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The prospect with an array of limitations presented at project sites, requires t

hat a GPR operator / Treasure hunter-operator possess first the maximum amount o
f information about the site prior to proceeding with a GPR investigation. (Foll
ow Janner s CSI Method)
Also, it requires that a GPR operator possess the maximum amount of knowledge
about the basic principles of how the GPR works and the expertise of operating s
uch equipment.
Of what good is a technologically advanced equipment such as the GPR (specifical
ly EXP 5000 of OKM, but what I personally prefer are those cart types commonly u
sed by Archeologists), or any types and brand of GPR it might be, if the owner o
r the operator doesn t know how to operate much as how to interpret its gathered d
How it works
A very basic explanation of the technology works like this:
The antenna of a GPR system shoots radio pulses into the ground (electromagnetic
wave impulses). Each pulse travels through the ground as a wave.
Within the ground there are different layers of subsurface materials (soils, roc
ks and, hopefully, archaeological remains).
Every time this wave comes in contact with a new layer of soil or debris, the ve
locity of the wave changes. This causes some of the energy of the wave to bounce b
ack as a reflected wave.
The reason the velocity changes is because the new material has different electr
ical and magnetic properties to the layer it was passing through before. The gre
ater this difference is, the greater the change in velocity will be.
A large change in velocity is helpful because the amplitude of the reflected wav
e will be higher, which makes it easier to detect.
The rest of the energy continues into the ground.
The GPR system records the time it takes for the reflected wave to return (it s a
matter of nanoseconds). This allows for the depth of the material it reflected o
ff to be determined..
The system also records the shape of the reflected wave, which will vary dependi
ng on the material it bounced off.
In the course of a field survey, a GPR system will send out thousands of radio p
ulses, producing thousands of reflected waves and depth measurements. This infor
mation is automatically entered into a database and plotted on a reflection prof
ile, a map that shows where waves occur and what they look like.
Archaeologists, working with building/landscape scientists, will analyze these w
aves, and their depths, and determine what is likely to be causing the various r
Common subsurface reflectors detected by GPR are:
1) natural conditions such as soil horizons, geologic bedding or foliation, void
space, sink holes and water saturation level (freshwater and saltwater);
2) anthropomorphic conditions such as grave sites, disturbed (low density) soil
, soil backfilled areas, buried facilities (utilities and tanks), as well as oth
er buried objects that differ electrically from surrounding materials.

How deep GPR will detect archaeological materials:

varies depending on the equipment used (ie- how much power the transmitter is g
etting) and soil type Beneath asphalt, archaeologists will likely only be able t
o detect objects that are a few meters below the surface. In sandy soil, on the
other hand, they can find objects that are more than 50 metres deep.
The depth range of GPR:
is limited by the electrical conductivity of the ground, the transmitted center
frequency and the radiated power.
As conductivity increases, the penetration depth decreases. This is because the
electromagnetic energy is more quickly dissipated into heat, causing a loss in s
ignal strength.
The most significant performance limitation of GPR is in high-conductivity mater
ials such as clay soils and soils that are salt contaminated. In moist and/or cl
ay-laden soils and soils with high electrical conductivity, penetration is somet
imes only a few centimetres.
Performance is also limited by signal scattering in heterogeneous conditions (e
.g. rocky soils).
Higher frequencies do not penetrate as far as lower frequencies, but give better
Optimal depth penetration is achieved in ice where the depth of penetration can
achieve several hundred meters. Good penetration is also achieved in dry sandy s
oils or massive dry materials .
So these may be the reason why most treasure loots are hidden below asphalts and
wrapped with sintar (alkitran), hidden below feets of thickness of clay materia
l mostly intermeshed with seashells or broken bricks or ceramics. Moreover, most
of the loot were contained in a metal or aluminum containers which were then co
nsequently housed in a concrete holding structure supported with hardwood logs
in which the first layer of it was placed parallel with each other and the secon
d layer of those support logs where placed perpendicular relative to the first l
ayers of supporting logs.
Logically therefore, the Japanese looters hid the loots on the deeper subsurface
covered with those mentioned electromagnetically conductive materials in order
for the waves to be absorbed readily (by the conductive materials) so that the p
enetrating power of the GPR s electromagnetic waves and its delivering power could
not travel and penetrate any deeper towards the location and position of the lo
Other disadvantages of currently available GPR systems include:
Interpretation of the data is generally too complicated for the novice.
Considerable expertise is necessary to effectively design, conduct, and interp
ret GPR surveys.

After i posted this topic i received more questions from our bros. Treasure hunt
ers and one of them are queries from Renantiur and i felt obliged to post this s
pecific exchanges of ideas for the benefit of others.

This is how it goes;

Since it is given that the GPR has its limitations when it comes to japanese (ya
mashita) treasures are concerned (: since that the said treasures are hidden bel
ow asphalts and wrapped with sintar, hidden below feets of thickness of clay, lo
gs, metals and aluminums encased in concrete enclosures, decreasing the penetrat
ion depth of the GPR),
i am just wondering if:
1. will the GPR still be effective if what you are looking
for are just sucker or give-away deposits, or those deposits which were just bur
ied 4 feet, 8 feet or 15 feet below the ground?
although they are covered by highly-conductive materials like clays and asphalt
s,and others , thereby decreasing the penetration depth of the GPR, still becaus
e of the shallowness of the burial, is there a big possibility that the GPR can
perhaps reach the level of 4 feet, 8 feet or 15 feet?
my opinion on this matter is because of the shallowness of the burial, GPR can
penetrate the deposit notwithstanding the highly conductive this co
Detection ability is dependent on the wave or pulses that penetrates but the les
ser the pulses that was able to penetrate the weaker would be the reflected or t
he detected signals.
In shallow deposits (4 feet, 8 feet or 15 feet?), yes it can still detect if th
e conductive layers are not that thick and not that numerous but signals may be
slowed and decreased and this is how emphasized it; Beneath asphalt, archaeolo
gists will likely only be able to detect objects that are a few meters below the
Few meters, than can be 2-3 or 3-4m multiply it by 3.28 to convert it to feet, t
hat could be something from 6-15 feet penetration below levels of asphalt (so ye
s we can still detect) but we don t actually know the presenting real time thickness
of a conductor. And there were instances that a conductor and an insulating ma
terials is alternately placed as covering layers so how would we resolve that.
So if we accept that, As conductivity increases, the penetration depth decrease
With the resulting decreased signal plus layers of an alternately placed insula
ting material, there would be an exponential drop of signal until it is lost.
It is also within the ability of the operator to adjusts and use the proper carr
ier wave frequency, to have greater penetration, one would consider using the lo
wer frequencies but with lesser resolution and hence, one would also need to exp
onentially increase the transmitter power too and this could be a problem since
most GPR s transmitting power is fixed (this can be remedied of course,if manufact
urers of GPR will employ a fixed higher transmitting power in their GPRs but the
re s a law that limits transmitting power since these same devices disrupts normal
operation of other devices.)
So it may or might not be able to detect depending on the concentration of the p
resenting conductive and insulating materials .
But if you are just looking for possible shallow deposits you may not be needin
g a GPR (for the same reason mentioned above), a handy but stable metal detector
(ie. LORRENZ for that matter) will still have the same chances (positive or neg
ative results) as that to a GPR in less cost.
With limited budget in hand, if I were to choose between a Drilling machine and

a GPR, I ll settle with the former. But with ample budget, I ll buy both, plus a lon
g arm backhoe, a piranha agitator slurry pump (a type of pump that can suck slur
ry, mud, sand and gravel).I prefer combining all possible great equipments and n
o problem with that as long as one can afford.
2. assuming that we can locate a suspected area, will it be advis
able if we drill several holes with a size of 1 feet per hole(adjacent holes or
holes that are near to each other ) first on the ground before we scan the area
with the GPR?, will the said holes lessen the highly conductivity of the said
materials ( since the impulses and waves will now pass through the holes) , the
reby increasing the penetration depth of the GPR?
3. will it be safe to assume that if we can encounter alketran, asphalt, l
ogs, and other similar highly conductive materials, there is a greater chance th
at something precious might have been buried below the ground?
my opinion on this matter is if we encounter this kind of
burial, it is better to drill until 200 feet and see if we can hit something (ju
st like in padada where we hit a metal casing just after a layer of charcoal at
128 feet). is this correct?
-is it a prevalent practice among japanese to make a decoy burial like this?
-is there a possibility that the japanese are also making a burial with all the
same highly conductive materials but without something precious buried on the g
In every possible chance and in every best idea that they can ponder, Japanese m
ining engineers who were tasked, will do and apply whatever they deemed the best
possible way of hiding.
It just depends upon the presenting conditions during such time that they buried
the loot whether they have the comforts of having ample time, the loot is surel
y hidden in the most ingenious way but if they were on the run during that time,
they could have buried it in haste and not much planning and preparation has be
en done which are common to soldier s or officer s loot.
Again, It depends really upon the presentation of conditions during such time t
hen but knowing that Japanese are very systematic, most loot if not all, were bu
ried in a well planned manner especially the imperial sites. Since we are not th
ere personally when they bury it, the best move perhaps is to put ourselves in t
he mindset of the Japs who planned the burial.
4. (assuming that OKM exp 5000 is a GPR) is okm exp 5000 the b
est brand and model of GPR available in the market? assuming that we can have th
e lucky chance someday to go high tech, what sophisticated equipment can you rec
Definitely OKM Exp5000 is good but it is not the best brand and model available,
and I wonder why this seems become the norm in the treasure hunting circles. Th
ere are a few notable other brands that had been performing eversince.
5. you recommended those cart types used by archeologist.. do
you know of any brand and model of these cart types that are effective against
japanese looted treasures?

I am in no way being paid to mention my personal favorites and I even don t own on
e of these I was just provided before.
Just do a research and you will encounter,
Easy Locator by Mala and GSSI utilityscan
6. based on your experience, what is the best way to counter
this japanese burial design assuming that you dont have a map or pointer but you
only have an analytical mind, copies of thapi/luzviminda japanese code markers
, an OKM exp 5000, drilling machine, dowsing detector, compass, transit?
(There were previous postings of Ben Valmores that answers this question, i've t
ried to search it but its gone)
AboutTHAPI/ Luzviminda code;
Take it from Gener,
If you are a hardened well experienced brainy treasure hunter, Surely you will
found out that they are actually just concoctions from previous disgruntled ima
ginations...Its not bad to base from those THAPI codes but depending on it can b
e disastrous!..I know you already find that out within your own experience but d
oubt may surround since majority believes in this codes many decades ago....
***There was one occasion that an old TH professional insisting on me that a rou
ndel reflects a tunnel,,,but i told him its not tunnel but a water...he laugh on
me so hard,,,but later on he found that im right,,,He turned RED and speechless
Another from Gener
***A month ago i planted sweet potatoes in very remote land,,The land is not mi
ne so i made a remedy not to let other people find those crops i planted...I dis
tributed to most of the villagers nearby a map leading to the root crops i plant
ed not known to them that those maps i made will lead them to nowhere, I m a greed
y old man and shall make sure that no one will ever find my crops! not even your
next siblings.
From me;
The best learning is experience...(of course backed by due research)
take the adventure of really taking action, then learn by it, not just only bec
oming a learned treasure hunter by compiling all answers in a question and answe
r forum. (I am not referring to you for i know you have your own actions too but
this applies to all other members)
And please don't take it against me, i am very much willing to help but, i admit
, i really earned my learning through real time action. As we worked my mentor o
ffered me forward looking questions, then i analyze, applied the basics of scien
ce by answering the 5w's and H and it is only then that i have my forward looki
ng answers, then we moved, opened up the area, and it was then that i will have
my greatest learning, when i am right, i will never forget it because my analysi
s was right after all, but if i was wrong, the more that i can t forget it because
i have found out that my pre conceived answer was wrong by discovering the righ
t answer...

Taken from a friend, Goldbar888

iv'e spent 7 years exploring my own property kizuna, ... would you believe an 80
0 sqm lot for 7 straight years...trial and error..analyze... i utilize all.. p
aranormal , scientific , geological , historical , human relations, technical a
spects...i was mocked , critisize, i cried tears of stone..given my sweat and bl
ood ..SACRIFICE...logicaly it makes me wiser, closer and closer to my goal, and
the clock is ticking now.....
may this quote from albert einstein inspires you more brother kizuna, and to all
TH brothers, ..
" "99 times out of 100 I am wrong, but that hundredth time, I'm right"
About Drilling machine;
(lifted from our brainstorming based on the thread Re: 3 big wood found under 2
feet deep.....
Bro, that's what i really need (the drilling machine) for both my mining and Tre
asure hunting activities. Nice and cool.
If i have one budget and if i have to choose between buying an OKM and hydraulic
longyear usa bore drill, i'll choose the latter.
No ionic interference from all sorts.
gener , , it is from an overseas mining and exploration company it could go down
in a maximum depth of 400 feet. interchangable core drill head, carbide. tungst
en/wolframite and is dependent with a seperate water pump and a ben
tonite slurry mud pack.

Re: 3 big wood found under 2 feet deep.....

Reply #90 on: July 10, 2011, 09:41:02 PM
No batteries and screen monitors, no gadgetary contacts or whatsoever,,its purel
y "DRILL d HOLE" as much as you can,,,straight forward... ,,Well ill go for tha
t one dude!...
KIZUNA to T Hunter 44 and now for you my friend Renantiur;
for me personally this is more practical than digging even one single hole, spen
ding all your resources of time, effort and money just through the reliance of a
showing of a bright red presentation of a scanner result which many fell into t
rap, for the loot is protected by what we called "anti detection factors" but if
you use this machine, it will just simply pass tru on anything on its path and
that's my point in saying of no amount of any anti ionic frequency blocker could
stop it.
And this is way ahead much better than relying through the analysis of so calle
d "blind" readers or analyzers who mostly just bloating their egos and depleting
your wallets.
Yap, impracticality of this machine only enters of course if your sites are on t
he last frontiers types of forestal areas, hence the value of research now comes
Of course if one has the resources, i'll better acquire this one as one time inv
estment with a clear return of R.O.I later, and yes we can be sure it can hit pa
ydirt sooner or later.

Through research i have chosen areas within my reach like our sites today, areas
i have never imagined, it's just like going to office for work and come home af
ter sunset.
Yes trough research i've known that Golden lily sites are there in the boondocks
, but i also come to know there are enough hidden loot just somewhere near.
Remember what i've emphasized before, we must consider first places where the Ja
ps used to stay longer and have stayed comfortably before.
Just a thought Brother....
Full Member
From Goldbar,
i have very bad experiences using detectors electronic gadgets.. those conductiv
e layers then after a few feet turned to insulative layers then back to conducti
ve gives me head ache....
( nadala na ako ) false targets etc etc ... by using core drilling you will als
o know the exact depth of your target, the subsurface layers you will be encount
ering, ( if you are in the exact location ) no more will know it i
s there...believe me., it will save you time and money..if you drilled and encou
ntered no target or at least a man made anomally then there is no reason for you
to dig...if you found something worthwhile then go for it..i am not pushing oth
er TH to apply this kind of technique i am just merely sharing my experiences..
but approaching the target is another level of challenges...
Re: 3 big wood found under 2 feet deep.....
Reply #96 on: July 11, 2011, 12:25:25 PM


FromGoldbar to Thunter44,
yes t44 ,it is not applicable in rough terrains or hilly sites and horizontal ca
ves.. the technique is for flat lands only . and i understand not all treasure h
unters have the capability of possesing one.. drilling is also like digging. onl
y but for only 4 to 6 inhes hole only depending on your drill diameter. one coul
d go 150 to 200 feet for one single day. i was a witness in one company who stay
ed almost a year in one suspected TH site drilling 186 boreholes until they hit
the paydirt.. but only by drilling..after which the recovery is of another level
i realy dont know about wont work on my site , but perhaps in othe
r sites it will..
okm ground penetrating radars, resistivity methods, long range locators just gi
ve me false readings..the conductiveness of the subsurface soil remains a big de
and thick clay layers and shallow ground water will hamper GPR's.
i am not againts any detectors , just sharing some personal experiences
From T Hunter 44 to Goldbar888
Just what OKM Model did you use on your site? Most OKM products operate on Elect
romagnetic Pulse and sure, mineralized soil, clay or shallow water table will af
fect the depth the electromagnetic pulse can penetrate but it should not be a bi
g factor. When the scan is downloaded on the computer for analysis, Red is Meta
l, Yellow is Mineral, Grayish White is Natural Soil and a Dark Gray is Cavity an
d when the SCAN METAL Option is Clicked, if it is a true cache, it will make a f
orm, either be it a square, , rectangle or round, shapes that is man made. One d
oes not rely on the color of the scan but by the shape of the objects scanned an
d if it is square , round or rectangle, then you know it is man made, not nature
made and that is my experience with the Rover C. And then, the soil to be scann
ed should be undisturbed, not loose soil.

From Goldbar888,
T44 i used an okm future 500 series, then okm exp 4000 , then okm exp 5000. not
to mention other not okm brands..
downloaded positive results computer analyse ...then drilled into the spot 150
down and found nothing... sometimes i dug it and found rusted metal plates or ot
her parts of metals
i once had a very positive reading including shape, at 25 to 28 feet deep. i hur
iedly dug it for a week ,and found my target a rectangular rusted metal.. oh no
..charge again to experience..
hi dindo , the okm,it might work in your projects .. the presence of shallow tar
gets cannot be ruled out, its just my personal experience.
they first grid the location about two meters apart then mark it, then start dri
lling 250 feet down trying to locate bore samples of man made anomaly, like brok
en porcelains
glasses , wood, metal or just about anything not natural..and so on...still a tr
ial and error type of exploration.. but it is different because if you struck a
vault or tunnel that is when other technicalities apply.
project handled by a hongkong group group, they cut opened a suspected site fro
m which they have a very reliable information.
cut it open straight down to 80 feet..subpumps were brought in to control water.
.cement was sprayed in sides of the excavation as they go down to avoid bard dow
during digging lots of logs were found in different depths pointing to different
locations some are in standing position some are in laying position
alternate layers of course sand, gold dust sand,white sand, bluish clay was enco
a thick layer of wooden boards like plywoods was present
broken bottles , clay bricks, broken ming bowls , small and big rusted heavy met
als are also found in different depths
skeletal remains, marbles ( holen ) , markers that we see in code books like ,
foot, hand, snake pointing ,snake coiled, turtle shape, horse shape etc etc...
after digging 80 feet down no shallow deposit were recovered, no structure was e
ncountered, only a lot of markers.
then the toho japanese made boredrill drill was brought in. they started at 80 f
eet drill down on a grid like checker type for many months until they found the
a huge tunnel running across under the property..concrete and steel reinforced.
the tunnel under exceeds the property border above, after locating the tunnel
they now proceeded to locate the chambers...this type of operation is costly ..
but would you imagine if a treasure hunter dug several small holes assuming that
the buried treasure is just 50 feet? and find markers and markers only?
i was there at the site and stayed there for almost one and a half year.
again no offense to fellow hunters i just want you to avoid wasting hard earned
money if you are presented the same scenario.

Hope this helps friend Renantiur,

Side scan colormetrically enhanced sonar is a good way to go. The great 16-1 min
e in Grass Valley used it for years and much oro puro. There was a tv special ab
out 6 years ago or so and technology has been upgraded much BUT much $$$$$$ and
shamen abound in the guise of legal business so CAVEAT EMPTOR--beware of shams,s
cams and flim flams same as long range locators(of your wallet)---John

Check out this little jewel.
Ground Penetrating Radar Frequently Asked Questions
Is GPR a safe testing technique?
Many people question whether there is any danger for the person using GPR equipm
ent, and the answer is no. Although ground penetrating radar may sound like a haza
rdous technique, it is extremely safe and emits roughly 1% of the power of a cel
lular phone signal.
How does GPR equipment work?
GPR systems work by sending a tiny pulse of energy into a material via an antenn
a. An integrated computer records the strength and time required for the return
of any reflected signals. Subsurface variations will create reflections that are
picked up by the system and stored on digital media. These reflections are prod
uced by a variety of material such as geological structure differences and man-m
ade objects like pipes and wire.
What are the other terms that are synonymous with ground penetrating radar?
Ground Penetrating Radar is also known as GPR, Ground Probing Radar, Ground Rada
r, and Georadar.
Can I see non-metallic subsurface features with GPR?
GPR is extremely accurate when it comes to locating metallic and non-metallic ob
jects. GPR systems work by sending a tiny pulse of energy into the ground from a
n antenna. An integrated computer records the strength and time required for the
return of reflected signals. Any subsurface variations, metallic or non-metalli
c, will cause signals to bounce back. When this occurs, all detected items are r
evealed on the computer screen in real-time as the GPR equipment moves along. Us
ers can even tell from the signal returned whether the feature in question is me
tallic or non-metallic.
How difficult is it to use GPR if I have never used it before?
Our students typically find that GPR is a much easier technology to learn than t
hey may have believed.
GPR was pioneered by GSSI nearly four decades ago, and even though it began as a
tool for scientists, vast improvements over the last three decades have been ma

de to simplify and perfect this equipment so anyone in the utility locating, con
crete scanning or road inspection lines of work can use our GPR products with ea
GSSI provides training with its products and teaches a wide variety of classes t
o help the novice and experienced GPR user improve his or her skills. The classe
s typically include an introductory lecture and emphasizes hands-on practice wit
h the equipment and software. This format ensures that each student walks away w
ith a firm knowledge of the fundamentals of GPR and how to use the equipment in
real-world situations.
How much training will I need in order to use GPR?
First-time users will need 2-3 days of training to become familiar with the equi
pment and ground penetrating radar theory. Training is provided free of charge w
ith most GSSI equipment.
How deep can GPR see to locate targets?
Depth of GPR penetration depends on the material being surveyed and also upon th
e antenna frequency being used. For instance, GPR will penetrate ice, rock, soil
and asphalt differently due to each material s unique electrical properties. Lowe
r frequency antennas will generally penetrate deeper, but there is a loss in res
olution with the drop in frequency.
Soil conditions can vary greatly, which in turn affects GPR penetration. In gene
ral, dry sandy soils with little salt content return excellent survey resolution
, but heavy clay-based soils are difficult to penetrate with GPR. In some situat
ions, penetration depth may be limited to a few feet or less within clays, where
as pipes residing in sandy soils could be detected at depths up to 30 feet.
Your GSSI Application Specialist can help you find the equipment that is right f
or your project and profession.
Can GPR be utilized through water?
Yes. GPR can be utilized through fresh water, but it does not operate where salt
water is present.
Can GPR be used through ice?
Yes. GPR works extremely well through ice and snow. They are some of the most fa
vorable conditions for GPR.
Can GPR be used with GPS?
Yes. GSSI s systems can integrate with most GPS systems. The GPS position data fil
es and GPR scans are automatically matched within our systems so that the result
ing data shows proper GPS position.
Can GPR be used to find gold?
While GPR is in use with many professional mining companies, the technology is n
ot well suited to finding coins, gold nuggets or buried treasure. Metal detector
s are more suitable. GSSI recommends checking with local, state and federal laws
before beginning any treasure-hunting activities.
Can GPR be used to map cemeteries?
Yes. GPR is the best geophysical technique for forensic victim location and for
the mapping of graves in cemeteries. While we can sometimes image the body direc
tly, GPR responds well to the disturbances in the soil which are created when a
pit is dug and refilled.
I saw something like this in the movie Jurassic Park and on TV shows like Crossi
ng Jordan. Can GPR really show the skeleton?
No. That is a Hollywood adaptation of the technique. A grave will look like a la

rge, upside-down U on the profile view and a rectangular shape in 3D planview.

Is GSSI equipment certified?
Yes, all GSSI equipment is in full compliance with FCC, CE and RSS-220 regulatio
ns. For more information, please visit Regulatory Information.
Is the equipment big and bulky?
Some of the lower frequency international antennas (i.e., 100 MHz shielded anten
na) can be a bit large, but in general, GPR equipment is small enough to be hand
led by one person. Systems for two common applications, structural concrete scan
ning and underground utility locating, can easily be fit into the trunk of a com
pact car.
Can I use my cell phone around the equipment?
Since GPR operates by transmitting and receiving electromagnetic (EM) energy ove
r a very wide frequency band, cellular phones, two-way radios and pagers should
be turned off as they also transmit EM energy and may interfere with a survey.&
If you must have them on, it is better to keep these devices at least 10-20 feet
away from the antenna.
What is RADAN and what does it stand for?
RADAN is GSSI s ground penetrating radar processing software. It has been develope
d over the last 20 years to aid in the processing and interpretation of GPR data
. It will run on a regular laptop or desktop computer and provides the user with
many powerful tools to clean up data and view data in 3D.& RADAN is an acronym
that stands for RAdar Data ANalyzer.