: Amyloidosis, diffuse, plasma cells, contains immunoglobulin light chains and is the severe, with hepatocellular predominant deposit in primary amyloidosis. It is associated with atrophy and loss, blackbuck multiple myeloma and is composed of homogeneous light chains of antelope (Antelope cervicapra), the ( -VI type) and type or their N-terminal fragments ( -Bence Jones bovid. protein, amyloid fibril protein in multiple myeloma), or both. AA (amyloid-associated) proteins are derived from large protein precursors in the serum (SAA-serum amyloid associated) that are produced in the liver in response to interleukin-1, and perhaps other cytokines, and are associated with the HDL3 subclass of lipoproteins. SAA is an acute-phase protein associated with inflammatory reactions. AA proteins have been isolated in vitro from the digestion 2. Liver: Hepatitis, portal, of delipidated SAA by monocytic serine proteases (u-PA, urokinaselymphoplasmacytic, diffuse, mild. type plasminogen activator-macrophages and granulocytes). This is the predominant deposit in secondary amyloidosis. Recent studies have revealed several other proteins in amyloid deposits: 1. Transthyretin: A serum protein that binds and transports thyroxine and retinol. A mutant form of transthyretin and its fragment are isolated in familial amyloid polyneuropathies (Familial Mediterranean fever) and amyloidosis associated with aging (Alzheimer's disease) in humans. 3. Spleen, red pulp: Amyloidosis, 2. 2 Microglobulin: component of the MHC class 1 molecule has diffuse, severe. recently been isolated in amyloidosis that complicates long term hemodialysis. 3. 2 Amyloid protein (A 4 protein) constitutes the core of cerebral amyloid plaques as well as the deposits found in the walls of cerebral vessels in Alzheimer's disease. 4. IAAP (islet amyloid polypeptide): major component of human and feline pancreatic islet amyloid and of amyloid in human pancreatic endocrine tumors, occurs in normal pancreatic cells of numerous species, is located in the outer lucent zone and dense core of the cell secretory vesicle in the cat and man, respectively, and is probably cosecreted with insulin. It inhibits basal and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle and is believed to play a role in the insulin resistance seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus in man. 5. AEF (Amyloid-enhancing factor): a glycoprotein that appears to alter the metabolism of SAA and may be essential for the deposition of AA amyloid in experimental models. Note that additional elements 4. Spleen: Hemosiderosis, diffuse, must be required for the deposition of amyloid in tissue since SAA moderate. when reacted to IL-1 in the presence of AEF does not give rise to amyloid. 6. GAG's (sulfated glycosaminoglycans) have been reported in several forms of amyloid deposits. 7. In addition to those proteins already described, amyloid deposits derived from hormone precursors (pro-calcitonin, proinsulin, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid) and keratin have been reported. 8. P Component (AP), also synthesized in the liver, is structurally similar to C-reactive protein and is associated with all forms of amyloidosis.

27

105

Pintail duck

Staphylococcus spp

Wing, carpus: Arthritis, osteomyelitis and tenosynovitis, necrotizing, granulomatous and heterophilic, multifocal to coalescing, severe, with granulation tissue, periosteal hyperostosis, and colonies of cocci

n free living waterfowl, staphylococcosis tends to be sporadic and is not responsible for large numbers of mortalities. The major pathological findings include: endocarditis, arthritis, tenosynovitis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, hepatitis, splenitis, nephritis, pneumonia, encephalomyelitis, and enteritis. The most common route of infection in Anseriforms appears to be through skin wounds

27

106

Nude Mouse

Enterobacter spp

The death of the fetus was 1. Uterus, gravid: Metritis and gram-negative bacteria such as attributed to loss of blood placentitis, necrotizing, acute, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumonia, supply due to placental diffuse, severe, with vasculitis and Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter sp. vasculitis and necrosis. The numerous intracellular and can cause suppurative utero-ovarian presence of squamous extracellular bacilli, nude mouse infections in nongravid mice epithelial cells and meconium (Nu/JNu), rodent. within fetal lungs indicates fetal stress. Enterobacter sp. 2. Fetus: Autolysis, diffuse, are occasionally reported to moderate. cause placentitis in horses and sporadic cases of mastitis 3. Fetus, lung: Numerous and urinary tract infections in squamous epithelial cells and dogs. meconium. In addition to those listed by the contributor, the following bacteria have been isolated from the reproductive tracts of 4. Fetus, nasal mucosa, dermis, female mice that aborted: dental pulp, tongue: Necrosis and Streptococcus sp., Proteus acute inflammation, multifocal, mirabilis, and Proteus mild. vulgaris.

27

107

Wallaby

Wallal virus- orbivurus

Eye: Choroiditis, lymphocytic, diffuse, severe, with moderate anterior uveitis, retinitis, retinal detachment and intra-ocular fibrinocellular exudate,

The conference participants agreed with the contributor's diagnosis. Differential diagnosis for this lesion includes viral infection and autoimmune reaction. The distribution of these lesions is interesting. Many orbiviruses cause more generalized, often vascular, lesions. Other orbiviruses of veterinary importance include: bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus, African horse sickness virus, Palyam virus, Ibaraki virus, and equine encephalosis virus.

27

108

Marmoset

Brain: Meningoencephalitis, Marmosets are susceptible to necrotizing, subacute, multifocal, both herpes simplex and The most characteristic gross lesions moderate to severe, with herpes T infection. Both are discrete ulcers, necrotic plaques, astrocytosis, multifocal viruses cause systemic and erosions or ulcers of the oral Herpes Simplex 1 and 2 hemorrhage, ventriculitis, infection with similar gross mucous membranes and at the vasculitis, and neuronal and and microscopic lesions. mucocutaneous junction of the lips astrocytic eosinophilic intranuclear Encephalitis has not been inclusion bodies described in Herpesvirus T Intranuclear inclusion bodies and multinucleate syncytial cells are characteristic findings. The most striking feature herpes simplex encephalitis is necrosis of neurons, particularly of the temporal cerebral cortex and the thalamus. Intranuclear inclusions may be found in neurons and astrocytes.

28

109

Bovine

Malignant Catarrhal Fever- gamma herpesvirus

Colon: Vasculitis, lymphohistiocytic, necrotizing, multifocal, moderate, with diffuse, mild to moderate, subacute, erosive colitis

AlHV-1, OVH-2

28

110

Sheep

Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus are among the most commonly diagnosed causes of ovine abortion. These abortions occur in the last half of gestation. Grossly, placentitis is rarely apparent. Fetuses are Placenta: Placentitis, necrotizing, often slightly to moderately autolytic. Fetal lesions often include a acute, diffuse, severe, with fibrinous peritonitis and hepatomegaly with multifocal target-shaped intratrophoblastic, intravascular, areas of hepatic necrosis. Suppurative placentitis and pneumonia of and extracellular bacilli varying severity are usually present. These fetal lesions are typical but not pathognomonic of Campylobacter sp. infections. Identical lesions can be produced by Flexispira rappini. 1. Lung: Pneumonia, bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, acute to subacute, diffuse, moderate, with syncytial cells and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, Arabian horse, equine. 2. Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, portal and random, acute, multifocal, moderate, with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies.

28

111

Horse

EHV-1

EHV-1 Equine viral abortion and neurologic disease

EHV-4 Rhinopneumonitis virus

EHV-2 Currently recognized as a gamma herpesvirus

EHV-5 Currently recognized as a gamma herpesvirus

3. Adrenal: Adrenalitis, necrotizing, peracute to acute, multifocal, moderate, with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies.

EHV-3 Equine coital exanthema

EHV-1 is the important cause of single or multiple abortions in mares. An important distinction is that in fetuses aborted due to EHV-1, the lung is the main organ affected. EHV1 is the only one causing neurologic disease (an encephalitis characterized by a vasculitis) and can result in neonatal deaths, probably associated with late term fetal infections.

28

112

Equine

Granular cell tumor

Lung: Granular cell tumor

The equine pulmonary granular cell tumor is believed to be of Schwann neoplastic cells stained cell origin. The cytoplasmic granules positively for S-100 protein, of the neoplastic cells are reported to glial fibrillary acidic protein stain with luxol fast blue and periodic (GFAP) and neuron-specific acid-Schiff counterstain for myelin enolase (NSE); these findings and myelin-breakdown products. are in agreement with These findings coupled with positive previous reports. staining with S-100, GFAP, and NSE support Schwann cell origin. They have a total of three hearts: one systemic heart which is most like that of mammals and two branchial hearts. Cuttlefish hearts are part of an essentially closed circulatory system and all are prone to bacterial seeding during septicemia. Cuttlefish do not have a true liver or pancreas but do have a digestive gland which has been called liver or hepatopancreas by some.

29

113

Cuttlefish

1. Mantle, skeletal muscle: Myositis, amebocytic, multifocal, Citrobacter freundii and moderate, with bacilli, common group D Enterococcus Cephalopods have one type of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), blood cell, called hemocytes cephalopod. or amebocytes, which contain 2. Systemic heart: large eosinophilic granules Endomyocarditis, amebocytic, and monomorphic nuclei. In diffuse, moderate, with multifocal tissue sections, the cells often necrosis. appear to have "degranulated" appearing monocyte-like. 3. Digestive gland: Adenitis, amebocytic, necrotizing, multifocal, moderate, with bacilli.

29

114

Bengal Cat

Nutritional PansteatitisVit E deficiency

Adipose tissue: Steatitis, granulomatous, necrotizing, multifocal, moderate, with multifocal fibrosis, inflamed granulation tissue, multinucleate giant cells with intracytoplasmic cholesterol clefts, and scattered touton giant cells,

Feline pansteatitis is a nutritional disease caused by severe vitamin E deficiency. The condition usually results from a diet deficient in vitamin E or with excessive amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids, which destroy vitamin E. Most cases are caused by an exclusive diet of red canned tuna or by excessive cod liver oil supplementation. Grossly, multiple, irregular, firm nodules develop diffusely in the subcutis and the abdominal mesenteric fat. Systemic signs of fever, malaise, pain, anorexia, lethargy or hyperexcitability, and depression may precede or occur simultaneously with the development of nodules. Foreign Bodydisorganized/Central nuclei Touton giant cell- ring of nuclei surrounded by a foamy cytoplasm.

Langhans- Peripheral nucleihorseshoe shaped 1. Small intestine: Enteritis, subacute, diffuse, mild, with mucosal hyperplasia, multifocal villar blunting and fusion, crypt abscesses, microerosions, and epithelial and lamina proprial coccidian protozoa. 2. Small intestine, Peyer's patch: Hyperplasia, lymphoid, moderate.

29

115

Sheep

Coccidiosis

29

116

Falcon

Falcon Adenovirus

Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, multifocal, periportal and random, acute to subacute, with bile stasis and eosinophilic and basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies

30

117

Rabbit

Ameloblastoma

Teeth develop from two embryonic tissues. The enamel cap is derived from the dental lamina, which is an invagination of squamous epithelium from the lining of the buccal cavity. All other parts of the tooth, including dentin, cementum, and pulp, arise from the Nasal cavity: Ameloblastoma, with embryonic mesenchyme. Classification of odontogenic neoplasms is hard substance, lop-eared rabbit, based on the inductive concept of odontogenesis: ameloblastic epithelium induces differentiation of dental papilla mesenchyme into odontoblasts, which forms dentin. The dentin induces ameloblasts to form enamel. Ameloblastoma is a rare neoplasia of tooth root origin and has never been reported in the rabbit. The tumor is locally invasive and locally destructive to bone. Metastasis has not been reported. The histologic criteria to be alerted to are the irregular islands with peripheral palisading columnar cells with polarized nuclei away from the basement membrane, and the stellate reticulum within the central region.

30

118

Ferret

1. Uterus: Endometrial hypertrophy with symplasma formation, ferret (Mustela furo), mustelid. 2. Uterus: Endometritis, acute, multifocal, mild.

Pseudopregnancy in the ferret can develop following a sterile mating, or as result of hormonal imbalance caused by reduced light intensity one month before breeding. The history of this ferret prior to receipt from the vendor is unknown. Histological changes in the endometrium are the same in the pregnant and pseudopregnant uterus. Features of the endometrium in the present case include dilated glands containing large amounts of secretory material, marked enlargement of luminal and glandular epithelial cells with extreme karyomegaly, symplasma formation, and sloughing of symplasmic masses into the uterine lumen. There are also small accumulations of neutrophils within some dilated glands. These features are similar to the appearance of the endometrium 20 to 25 days following breeding. Symplasma formation occurs as the most superficial hypertrophied epithelial cells lose their integrity and form masses of protoplasm containing whole or fragmented nuclei. The duration of pseudopregnancy is identical to pregnancy (40-42 days). The endometrium breaks down between day 35 and day 40, and resembles the anestrous state by day 45.

30

119

Rabbit

Capillaria hepatica

30

120

Bovine

BVD, Salmonella, E coli, Pasteurella

Liver: Granulomas, eosinophilic, multiple, coalescing, with bioperculate barrel-shaped nematode eggs, hare (Lepus europaeus), lagomorph, etiology consistent with Capillaria hepatica. 1. Small intestine: Enteritis, necrotizing, subacute, fibrinosuppurative and hemorrhagic, transmural, severe, with necrotizing vasculitis, thrombosis, lymphoid necrosis and depletion, bacilli and fungal hyphae 2. Esophagus: Esophagitis, necrotizing, subacute, multifocal, moderate, with intra- epithelial cleavage vesicles, Holstein, bovine.

Capillaria spp. are aphasmids and are classified in the group Trichinellina, which includes both Capillariidae and Trichuridae

The cow had classical mucosal disease and was also infected with Salmonellaserogroup E. Probably the cow was persistently infected with a non-cytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus and was recently exposed to a cytopathic BVD strain or a cytopathic mutant of the persisting strain. Two of the other affected herdmates were also positive for BVD virus and were infected with Salmonella serogroup E. By genomic typing, BVD isolates are divided in BVD VIRUS type 1 and type 2. Both cytopathic and non-cytopathic isolates are found among each subtype.

Conference 1989-1990 1

Slide

Species

etiology

Morph Dx

notes

notes/DDX

1

Dog

Greyhound cutaneous and renal vasculopathy

Haired skin: Dermatitis, suppurative, ulcerative, with vasculitis and thrombosis, chronic Kidney: Glomerulitis and vasculitis, necrotizing with hemorrhage and thrombosis Maxilla: Odontoma dental pad: stomatitis, lymphohistiocytic with balooning degeneration and intraepithelial intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions Haired skin: Plasmacytoma Lip: Plasmacytoma eye: Endophthalmitis, fibrinosuppurative, with lens rupture and retinal detachment Lung: Pneumonia, proliferative, diffuse, with intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and syncytial cells Subcutis: Fat necrosis with suppurative and granulomatous steatitis Brain: Encephalitis, hemorrhagic and suppurative with vasculitis and gram negative bacilli Small intestine: Enteritis, necrotizing with villosu atrophy and crypt loss Bone Marrow: Hypercellularity with myeloid metaplasia

2

dog

Odontoma Bovine Papular stomatitis (parapoxvirus) Plasmacytoma Plasmacytoma Uveitis, Phacoclastic

3

Bovine

4 5 2 6

Canine Canine Canine

Lambda light chain positive

7

Kingsnake

Ophidian Paramyxovirus

8

Ferret

Vit E deficiency Fat necrosis

9

Bovine

Thrombotic Meningoencephalitis/ Histophilosis

Multiple sections of lung show The splenopancreas shows acinar hyperplastic changes of the necrosis with heterophils and interstitial surface epithelium lining septa lymphocytic inflammation. Some with loss of basilar nuclear pancreatic ducts contain masses of orientation, swelling, and degenerating heterophils. intracytoplasmic inclusions Unstained refractile material in adipocytes are calcium salts of fatty acids Hemorrhagic necrosis within affected regions was characterized by well delineated pale neuropil around blood vessels with necrotizing vasculitis and thrombosis. Anemia and fatty liver are also FeLV associated conditions Hypercellularity is associated with proliferation of poorly differentiated blast cells often accompanied by pancreatic inflammation this pattern was atypical of leptospira Small size and prominent cuticular ridges and the location on the mucosal surface and in crypts 3-5 um round to oval budding yeast (blastospores) mixed with pseudohyphae and hyphae Lymphoid tissues and bone marrow have prominence of immature forms

3

10

Feline

Feline Leukemia virus

11

Feline

Lymphocytic Cholangiohepatitis

Liver: Cholangiohepatitis lymphocytic chronic bridging with biliary hyperplasia, capsulitis Kindey: Nephritis, interstitial, lymphoplasmacytic, pyogranulomatous Stomach: Gastritis, chronic, proliferative, with mucosal fibrosis and trichostrongylid nematodes

ddx lymphoma

12

Canine

Leptospira spp

ddx: encpehalitozoon cuniculi

13

Feline

Ollulanus tricuspis

Comparative: Ostertagia, Nochtia nochti, and Trichostrongylus axei

4

14 15

Equine Deer

16

feline

17

Fish

Heart: Myocarditis, necrotizing with intralesional yeast and pseudohyphae Lung: Granulomas, multifocal, Mycobacterium bovis with mineralization Haired skin and subcutis: Should not be confused with Phaeohyphomycosis Dermatitis and panniculitis, focally Chromoblastomycosis- large 6-12 (Exophiala jeanselmei) extensive, with dematiaceous um thick walled dark brown fungal elements muriform cells (sclerotic bodies) Skin, hypodermis, and muscle: Red Spot Disease/ Dermatitis, panniculitis, and Oomycosis Mycotic myositis, necrotizing, red spot dz- cutaneous ulceration Dermatitis and myositis granulomatous, with intralesional fungal hyphae Candida tropicalis Scrapie Brain stem: Neuronal vacuolation, multifocal, with gliosis Small Intestine: Enteritis, necrohemorrhagic, diffuse, with myriad large bacilli Kidney: glomerulitis, fibrinous, with bacterial emboli, with hemorrhage and tubular necrosis cauda Equina: Polyneuritis, lymphoplasmacytic, fibrosing with hemorrhage, axonal degeneration and Schwann cell proliferation Spinal Cord: Axonal degeneration

5

18

Sheep

19

Equine

Clostridium perfringens

20

Porcine

Salmonella cholerasuis

ddx: Erysipelas, strep, Haemophilus

21

Equine

Neuritis of the Cauda Equina

6

22

Canine

Dermal Mucinosis (normal Shar Pei skin)

23

Bovine

trichophyton verrucosum

24

Feline

Xanthomatosis

Haired skin: Dermal mucinosis with acanthosis and follicular keratosis Haired skin: Folliculitis and furunculosis, suppurative, diffuse, with chronic hyperplastic dermatitis, intracorneal pustules and endothrix and ectothrix arthrospores and hyphae Haired skin: dermatitis and panniculitis, histiocytic with acicular clefts and lipid laden macrophages (xanthomatosis)

large lakes of dermal mucin that widely separate preexisting collagen

diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia, hypothyroidism Nodular masses of cells oriented around follicles below the DDX: necrobiotic granulomas, canine infundibulum and encompassing cutaneous histiocytoma, cutaneous the hair bulb consisting of histiocytosis, sterile nodular panniculitis, macrophages, lymphocytes, and familial systemic histiocytosis of plasma cells with rare neutrophils; Bernese Mtn Dogs and sebaceous preservation of apocrine glands adenitis of standard poodles and epithelium The larval stage of Taenia taeniaformis is considered a strobilocercus at 42 days PI when the scolex evaginates and becomes connected to the bladder by segmented strobila amorphous foamy eosinophilic material in alveoli. Organisms can be demonstrated by GMS. Marked mucosal hyperplasia, increased crypt height, crowding and decrease or absence of goblet cells. Centaurea repens- knapweed, Centaurea solstitialis- yellow star thistle Plasma cell myeloma requires at least two fo the following: 1) neoplastic plasma cells (BM, spleen, liver), 2) Monoclonal gammopathy, 3) Osteolytic lesions 4) Bence-jones proteinuria Adenoviral infection: degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells of respiratory tract, urinary tract, lacrinal, salivary and pancreatic glands Interstitial pneumonia, alveolar histiocytosis and hypertrophy of Type II pneumocytes

25

Canine

Multinodular granulomatous dermatitis, periadenxal

Haired skin: Dermatitis, granulomatous, periadnexal, nodular, multifocal to coalescing

7

26

canine

Adenocarcinoma

Stomach: adenocarcinoma Liver: Strobilocercus with associated chronic inflammation with granulomatous heptitis with Capillaria eggs Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, diffuse, severe, with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, intraalveolar histiocytosis and eosinophilic flocculent material Colon: Hyperplasia with submucosal and mesenteric subacute inflammation

27

Muskrat

cysticercus fasciolaris/ Capillaria hepatica

28

Canine

Pneumocystis carinii

29

Mouse

citrobacter rodentium

ddx: helicobacter non-progressive pannecrosis of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Sharply defined margins between living and necrotic tissues. Later lesions are phagocytic

8

30

Equine

Nigropallidal encephalomalacia/ russian knapweed

Brain stem: Encephalomalacia

31

Equine

Plasma cell myeloma

Bone Marrow: Plasma cell myeloma

32

Equine

Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome/ Adenovirus

Spleen, thymus: Lymphoid hypoplasia Pancreas, ducts: Necrosis, multifocal with hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and basophilic intranuclear inclusions Pancreas, acini: degranulation and atrophy Lung: pneumonia, necrotizing, with infarction and intralesional fungal hyphae Lung: Alveolar septal mineralization Lung: Pleuritis, chronic, fibrosing Liver: necrosis and hemorrhage, centrilobular, random, multifocal Lung, blood vessels, liver: Protozoal schizonts, intrahistiocytic with hemorrhage and edema Brain: Mencingoencephalitis, necrotizing, with necrotizing vasculitis, protozoal trophozoites and cysts Haired skin: Epidermitis, hyperplastic, diffuse, severe, with intralesional filamentous bacteria

CID: autosomal recessive

33

Equine

Aspergillus spp

9

34

Bovine

Rift Valley Fever

35

Feline

Cytauxzoon felis

Mosquito borne- RNA virus (Phlebovirus; Bunyaviridae): Young animals- focal hepatic necrosis, ecchymoses, abortion storms C. felis has an intraerythrocytic phase of 1.0-1.5 um ring forms and a schizont stage within mononuclear phagocytic cells

ddx: Toxins, Wesselbron disease, IBR, blue-green algae, parasitic migration, Salmonella, clostridium, Tyzzers, Fusobacterium necrophorum

36

Sheep

Acanthomoeba sp

37

Equine

Dermatophilus congolensis

D. congolensis Is a keratinophilic actinomycete that causes epidermitis and dermatitis. Multiple rows of coccoid organisms which develop into motile zoospores dogs: uveitis, poliosis and vitiligo. Prominent granulomatous uveitis, pigment laden cells, retinal detachment, and destruction of the RPE. Skin- lichenoid interface dermatitis, decreased or absent melanin in the epidermis and hair follicles late term abortions- neonatal septicemia (liver, viscera)Encephalitis/brainstem

10

38

Canine

Panuveitis (VKH)

Eye: Panuveitis, necrotizing, granulomatous, chronic, with retinal necrosis, cataracts, and vitreal hemorrhage and chronic keratitis

39

Bovine

Listeria monocytogenes

Liver: hepatitis, necrotizing, random, with gram positive bacilli Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, mesangioproliferative, generalized and diffuse with proteinuria, crescent formation, mineralization, and secondary tubulointerstitial nephritis, and tubular necrosis Skeletal muscle: Degeneration and necrosis, acute, diffuse, with Sarcocysts Esophagus: Esophagitis, ulcerative, multifocal moderate Colon: colitis, necrotizing, subacute, diffuse, moderate with crypt abscesses Haired skin: dermatitis, necrotizing, subacute, focally extensive, with epidermal hyperplasia, balooning degeneration, and microvesiculation, vasculitis, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in epidermal and mesenchymal cells

40

Canine

Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)

41

Bovine

Cassia occidentalis

ddx: monensin, gossypol, coyotillo, metals, exertional myopathy, nutritional myopathy immunocompetence occurs between 150-200 days; PI occurs with infection before 150 days fetal defects 100-150 days

11

42

Bovine

BVDv

43

Goat

Goatpox (Capripox)

Capripox genus: goatpox, Poxviruses with hyperplastic and sheeppox, and bovine lumpy skin neoplastic lesions- Shope fibroma virus disease: Severe systemic disease of Rabbits, Squirrel fibroma, Yabapox in also occurs with monkeypox, monkeys, myxomatosis of European fowlpox, and ectromelia rabbits and Molluscum contagiosum

44

Bovine

Sporidesmin toxicity

45

Porcine

Selenium toxicity poliomyelomalacia

12

46

Baboon

encephalomyocarditis virus (Picornaviridae) Corynebacterium kutscheri

47

Rat

Mycotoxin from Pithomyces Liver: fibrosis, portal and bridging, chartarum- causes facial eczema ddx: Lantana camara (hepatocellular diffuse with bile duct proliferation, (New Zealand). Primary hepatic megalocytosis), aflatoxicosis , biliary stasis and random lesion is necrotizing cholangitis, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (megalocytosis). hepatocellular necrosis multifocal necrosis and bile pooling Spinal cord: Poliomyelomalacia, severe microcavitation, endothelial cell cervical and lumbar spinal cord, proliferation, neuronal degeneration and bilaterally symmetrical, focally ventral horns, brain. extensive, moderate, with necrosis, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and endothelial proliferation chromatolysis comparative selenium toxicosiscongestive and enteric diseaseddx: 6-aminonicotinamide hemorrhagic enteritis and proctatitis, (antimetabolite of niacin) hepatitis, renal tubular necrosis- death by respiratory and cardiac failure Heart: Myocarditis, necrotizing, most animals develop myocardial subacute, multifocal, with lesions, encephalitis in mice and myocardial mineralization owl monkeys Lung: Pneumonia, Pseudotuberculosis, with possible necrosuppurative, multifocal to pleuritis, pericarditis, hepatitis, resemble "chinese letters" coalescing, severe with large and nephritis bacterial colonies Liver: Myriads of intrahepatocellular, intrahistiocytic and extracellular yeast 2-6 um budding yeast, thick cell walls, central basophilic structures, broad based buds. respiratory epithelium is usually denuded or attenuated, the wall of the lung mite cyst consists of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and pigmented macrophages. Pigmented macrophages contain anisotropic spicules

48

Owl Monkey

Blastomyces dermatiditis

49

Macaque

Pneumonyssus spp (simicola)

Lung: Bronchiolitis and parabronchiolitis, eosinophilic and granulomatous, chronic with bronchiectasis, and intraluminal arthropods Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, chronic, diffuse, with marked fibrosis and multifocal mineralization

Gross lesions- multifocal gray nodules

13

50

Marmoset

Chronic Interstitial Nephritis

IgM mesangial nephropathy of callithricids/ or mild glomerular changes secondary to interstitial nephritis

51

Zebu

Theileria

Theileria- tick transmitted parasitic protozoa- results in Cerebrum: Encephalomalacia, thrombosis and infarction: multifocal, severe, vasculitis, Diagnosis is based on presence thrombosis, and intravascular of large numbers of schizonts, lymphoblasts containing protozoa loose or within lymphoblasts in smears from thrombosed vessels Gallbladder: Cholecystitis, eosinophilic diffuse with intraepithelial eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions; and mucosal protozoa Kidney: tubular necrosis, acute, diffuse with regeneration and mineralization Gentamicin primarily affects proximal convoluted tubules--> hyaline droplet degeneration with loss of brush border and dilated lumina to necrosis. Accumulation of abnormal lipid is the primary histologic change; axonal spheroids in the granular layer

ddx: Lymphoblastic leukemia

52

Racoon

Canine Distemper/ Cryptosporidiosis

53

Canine

Gentamicin toxicity

14

54

Bovine

Solanum fastigiatum toxicosis

Cerebellum, Purkinje cells: Degeneration and loss, diffuse Kidney: lgomerulonephritis, mesangioproliferative with crescents, interstitial nephritis, nephrocalcinosis and oxalate deposition Proventriculus: Granulomas, multiple, transmural with peritoneal fibrosis and intralesional nematodes Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, multifocal, with hepatocellular eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions

Similar to gangliosidosis (GM1galactocerebrosidase or GM2,3hexosaminidase deficiency)

55

Canine

Glomerulonephritis/ Ethylene glycol

56

Heron

Eustrongylidiasis

Common in herons and egrets ddx: Adenovirus in chickens; herpesvirus in parrots, pigeons, owls and hawks and ducks; parvovirus in geese; papovavirus in budgerigars

57

Owl

Owl Herpesvirus

15

58

Marmoset

59

Canine

60

Goat

61

Avian

16

62

Porcine

63

Turkery

64

Bovine

65

Porcine

Liver: hepatitis, necrotizing with vacuolar change and acidophilic bodies Kidney: Glomerular necrosis and thrombosis, segmental to global, generalized with mesangiolysis, Mesangiolysis, mild tubular degeneration, Envenomation necrosis and mineralization with hyalin casts Spinal cord: Axonal degeneration, multifocal with swollen myelin copper deficiency sheaths Heart: Necrotizing arteritis and periarteritis with necrotizing Papovavirus myocarditis Lung: Bronchopneumonia, Glasser's disease suppurative with (Haemophilus parasuis) fibrinosuppurative pleuritis Brain: Meningitis, suppurative Pericardium: Pericarditis Spleen: Hyperplasia, Avian Adenovirus II/ reticuloendothelial, diffuse, severe Hemorrhagic enteritis/ with basophilic intranuclear marble spleen disease inclusions Colon: colitis, necrotizing, with Coronavirus crypt epithelial hyperplasia Lung: Bronchopneumoniam granulomatous with emphysema Pneumonia, foreign and intralesional granular bibody refringent particles Hepatitis, unclassified virus Shigella flexneri Cholangiocarcinoma Small Intestine: Enteritis, fibrinosuppurative, necrotizing with villosu loss and crypt abscesses

mesangiolysis: glomerulonephritis, diabetes, ischemia, chemical toxins,

Cystic lesions in glomerular tufts due to sublethal endothelial damage followed by segmental balooning of capillary loops and eventually formation of hemorrhagic cysts,

necrosis of the tunica media

17

66 67 68

Macaque Rat Chimp

ddx: E coli, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Salmonella

69

Mouse

18

70 71

Rabbit Minnows

Liver: Cholangiocarcinoma Heart: Pericarditis, fibrinosuppurative (with myofiber Haemophilus influenzae degeneration, swelling and vacuolation) Submaxillary salivary gland: Sialoadenitis, lymphocytic with acinar and ductal epithelial Cytomegalovirus cytomegaly and intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions Rabbit Hemorrhagic Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, Disease (Calicivirus) diffuse Thyroid hyperplasia (goiter) Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (Circovirus) Thyroid gland: follicular hyperplasia, diffuse (goiter)

Myofiber changes were considered separate

similar to Haemoophilus parasuis

ddx: Polyoma virus (intranuclear) reovirus, experimental infection with sialodacryoadenitis virus

72

Cockatoos

73

Feline

19

74

Macaque

Feather: Pulpitis, subacute, diffuse with follicular epithelial necrosis and epithelial intranuclear and histiocytic intracytoplasmic inclusions Skeletal muscle: Myopathy Muscular dystrophy characterized by hypertrophy, (dystrophin deficiency) necrosis, regeneration, myocyte splitting and fibrosis Simian Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, with Immunodeficiency intra-alveolar syncytial giant cells/ Virus/ Pneumocystis and intraalveolar flocculent carinii material

Duchenne, X linked

ddx mycobacterial pnuemonia; giant cell pneumonia (measles) 1) relatively large neoplasm (larger than any oncocytoma), 2) cytoplasmic granules not as intensely eosinophilic, 3) High mitotic rate, 4) nuclei varied in size ddx cytomegalovirus

75

Rat

renal carcinoma

Kidney: renal cell carcinoma

76

Guiniea pig

Adenovirus

Lung: Bronchitis/ bronchiolitis, necrotizing with intranuclear inclusion bodies Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial with vasculitis, fibrin exudation, and hyaline membrane Maxillary mass: Ameloblastic odontoma

77

Guinea pig

Ameloblastic odontoma

20

78

Hamster

Cadmium toxicity

Kindey: Proximal tubular degeneration and necrosis Lung: Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue: Hyperplasia with cilia-associated bacteria

proliferation of spindle cells makes this more an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma cytoplasmic vacuolation followed by necrosis suggests toxic necrosis, whereas patchy coagulative necrosis is characteristic of ischemia

79

Rat

CAR bacillus and Mycoplasma pulmonis

80

Rat

Chronic progressive Nephropathy

Kidney: Nephropathy

Thickened hyalinized glomerular and cortical tubular basement membranes, dilatation of cortical tubules by homogenous eosinophilic proteinaceous casts, regenerative tubules with cuboidal basophilic epithelium, glomerular adhesions. Increased mesangial density and interstitial accumulations of mononuclear inflammatory cells

81 21 82 83

Mouse Feline Rhesus

Aspiration pneumonia Malignant round cell tumor with granules Simian Hemorrhagic Fever

84

Goat

Caprine ArthritisEncephalitis virus Myeloproliferative disease

85

Canine

Lung: Bronchopneumonia, pyogranulomatous, multifocal to coalescing with plant material. Duodenum: malignant round cell tumor with eosinophilic granules Spleen, red pulp and cords of Bilroth: Necrosis and fibrin deposition Spleen: White pulp- Necrosis, diffuse with marginal zone hemorrhage Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, subacute, with marked type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and BALT hyperplasia Bone Marrow: Myeloproliferative disease with myelofibrosis and osteomyelosclerosis Spleen: myeloproliferative disease

"gobule leukocyte tumor"

Secondary suppurative bronchopneumonia

extrapulmonary lesionsleukoencephalomyelitis, chronic proliferative arthritis, and carpal hygromas, lymphocytic mastitis

22

86

Canine

Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy (Metaphyseal Osteopathy)

Bone Metaphysis: Osteomyelitis and vasculitis, necrosuppurative with trabecular microfractures The costochondal junction is widened with irregular mineralization of the hypertrophic Rib: Osteodystrophy with zone and the primary spongiosa metaphyseal infraction, osteoblast has widened elongated cartilage atrophy and osteonecrosis with cores that are lined by a thin rim medullary fibrosis, periosteal of amorphous and amphophilic hemorrhage, and cambial bone (scorbutic lattice). A few hyperplasia immature bone spicules have microfractures and fibrosis around fracture sites IN dog and horse: the lesions develop earlier is association with metaphyseal growth plates with confluent bone Partially ossified protuberances of marrow; In Cats- tumors occur in young cartilage and bone usually arising adults, often involve the skull, seldom from bone of endochondral origin. involve the long bones and typically do not develop near osteochondral junctions

87

Macaque

Vitamin C deficiency, Osteodystrophy

88

Feline

Multiple cartilaginous exostoses

Bone: Multiple cartilaginous exostoses/ Feline Osteochonrdromatosis (FelV)

89

Guinea pig

Osteoarthritis

23

90

Feline

GM2 gangliosidosis

Stifle: Osteoarthrosis, moderate with articular cartilage fibrillation, clefts, erosion, and chondrones and by periarticular osteophytes Cerebrum, glia and neurons: Swelling, vacuolation, and degeneration, diffuse, moderate with axonal degeneration

Hexosaminidase deficiency

91

Frog

Adenocarcinoma, Kidney: adenocarcinoma, papillary Herpesvirus/ Microsporidial oophoritis Ovary: Oophoritis, granulomatouswith follicular rupture and intrahistiocytic microscporidia Ovarian follicle: Hypertrophy, cystic with myriads of microsporidian parasites

Lucke's herpesvirus

xenoma- Glugea and Pleistophora, Microsporidium schuetzi

92

Canine

Acetominophen toxicity

Liver: Necrosis, centrilobular, diffuse

Acetominophen --> P450 --> active metabolite --> glutathione transferase conjugation --> Nontoxic

cats lack the specific glucuronyl transferase to conjugate the reactive metabolite

93

Canine

24

94

Patas Monkey

95 96 97

Rat Rat Goat

Lung: Pneumonia, pyogranulomatous, multifocal with acid fast bacilli, andgranulomatous pleuritis Liver: necrosis, multifocal to coalescing with hepatocellular Herpesvirus B (simiae) syncytia and eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusions Endocardial Heart: Endocardial schwannoma schwannoma Mycobacterium tuberculosis Nephroblastoma Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Kidney: Nephroblastoma Small Intestine: Enteritis, necrotizing with coccobacilli with proliferation Liver: Cirrhosis with multifocal portal to random subacute hepatitis, hepatocellular necrosis and hepatocellular cytoplasmic pigment granules Central Pawpad: Pododermatitis, ulcerative, lymphoplasmacytic

Herpes B is indigenous to Macaques- clinical infection is lingual abd labial vesicles grossly: white opaque firm coating over the endocardial surface. They are malignant neoplasms which are locally invasive. May arise from Blastemal, epithelial, and stromal elements

25

98

Canine

Cirrhosis/ Copper toxicosis

copper toxicosis

99

Feline

Lymphoplasmacytic pododermatitis

100

Canine

Trilaminar morphology- peripheral dense fibrous tissue, surrounding a myxomatous layer with Multilobular Mass from calvarium and lung: osteochrondrosarcoma Multilobular osteochonrdosarcoma polyhedral mesenchymal cells (cambium layer), and a central chondro-osseous tissue. Polymyositis Coxiella burnetti Extraocular skeletal muscle: Myositis, lymphohistiocytic Placenta: Placentitis, necrohemorrhagic with acute vasculitis Placenta, chorion: chorionitis, necrosuppurative with gram positive filamentous bacteria Lymph nodes: Lymphosarcoma retractor bulbi was not involved/ immune mediated

ddx: Multilobular osteoma/chondroma

101 26 102

Canine sheep

103 104

Equine Panda

Nocardia sp Lymphosarcoma

105

Canine

Subinvolution of Placental Sites

vacuolation of endometrial surface epithelium, uterine lumen Uterus: Involution, incomplete with consists of mixture of amorphous eosinophilic material, tissue hemorrhage debris and endometrium attempting regeneration Cerebrum: Encephalomeningitis, nonsuppurative, diffuse, mild, with neuronal eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies Lung, pleura: Pleuritis, fibrinosuppurative, chronic diffuse with mixed bacterial colonies Lung: Bronchitis/bronchiolitis, necrotizing, acute, multifocal with multifocal interstitial pnuemonia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions Kidney: Nephritis, granulomatous and eosinophilic with larval and adult rhabditid nematodes Colon: colitis, necrosuppurative, Goblet cell depletion in colonic with mild epithelial hyperplasia crypts with dilation fo crypts with and intraluminal protozoa mucus Cerebrum: Meningoencephalitis, LaCrosse virus of California necrotizing, nonsuppurative Teat, epidermis: Multifocal Cowpox, vaccinia and hyperplastic dermatitis with pseudocowpox have predilection hydropic degeneration of the for teats and udders. epidermis and intracytoplasmic inclusions Small intestine: Enteritis, The organisms are usually found necrotizing, diffuse, with villous in macrophages in GI, LN and atrophy, blunting and fusion and spleen crypt hyperplasia Lymph node: Lymphoid depletion, hemorrhage and edema with sinus histiocytosis Bacterial Kidney DiseaseLiver, heart, spleen, kidney: exophthalmos, skin darkening, Necrogranulomatous inflammation hemorrhage, cutaneous vesicles, with phagocytized coccobacilli granulomas in organs, Lung: Malignant histiocytosis/ disseminated histiocytic sarcoma Liver: Hepatitis, portal, granulomatous and eosinophilic with schistosome eggs, vasculitis and thrombosis Lymph node: Lymphadenitis, granulomatous and eosinophilic Mesenteric arteriies: Vasculitis, eosinophilic Kidney: Glomerular thrombosis and necrosis, multifocal with tubular ectasia and degeneration N/A N/A N/A N/A

27

106

Equine

Borna Disease

107

Equine

Streptococcus zooepidemicus

108

Equine

Equine Herpes-4Equine Rhinopneumonitis

EHV-1--> abortions and vasculitis, encephalitis

109

Equine

Halicephalobus deletrix Brachyspira hyodysenteriae/ Balantidium Bunyavirus

28

110 111

Porcine Canine

112

Bovine

Poxvirus

113

Canine

Neorickettsia helminthoeca

29

114

Salmon

Renibacterium Salmonarium Malignant histiocytosis/ histiocytic sarcoma

115

Canine

116

Monkey

Schistosomiasis

117 30 118 119 120 121

Frog Raccoon Canine Bovine Bovine

Aeomonas hydrophila septicemia Sarcocystosis Lymphomatois granulomatosis Malignant Catarrhal Fever Malignant Catarrhal Fever

red-leg disease in frogs, ulcerative stomatitis in snakes

Oxalate crystals are common incidental finding in renal tubules of frogs

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