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CONTENT
Finding Our Way................................................................................................... 2
The History of Tea ................................................................................................ 8
The psychology in Happiness............................................................................. 14
Numeracy: Can animals tell numbers? ............................................................... 19
Stress of Workplace ............................................................................................ 25
Roller Coaster ..................................................................................................... 32
The last March of the Emperor Penguins .......................................................... 37

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Can We Hold Back the Flood? ........................................................................... 43

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LONGAEVA: Ancient Bristlecone Pine............................................................ 48

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Memory and Age ................................................................................................ 54

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We hold an opinion on Language ....................................................................... 60

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Mammoth Kill ................................................................................................... 64


The Research for Intelligence............................................................................. 69
Tidal Power! in Britain ....................................................................................... 74

Save Endangered Language ............................................................................... 79

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Western Immigration of Canada ......................................................................... 86

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Beyond the Blue Line ......................................................................................... 92


Isambard Kingdom Brunel ................................................................................. 99

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Finding Our Way

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A.
Drive 200 yards, and then turn right, says the cars computer voice. You
relax in the drivers seat, follow the directions and reach your destination without error.
Its certainly nice to have the Global Positioning System (GPS) to direct you to within a
few yards of your goal. Yet if the satellite services digital maps become even slightly
outdated, you can become lost. Then you have to rely on the ancient human skill of
navigating in three-dimensional space. Luckily, your biological finder has an important
advantage over GPS: it does not go awry if only one part of the guidance system goes
wrong, because it works in various ways. You can ask questions of people on the
sidewalk. Or follow a street that looks familiar. Or rely on a navigational rubric: If I keep
the East River on my left, I will eventually cross 34th Street. The humanpositioning
system is exible and capable of learning. Anyone who knows the way from point A to
point B and from A to C can probably figure out how to get from B to C, too.
B.
But how does this complex cognitive system really work? Researchers are
looking at several strategies people use to orient themselves in space: guidance, path
integration and route following. We may use all three or combinations thereof. And as
experts learn more about these navigational skills, they are making the case that our
abilities may underlie our powers of memory and logical thinking. Grand Central, Please
Imagine that you have arrived in a place you have never visited New York City. You
get off the train at Grand Central Terminal in midtown Manhattan. You have a few hours
to explore before you must return for your ride home. You head uptown to see popular
spots you have been told about: Rockefeller Center, Central Park, the Metropolitan
Museum of Art. You meander in and out of shops along the way. Suddenly, it is time to
get back to the station. But how?
C.
If you ask passersby for help, most likely you will receive information in
many different forms. A person who orients herself by a prominent landmark would
gesture southward: Look down there. See the tall, broad MetLife Building? Head for
thatthe station is right below it. Neurologists call this navigational approach
guidance, meaning that a landmark visible from a distance serves as the marker for
ones destination.
D.
Another city dweller might say: What places do you remember
passing? Okay. Go toward the end of Central Park, then walk down to St. Patricks
Cathedral. A few more blocks, and Grand Central will be off to your left. In this
case, you are pointed toward the most recent place you recall, and you aim for it.
Once there you head for the next notable place and so on, retracing your path. Your
brain is adding together the individual legs of your trek into accumulative progress
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report. Researchers call this strategy path integration. Many animals rely primarily
on path integration to get around, including insects, spiders, crabs and rodents. The
desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ this method to return from foraging as
far as 100 yards away. They note the general direction they came from and retrace
their steps, using the polarization of sunlight to orient themselves even under overcast
skies. On their way back they are faithful to this inner homing vector. Even when a
scientist picks up an ant and puts it in a totally different spot, the insect stubbornly
proceeds in the originally determined direction until it has goneback all of the
distance it wandered from its nest. Only then does the ant realize it has not succeeded,
and it begins to walk in successively larger loops to find its way home.
E.
Whether it is trying to get back to the anthill or the train station, any
animal using path integration must keep track of its own movements so it knows,
while returning, which segments it has already completed. As you move, your brain
gathers data from your environment sights, sounds, smells, lighting, muscle
contractions, a sense of time passing to determine which way your body has gone.
The church spire, the sizzling sausages on that vendors grill, the open courtyard, and
the train station-all represent snapshots of memorable junctures during your journey.
F.
In addition to guidance and path integration, we use a third method for
finding our way. An office worker you approach for help on a Manhattan street corner
might say: Walk straight down Fifth, turn left on 47th, turn right on Park, go through
the walkway under the Helmsley Building, then cross the street to the MetLife
Building into Grand Central. This strategy, called route following, uses landmarks
such as buildings and street names, plus directions-straight, turn, go through for
reaching intermediate points. Route following is more precise than guidance or path
integration, but if you forget the details and take a wrong turn, the only way to
recover is to backtrack until you reach a familiar spot, because you do not know the
general direction or have a reference landmark for your goal. The route-following
navigation strategy truly challenges the brain. We have to keep all the landmarks and
intermediate directions in our head. It is the most detailed and therefore most reliable
method, but it can be undone by routine memory lapses. With path integration, our
cognitive memory is less burdened; it has to deal with only a few general instructions
and the homing vector. Path integration works because it relies most fundamentally
on our knowledge of our bodys general direction of movement, and we always have
access to these inputs. Nevertheless, people often choose to give route-following
directions, in part because saying Go straight that way! just does not work in our
complex, man-made surroundings.
G.
Road Map or Metaphor? On your next visit to Manhattan you will rely
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on your memory to get around. Most likely you will use guidance, path integration
and route following in various combinations. But how exactly do these constructs
deliver concrete directions? Do we humans have, as an image of the real world, a
kind of road map in our heads with symbols for cities, train stations and churches;
thick lines for highways; narrow lines for local streets? Neurobiologists and cognitive
psychologists do call the portion of our memory that controls navigation a cognitive
map. The map metaphor is obviously seductive: maps are the easiest way to present
geographic information for convenient visual inspection. In many cultures, maps
were developed before writing, and today they are used in almost every society. It is
even possible that maps derive from a universal way in which our spatial-memory
networks are wired.
H.
Yet the notion of a literal map in our heads may be misleading; a
growing body of research implies that the cognitive map is mostly a metaphor. It may
be more like a hierarchical structure of relationships. To get back to Grand Central,
you first envision the large scale that is, you visualize the general direction of the
station. Within that system you then imagine the route to the last place you remember.
After that, you observe your nearby surroundings to pick out a recognizable
storefront or street corner that will send you toward that place. In this hierarchical, or
nested, scheme, positions and distances are relative, in contrast with a road map,
where the same information is shown in a geometrically precise scale.

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Questions 14-18
Use the information in the passage to match the category of each navigation
method (listed A-C) with correct statement. Write the appropriate letters A-C in
boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet
NB you may use any letter more than once
A

Guidance

Path integration,

Route following

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Using basic direction from starting point and light intensity to move

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Using combination of place and direction heading for destination.

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Using an iconic building near your destination as orientation.

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Using a retrace method from a known place if a mistake happens.

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Using a passed spot as reference for a new integration.

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Questions 19-21

Choose the correct letter, ABC or D.


Write your answers in boxes 19-21 on your answer sheet.

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What dose the ant of Cataglyphis respond if it has been taken to
another locationaccording to the passage?

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A Changes the orientation sensors improvingly


B Releases biological scent for help from others
C Continues to move by the original orientation
D Totally gets lost once disturbed
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passage?

Which of the followings is true about cognitive map in this

A There is not obvious difference contrast by real map


B It exists in our head and is always correct
C It only exists under some cultures
D It was managed by brain memory
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21
Which of following description of way findings correctly reects the
function of cognitive map?
A It visualises a virtual route in a large scope
B It reproduces an exact details of every landmark
C Observation plays a more important role
D Store or supermarket is a must in the map

Questions 22-26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading
Passage 2?

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In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information

NOTGIVEN

if there is no information on this

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Biological navigation has a state of exibility.

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You will always receive good reaction when you ask direction.

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When someone follows a route, he or she collects comprehensive
perceptional information in mind on the way.

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Path integration requires more thought from brain compared with
route-following.

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26
In a familiar surrounding, an exact map of where you are will
automatically emerge in your head.

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KEY
14. B
15. C
16. A
17. C
18. B
19. C
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22. TRUE
23. NOT GIVEN

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25. FALSE

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26. FALSE

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The History of Tea

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A.
The story of tea began in ancient China over 5,000 years ago. According
to the legend, Shen Nung, an early emperor was a skilled ruler, creative scientist and
patron of the arts. His far-sighted edicts required, among other things, that all
drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. One summer day while visiting a
distant region of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. In accordance with his
ruling, the servants began to boil water for the court to drink. Dried leaves from the
nearby bush fell into the boiling water, and a brown liquid was infused into the water.
As a scientist, the emperor was interested in the new liquid, drank some, and found it
very refreshing. And so,according to legend, tea was created.
B.
Tea consumption spread throughout the Chinese culture reaching into
every aspect of the society. In 800 A.D. Lu Yu wrote the first definitive book on tea,
the ChaChing. This amazing man was orphaned as a child and raised by scholarly
Buddhist monks in one of Chinas finest monasteries. Patronized by the Emperor
himself, his work clearly showed the Zen Buddhist philosophy to which he was
exposed as a child. It was this form of tea service that Zen Buddhist missionaries
would later introduce to imperial Japan. The first tea seeds were brought to Japan by
the returning Buddhist priest Yeisei, who had seen the value of tea in China in
enhancing religious mediation. As a result, he is known as the Father of Tea in
Japan. Because of this early association, tea in Japan has always been associated with
Zen Buddhism. Tea received almost instant imperial sponsorship and spread rapidly
from the royal court and monasteries to the other sections of Japanese society.
C.
Tea was elevated to an art form resulting in the creation of the Japanese
Tea Ceremony (Cha-no-yu or the hot water for tea). The best description of this
complex art form was probably written by the Irish-Greek journalist- historian
Lafcadio Hearn, one of the few foreigners ever to be granted Japanese citizenship
during this era. He wrote from personal observation, The Tea ceremony requires
years of training and practice to graduate in art...yet the whole of this art, as to its
detail, signifies no more than the making and serving of a cup of tea. The supremely
important matter is that the act be performed in the most perfect, most polite, most
graceful, most charming manner possible. Such a purity of form, of expression
prompted the creation of supportive arts and services. A special form of architecture
(chaseki) developed for tea houses, based on the duplication of the simplicity of a
forest cottage. The cultural/artistic hostesses of Japan, the Geishi, began to specialize
in the presentation of the tea ceremony. As more and more people became involved in
the excitement surrounding tea, the purity of the original Zen concept was lost. The
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tea ceremony became corrupted, boisterous and highly embellished.Tea


Tournament were held among the wealthy where nobles competed among each other
for rich prizes in naming various tea blends. Rewarding winners with gifts of silk,
armor, and jewelry was totally alien to the original Zen attitude of the ceremony.
Three great Zen priests restored tea to its original place in Japanese society. One of
them is Sen-no Rikkyu (1521-1591)-priest who set the rigid standards for the
ceremony, largely used intact today. Rikyo was successful in inuencing the Shogun
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who became Japans greatest patron of the art of tea. A
brilliant general, strategist, poet, and artist this unique leader facilitated the final and
complete integration of tea into the pattern of Japanese life. So complete was this
acceptance, that tea was viewed as the ultimate gift, and warlords paused for tea
before battles.
D.
While tea was at this high level of development in both Japan and China,
information concerning this then unknown beverage began to filter back toEurope.
Earlier caravan leaders had mentioned it, but were unclearas to its service format or
appearance. (One reference suggests the leaves beboiled, salted, buttered, and eaten)
The first European to personally encountertea and write about it was the Portuguese
Jesuit Father Jasper de Cruz in 1560.Portugal, with her technologically advanced
navy, had been successful ingaining the first right of trade with China. It was as a
missionary on that firstcommercial mission that Father de Cruz had tasted tea four
years before. The Portuguese developed a trade route by which they shipped their tea
to Lisbon, and then Dutch ships transported it to France, Holland, and the Baltic
countries. (At that time Holland was politically affiliated with Portugal. When this
alliance was altered in 1602, Holland, with her excellent navy, entered into full
Pacific trade in her own right.)
E.
Because of the success of the Dutch navy in the Pacific, tea became very
fashionable in the Dutch capital, the Hague. This was due in part to the high cost of
the tea (over $100 per pound) which immediately made it the domain of the wealthy.
F.
Slowly, as the amount of tea imported increased, the price fell as the
volume of sale expanded. Initially it was available to the public in apothecaries along
with such rare and new spices as ginger and sugar, and by 1675 it was available in
common food shops throughout Holland. As the consumption of tea increased
dramatically in Dutch society, doctors and university authorities argued back and
forth as to the negative and/or positive benefits of tea. Known as tea heretics, the
public largely ignored the scholarly debate and continued to enjoy their new beverage
though the controversy lasted from 1635 to roughly 1657. Throughout this period
France and Holland led Europe in the use of tea.
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G.
As the craze for things oriental swept Europe, tea became part of the
way of life. The social critic Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, the Marquise de Steven
makes the first mention in 1680 0f adding milk to tea. During the same period, Dutch
inns provided the first restaurant service of tea. Tavern owners would furnish guests
with a portable tea set complete with a heating unit. The independent Dutchman
would then prepare tea for himself and his friends outside in the taverns garden. Tea
remained popular in France for only about fifty years, being replaced by a stronger
preference for wine, chocolate, and exotic coffees. Great Britain was the last of the
three great sea-faring nations to break into the Chinese and East Indian trade routes.
This was due in part to the unsteady ascension to the throne of the Stuarts and the
Cromwellian Civil War. The first samples of tea reached England between 1652 and
1654. Tea quickly proved popular enough to replace ale as the national drink of
England. As in Holland, it was the nobility that provided the necessary stamp of
approval and so insured its acceptance. King Charles II had married, while in exile,
the Portuguese Infanta Catherine de Braganza (1662). Charles himself had grown up
in the Dutch capital. As a result, both he and his Portuguese bride were confirmed tea
drinkers. When the monarchy was re-established, the two rulers brought this foreign
tea tradition to England with them.
H.
Imperial Russia was attempting to engage China and Japan in trade at
the same time as the East Indian Company. The Russian interest in tea began as early
as 1618 when the Chinese embassy in Moscow presented several chests of tea to Czar
Alexis. By 1689 the Trade Treaty of Newchinsk established a common border
between Russia and China, allowing caravans to then cross back and forth freely.
Still, the journey was not easy. The trip was 11,000 miles long and took over sixteen
months to complete. The average caravan consisted of 200 to 300 camels. As a result
of such factors, the cost of tea was initially prohibitive and available only to the
wealthy. By the time Catherine the Great died (1796), the price had dropped some,
and tea was spreading throughout Russian society.

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Question 1-8
Reading passage l has eight paragraphs, A-H
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs AH from the list of headings
below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
Good or bad of tea

ii.

Tea ritual

iii.

Difficulties of import

iv.

Religious objection of tea

v.

A chance discovery

vi.

In and out of fashion

vii.

A luxury thing

viii.

A connection between tea and religion

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Shortage of supply

x.

News of tea going to new continent

Paragraph B

Paragraph C

Paragraph D

Paragraph E

Paragraph F

Paragraph G

Paragraph H

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Paragraph A

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i.

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Questions 9-13

France

Holland

Japan

China

Britain

Russia

Portugal

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Use the information in the passage to match the country (listed A-G) with
statements below. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 9-13 on your answer
sheet.

house designed particularly for tea drinking

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tea being substituted after a short period

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using animals for tea transportation

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popularity of tea despite of some dispute

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favor of tea for rulers specialised knowledge

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KEY
1. v
2. viii
3. ii
4. x
5. vii
6. i
7. vi

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8. iii

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9. C
10. A

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11. F

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12. B

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13. D

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The psychology in Happiness

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A.
In the late 1990s, psychologist Martin Seligman of the University of
Pennsylvania urged colleagues to observe optimal moods with the same kind of focus
with which they had for so long studied illnesses: we would never learn about the full
range of human functions unless we knew as much about mental wellness as we do
about mental illness. A new generation of psychologists built up a respectable body of
research on positive character traits and happiness-boosting practices. At the same
time, developments in neuroscience provided new clues to what makes us happy and
what that looks like in the brain. Self-appointed experts took advantage of the trend
with guarantees to eliminate worry, stress, dejection and even boredom. This
happiness movement has provoked a great deal of opposition among psychologists
who observe that the preoccupation with happiness has come at the cost of sadness,
an important feeling that people have tried to banish from their emotional repertoire.
Allan Horwitz of Rutgers laments that young people who are naturally weepy after
breakups are often urged to medicate themselves instead of working through their
sadness. Wake Forest Universitys Eric Wilson fumes that the obsession with
happiness amounts to a craven disregard for the melancholic perspective that has
given rise to the greatest works of art. The happy man he writes, is a hollow man.
B.
After all people are remarkably adaptable. Following a variable period
of adjustment, we bounce back to our previous level of happiness, no matter what
happens to us. (There are some scientifically proven exceptions, notably suffering the
unexpected loss of a job or the loss of a spouse. Both events tend to permanently
knock people back a step.) Our adaptability works in two directions. Because we are
so adaptable, points out Professor Sonja Lyubomirsky of the University of California,
we quickly get used to many of the accomplishments we strive for in life, such as
landing the big job or getting married. Soon after we reach a milestone, we start to
feel that something is missing. We begin coveting another worldly possession or
eyeing a social advancement. But such an approach keeps us tethered to a treadmill
where happiness is always just out of reach, one toy or one step away. Its possible to
get off the treadmill entirely by focusing on activities that are dynamic surprising, and
attention-absorbing, and thus less likely to bore us than, say, acquiring shiny new
toys.
C.
Moreover, happiness is not a reward for escaping pain. Russ Harris, the
author of The Happiness Trap, calls popular conceptions of happiness dangerous
because they set people up for a struggle against reality. They dont acknowledge
that real life is full of disappointments, loss, and inconveniences. If youre going to
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live a rich and meaningful life, Harris says, youre going to feel a full range of
emotions. Action toward goals other than happiness makes people happy. It is not
crossing the finish line that is most rewarding, it is anticipating achieving the goal.
University of Wisconsin neuroscientist Richard Davidson has found that working
hard toward a goal, and making progress to the point of expecting a goal to be
realised, not only activates positive feelings but also suppresses negative emotions
such as fear and depression.
D.
We are constantly making decisions, ranging from what clothes to put
on, to whom we should marry, not to mention all those flavors of ice cream. We base
many of our decisions on whether we think a particular preference will increase our
well-being. Intuitively, we seem convinced that the more choices we have, the better
off we will ultimately be. But our world of unlimited opportunity imprisons us more
than it makes us happy. In what Swarthmore psychologist Barry Schwartz calls the
paradox of choice, facing many possibilities leaves us stressed out and less
satisfied with whatever we do decide. Having too many choices keeps us wondering
about all the opportunities missed.
E.
Besides, not everyone can put on a happy face. Barbara Held, a
professor of psychology at Bowdoin College, rails against the tyranny of the positive
attitude. Looking on the bright side isnt possible for some people and is even
counterproductive she insists. When you put pressure on people to cope in a way
that doesnt fit them, it not only doesnt work, it makes them feel like a failure on top
of already feeling bad. The one-size-fits-all approach to managing emotional life is
misguided, agrees Professor Julie Norem, author of The Positive Power of Negative
Thinking. In her research, she has shown that the defensive pessimism that anxious
people feel can be harnessed to help them get things done, which in turn makes them
happier. A naturally pessimistic architect, for example, can set low expectations for an
upcoming presentation and review all of the bad outcomes that shes imagining, so
that she can prepare carefully and increase her chances of success.
F.
By contrast, an individual who is not living according to their values,
will not be happy, no matter how much they achieve. Some people, however, are not
sure what their values are. In that case Harris has a great question: Imagine I could
wave a magic wand to ensure that you would have the approval and admiration of
everyone on the planet, forever. What, in that case, would you choose to do with your
life? Once this has been answered honestly, you can start taking steps toward your
ideal vision of yourself. The actual answer is unimportant, as long as youre living
consciously. The state of happiness is not really a state at all. Its an ongoing personal
experiment.
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Questions 1-6
Reading Passage 1 has six paragraphs, A-F.
Which paragraph mentions the following?
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet
NB You may use any letter more than once.
the need for individuals to understand what really matters to them
tension resulting from a wide variety of alternatives
the hope of success as a means of overcoming unhappy feelings
people who call themselves specialists
human beings capacity for coping with change
doing things which are interesting in themselves

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2
3
4
5
6

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Questions 7-8

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Choose TWO letters, A-E.

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Write the correct letters in boxes 7 and 8 on your answer sheet

A
B

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Which TWO of the following people argue against aiming for constant
happiness?

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D
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Martin Seligman
Eric Wilson

Sonja Lyubomirsky
Russ Harris
Barry Schwartz

Questions 9-10

Choose TWO letters, A-E. Write the correct letters in boxes 9 and 10
Which TWO of the following beliefs are identified as mistaken in the text?
A Inherited wealth brings less happiness than earned wealth.
B Social status affects our perception of how happy we are.
C An optimistic outlook ensures success.
D Unhappiness can and should be avoided.
E Extremes of emotion are normal in the young

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Questions 11-13
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet
11
In order to have a complete understanding of how peoples minds work,
Martin Seligman suggested that research should examine our mostpositive
__________ as closely as it does our psychological problems.

ep

12
Soon after arriving at a ___________ in their lives, people become
accustomed to what they have achieved and have a sense that they are lacking
something.

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

13. People who are __________ by nature are more likely to succeed if they
make thorough preparation for a presentation.

17
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KEY
1. F
2. D
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. F
7. B

ep

8. D

st

9. C
10. D

y-

11. Moods

-b

12. Milestone

IE

LT

St
ep

13. Pessimistic

18
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Numeracy: Can animals tell numbers?

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

A.
Prime among basic numerical faculties is the ability to distinguish
between a larger and a smaller number, says psychologist Elizabeth Brannon.
Humans can do this with ease-providing the ratio is big enough-but do other animals
share this ability? In one experiment, rhesus monkeys and university students
examined two sets of geometrical objects that appeared briey on a computer
monitor. They had to decide which set contained more objects. Both groups
performed successfully but, importantly, Brannons team found that monkeys, like
humans, make more errors when two sets of objects are close in number. The
students performance ends up looking just like a monkeys. Its practically identical,
she says.
B.
Humans and monkeys are mammals, in the animal family known as
primates. These are not the only animals whose numerical capacities rely on ratio,
however. The same seems to apply to some amphibians. Psychologist Claudia Ullers
team tempted salamanders with two sets of fruit flies held in clear tubes. In a series of
trials, the researchers noted which tube the salamanders scampered towards,
reasoning that if they had a capacity to recognise number, they would head for the
larger number. The salamanders successfully discriminated between tubes containing
8 and 16 flies respectively, but not between 3 and 44 and 6, or 8 and 12. So it
seems that for the salamanders to discriminate between two numbers, the larger must
be at least twice as big as the smaller. However, they could differentiate between 2
and 3 ies just as well as between 1 and 2 ies, suggesting they recognise small
numbers in a different way from larger numbers.
C.
Further support for this theory comes from studies of mosquitofish,
which instinctively join the biggest shoal they can. A team at the University of
Padova found that while mosquitofish can tell the difference between a group
containing 3 shoal-mates and a group containing 4, they did not show a preference
between groups of 4 and 5. The team also found that mosquitofish can discriminate
between numbers up to 16, but only if the ratio between the fish in each shoal was
greater than 2:1. This indicates that the fish, like salamanders, possess both the
approximate and precise number systems found in more intelligent animals such as
infant humans and other primates.
D.
While these findings are highly suggestive, some critics argue that the
animals might be relying on other factors to complete the tasks, without considering
the number itself. Any study thats claiming an animal is capable of representing
number should also be controlling for other factors, says Brannon. Experiments have
19
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

confirmed that primates can indeed perform numerical feats without extra clues, but
what about the more primitive animals?
E.
To consider this possibility, the mosquitofish tests were repeated, this
time using varying geometrical shapes in place of fish. The team arranged these
shapes so that they had the same overall surface area and luminance even though they
contained a different number of objects. Across hundreds of trials on 14 different fish,
the team found they consistently discriminated 2 objects from 3. The team is now
testing whether mosquitofish can also distinguish 3 geometric objects from 4.
F.
Even more primitive organisms may share this ability. Entomologist
Jurgen Tautz sent a group of bees down a corridor, at the end of which lay two
chambers one which contained sugar water, which they like, while the other was
empty. To test the bees numeracy, the team marked each chamber with a different
number of geometrical shapes - between 2 and 6. The bees quickly learned to match
the number of shapes with the correct chamber. Like the salamanders and fish, there
was a limit to the bees mathematical prowess -they could differentiate up to 4 shapes,
but failed with 5 or 6 shapes.
G.
These studies still do not show whether animals learn to count through
training, or whether they are born with the skills already intact. If the latter is true, it
would suggest there was a strong evolutionary advantage to a mathematical mind.
Proof that this may be the case has emerged from an experiment testing the
mathematical ability of three-and four-day-old chicks. Like mosquitofish, chicks refer
to be around as many of their siblings as possible, so they will always head towards a
larger number of their kin. If chicks spend their first few days surrounded by certain
objects, they become attached to these objects as if they were family. Researchers
placed each chick in the middle of a platform and showed it two groups of balls of
paper. Next, they hid the two piles behind screens, changed the quantities and
revealed them to the chick. This forced the chick to perform simple computations to
decide which side now contained the biggest number of its brothers . Without any
prior coaching, the chicks scuttled to the larger quantity at a rate well above chance.
They were doing some very simple arithmetic, claim the researchers.
H.
Why these skills evolved is not hard to imagine, since it would help
almost any animal forage for food. Animals on the prowl for sustenance must
constantly decide which tree has the most fruit, or which patch of flowers will contain
the most nectar. There are also other, less obvious, advantages of numeracy. In one
compelling example, researchers in America found that female coots appear to
calculate how many eggs they have laid-and add any in the nest laid by an intruder before making any decisions about adding to them. Exactly how ancient these skills
20
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

are is difficult to determine, however. Only by studying the numerical abilities of


more and more creatures using standardised procedures can we hope to understand
the basic preconditions for the evolution of number.

21
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Questions 15-21
Answer the table below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from
the passage for each answer. Write your answer in boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet.

Animal numeracy
Subjects

Experiments

Results

Mammals and birds

ep

looked at two sets of geometrical performance of two


groups is almost 15
objects on computer screen
___________

St
ep

16 ___________
which are altered

-b

chicks

y-

chose between two sets of

st

rhesus monkeys
and humans

coots

chicks can do calculations


in order to choose larger
group

behaviour of female birds was

bird seems to have ability

observed

to 17 ___________

LT

Amphibians, fish and insects


salamanders distinguish
between numbers over
four if bigger number is
at least two times larger

shown real shoals and later


artificial ones of geometrical
shapes; these are used to check
inuence of total 20
___________ and brightness

subjects know difference


between two and three
and possibly three and
four, but not between
four and five

had to learn where 21


___________ was stored

could
soon
correct place

IE

offered clear tubes containing


different quantities of 18
___________

Salamanders

19 ___________

bees

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Questions 22-27
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading
Passage 2?
In boxes 22-27 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN

if there is no information on this

ep

22
Primates are better at identifying the larger of two numbers if one is
much bigger than the other.

The research involving young chicks took place over two separate days.

y-

24

st

23
Jurgen Tautz trained the insects in his experiment to recognise the
shapes of individual numbers.

-b

25
The experiment with chicks suggests that some numerical ability exists
in newborn animals.

St
ep

26
Researchers have experimented by altering quantities of nectar or fruit
available to certain wild animals.

IE

LT

27
When assessing the number of eggs in their nest, coots take into account
those of other birds.

23
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KEY
15. Identical
16. Balls of paper
17. Count eggs
18. Fruits flies
19. Mosquitofish
20. Surface area
21. Sugar water

ep

22. TRUE

st

23. FALSE
24. NOT GIVEN

y-

25. TRUE

-b

26. NOT GIVEN

IE

LT

St
ep

27. TRUE

24
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Stress of Workplace

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

A.
How busy is too busy? For some it means having to miss the occasional
long lunch; for others it means missing lunch altogether. For a few, it is not being
able to take a sickie once a month. Then there is a group of people for whom
working every evening and weekend is normal, and frantic is the tempo of their lives.
For most senior executives, workloads swing between extremely busy and frenzied.
The vice-president of the management consultancy AT Kearney and its head of
telecommunications for the Asia-Pacific region, Neil Plumridge, says his work weeks
vary from amanageable 45 hours to 80 hours, but average 60 hours.
B.
Three warning signs alert Plumridge about his workload: sleep,
scheduling and family. He knows he has too much on when he gets less than six
hours of sleep for three consecutive nights; when he is constantly having to
reschedule appointments; and the third one is on the family side, says Plumridge,
the father of a three-year-old daughter, and expecting a second child in October. If I
happen to miss a birthday or anniversary, I know things are out of control. Being
too busy is highly subjective. But for any individual, the perception of being too
busy over a prolonged period can start showing up as stress: disturbed sleep, and
declining mental and physical health. National workers compensation figures show
stress causes the most lost time of any workplace injury. Employees suffering stress
are off work an average of 16.6 weeks. The effects of stress are also expensive.
Comcare, the Federal Government insurer, reports that in 2003-04claims for
psychological injury accounted for 7% of claims but almost 27% of claim costs.
Experts say the key to dealing with stress is not to focus on relief a game of golf or a
massage - but to reassess workloads. Neil Plumridge says he makes it a priority to
work out what has to change; that might mean allocating extra resources to a job,
allowing more time or changing expectations. The decision may take several days. He
also relies on the advice of colleagues, saying his peers coach each other with
business problems. Just a fresh pair of eyes over an issue can help, he says.
C.
Executive stress is not confined to big organizations. Vanessa Stoykov
has been running her own advertising and public relations business for seven years,
specialising in work for financial and professional services firms. Evolution Media
has grown so fast that it debuted on the BRW Fast 100 list of fastest-growing small
enterprises last year - just after Stoykov had her first child. Stoykov thrives on the
mental stimulation of running her own business. Like everyone, I have the
occasional day when I think my heads going to blow off, she says. Because of the
growth phase the business is in, Stoykov has to concentrate on short-term stress
25
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

relief-weekends in the mountains, the occasional mental health day rather than
delegating more work. She says: Were hiring more people, but you need to train
them, teach them about the culture and the clients, so its actually more work rather
than less.
D.
Identify the causes: Jan Elsnera, Melbourne psychologist who
specialises in executive coaching, says thriving on a demanding workload is typical
of senior executives and other high-potential business people. She says there is no
one-size-fits-all approach to stress: some people work best with high-adrenalin
periods followed by quieter patches, while others thrive under sustained pressure.
We could take urine and blood hormonal measures and pass a judgement of whether
someones physiologically stressed or not, she says. But thats not going to give us
an indicator of what their experience of stress is, and what the emotional and
cognitive impacts of stress are going to be.
E.
Eisners practice is informed by a movement known as positive
psychology, a school of thought that argues positive experiences-feeling engaged,
challenged, and that one is making a contribution to something meaningful - do not
balance out negative ones such as stress; instead, they help people increase their
resilience over time. Good stress, or positive experiences of being challenged and
rewarded, is thus cumulative in the same way as bad stress. Elsner says many of the
senior business people she coaches are relying more on regulating bad stress through
methods such as meditation and yoga. She points to research showing that meditation
can alter the biochemistry of the brain and actually help people retrain the way
their brains and bodies react to stress. Meditation and yoga enable you to shift the
way that your brain reacts, so if you get proficient at it youre in control.
F.
Recent research, such as last years study of public servants by the
British epidemiologist Sir Michael Marmot, show the most important predictor of
stress is the level of job control a person has. This debunks the theory that stress is the
prerogative of high-achieving executives with type-A personalities and crazy working
hours. Instead, Marmots and other research reveals they have the best kind of job:
one that combines high demands (challenging work) with high control (autonomy).
The worst jobs are those that combine high demands and low control. People with
demanding jobs but little autonomy have up to four times the probability of
depression and more than double the risk of heart disease, LaMontagne says. Those
two alone count for an enormous part of chronic diseases, and they represent a
potentially preventable part. Overseas, particularly in Europe, such research is
leading companies to redesign organizational practices to increase
employeesautonomy, cutting absenteeism and lifting productivity.
26
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

G.
The Australian vice-president of AT Kearney, Neil Plumridge, says:
Often stress is caused by our setting unrealistic expectations of ourselves. Ill
promise a client Ill do something tomorrow, and then [promise] another client the
same thing, when I really know its not going to happen. Ive put stress on myself
when I could have said to the clients: Why dont I give that to you in 48 hours? The
client doesnt care. Overcommitting is something people experience as an individual
problem. We explain it as the result of procrastination or Parkinsons law: that work
expands to fill the time available. New research indicates that people may be hardwired to do it.
H.
A study in the February issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology
shows that people always believe they will be less busy in the future than now. This is
a misapprehension, according to the authors of the report, Professor Gal Zauberman,
of the University of North Carolina, and Professor John Lynch, of Duke University.
On average, an individual will be just as busy two weeks or a month from now as he
or she is today. But that is not how it appears to be in everyday life, they wrote.
People often make commitments long in advance that they would never make if the
same commitments required immediate action. That is, they discount future time
investments relatively steeply. Why do we perceive a greater surplus of time in the
future than in the present? The researchers suggest that people underestimate
completion times for tasks stretching into the future, and that they are bad at
imagining future competition for their time.

27
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Questions 14-18
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-D) with
opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-D in boxes 14-18 on your
answer sheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once
A

Jan Elsnera

Vanessa Stoykov

Gal Zauberman

Neil Plumridge

Work stress usually happens in the high level of a business.

15

More people involved would be beneficial for stress relief

16

Temporary holiday sometimes doesnt mean less work.

17

Stress leads to a wrong direction when trying to satisfy customers

18

It is commonly accepted that stress at present is more severe

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

14

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Questions 19-21
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 19-21 on your answer sheet.
19
Which of the following workplace stress is NOT mentioned according to
Plumridge in the following options?
A

Not enough time spend on family

Unable to concentrate on work

Inadequate time of sleep

Alteration of appointment

Increase more time

Lower expectation

Do sports and massage

St
ep

-b

y-

Allocate more personnels

What is point of view of Jan Elsnera towards work stress?


Work pressure might affect physical endocrine

Index of body samples plays determined role

Emotional affection is superior to physical one

One well designed solution can release all stress

LT

IE

21

st

ep

20
Which of the following solution is NOT mentioned in helping reduce the
work pressure according to Plumridge?

29
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Questions 22-27
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using
NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 22-27 on your answer sheet

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

Statistics from National workers compensation indicate stress plays the most
important role in 22 ___________ . Staffs take about 23 ___________ for absence
from work caused by stress. Not just time is our main concern but great expenses
generated consequently. An official insurer wrote sometime that about 24
___________ of all claims were mental issues whereas nearly 27% costs in all
claims. Sports such as 25 ___________, as well as 26 ___________ could be a
treatment to release stress; However, specialists recommended another practical way
out, analyse 27 ___________ once again.

30
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KEY
14. A
15. D
16. B
17. D
18. C
19. B
20. D

ep

21. A

st

22. workplace injury


23. 16.6 weeks

y-

24. 7%

-b

25. golf

St
ep

26. massage

IE

LT

27. workloads

31
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Roller Coaster

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

A.
600 years ago, roller coaster pioneers never would have imagined the
advancements that have been made to create the roller coasters of today. The tallest
and fastest roller coaster in the world is the Kingda Ka, a coaster in New Jersey that
launches its passengers from zero to 128 miles per hour in 3.5 seconds. It then heaves
its riders skyward at a 90 degree angle until it reaches a height of 456 feet, over one
and a half football fields above the ground before dropping another 418 feet. With
that said, roller coasters are about more than just speed and height, they are about the
creativity of the designers that build them, each coaster having its own unique way of
producing intense thrills at a lesser risk than the average car ride. Roller coasters have
evolved drastically over the years, from their primitive beginnings as Russian ice
slides, to the metal monsters of today. Their combination of creativity and structural
elements make them one of the purest forms of architecture.
B.
At first glance, a roller coaster is something like a passenger tram. It
consists of a series of connected cars that move on tracks. But unlike a passenger
train, a roller coaster has no engine or power source of its own. For most of the ride,
the train is moved by gravity and momentum. To build up this momentum, you need
to get the train to the top of the first hill or give it a powerful launch. The traditional
lifting mechanism is a long length of chain running up the hill under the track. The
chain is fastened in a loop, which is wound around a gear at the top of the hill and
another one at the bottom of the hill. The gear at the bottom of the hill is turned by a
simple motor. This turns the chain loop so that it continually moves up the hill like a
long conveyer belt. The coaster cars grip onto the chain with several chain dogs,
sturdy hinged hooks. When the train rolls to the bottom of the hill, the dog catches
will be onto the chain links. Once the chain dog is hooked, the chain simply pulls the
train to the top of the hill. At the summit, the chain dog is released and the train starts
its descent down the hill
C.
Roller coasters have a long, fascinating history. The direct ancestors of
roller coasters were monumental ice slides -long, steep wooden slides covered in ice,
some as high as 70 feet -that were popular in Russia in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Riders shot down the slope in sleds made out of wood or blocks of ice, crash-landing
in a sand pile. Coaster historians diverge on the exact evolution of these ice slides
into actual rolling carts. The most widespread account is that a few entrepreneurial
Frenchmen imported the ice slide idea to France. The warmer climate of France
tended to melt the ice, so the French started building waxed slides instead, eventually
adding wheels to the sleds. In 1817, the Russian Belleville became the first roller
32
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

coaster where the train was attached to the track. The French continued to expand on
this idea, coming up with more complex track layouts, with multiple cars and all sorts
of twists and turns.
D.
In comparison to the worlds first roller coaster, there is perhaps an even
greater debate over what was Americas first true coaster. Many will say that it is
Pennsylvanias own Maunch Chunk-Summit Hill and Switch Back Railroad. The
Maunch Chunk-Summit Hill and Switch Back Railroad was originally Americas
second railroad, and considered to be the greatest coaster of the time. Located at the
Lehigh valley, it was originally used to transport coal from the top of Mount Pisgah
to the bottom of Mount Jefferson, until Josiah White, a mining entrepreneur, had the
idea of turning it into a part-time thrill ride. Because of its immediate popularity, it
soon became strictly a passenger train. A steam engine would haul passengers to the
top of the mountain before letting them coast back down with speeds rumored to
reach 100 miles per hour! The reason that it was called a switch back railroad is that a
switch back track which was located at the top-where the steam engine would let the
riders coast back down. This type of track featured a dead end where the steam
engine would detach its cars, allowing riders to coast down backwards. The railway
went through a couple of minor track changes and name changes over the years, but it
managed to last from 1829 to 1937, over 100 years.
E.
The coaster craze in America was just starting to build. The creation of
the Switch Back Railway, by La Marcus Thompson, gave roller coasters national
attention. Originally built at New Yorks Coney Island in 1884, Switch Back
Railways began popping up all over the country. The popularity of these rides may
puzzle the modern-day thrill seeker, due to the mild ride they gave in comparison to
the modern-day roller coaster. Guests would pay a nickel to wait in line five hours
just to go down a pair of side-by-side tracks with gradual hills that vehicles coasted
down at a top speed around six miles per hour. Regardless of this, Switchback
Railways were very popular, and sparked many people, including Thompson, to
design coasters that were bigger and better.
F.
The 1910s and 1920s were probably the best decade that the roller
coaster has ever seen. The new wave of technology, such as the up stop wheels, an
arrangement that kept a coasters wheels to its tracks by resisted high gravitational
forces, showed coasters a realm of possibilities that has never been seen before. In
1919, North America alone had about 1,500 roller coasters, a number that was rising
rampantly. Then, the Great Depression gave a crushing blow to amusement parks all
over America. As bad as it was, amusement parks had an optimistic look on the future
in the late 1930s. But, in 1942, roller coasters could already feel the effects of World
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War Two, as they were forced into a shadow of neglect. Most, nearly all of Americas
roller coasters were torn down. To this very day, the number of roller coaster in
America is just a very tiny fraction of the amount of roller coasters in the 1920s.

Questions 1-4
Answer the questions below.
A diagram that explains the mechanism and working principles of roller
coaster.

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the


passage for each answer

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Questions 5-10
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using
NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write
your answers in boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet.

st

ep

The first roller coaster was perhaps originated from Russia which is wrapped
up by 5 ___________. Ice slide was introduced into France, and it was modified to 6
___________, because temperature there would 7 ___________ the ice. This time 8
___________ were installed on the board. In America, the first roller coaster was said
to appear in Pennsylvania, it was actually a railroad which was designed to send 9
___________ between two mountains. Josiah White turned it into a thrill ride, it was
also called switch back track and a 10 ___________ where allowed riders to slide
downward back again.

y-

Questions 11-14

-b

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading


Passage 1?

St
ep

In boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet, write


TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information


if there is no information on this

The most exiting roller coaster in the world is in New Jersey.

IE

11

LT

NOT GIVEN

12
French added more innovation on Russian ice slide including both cars
and tracks.
13
Switch Back Railways began to gain popularity since its first
construction in New York.
14
The Great Depression affected amusement parks significantly only in
several states of America

35
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KEY
1. chain
2. loop
3. gear
4. moter
5. Ice
6. melt
7. waxed slides

ep

8. wheels

st

9. coal
10. steam engine

y-

11. NOT GIVEN

-b

12. TRUE

St
ep

13. TRUE

IE

LT

14. FALSE

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The last March of the Emperor Penguins

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A.
THE emperor penguin is an impossible bird. It breeds in the middle of
winter in some of the coldest places on Earth, surviving temperatures as low as -50
and hurricane-force winds. In March or April, just as the Antarctic winter begins, the
birds waddle across the sea ice to their colonies, where they mate. After the egg is
laid, the females head back to sea to feed, leaving the males behind to incubate it. By
the time the females return in July or August, when the eggs hatch, the males will
have spent almost four months huddling together in the bitter cold without eating,
losing half of their body weight. This extraordinary lifestyle has made the emperors
famous. They have even been held up as role models by evangelical Christians. But
these breathtaking birds will soon have to face the one thing they havent evolved to
cope with: warmth. Fast-forward a few decades, and many colonies will be on the
road to extinction. Are we witnessing the last march of the emperor penguins?
B.
Finding out whats going on with emperor penguins is a huge challenge
as almost all of their colonies are exceedingly difficult to get to. In fact, it was only
this year that the first global census of the birds was published, based on an
automated analysis of satellite images by the British Antarctic Survey. This revealed
four previously unknown colonies, bringing the total to 46 (see map), and put the
number of adults at 600,000, nearly double earlier estimates. That might sound like
good news, but its impossible to say whether the overall number of birds is rising or
falling. Its simply that we now have a better method to find them-remote sensing,
says team member Phil Trathan.
C.
By far the most comprehensive insight into the highs and lows of
emperor populations comes from just one colony, which happens to be next to the
Dumont dUrville research station on the Adelie coast of Antarctica. After a
snowstorm, they can see how many eggs have got frozen, and how many chicks have
died, says biologist Stephanie Jenouvrier of the Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution in Massachusetts, who studies the birds. This relatively small colony of
2500 birds featured in the 2005 blockbuster documentary March of the Penguins.
D.
The Dumont dUrville emperors have been closely monitored since
1962. During the 1970s and early 80s, the average winter temperature was-14.7,
compared with a more typical-17.3. This warm spell reduced the extent of winter
sea ice by around 11 percent-and the penguin population by half. When sea ice
decreased, it caused strong mortality of emperor penguins, says Jenouvrier. Why are
emperors so sensitive to changes in sea ice? Well to start with, most never set foot on
land. They arent agile enough to scale the steep rocks and ice precipices that guard
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most of Antarcticas shoreline. All but two of the 46 colonies are on fast ice-sea ice
stuck fast to the shore. So if the sea ice forms late or breaks up early, it wont last for
the eight months or so these large birds need to breed and raise chicly.
E.
Early break-up of sea ice can cause catastrophic breeding failure, says
Trathan. Emperors live around 20 years, so colonies can survive a few bad breeding
seasons, but persistent changes can be disastrous. Whats more, emperors moult every
year in January or February. The birds would freeze to death if they tried to swim
during the 30 or so days it takes to grow new feathers, so they must find ice floes to
shelter on that are large enough to survive this period. This may be an even more
demanding period in the emperors lives than the winter, because they have little time
to fatten themselves up beforehand. The adults are reliant on stable sea ice for
moulting, and for me, thats the greatest concern, says Gerald Kooyman of Scripps
Institution of Oceanography, one of the worlds leading emperor penguin biologists.
They dont have any options. They have to moult.
F.
Last, but not least, the source of much of the penguins energy, directly
or indirectly, is krill-and krill also depend on sea ice. Young krill shelter and feed
under it. The sea ice is the basis of the Antarctic ecosystem, says Jenouvrier. For
now, there is still plenty of sea ice. In fact, the extent of Antarctic sea ice in winter
has increased slightly over the last 30 years. This has been caused by stronger winds
blowing sea ice further away from the land, with more ice forming in the open water
exposed by this movement. The stronger winds are thought to be a consequence of
ozone loss, rather than global warming.
G.
But unlike the Arctic Ocean, where thick sea ice used to survive from
year to year, in Antarctica almost all the sea ice melts every year. That means the
extent of winter sea ice changes rapidly in response to any change in conditions.
This can be seen around the rapidly warming Antarctic Peninsula, where winter sea
ice extent is falling 1 or 2 percent each year. Here one small emperor colony, on the
Dion Islands, has already died out. When it was discovered in 1948 it was home to
300 adults. By 1999just 40 remained and 10 years later they were all gone. Though
no one knows for sure what caused the colonys demise, it coincided with a decline in
the duration of winter sea ice. On the peninsula, populations of the other Antarctic
native penguins, the Adelie and chinstrap, are also plummeting, probably because of
the changing environment and declining krill. Matters havent been helped by an
invasion of non-native gentoo penguins, and other species like the king and macaroni
penguins could follow.
H.
Whats happening on the peninsula today could be happening all around
Antarctica in the decades to come. With a doubling of greenhouse gas
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y-

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concentrations over the next century, we estimate that the extent of Antarctic sea ice
would decrease by about one third, says John Turner, a climatologist with the British
Antarctic Survey. Earlier this year the emperor penguin was added to the IUCNs Red
List for species threatened with extinction in the near future-near meaning in a
century or two. When Jenouvriers team used the observations at Dumont dUrville to
predict what will happen as the continent warms, they concluded that the colony is
likely to decline by 81 per cent by 2100 and be heading towards extinction.
I.
That is in line with a 2010 study by a team including Jenouvrier and
David Ainley of the California-based ecological consultants H. T. Harvey and
Associates. It predicted that all emperor colonies north of 70 degrees latitude- about
35 percent of the total population-would decline or disappear if the world warms by
2, although a few colonies south of 73 degrees might grow a little. This might not
sound too bad, but both these studies are based on what increasingly appear to be
overly optimistic assumptions. If we continue as we are, the global temperature will
climb above 2 before 2050, on course to a 5 or 6 rise by 2100. If the earth
warms by 5 or 6 degrees, I cant see that theres going to be much sea ice left
anywhere on Earth, says Ainley. And if the sea ice vanishes, the emperor penguins
will vanish too.

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Questions 1-6
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-E) with
opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 1-6 on your
answer sheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once
Stephanie Jenouvrier

Gerald Kooyman

Phil Trathan

David Ainley

John Turner

ep

Penguin breeding is threatened by sea ice melting in advance.

About 30% sea ice would disappear in the future.

Penguin needs constant sea ice for feather changing.

Dead chicks are easy to be counted after a storm.

No sea ice left in case global temperature increased certain degrees.

Sea ice provides foundation for Antarctic ecology.

St
ep

-b

y-

st

Questions 7-10

LT

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading


Passage 1?

IE

In boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet, write


TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN

if there is no information on this

It is the female emperor penguin that carried more incubation duty.

Evangelical Christian lives a similar lifestyle as penguin.

9
With the advanced satellite photographs, fluctuation of penguin number
is easily observed.
10

Strong winds caused by Ozone depletion, blow away the sea ice.

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Questions 11-13
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using,
than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in
boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.

IE

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-b

y-

st

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There are several reasons of why emperor penguins are vulnerable to sea ice
transformation. First of all, they are not 11 ___________ to walk on steep rocks that
all over Antarctica. They wouldnt be able to breed. Next, emperors need to 12
___________ at certain time of year, which protects them from been killed by
freezing water. Finally, emperor penguins food called 13 ___________ is also
connected to availability of sea ice.

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KEY
1. C
2. E
3. B
4. A
5. D
6. A
7. FALSE

ep

8. NOT GIVEN

st

9. FALSE
10. TRUE

y-

11. Agile

-b

12. moult

IE

LT

St
ep

13. krill

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Can We Hold Back the Flood?

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A.
Last winters floods on the rivers of central Europe were among the
worst since the Middle Ages, and as winter storms return, the spectre of floods is
returning too. Just weeks ago, the river Rhone in south-east France burst its banks,
driving 15,000 people from their homes, and worse could be on the way.
Traditionally, river engineers have gone for Plan A: get rid of the water fast, draining
it off the land and down to the sea in tall-sided rivers re-engineered as highperformance drains. But however big they dig city drains, however wide and straight
they make the rivers, and however high they build the banks, the oods keep coming
back to taunt them, from the Mississippi to the Danube. And when the oods come,
they seem to be worse than ever. No wonder engineers are turning to Plan B: sap the
waters destructive strength by dispersing it into fields, forgotten lakes, ood plains
and aquifers.
B.
Back in the days when rivers took a more tortuous path to the sea, flood
waters lost impetus and volume while meandering across flood plains and idling
through wetlands and inland deltas. But today the water tends to have an unimpeded
journey to the sea. And this means that when it rains in the uplands, the water comes
down all at once. Worse, whenever we close off more ood plain, the rivers ow
farther downstream becomes more violent and uncontrollable. Dykes are only as
good as their weakest link-and the water will unerringly find it. By trying to turn the
complex hydrology of rivers into the simple mechanics of a water pipe, engineers
have often created danger where they promised safety, and intensified the floods they
meant to end. Take the Rhine, Europe most engineered river. For two centuries,
German engineers have erased its backwaters and cut it off from its ood plain.
C.
Today, the river has lost 7 percent of its original length and runs up to a
third faster. When it rains hard in the Alps, the peak ows from several tributaries
coincide in the main river, where once they arrived separately. And with four-fifths of
the lower Rhines flood plain barricaded off, the waters rise ever higher. The result is
more frequent flooding that does ever-greater damage to the homes, offices and roads
that sit on the flood plain. Much the same has happened in the US on the mighty
Mississippi, which drains the worlds second largest river catchment into the Gulf of
Mexico.
D.
The European Union is trying to improve rain forecasts and more
accurately model how intense rains swell rivers. That may help cities prepare, but it
wont stop the floods. To do that, say hydrologistsyou need a new approach to
engineering not just rivers, but the whole landscape. The UKs Environment Agency43
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which has been granted an extra 150 million a year to spend in the wake of oods in
2000 that cost the country 1 billion-puts it like this: The focus is now on working
with the forces of nature. Towering concrete walls are outand new wetlands are in.
To help keep Londons feet dry, the agency is breaking the Thamess banks upstream
and reooding 10 square kilometers of ancient ood plain at Otmoor outside Oxford.
Nearer to London it has spent 100 million creating new wetlands and a relief
channel across 16 kilometers of ood plain to protect the town of Maidenhead, as
well as the ancient playing fields of Eton College. And near the south coast the
agency is digging out channels to reconnect old meanders on the river Cuckmere in
East Sussex that were cut off by ood banks 150 years ago.
E.
The same is taking place on a much grander scale in Austria, in one of
Europes largest river restorations to date. Engineers are regenerating flood plains
along 60 kilometers of the river Drava as it exits the Alps. They are also widening the
river bed and channelling it back into abandoned meanders, oxbow lakes and
backwaters overhung with willows. The engineers calculate that the restored flood
plain can now store up to 10 million cubic meters of ood waters and slow storm
surges coming out of the Alps by more than an hour, protecting towns as far
downstream as Slovenia and Croatia.
F.
Rivers have to be allowed to take more space. They have to be turned
from flood-chutes into flood-foilers, says Nienhuis. And the Dutch, for whom
preventing floods is a matter of survival, have gone furthest. A nation built largely on
drained marshes and seabed had the fright of its life in 1993 when the Rhine almost
overwhelmed it. The same happened again in 1995, when a quarter of a million
people were evacuated from the Netherlands. But a new breed of soft engineers
wants our cities to become porous, and Berlin is their shining B E R example. Since
reunification, the citys massive redevelopment has been governed by tough new
rules to prevent its drains becoming overloaded after heavy rains. Harald Kraft, an
architect working in the city, says: We now see rainwater as a resource to be kept
rather than got rid of at great cost. A good illustration is the giant Potsdamer Platz, a
huge new commercial redevelopment by DaimlerChrysler in the heart of the city.
G.
Los Angeles has spent billions of dollars digging huge drains and
concreting river beds to carry away the water from occasional intense storms. The
latest plan is to spend a cool $280 million raising the concrete walls on the Los
Angeles River by another 2 meters. Yet many communities still ood regularly.
Meanwhile this desert city is shipping in water from hundreds of kilometers away in
northern California and from the Colorado River in Arizona to fill its taps and
swimming pools, and irrigate its green spaces. It all sounds like bad planning. In LA
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y-

st

ep

we receive half the water we need in rainfall, and we throw it away. Then we spend
hundreds of millions to import water, says Andy Lipkis, an LA environmentalist
who kick-started the idea of the porous city by showing it could work on one house.
H.
Lipkis, along with citizens groups like Friends of the Los Angeles River
and Unpaved LA, want to beat the urban ood hazard and fill the taps by holding
onto the citys flood water. And its not just a pipe dream. The authorities this year
launched a $100 million scheme to road-test the porous city in one ood-hit
community in Sun Valley. The plan is to catch the rain that falls on thousands of
driveways, parking lots and rooftops in the valley. Trees will soak up water from
parking lots. Homes and public buildings will capture roof water to irrigate gardens
and parks. And road drains will empty into old gravel pits and other leaky places that
should recharge the citys underground water reserves. Result: less ooding and more
water for the city. Plan B says every city should be porous, every river should have
room to flood naturally and every coastline should be left to build its own defences. It
sounds expensive and Utopian, until you realize how much we spend trying to drain
cities and protect our watery margins-and how bad we are at it.

-b

Questions 1-6

St
ep

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-H.


Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet
A new approach carried out in the UK

Reasons why twisty path and dykes failed

An alternative Plan illustrated in LA

Traditional way of tackling ood

Effort made in Netherlands and Germany

One project on a river benefits three nations

IE

LT

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Questions 7-11
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using
no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your
answers in boxes 7-11 on your answer sheet.

y-

st

ep

Flood makes river shorter than it used to be, which means faster speed and
more damage to constructions on flood plain. Not only European river poses such
threat but the same things happens to the powerful 7 ___________ in the US. One
innovative approach carried out by UKs Environment Agency, for example a
wetland is generated not far from 8 ___________ to protect it from ooding. In 1995,
Rhine ooded again and thousands of people left 9 ___________. A league of
engineers suggested that cities should be porous, 10 ___________set a good
example for others. Another city devastated by heavy storms casually is 11
___________, though its government pours billions of dollars each year in order to
solve the problem.

-b

Questions 12-13

St
ep

Choose TWO correct letter, write your answers in boxes 12-13 on your answer
sheet.

What TWO benefits will the new approach in the UK and Austria bring to us
according to this passage?
It effectively stops the ood

We can prepare before ood comes

Decrease strong rainfalls around Alps

Reserve water to protect downstream towns

Store tons of water in downstream area

IE

LT

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KEY
1. D
2. B
3. H
4. A
5. F
6. E
7. Mississippi

ep

8. London

st

9. the Netherlands
10. Berlin

y-

11. Los Angeles/LA

-b

12. B

IE

LT

St
ep

13. D

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LONGAEVA: Ancient Bristlecone Pine

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A.
To understand more about the earths history, humans have often looked
to the natural environment for insight into the past. The bristlecone pine (Pinus
longaeva), of the White Mountains in California, has served this purpose greater than
any other species of tree on the planet. Conditions here are brutal: scant precipitation
and low average temperatures mean a short growing season, only intensified by
ferocious wind and mal-nutritious rocky. Nevertheless, bristlecone pines have
claimed these barren slopes as their permanent home. Evolving here in this harsh
environment, super-adapted and without much competition, bristlecones have earned
their seat on the longevity throne by becoming the oldest living trees on the planet.
Results of extensive studies on bristlecone pine stands have shown that in fact such,
environmental limitations are positively associated with the attainment of great age.
This intriguing phenomenon will be discussed further on.
B.
But exactly how old is old? Sprouted before the invention of Egyptian
hieroglyphs and long before the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, Dethuselah is the
oldest bristlecone alive at roughly 4,700 years. Although specimens of this age do not
represent the species average, there are 200 trees more than 3,000 years old, and two
dozen more than 4,000. Considering that these high ages are obtained in the face of
such remarkable environmental adversity, the bristlecone pines have become the
focus of much scientific examination over the past half century.
C.
Perhaps most interested in the bristlecone pine are dendochronologists,
or tree-ring daters. With every strenuous year that passes in the White Mountains,
each bristlecone grows and forms a new outer layer of cambium that reects a
seasons particular ease or hardship. So while, growing seasons may expand or
shrink, the trees carry on, their growth rings faithfully recording the bad years
alongside the goods. Through examining the annual growth rings of both living and
dead specimens, taking thousands of core samples, and by processes of cross-dating
between trees and other qualitative records, scientists have compiled a continuous
tree-ring record that dates back to the last Ice Age between eight and ten thousand
years ago. Among other linked accomplishments, this record has enhanced the dating
process, helping to double-check and correct the radiocarbon-14 method to more
accurately estimate the age of organic material.
D.
Now more than ever the importance of monitoring the bristlecone is
being realized. As our global climate continues to undergo its most recent and abrupt
atmospheric change, these ancient scribes continue to respond. Since, the rings of
wood formed each year reveal the trees response to climatic conditions during a
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

particular growing seasons, in their persistence they have left us natural recordings of
the past, markers of the present, and clues to the future.
E.
The species name originates from the appearance of its unusual cones
and needles. The bristlecones short, pale needles are also trademarks, bunching
together to form foxtail-like bundles. As is the case of most conifer needles, these
specialized leaves cluster together to shelter the stomata so very little moisture is lost
through them. This adaptation helps the bristlecone photosynthesize during
particularly brutal months. Saving the energy of constant needle replacement and
providing a stable supply of chlorophyll. For a plant trying to store so much energy,
bristlecone seeds are relatively large in size. They are first reproduced when trees
reach ages between thirty and seventy-five years old. Germination rates are generally
high, in part because seeds require little to no initial stratification. Perhaps the most
intriguing physical characteristic of a mature bristlecone, however, is its ratio of
living to dead wood on harsh sites and how this relates to old age. In older trees,
however, especially in individuals over 1,500 years, a strip-bark trait is adaptive. This
condition occurs as a result of cambium dieback, which erodes and thereby exposes
certain areas of the bole, leaving only narrow bands of bark intact.
F.
The technique of cambial edge retreat has help promote old age in
bristlecone pine, but that certainly is not the only reason. Most crucial to these trees
longevity is their compact size and slow rates of growth. By remaining in most cases
under ten meters tall, bristlecones stay close to the limited water supply and can
hence support more branches and photosynthesizing. Combined with the dry, windy,
and often freezing mountain air, slow growth guarantees the bristlecones tight,
fibrous rings with a high resin content and structural strength. The absence of natural
disaster has also safeguarded the bristlecones lengthy lifespan. Due to a lack of
ground cover vegetation and an evenly spaced layout, bristlecone stands on the White
Mountain peaks have been practically unaffected by fire. This lack of vegetation also
means a lack of competition for the bristlecones.
G.
Bristlecone pines restricted to numerous, rather isolated stands at higher
altitudes in the southwestern United States. Stands occur from the Rocky Mountains,
through the Colorado Plateau, to the western margin of the Great Basin. Within this
natural range, the oldest and most widely researched stands of bristlecones occur in
Californias White Mountains. Even just 200 miles away from the Pacific Ocean, the
White Mountains are home to one of this countrys few high-elevation deserts.
Located in the extreme eastern rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada , this region receives
only 12.54 inches of precipitation per year and experiences temperatures between
-20F and +50F .The peaks south of the Owens Valley, are higher up than they might
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appear from a distance. Although most summits exist somewhere around 11,000 feet,
snow-capped White Mountain Peak, for which the range is named, stands at 14,246
feet above sea level. That said, to reach areas of pure bristlecone is an intense journey
all to itself.
H.
With seemingly endless areas of wonder and interest, the bristlecone
pines have become subject to much research over the past half-century. Since the
annual growth of these ancient organisms directly reflects the climatic conditions of a
particular time period, bristlecones are of greatest significance to dendochronologists,
or tree-ring specialists. Dating any tree is simple and can be done within reasonable
accuracy just by counting out the rings made each year by the plants natural means
of growth. By carefully compiling a nearly 10,000-year-old bristlecone pine record,
these patient scientists have accurately corrected the carbon-14 dating method and
estimated ages of past periods of global climate change. What makes this record so
special to dendochronologists, too, is that, nowhere, throughout time, is precisely the
same long-term sequence of wide and narrow rings repeated, because year-to-year
variations in climate are never exactly the same.
I.
Historically the bristlecones remote location and gnarled wood have
deterred commercial extraction, but nothing on earth will go unaffected by global
warming. If temperatures rise by only 6 degrees F, which many experts say is likely
this century, about two-thirds of the bristlecones ideal habitat in the White Mountains
effectively will be gone. Almost 30,000 acres of National Forest now preserves the
ancient bristlecone, but paved roads, campsites, and self-guided trails have led only to
more human impact. In 1966, the U.S.F.S reported over 20,000 visitors to the Ancient
Bristlecone Pine Forest, a figure which could exceed 40,000 today. Over the past
hundreds of thousands of years, this species has endured in one of earths most trying
environments; they deserve our respect and reverence. As global climate change
slowly alters their environment, we as humans must do our part to raise awareness
and lower our impact.

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Questions 1-4
The reading Passage has nine paragraphs A-L
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-I, in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
1

Human activity threats bristlecone pines habitat

Explanations for ring of bristlecone pines

An accountable survey provided from the past till now

Survived in hostile environment

ep

Questions 5-7

st

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 5-7on your answer sheet.

-b

y-

5
According to passage A, what aspect of bristlecone pines attracts
authors attention?
Brutal environment they live

Remarkable long age

They only live in California

Outstanding height

St
ep

Because oldest ones researched in this region

IE

LT

6
Why do we investigate Bristlecone pines in higher altitudes of
Californias White Mountains?
Because most bizarre ones are in this region

Because precipitation is rich in this region

Because sea level is comparatively high in this region

Why there are repeated patterns of wide and narrow rings


A

Because sea level rises which affects tree ring

Because tree ring pattern is completely random

Because ancient organisms affect its growth

Because variation of climate change is different


51

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Questions 8-13
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using
no more than three words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your
answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

The bristlecones special adaptation is benefit for photosynthesizing, and


reserving the 8 ___________ of leave replacement and providing sufficient
chlorophyll. Probably because seeds do not rely on primary 9 ___________,
Germination rate is high. Because of cambium dieback, only narrow 10 ___________
remain complete. Due to multiple factors such as windy, cold climate and 11
___________, bristlecones rings have tight and solid structure full of resin.
Moreover, bristlecone stands are safe from fire because of little 12 ___________
plants spread in this place. The summits of Owens Valley is higher than they emerge
if you observe from a 13 ___________.

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KEY
1. I
2. C
3. D
4. A
5. B
6. A
7. D

ep

8. energy

st

9. stratification
10. bark,

y-

11. dry air,

-b

12. ground cover,

IE

LT

St
ep

13. distance

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Memory and Age

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

A.
Aging, it is now clear, is part of an ongoing maturation process that all
our organs go through. In a sense, aging is keyed to the level of vigor of the body
and the continuous interaction between levels of body activity and levels of mental
activity, reports Arnold B. Scheibel, M.D.whose very academic title reects how
once far-ung domains now converge on the mind and the brain. Scheibel is
professor of anatomy, cell biology, psychiatry, and behavioral sciences at the
University of California at Los Angeles, and director of the universitys Brain
Research Institute. Experimental evidence has backed up popular assumptions that
the aging mind undergoes decay analogous to that of the aging body. Younger
monkeys, chimps, and lower animals consistently outperform their older colleagues
on memory tests. In humans, psychologists concluded, memory and other mental
functions deteriorate over time because of inevitable organic changes in the brain as
neurons die off. Mental decline after young adulthood appeared inevitable.
B.
Equipped with imaging techniques that capture the brain in action,
Stanley Rapoport, Ph.D., at the National Institutes of Healthmeasured the flow of
blood in the brains of old and young people as they went through the task of
matching photos of faces. Since blood ow reects neuronal activity, Rapoport could
compare which networks of neurons were being used by different subjects. Even
when the reaction times of older and younger subjects were the same, the neural
networks they used were significantly different. The older subjects were using
different internal strategies to accomplish the same result in the same time, Rapoport
says. Either the task required greater effort on the part of the older subjects or the
work of neurons originally involved in tasks of that type had been taken over by other
neurons, creating different networks.
C.
At the Georgia Institute of Technology, psychologist Timothy Salthouse,
Ph.D., compared a group of very fast and accurate typists of college age with another
group in their 60s. Since reaction time is faster in younger people and most peoples
fingers grow less nimble with age, younger typists might be expected to tap right
along while the older ones fumble. But both typed 60 words a minute. The older
typists, it turned out, achieved their speed with cunning little strategies that made
them far more efficient than their younger counterparts: They made fewer finger
movements, saving a fraction of a second here and there. They also read ahead in the
text. The neural networks involved in typing appear to have been reshaped to
compensate for losses in motor skills or other age changes.
D.
When a rat is kept in isolation without playmates or objects to interact
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

with, the animals brain shrinks, but if we put that rat with 11 other rats in a large
cage and give them an assortment of wheels, ladders, and other toys, we can showafter four days-significant differences in its brain, says Diamond, professor of
integrative biology. Proliferating dendrites first appear in the visual association areas.
After a month in the enriched environment, the whole cerebral cortex has expanded,
as has its blood supply. Even in the enriched environment, rats get bored unless the
toys are varied. Animals are just like we are. They need stimulation, says Diamond.
One of the most profoundly important mental functions is memory-notorious for its
failure with age. So important is memory that the Charles A. Dana Foundation
recently spent $8.4 million to set up a consortium of leading medical centers to
measure memory loss and aging through brain-imaging technology, neurochemical
experiments, and cognitive and psychological tests. One thing, however, is already
fairly clear-many aspects of memory are not a function of age at all but of education.
Memory exists in more than one form. What we call knowledge~facts~is what
psychologists such as Harry P. Bahrick, Ph.D., of Ohio Wesleyan University calls
semantic memory. Events, conversations, and occurrences in time and space, on the
other hand, make up episodic or event memory, which is triggered by cues from the
context. If you were around in 1963 you dont need to be reminded of the
circumstances surrounding the moment you heard that JFK had been assassinated.
That event is etched into your episodic memory.
E.
When you forget a less vivid item, like buying a roll of paper towels at
the supermarket, you may blame it on your aging memory. Its true that episodic
memory begins to decline when most people are in their 50s, but its never perfect at
any age. Every memory begins as an event, says Bahrick. Through repetition,
certain events leave behind a residue of knowledge, or semantic memory. On a
specific day in the past, somebody taught you that two and two are four, but youve
been over that information so often you dont remember where you learned it. What
started as an episodic memory has become a permanent part of your knowledge
base. You remember the content, not the context. Our language knowledge, our
knowledge of the world and of people, is largely that permanent or semipermanent
residue.
F.
Probing the longevity of knowledge, Bahrick tested 1,000 high school
graduates to see how well they recalled their algebra. Some had completed the course
as recently as a month before, others as long as 50 years earlier. He also determined
how long each person had studied algebra, the grade received, and how much the
skill was used over the course of adulthood. Surprisingly, a persons grasp of algebra
at the time of testing did not depend on how long ago hed taken the course the
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

determining factor was the duration of instruction. Those who had spent only a few
months learning algebra forgot most of it within two or three years
G.
In another study, Bahrick discovered that people who had taken several
courses in Spanish, spread out over a couple of years, could recall, decades later, 60
percent or more of the vocabulary they learned. Those who took just one course
retained only a trace after three years. This long- term residue of knowledge remains
stable over the decades, independent of the age of the person and the age of the
memory. No serious deficit appears until people get to their 50s and 60s, probably
due to the degenerative processes of aging rather than a cognitive loss.
H.
You could say metamemory is a byproduct of going to school, says
psychologist Robert Kail, Ph.D., of Purdue University, who studies children from
birth to 20 years, the time of life when mental development is most rapid.The
question-and-answer process, especially exam-taking, helps children learn and also
teaches them how their memory works This may be one reason why, according to a
broad range of studies in people over 60the better educated a person is, the more
likely they are to perform better in life and on psychological tests. A group of adult
novice chess players were compared with a group of child experts at the game. In
tests of their ability to remember a random series of numbers, the adults, as expected,
outscored the children. But when asked to remember the patterns of chess pieces
arranged on a board, the children won. Because theyd played a lot of chess, their
knowledge of chess was better organized than that of the adults, and their existing
knowledge of chess served as a framework for new memory, explains Kail.
I.
Specialized knowledge is a mental resource that only improves with
time. Crystallized intelligence about ones occupation apparently does not decline at
all until at least age 75, and if there is no disease or dementia, may remain even
longer. Special knowledge is often organized by a process called chunking. If
procedure A and procedure B are always done together, for example, the mind may
merge them into a single command. When you apply yourself to a specific interestsay, cooking you build increasingly elaborate knowledge structures that let you do
more and do it better. This ability, which is tied to experience, is the essence of
expertise. Vocabulary is one such specialized form of accrued knowledge. Research
clearly shows that vocabulary improves with time. Retired professionals, especially
teachers and journalists, consistently score higher on tests of vocabulary and general
information than college students, who are supposed to be in their mental prime.

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Questions 14-17
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

17
passage?

Old people reading ability is superior

Losses of age is inevitable

Seasoned tactics made elders more efficient

Old people performed poorly in driving test

ep

Which is correct about rat experiment?


Different toys have different effect for rats

Rats brain weight increased in both cages.

Isolated rats brain grows new connections

Boring and complicated surroundings effect brain development

-b

y-

st

St
ep

What can be concluded in chess game of children group?


A

They won game with adults.

Their organization of chess knowledge is better

Their image memory is better than adults

They used different part of brain when chessing

16

LT

15

What does the experiment of typist show in the passage?

What is authors purpose of using vocabulary study at the end of


A
B

C
decline
D

IE

14

Certain people are sensitive to vocabularies while others arent

Teachers and professionals won by their experience


Vocabulary memory as a crystallized intelligence is hard to
Old people use their special zone of brain when study

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Questions 18-23
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using
no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your
answers in boxes 18-23 on your answer sheet.

-b

y-

st

ep

Its long been known that 18 ___________ declined with age. Charles A. Dana
foundation invested millions of dollars to test memory decline. They used advanced
technology, neurochemical experiments and ran several cognitive and 19
___________ experiments. Bahrick called one form 20 ___________, which
describes factual knowledge. Another one called 21 ___________ contains events
in time and space format. He conducted two experiments toward to knowledge
memorys longevity, he asked 1000 candidates some knowledge of 22 ___________,
some could even remember it decades ago. Second research of Spanish course found
that multiple courses participants could remember more than half of 23 ___________
they learned after decades, whereas single course taker only remembered as short as 3
years.

St
ep

Questions 24-27

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with
opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 24-27 on your
answer sheet.
Harry P. Bahrick

Arnold B. Scheibel

LT

IE

Marion Diamond

Timothy Salthouse

Stanley Rapport

Robert Kail

24

Examined both young and olds blood circulation of brain while testing.

25

Aging is a significant link between physical and mental activity.

26

Some semantic memory of an event fade away by repetition.

27

Rats brain developed when put in a diverse environment.

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KEY
14. C
15. D
16. B
17. C
18. Memory
19. psychological
20. semantic memory

ep

21. episodic memory/even memory

st

22. algebra
23. vocabulary

y-

24. E

-b

25. B

St
ep

26. A

IE

LT

27. C

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We hold an opinion on Language

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

A.
It is not easy to be systematic and objective about language study.
Popular linguistic debate regularly deteriorates into invective and polemic. Language
belongs to everyone, so most people feel they have a right to hold an opinion about it.
And when opinions differ, emotions can run high. Arguments can start as easily over
minor points of usage as over major policies of linguistic education.
B.
Language, moreover, is a very public behavior, so it is easy for different
usages to be noted and criticized. No part of society or social behavior is exempt:
linguistic factors influence how we judge personality, intelligence, social status,
educational standards, job aptitude, and many other areas of identity and social
survival. As a result, it is easy to hurt, and to be hurt, when language use is
unfeelingly attacked.
C.
In its most general sense, prescriptivism is the view that one variety of
language has an inherently higher value than others, and that this ought to be imposed
on the whole of the speech community. The view is propounded especially in relation
to grammar and vocabulary, and frequently with reference to pronunciation. The
variety which is favored, in this account, is usually a version of the standard written
language, especially as encountered in literature, or in the formal spoken language
which most closely reflects this style. Adherents to this variety are said to speak or
write correctly; deviations from it are said to be incorrect.
D.
All the main languages have been studied prescriptively, especially in
th
the 18 century approach to the writing of grammars and dictionaries. The aims of
these early grammarians were threefold: (a) they wanted to codify the principles of
their languages, to show that there was a system beneath the apparent chaos of usage,
(b) they wanted a means of settling disputes over usage, and (c) they wanted to point
out what they felt to be common errors, in order to improve the language. The
authoritarian nature of the approach is best characterized by its reliance on rules7 of
grammar. Some usages are prescribed, to be learnt and followed accurately; others
are proscribed, to be avoided. In this early period, there were no half-measures:
usage was either right or wrong, and it was the task of the grammarian not simply to
record alternatives, but to pronounce judgement upon them.
E.
These attitudes are still with us, and they motivate a widespread concern
that linguistic standards should be maintained. Nevertheless, there is an alternative
point of view that is concerned less with standards than with the facts of linguistic
usage. This approach is summarized in the statement that it is the task of the
grammarian to describe, not prescribe-to record the facts of linguistic diversity, and
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ep

not to attempt the impossible tasks of evaluating language variation or halting


language change. In the second half of the 18th century, we already find advocates of
this view, such as Joseph Priestley, whose Rudiments of English Grammar (1761)
insists that the custom of speaking is the original and only just standard of any
language. Linguistic issues, it is argued, cannot be solved by logic and legislation.
And this view has become the tenet of the modern linguistic approach to grammatical
analysis. In our own time, the opposition between descriptivists and prescriptivists
has often become extreme, with both sides painting unreal pictures of the other.
Descriptive grammarians have been presented as people who do not care about
standards, because of the way they see all forms of usage as equally valid.
Prescriptive grammarians have been presented as blind adherents to a historical
tradition. The opposition has even been presented in quasi-political terms-of radical
liberalism elitist conservatism.

st

Questions 1-8

-b

y-

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 1?
TRUE

St
ep

In boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet, write

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information


if there is no information on this

NOT GIVEN

There are understandable reasons why arguments occur about language.

LT

IE

2
People feel more strongly about policy of language education than about
small differences in language usage.
3
Our assessment of a persons intelligence is affected by the way he or
she uses language.
4
century.

Prescriptive grammar books cost a lot of money to buy in the 18th

Prescriptivism still exists today.

According to descriptivists it is pointless to try to stop language change.

Descriptivism only appeared after the 18th century.

Both descriptivists and prescriptivists have been misrepresented.

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Questions 9-12
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I, below.
Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 9-12 on your answer sheet
The language controversy
According to 9 ___________there is only one correct form of language.
Linguists who take this approach to language place great importance on grammatical
10 ___________. Conversely, the view of 11 ___________, such as Joseph
Priestley, is that grammar should be based on 12 ___________.
descriptivists

evaluation

rules

formal language

change

modern linguists

language experts H

prescriptivists

popular speech

st

ep

-b

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

y-

Question 13

Write the correct letter in box 13 on your answer sheet.

St
ep

What is the writers purpose in Reading Passage 1?


A
to argue in favor of a particular approach to writing dictionaries and
grammar books
to present a historical account of differing views of language

to describe the differences between spoken and written language

to show how a certain view of language has been discredited

IE

LT

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KEY
1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. TRUE
4. NOT GIVEN
5. TRUE
6. TRUE
7. FALSE

ep

8. TRUE
9. H

st

10. C

y-

11. A

-b

12. I

IE

LT

St
ep

13. B

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Mammoth Kill
Mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans
commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and in northern species, a covering of
long hair. They lived from the Ptiocene epoch from around 5 million years ago, into
the Hotocene at about 4,500 years ago, and were members of the family
Elephantidae, which contains, along with mammoths, the two genera of modern
elephants and their ancestors.

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

A.
Like their modern relatives, mammoths were quite large. The largest
known species reached heights in the region of 4 m at the shoulder and weights up to
8 tonnes, while exceptionally large males may have exceeded 12 tonnes. However,
most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian elephant. Both
sexes bore tusks. A first, small set appeared at about the age of six months and these
were replaced at about 18 months by the permanent set. Growth of the permanent set
was at a rate of about l to 6 inches per year. Based on studies of their close relatives,
the modem elephants, mammoths probably had a gestation period of 22 months,
resulting in a single calf being born. Their social structure was probably the same as
that of African and Asian elephants, with females living in herds headed by a
matriarch, whilst hulls lived solitary lives or formed loose groups after sexual
maturity.
B.
MEXICO CITY-Although its hard to imagine in this age of urban
sprawl and automobiles, North America once belonged to mammoths, camels, ground
sloths as large as cows, bear-size beavers and other formidable beasts. Some 11,000
years ago, however, these large bodied mammals and others-about 70 species in alldisappeared. Their demise coincided roughly with the arrival of humans in the New
World and dramatic climatic change-factors that have inspired several theories about
the die-off. Yet despite decades of scientific investigation, the exact cause remains a
mystery. Now new findings offer support to one of these controversial hypotheses:
that human hunting drove this megafaunal menagerie to extinction. The overkill
model emerged in the 1960s, when it was put forth by Paul S. Martin of the
University of Arizona. Since then, critics have charged that no evidence exists to
support the idea that the first Americans hunted to the extent necessary to cause these
extinctions. But at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in
Mexico City last October, paleoecologist John Alroy of the University of California at
Santa Barbara argued that, in fact, hunting-driven extinction is not only plausible, it
was unavoidable. He has determined, using a computer simulation that even a very
modest amount of hunting would have wiped these animals out.
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IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

st

ep

C.
Assuming an initial human population of 100 people that grew no more
than 2 percent annually, Alroy determined that if each band of, say, 50 people killed
15 to 20 large mammals a year, humans could have eliminated the animal populations
within 1,000 years. Large mammals in particular would have been vulnerable to the
pressure because they have longer gestation periods than smaller mammals and their
young require extended care.
D.
Not everyone agrees with Alroys assessment. For one, the results
depend in part on population-size estimates for the extinct animals-figures that are
not necessarily reliable. But a more specific criticism comes from mammalogist Ross
D. E. MacPhee of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, who
points out that the relevant archaeological record contains barely a dozen examples of
stone points embedded in mammoth bones (and none, it should be noted, are known
from other megafaunal remains)-hardly what one might expect if hunting drove these
animals to extinction. Furthermore, some of these species had huge ranges- the giant
Jeffersons ground sloth, for example, lived as far north as the Yukon and as far south
as Mexico- which would have made slaughtering them in numbers sufficient to cause
their extinction rather implausible, he says.
E.
MacPhee agrees that humans most likely brought about these extinctions
(as well as others around the world that coincided with human arrival), but not
directly. Rather he suggests that people may have introduced hyperlethal disease,
perhaps through their dogs or hitchhiking vermin, which then spread wildly among
the immunologically naive species of the New World. As in the overkill model,
populations of large mammals would have a harder time recovering. Repeated
outbreaks of a hyperdisease could thus quickly drive them to the point of no return.
So far MacPhee does not have empirical evidence for the hyperdisease hypothesis,
and it wont be easy to come by: hyperlethal disease would kill far too quickly to
leave its signature on the bones themselves. But he hopes that analyses of tissue and
DNA from the last mammoths to perish will eventually reveal murderous microbes.
F.
The third explanation for what brought on this North American
extinction does not involve human beings. Instead, its proponents blame the loss on
the weather. The Pleistocene epoch witnessed considerable climatic instability,
explains paleontologist Russell W. Graham of the Denver Museum of Nature and
Science. As a result, certain habitats disappeared, and species that had once formed
communities split apart. For some animals, this change brought opportunity. For
much of the megafauna, however, the increasingly homogeneous environment left
them with shrinking geographical ranges-a death sentence for large animals, which
need large ranges. Although these creatures managed to maintain viable populations
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through most of the Pleistocene, the final major fluctuation-the so-called Younger
Dryas event-pushed them over the edge, Graham says. For his part, Alroy is
convinced that human hunters demolished the titans of the Ice Age. The overkill
model explains everything the disease and climate scenarios explain, he asserts, and
makes accurate predictions about which species would eventually go extinct.
Personally, Im a vegetarian, he remarks, and I find all of this kind of gross-but
believable.

Questions 14-20
Summary

st

ep

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using


no more than three words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your
answers in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

The reason why big size mammals extincted 11,000 years ago is under hot
debate. First explanation is that 14 ___________ of human made it happen. This so
called 15 ___________ began from 1960s suggested by an expert, who however
received criticism of lack of further information. Another assumption is that deadly
16 ___________ from human causes their demises. MacPhee, who supported this
idea, suggested that he required 17 ___________ to testify its validity. Graham
proposed a third hypothesis that 18 ___________ in Pleistocene epoch drove some
species disappear, reduced 19 ___________ posed a dangerous signal to these giants,
and 20 ___________ finally wiped them out.

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Questions 21-26
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-C) with
opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes 21-26 on your
answer sheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once

21

John Alroy

Ross D. E. MacPhee

Russell W. Graham

Human hunting well explained which species would finally disappear.

st

ep

22
Further grounded proof needed to explain humans indirect impact on
mammals.
Over hunting situation has caused the die-out of large mammals.

24

Illness rather than hunting caused extensive extinction.

25

Doubt raised through the study of several fossil records.

26

Climate shift is the main reason of extinction

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

23

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KEY
14. hunting
15. overkill model
16. disease
17. empirical evidence
18. climatic instability
19. geographical ranges
20. Younger Dryas event

ep

21. A
22. B

st

23. A

y-

24. B

-b

25. B

IE

LT

St
ep

26. C

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The Research for Intelligence

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A.
In Robert Plomins line of work, patience is essential. Plomin, a
behavioral geneticist at the Institute of Psychiatry in London, wants to understand the
nature of intelligence. As part of his research, he has been watching thousands of
children grow up. Plomin asks the children questions such as What do water and
milk have in common? and In what direction does the sun set? At first he and his
colleagues quizzed the children in person or over the telephone. Today many of those
children are in their early teens, and they take their tests on the Internet. In one sense,
the research has been a rousing success. The children who take the tests are all twins,
and throughout the study identical twins have tended to get scores closer to each
other than those of non-identical twins, who in turn have closer scores than unrelated
children. These results along with similar ones from other studies make clear to
the scientists that genes have an important influence on how children score on
intelligence tests.
B.
But Plomin wants to know more. He wants to find the specific genes that
are doing the influencing. And now he has a tool for pinpointing genes that he could
not have even dreamed of when he began quizzing children. Plomin and his
colleagues have been scanning the genes of his subjects with a device called a microarray, a small chip that can recognize half a million distinctive snippets of DNA. The
combination of this powerful tool with a huge number of children to study meant that
he could detect genes that had only a tiny effect on the variation in scores.
C.
Still, when Plomin and his co-workers unveiled the results of their
micro-array studythe biggest dragnet for intelligence-linked genes ever
undertakenthey were underwhelming. The researchers found only six genetic
markers that showed any sign of having an influence on the test scores. When they
ran stringent statistical tests to see if the results were flukes, only one gene passed. It
accounted for 0.4 percent of variation in the scores. And to cap it all off, no one
knows what the gene does in the body. Its a real drag in some ways, Plomin says.
D.
Plomins experience is a typical one for scientists who study
intelligence. Along with using micro-arrays, they are employing brain scans and other
sophisticated technologies to document some of the intricate dance steps that genes
and environment take together in the development of intelligence. They are beginning
to see how differences in intelligence are reflected in the structure and function of the
brain. Some scientists have even begun to build a new vision of intelligence as a
reflection of the ways in which information flows through the brain. But for all these
advances, intelligence remains a profound mystery. Its amazing the extent to which
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we know very little, says Wendy Johnson, a psychologist at the University of


Minnesota.
E.
In some ways, intelligence is very simple. Its something that
everybody observes in others, says Eric Turkheimer of the University of Virginia.
Everybody knows that some people are smarter than others, whatever it means
technically. Its something you sense in people when you talk to them. Yet that kind
of gut instinct does not translate easily into a scientific definition. In 1996 the
American Psychological Association issued a report on intelligence, which stated
only that individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex
ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in
various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.
F.
To measure these differences, psychologists in the early 1900s invented
tests of various kinds of thought, such as math, spatial reasoning and verbal skills. To
compare scores on one type of test to those on another, some psychologists developed
standard scales of intelligence. The most familiar of them is the intelligence quotient,
which is produced by setting the average score at 100. IQ scores are not arbitrary
numbers, however. Psychologists can use them to make strong predictions about
other features of peoples lives. It is possible to make reasonably good predictions,
based on IQ scores in childhood, about how well people will fare in school and in the
workplace. People with high IQs even tend to live longer than average. If you have
an IQ score, does that tell you everything about a persons cognitive strengths and
weaknesses? No, says Richard J. Haier of the University of California, Irvine. But
even a simple number has the potential to say a lot about a person. When you go see
your doctor, whats the first thing that happens? Somebody takes your blood pressure
and temperature. So you get two numbers. No one would say blood pressure and
temperature summarize everything about your health, but they are key numbers.
G.
Then what underlies an intelligence score? Its certainly tapping
something, says Philip Shaw, a psychiatrist at the National Institute of Mental
Health (NIMH). The most influential theory of what the score reflects is more than a
century old. In 1904 psychologist Charles Spearman observed that people who did
well on one kind of test tended to do well on others. The link from one score to
another was not very tight, but Spearman saw enough of a connection to declare that
it was the result of something he called a g factor, short for general intelligence factor.
How general intelligence arose from the brain, Spearman could not say. In recent
decades, scientists have searched for an answer by finding patterns in the test scores
of large groups of people. Roughly speaking, there are two possible sources for these
variations. Environmental influences anything from the way children are raised by
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their parents to the diseases they may suffer as they develop are one source. Genes
are another. Genes may shape the brain in ways that make individuals better or worse
at answering questions on intelligence tests.

Questions 1-6
The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list below.
Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet
List of Headings
Low probability triggers unpersuasive findings

ii

Understanding of intelligence remains limited

iii

Difficulty in accurately defining intelligence

iv

People with high IQ seldom fall sick

An innovative appliance to improve the probe

vi

The financial cost of a new research

vii

Why an indicator is imperfect but referable

viii

Genes mean extra when compared with environment

ix

A vital indicator for kids intelligence performance

Multiple factors involved in intelligence

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Example

Answer

Paragraph A

ix

Paragraph B

Paragraph C

Paragraph D

Paragraph E

Paragraph F

Paragraph G

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Questions 7-10

Plomin

Philip Shawn

Eric Turkheimer

Charles Spearman

Richard J. Haier

Wendy Johnson

ep

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-G) with
opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 7-10 on your
answer sheet.

A full conclusion can be hardly reached just by the one example in IQ

It is not easy to exclude the occasionality existed in the research.

st

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test.

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comes.

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Humans still have more to explore in terms of the real nature of
intelligence.
It is quite difficult to find the real origins where the general intelligence

LT

Summary

Questions 11-13

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Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using


no more than three words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your
answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.
Many researchers including Plomin have faced with the typical challenge when
11 ___________ are implemented. They try to use all possible methods to record
certain 12 ___________ performed both by genes and environment which contributes
to the progress of intelligence. The relationship between intelligence and brain
become their targeted area. Whats more, according to some researchers, intelligence
is regarded to be 13 ___________ of how messages transmit in the brain.

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KEY
1. v
2. i
3. ii
4. iii
5. vii
6. x
7. E

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8. A
9. F

st

10. D

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11. micro-arrays

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12. intricate dance steps

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13. a reflection

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Tidal Power! in Britain

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Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropozver that converts
the energy of tides into useful forms of power-mainly electricity. Although not yet
widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are
more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable
energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited
availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus
constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments
and improvements, both in design and turbine technology, indicate that the total
availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that
economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels.
Undersea turbines which produce electricity from the tides are set to become an
important source of renewable energy for Britain. It is still too early to predict the
extent of the impact they may have, but all the signs are that they will play a
significant role in the future.

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A.
Operating on the same principle as wind turbines, the power in sea
turbines comes from tidal currents which turn blades similar to ships propellers, but,
unlike wind, the tides are predictable and the power input is constant. The technology
raises the prospect of Britain becoming self-sufficient in renewable energy and
drastically reducing its carbon dioxide emissions. If tide, wind and wave power are
all developed, Britain would be able to close gas, coal and nuclear power plants and
export renewable power to other parts of Europe. Unlike wind power, which Britain
originally developed and then abandoned for 20 years allowing the Dutch to make it a
major industry, undersea turbines could become a big export earner to island nations
such as Japan and New Zealand.
B.
Tidal sites have already been identified that will produce one sixth or
more of the UKs power-and at prices competitive with modern gas turbines and
undercutting those of the already ailing nuclear industry. One site alone, the Pentland
Firth, between Orkney and mainland Scotland, could produce 10% of the countrys
electricity with banks of turbines under the sea, and another at Alderney in the
Channel Islands three times the 1,200 megawatts of Britains largest and newest
nuclear plant, Sizewell B, in Suffolk. Other sites identified include the Bristol
Channel and the west coast of Scotland, particularly the channel between
Campbeltown and Northern Ireland.
C.
Work on designs for the new turbine blades and sites are well advanced
at the University of Southamptons sustainable energy research group. The first
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station is expected to be installed off Lynmouth in Devon shortly to test the


technology in a venture jointly funded by the department of Trade and Industry and
the European Union. AbuBakr Bahaj, in charge of the Southampton research, said:
The prospects for energy from tidal currents are far better than from wind because
the ows of water are predictable and constant. The technology for dealing with the
hostile saline environment under the sea has been developed in the North Sea oil
industry and much is already known about turbine blade design, because of wind
power and ship propellers. There are a few technical difficulties, but I believe in the
next five to ten years we will be installing commercial marine turbine farms.
Southampton has been awarded 215,000 over three years to develop the turbines and
is working with Marine Current Turbines, a subsidiary of IT power, on the Lynmouth
project. EU research has now identified 106 potential sites for tidal power, 80% round
the coasts of Britain. The best sites are between islands or around heavily indented
coasts where there are strong tidal currents.
D.
A marine turbine blade needs to be only one third of the size of a wind
generator to produce three times as much power. The blades will be about 20 meters
in diameter, so around 30 meters of water is required. Unlike wind power, there are
unlikely to be environmental objections. Fish and other creatures are thought unlikely
to be at risk from the relatively slow-turning blades. Each turbine will be mounted on
a tower which will connect to the national power supply grid via underwater cables.
The towers will stick out of the water and be lit, to warn shipping, and also be
designed to be lifted out of the water for maintenance and to clean seaweed from the
blades.
E.
Dr. Bahaj has done most work on the Alderney site, where there are
powerful currents. The single undersea turbine farm would produce far more power
than needed for the Channel Islands and most would be fed into the French Grid and
be re-imported into Britain via the cable under the Channel.
F.
One technical difficulty is cavitation, where low pressure behind a
turning blade causes air bubbles. These can cause vibration and damage the blades of
the turbines. Dr. Bahaj said: We have to test a number of blade types to avoid this
happening or at least make sure it does not damage the turbines or reduce
performance. Another slight concern is submerged debris floating into the blades. So
far we do not know how much of a problem it might be. We will have to make the
turbines robust because the sea is a hostile environment, but all the signs are good
that we can do it.

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Questions 14-17
Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1417 on your answer sheet
NB You may use any letter more than once.
14

the location of the first test site

15

bringing the power produced on one site back into Britain again

16

a potentially promising alternative energy for island countries


possibility of applying technique from another field due to its stable

ep

17
feature

st

Questions 18-22

y-

Choose FIVE letters, A-I.

-b

Write the correct letters in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet.

St
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Which FIVE of the following statements about tidal power are made by the
author?
It is best produced in the scene of particular coastlines.

It would take place all other ways of energy in Britain.

It is a more reliable source of energy than wind power.

It would cut down on air pollution.

It could generate a lot of carbon dioxide to the environment.

LT

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F
Britain.

It could contribute to the closure of many existing power stations in

It could be the most expensive energy in Britain.

It could be a means of increasing national income.

It could compensate for the shortage of inland sites.

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Questions 23-26
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using
no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your
answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.

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Marine turbine has small environmental impact, for example, sea life would
not in danger due to the fact that blades are comparatively 23 ___________. Each
tower equipped with turbine can be raised for 24 ___________ and extracted
seaweed from the blades. However, one practical issue is that air bubble may result
from the 25 ___________ (behind blades). This is known as 26 ___________.

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KEY
14. C
15. E
16. A
17. C
18. A
19. C
20. D

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22. H

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23. maintenance

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24. slow (turning)

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25. low pressure

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26. cavitation

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Save Endangered Language


Obviously we must do some serious rethinking of our priorities, lest
linguistics go down in history as the only science that presided obviously over the
disappearance of 90percent of the very field to which it is dedicated. -Michael
Krauss, The Worlds Languages in Crisis.

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A.
Ten years ago Michael Krauss sent a shudder through the discipline of
linguistics with his prediction that half the 6,000 or so languages spoken in the world
would cease to be uttered within a century. Unless scientists and community leaders
directed a worldwide effort to stabilize the decline of local languages, he warned,
nine tenths of the linguistic diversity of humankind would probably be doomed to
extinction. Krausss prediction was little more than an educated guess, but other
respected linguists had been clanging out similar alarms. Keneth L. Hale of the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology noted in the same journal issue that eight
languages on which he had done fieldwork had since passed into extinction. A 1990
survey in Australia found that 70 of the 90 surviving Aboriginal languages were no
longer used regularly by all age groups. The same was true for all but 20 of the 175
Native American languages spoken or remembered in the US, Krauss told a
congressional panel in 1992.
B.
Many experts in the field mourn the loss of rare languages, for several
reasons. To start, there is scientific self-interest: some of the most basic questions in
linguistics have to do with the limits of human speech, which are far from fully
explored. Many researchers would like to know which structural elements of
grammar and vocabulary if any are truly universal and probably therefore
hardwired into the human brain. Other scientists try to reconstruct ancient migration
patterns by comparing borrowed words that appear in otherwise unrelated languages.
In each of these cases, the wider the portfolio of languages you study, the more likely
you are to get the right answers.
C.
Despite the near constant buzz in linguistics about endangered languages
over the past 10 years, the field has accomplished depressingly little. You would
think that there would be some organized response to this dire situation, some
attempt to determine which language can be saved and which should be documented
before they disappear, says Sarah G. Thomason, a linguist at the University of
Michigan at Ann Arbor. But there isnt any such effort organized in the profession. It
is only recently that it has become fashionable enough to work on endangered
languages. Six years ago, recalls Douglas H. Whalen of Yale University, when I
asked linguists who was raising money to deal with these problems, I mostly got
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blank stares. So Whalen and a few other linguists founded the Endangered
Languages Fund. In the five years to 2001 they were able to collect only $80,000 for
research grants. A similar foundation in England, directed by Nicholas Ostler, has
raised just $8,000 since 1995.
D.
But there are encouraging signs that the field has turned a corner. The
Volkswagen Foundation, a German charity, just issued its second round of grants
totaling more than $2 million. It has created a multimedia archive at the Max Planck
Institute for Psycholinguistics in the Netherlands that can house recordings,
grammars, dictionaries and other data on endangered languages. To fill the archive,
the foundation has dispatched field linguists to document Aweti (100 or so speakers
in Brazil), Ega (about 300 speakers in Ivory Coast), Waimaa (a few hundred
speakers in East Timor), and a dozen or so other languages unlikely to survive the
century. The Ford Foundation has also edged into the arena. Its contributions helped
to reinvigorate a master-apprentice program created in 1992 by Leanne Hinton of
Berkeley and Native Americans worried about the imminent demise of about 50
indigenous languages in California. Fluent speakers receive $3,000 to teach a
younger relative (who is also paid) their native tongue through 360 hours of shared
activities, spread over six months. So far about 5 teams have completed the program,
Hinton says, transmitting at least some knowledge of 25 languages. Its too early to
call this language revitalization, Hinton admits. In California the death rate of
elderly speakers will always be greater than the recruitment rate of young speakers.
But at least we prolong the survival of the language. That will give linguists more
time to record these tongues before they vanish.
E.
But the master-apprentice approach hasnt caught on outside the U.S.,
and Hintons effort is a drop in the sea. At least 440 languages have been reduced to a
mere handful of elders, according to the Ethnologue, a catalogue of languages
produced by the Dallas-based group SIL International that comes closest to global
coverage. For the vast majority of these languages, there is little or no record of their
grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation or use in daily life. Even if a language has been
fully documented, all that remains once it vanishes from active use is a fossil
skeleton, a scattering of features that the scientist was lucky and astute enough to
capture. Linguists may be able to sketch an outline of the forgotten language and fix
its place on the evolutionary tree, but little more. How did people start conversations
and talk to babies? How did husbands and wives converse? Hinton asks. Those are
the first things you want to learn when you want to revitalize the language.
F.
But there is as yet no discipline of conservation linguistics, as there is
for biology. Almost every strategy tried so far has succeeded in some places but failed
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in others, and there seems to be no way to predict with certainty what will work
where. Twenty years ago in New Zealand, Maori speakers set up language nests, in
which preschoolers were immersed in the native language. Additional Maori-only
classes were added as the children progressed through elementary and secondary
school. A similar approach was tried in Hawaii, with some success the number of
native speakers has stabilized at 1,000 or so, reports Joseph E. Grimes of SIL
International, who is working on Oahu. Students can now get instruction in Hawaiian
all the way through university.
G.
One factor that always seems to occur in the demise of a language is that
the speakers begin to have collective doubts about the usefulness of language loyalty.
Once they start regarding their own language as inferior to the majority language,
people stop using it for all situations. Kids pick up on the attitude and prefer the
dominant language. In many cases, people dont notice until they suddenly realize
that their kids never speak the language, even at home. This is how Cornish and some
dialects of Scottish Gaelic is still only rarely used for daily home life in Ireland, 80
years after the republic was founded with Irish as its first official language.
H.
Linguists agree that ultimately, the answer to the problem of language
extinction is multilingualism. Even uneducated people can learn several languages, as
long as they start as children. Indeed, most people in the world speak more than one
tongue, and in places such as Cameroon (279 languages), Papua New Guinea (823)
and India (387) it is common to speak three or four distinct languages and a dialect or
two as well. Most Americans and Canadians, to the west of Quebec, have a gut
reaction that anyone speaking another language in front of them is committing an
immoral act. You get the same reaction in Australia and Russia. It is no coincidence
that these are the areas where languages are disappearing the fastest. The first step in
saving dying languages is to persuade the worlds majorities to allow the minorities
among them to speak with their own voices.

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Questions 27-33
The reading passage has eight paragraphs, A-H
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-H from the list below.
Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
data consistency needed for language the SIL

ii

Solution for dying out language

iii

positive gains for protection

iv

minimum requirement for saving a language

Potential threat to minority language

vi

Value of minority language to linguists.

vii

native language program launched

viii

Subjective doubts as a negative factor

ix

Practise in several developing countries

Value of minority language to linguists.

xi

government participation in language field

28

Paragraph B

29

Paragraph D

30

Paragraph E

31

Paragraph F

32

Paragraph G

33

Paragraph H

Paragraph A

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Questions 34-38

Nicholas Ostler

Michael Krauss

Joseph E. Grimes

Sarah G. Thomason

Keneth L. Hale

Douglas H. Whalen

ep

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with
opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 34-38 on your
answer sheet.

Reported language conservation practice in Hawaii

35

Predicted that many languages would disappear soon

36

Experienced languages die out personally

37

Raised language fund in England

38

Not enough effort on saving until recent work

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Questions 39-40
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet.
39
What is purpose of master-apprentice program sponsored by The Ford
Foundation?
A

Teach children how to speak

Revive endangered language

Preserve endangered language

Increase communication between students

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40
What should majority language speaker should do according to the last
paragraph?
They should teach their children endangered language

They should learn at least four languages

They should show their loyalty to a dying language

They should be more tolerant to minority language speaker

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KEY
27. v
28. x
29. iii
30. i
31. vii
32. viii
33. ii

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34. C
35. B

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36. E

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37. A

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38. D

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39. C

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40. D

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Western Immigration of Canada

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A.
By the mid-1870s Canada wanted an immigrant population of
agricultural settlers established in the West. No urban centers existed on the prairies
in the 1870s, and rural settlement was the focus of the federal governments attention.
Western rural settlement was desired, as it would provide homesteads for the sons and
daughters of eastern farmers, as eastern agricultural land filled to capacity. As well,
eastern farmers and politicians viewed western Canada, with its broad expanses of
unpopulated land, as a prime location for expanding Canadas agricultural output,
especially in terms of wheat production to serve the markets of eastern Canada.
B.
To bolster Canadas population and agricultural output, the federal
government took steps to secure western land. The Dominion of Canada purchased
Ruperts Land from the Hudsons Bay Company in 1870. In 1872, the federal
government enacted the Dominion Lands Act. This act enabled settlers to acquire 160
acres of free land, as long as settlers remained on their land for a period of three
years, made certain minor improvements to the land, and paid a $10.00 registration
fee. The Canadian government also created a Mounted Police Force in 1873. The
Mounties journeyed West to secure the area for future settlers. By 1876 the NWMP
had established themselves in the West. The major posts included Swan River, Fort
Saskatchewan, Fort Calgary, Fort Walsh and Fort Macleod. All of these initiatives
attracted a number of eastern- Canadian settlers, as well as European and American
immigrants, to Canadas West, and particularly to the area of Manitoba.
C.
The surest way to protect Canadian territory, and to achieve the
secondary goal of joining British Columbia to the rest of the country, was to import
large numbers of Eastern Canadian and British settlers. Settling the West also made
imperative the building of a transcontinental railway. The railway would work to
create an east-west economy, in which western Canada would feed the growing urban
industrial population of the east, and in return become a market for eastern Canadian
manufactured goods.
D.
Winnipeg became the metropolis of the West during this period.
Winnipegs growth before 1900 was the result of a combination of land speculation,
growth of housing starts, and the federal governments solution in 1881 of Winnipeg
as a major stop along the CPR. This decision culminated in a land boom between
1881 and 1883 which resulted in the transformation of hamlets like Portage la Prairie
and Brandon into towns, and a large increase in Manitobas population. Soon,
Winnipeg stood at the junction of three transcontinental railway lines which
employed thousands in rail yards. Winnipeg also became the major processor of
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agricultural products for the surrounding hinterland.


E.
The majority of settlers to Winnipeg, and the surrounding countryside,
during this early period were primarily Protestant English-speaking settlers from
Ontario and the British Isles. These settlers established Winnipeg upon a BritishOntarian ethos which came to dominate the societys social, political, and economic
spirit. This British-Ontarian ethnic homogeneity, however, did not last very long.
Increasing numbers of foreign immigrants, especially from Austria-Hungary and the
Ukraine soon added a new ethnic element to the recent British, the older First Nation
Metis, and Selkirks settler population base. Settling the West with (in particular)
Eastern Canadians and British immigrant offered the advantage of safeguarding the
49th parallel from the threat of American take-over, had not the Minnesota legislature
passed a resolution which provided for the annexation of the Red River district. The
Red River in 1870 was the most important settlement on the Canadian prairies. It
contained 11,963 inhabitants of whom 9,700 were Metis and 575 First Nations. But
neighboring Minnesota already had a population of over 100,000.
F.
Not all of the settlers who came to western Canada in the 1880s,
however desired to remain there. In the 1870s and 1880s, economic depression kept
the value of Canadas staple exports low, which discouraged many from permanent
settlement in the West. Countries including Brazil, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand
and the United States competed with Canada for immigrants. Many immigrants, and
thousands of Canadians, chose to settle in the accessible and attractive American
frontier. Canada before 1891 has been called a huge demographic railway station
where thousands of men, women, and children were constantly going and coming,
and where the number of departures invariably exceeded that of arrivals.
G.
By 1891 Eastern Canada had its share of both large urban centers and
problems associated with city life. While the booming economic centers of Toronto
and Montreal were complete with electricity and telephones in the cities1 wealthiest
areas by the turn of the century, slum conditions characterized the poorest areas like
the district known as the Ward in Toronto. Chickens and pigs ran through the
streets; privy buckets spilled onto backyards and lanes creating cesspools in urban
slums. These same social reformers believed that rural living, in stark contrast to
urban, would lead to a healthy, moraland charitable way of life. Social reformers
praised the ability of fresh air, hard work, and open spaces for Canadianizing
immigrants. Agricultural pursuits were seen as especially fitting for attaining this
moral and family-oriented way of life, in opposition to the single male-dominated
atmosphere of the cities. Certainly, agriculture played an important part of the
Canadian economy in 1891. One third of the workforce worked on farms.
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H.
The Canadian government presented Canadas attractions to potential
overseas migrants in several ways. The government offered free or cheap land to
potential agriculturists. As well, the government established agents and/or agencies
for the purpose of attracting emigrants overseas. Assisted passage schemes, bonuses
and commissions to agents and settlers and pamphlets also attracted some immigrants
to Canada. The most inuential form of attracting others to Canada, however
remained the letters home written by emigrants already in Canada. Letters from
trusted friends and family members. Letters home often contained exaggerations of
the wonder of the new world. Migrant workers and settlers already in Canada did
not want to disappoint, or worry, their family and friends at home. Embellished tales
of good fortune and happiness often succeeded in encouraging others to come.

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Questions 14-20
The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-H
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-H from the list below.
Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
Not all would stay in Canada forever

ii

Governments safeguard in the West

iii

Eastern Canada is full

iv

Built-up of the new infrastructure

British domination in community

vi

Ethnics and language make-up

vii

Pursing a pure life

viii

Police recruited from mid class families

ix

Demand of western immigration

First major urban development of the West

xi

Attracting urban environment

xii

Advertising of Western Canada

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-b

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Paragraph A

LT

Example:

ep

Paragraph B

15

Paragraph C

16

Paragraph D

17

Paragraph E

18

Paragraph F

19

Paragraph G

20

Paragraph H

IE

14

ix

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Questions 21-26
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using
no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your
answers in boxes 21-26 on your answer sheet

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With the saturation of Eastern Canada, Western rural area would supply 21
___________ for the descendants of easterners. Politicians also declared that Western
area got potential to increase 22 ___________ of Canada according to 23
___________ crop that consumed in the East. Federal government started to prepare
and made it happen. First, government bought a land from a private 24
___________, and legally offered certain area to people who stayed for a qualified
period of time. Then, a mounted 25 ___________ was found to secure the land.
However, the best way to protect citizens was to build a 26 ___________ to transport
the migrants and goods between the West and the East.

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KEY
14. ii
15. iv
16. x
17. vi
18. i
19. vii
20. xii

ep

21. Homesteads
22. agricultural output

st

23. wheat
25. Police Force

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26. transcontinental railway

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y-

24. Company

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Beyond the Blue Line

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A.
Much of the thrill of venturing to the far side of the world rests on the
romance of difference. So one feels certain sympathy for Captain James Cook on the
day in 1778 that he discovered Hawaii. Then on his third expedition to the Pacific,
the British navigator had explored scores of islands across the breadth of the sea,
from lush New Zealand to the lonely wastes of Easter Island. This latest voyage had
taken him thousands of miles north from the Society Islands to an archipelago so
remote that even the old Polynesians back on Tahiti knew nothing about it. Imagine
Cooks surprise, then, when the natives of Hawaii came paddling out in their canoes
and greeted him in a familiar tongue, one he had heard on virtually every mote of
inhabited land he had visited. Marveling at the ubiquity of this Pacific language and
culture, he later wondered in his journal: How shall we account for this Nation
spreading itself so far over this vast ocean?
B.
That question, and others that ow from it, has tantalized inquiring
minds for centuries: Who were these amazing seafarers? Where did they come from,
starting more than 3,000 years ago? And how could a Neolithic people with simple
canoes and no navigation gear manage to find, let alone colonize, hundreds of farung island specks scattered across an ocean that spans nearly a third of the globe?
Answers have been slow in coming. But now a startling archaeological find on the
island of Efate, in the Pacific nation of Vanuatu, has revealed an ancient seafaring
people, the distant ancestors of todays Polynesians, taking their first steps into the
unknown. The discoveries there have also opened a window into the shadowy world
of those early voyagers
C.
What we have is a first-or second-generation site containing the
graves of some of the Pacifics first explorers, says Spriggs, professor of
archaeology at the Australian National University and co- leader of an international
team excavating the site. It came to light only by luck. A backhoe operator, digging
up topsoil on the grounds of a derelict coconut plantation, scraped open a grave the
first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old. It is the oldest cemetery ever
found in the Pacific islands, and it harbors the bones of an ancient people
archaeologists call the Lapita, a label that derives from a beach in New Caledonia
where a landmark cache of their pottery was found in the 1950s
D.
They were daring blue-water adventurers who roved the sea not just as
explorers but also as pioneers, bringing along everything they would need to build
new lives their families and livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools. Within the
span of a few centuries the Lapita stretched the boundaries of their world from the
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jungle-clad volcanoes of Papua New Guinea to the loneliest coral outliers of Tonga,
at least 2,000 miles eastward in the Pacific. Along the way they explored millions of
square miles of unknown sea, discovering and colonizing scores of tropical islands
never before seen by human eyes: Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa. It was their
descendants, centuries later, who became the great Polynesian navigators we all tend
to think of: the Tahitians and Hawaiians, the New Zealand Maori, and the curious
people who erected those statues on Easter Island. But it was the Lapita who laid the
foundation who bequeathed to the islands the language, customs, and cultures that
their more famous descendants carried around the Pacific.
E.
While the Lapita left a glorious legacy, they also left precious few clues
about themselves. A particularly intriguing clue comes from chemical tests on the
teeth of several skeletons. Then as now, the food and water you consume as a child
deposits oxygen, carbon, strontium, and other elements in your still- forming adult
teeth. The isotope signatures of these elements vary subtly from place to place, so that
if you grow up in, say, Buffalo, New York, then spend your adult life in California,
tests on the isotopes in your teeth will always reveal your eastern roots. Isotope
analysis indicates that several of the Lapita buried on Efate didnt spend their
childhoods here but came from somewhere else. And while isotopes cant pinpoint
their precise island of origin, this much is clear: At some point in their lives, these
people left the villages of their birth and made a voyage by seagoing canoe, never to
return. DNA teased from these ancient bones may also help answer one of the most
puzzling questions in Pacific anthropology: Did all Pacific islanders spring from one
source or many? Was there only one outward migration from a single point in Asia, or
several from different points? This represents the best opportunity weve had yet,
says Spriggs, to find out who the Lapita actually were, where they came from, and
who their closest descendants are today.
F.
There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide
any answers: How did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon
landing, many times over? No one has found one of their canoes or any rigging,
which could reveal how the canoes were sailed. Nor do the oral histories and
traditions of later Polynesians offer any insights. All we can say for certain is that
the Lapita had canoes that were capable of ocean voyages, and they had the ability to
sail them, says Geoff Irwin, a professor of archaeology at the University of
Auckland and an avid yachtsman. Those sailing skills, he says, were developed and
passed down over thousands of years by earlier mariners who worked their way
through the archipelagoes of the western Pacific making short crossings to islands
within sight of each other. The real adventure didnt begin, however, until their Lapita
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descendants neared the end of the Solomons chain, for this was the edge of the world.
The nearest landfall, the Santa Cruz Islands, is almost 230 miles away, and for at least
150 of those miles the Lapita sailors would have been out of sight of land, with empty
horizons on every side.
G.
The Lapitas thrust into the Pacific was eastward, against the prevailing
trade winds, Irwin notes. Those nagging headwinds, he argues, may have been the
key to their success. They could sail out for days into the unknown and reconnoiter,
secure in the knowledge that if they didnt find anything, they could turn about and
catch a swift ride home on the trade winds. Its what made the whole thing work.
Once out there, skilled seafarers would detect abundant leads to follow to land:
seabirds and turtles, coconuts and twigs carried out to sea by the tides, and the
afternoon pileup of clouds on the horizon that often betokens an island in the
distance. All this presupposes one essential detail, says Atholl Anderson, professor of
prehistory at the Australian National University and, like Irwin, a keen yachtsman:
that the Lapita had mastered the advanced art of tacking into the wind. And theres
no proof that they could do any such thing, Anderson says. There has been this
assumption that they must have done so, and people have built canoes to re-create
those early voyages based on that assumption. But nobody has any idea what their
canoes looked like or how they were rigged.
H.
However they did it, the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way
across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them. Ahead lay the
vast emptiness of the central Pacific, and perhaps they were too thinly stretched to
venture farther. They probably never numbered more than a few thousand in total,
and in their rapid migration eastward they encountered hundreds of islands more than
300 in Fiji alone. Supplied with such an embarrassment of riches, they could settle
down and enjoy what for a time were Earths last Edens
I.
Rather than give all the credit to human skill and daring, Anderson
invokes the winds of chance. El Nino, the same climate disruption that affects the
Pacific today, may have helped scatter the first settlers to the ends of the ocean,
Anderson suggests. Climate data obtained from slow-growing corals around the
Pacific and from lake-bed sediments in the Andes of South America point to a series
of unusually frequent El Ninos around the time of the Lapita expansion, and again
between 1,600 and 1,200 years ago, when the second wave of pioneer navigators
made their voyages farther east, to the remotest corners of the Pacific. By reversing
the regular east-to-west ow of the trade winds for weeks at a time, these super El
Ninos might have sped the Pacifics ancient mariners on long, unplanned voyages
far over the horizon. The volley of El Ninos that coincided with the second wave of
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voyages could have been key to launching Polynesians across the wide expanse of
open water between Tonga, where the Lapita stopped, and the distant archipelagoes
of eastern Polynesia. Once they crossed that gap, they could island hop throughout
the region, and from the Marquesas its mostly downwind to Hawaii, Anderson says.
It took another 400 years for mariners to reach Easter Island, which lies in the
opposite direction normally upwind. Once again this was during a period of frequent
El Nino activity.

Questions 27-31
Complete the summary with the list of words A-L below.
Write the correct letter A-L in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet

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The question, arisen from Captain Cooks expedition to Hawaii, and others
derived from it, has fascinated researchers for a long time. However, a surprising
archaeological find on Efate began to provide valuable information about the 27
___________.On the excavating site, a 28 ___________ containing 29 ___________
of Lapita was uncovered. Later on, various researches and tests have been done to
study the ancient people Lapita and their 30 ___________. How could they
manage to spread themselves so far over the vast ocean? All that is certain is that they
were good at canoeing. And perhaps they could take well advantage of the trade
wind. But there is no 31 ___________ of it.
bones

international team

ancestors

assumption

IE

LT

co-leader

descendents

inquiring minds

proof

early seafarers

pottery

horizons

grave

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Questions 32-35
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet.
The chemical tests indicate that
A
B
places.
C

the result of the study is not fascinating.

these chemicals cant conceal ones origin.


exactly locates their birth island.

reveals that the Lapita found the new place via straits.

helps researchers to find out answers about the islanders.

leaves more new questions for anthropologists to answer.

-b

y-

st

St
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According paragraph F, the offspring of Lapita


A

were capable of voyages to land that is not accessible to view.

were able to have the farthest voyage of 230 miles.

C
Pacific.
D
35

ep

The isotope analysis from the Lapita

worked their way through the archipelagoes of the western

34

the isotope signatures of the elements remain the same in different

LT

33

the elements in ones teeth varied from childhood to adulthood.

fully explored the horizons.

IE

32

Once out exploring the sea, the sailors


A

always found the trade winds unsuitable for sailing.

could return home with various clues.

C
eternity.
D

sometimes would overshoot their home port and sail off into
would sail in one direction.

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Questions 36-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading
Passage 3?
In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN

if there is no information on this

The Lapita could canoe in the prevailing wind.

37

It was difficult for the sailors to find ways back, once they were out.

38

The reason why the Lapita stopped canoeing farther is still unknown.

39

The majority of the Lapita dwelled on Fiji.

st

y-

The navigators could take advantage of El Nino during their forth

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

40
voyages.

ep

36

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KEY
27. H
28. L
29. A
30. C
31. F
32. D
33. C

ep

34. A
35. B

st

36. TRUE

y-

37. FALSE

-b

38. TRUE

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39. FALSE

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40. NOT GIVEN

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Isambard Kingdom Brunel


Isambard Kingdom Brunel was born on 9 April 1806 in Portsmouth. His father
Mark was a French engineer who had fled France during the Revolution. Brunel was
educated both in England and in France. When he returned to England he went to
work for his father. Brunels first notable achievement was the part he played with his
father in planning the Thames Tunnel from Rotherhithe to Wapping completed in
1843. In 1831 Brunels designs won the competition for the Clifton Suspension
Bridge across the River Avon. Construction began the same year but it was not
completed until 1864.

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The work for which Brunel is probably best remembered is his construction of
a network of tunnels, bridges and viaducts for the Great Western Railway. In 1833,
he was appointed chief engineer of the Great Western Railway, one of the wonders of
Victorian Britain, running from London to Bristol and later Exeter. At that time,
Brunel made two controversial decisions: to use a broad gauge of 2,140 mm for the
track, which he believed would offer superior running at high speeds; and to take a
route that passed north of the Marlborough Downs, an area with no significant towns,
though it offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester and then to follow
the Thames Valley into London. His decision to use board gauge for the line was
controversial in that almost all British railways to date had used standard gauge.
Brunel said that this was nothing more than a carry-over from the mine railways that
George Stephenson had worked on prior to making the worlds first passenger
railway. Brunel worked out through mathematics and a series of trials that his broader
gauge was the optimum railway size for providing stability and a comfortable ride to
passengers, in addition to allowing for bigger carriages and more freight capacity. He
surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself. Drawing
on his experience, the Great Western contained a series of impressive achievements
soaring viaducts, specially designed stations, and vast tunnels including the famous
Box Tunnel, which was the longest railway tunnel in the world at that time.
Many difficulties were met with and overcome. The Brent Valley, the Thames
at Maidenhead and the hill at Sonning between Twyford and Reading had to be
crossed on the stretch of track that was to be laid from London to Reading. Brent
Valley was crossed by a 960 ft. long viaduct, costing 40,000. Where the railway had
to cross the Thames, Brunel built a brick bridge with two main spans of 128 ft. with a
rise of only 2412 ft. , and the elliptical spans of Maidenhead Bridge are probably the
most remarkable over constructed in brickwork. The high ground between Twyford
and Reading necessitated a two-mines cutting, sometimes of 60 ft. in depth.
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ep

Brunels solo engineering feats also started with bridges. And he perhaps best
remembered for the Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol. Spanning over 700 ft.
(213m), and nominally 200 ft. (61m) above the River Avon, it had the longest span of
any bridge in the world at the time of construction. Brunel submitted four designs to a
committee headed by Thomas Telford and gained approval to commence with the
project. Afterwards, Brunel wrote to his brother-in-law, the politician Benjamin
Hawes: Of all the wonderful feats I have performed, since I have been in this part of
the world, I think yesterday I performed the most wonderful. I produced unanimity
among 15 men who were all quarrelling about that most ticklish subject taste. He
did not live to see it built, although his colleagues and admires at the Institution of
Civil Engineers felt the bridge would be a fitting memorial, and started to raise new
funds and to amend the design. Work started in 1862 and was completed in 1864, five
years after Brunels death.

St
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y-

st

Even before the Great Western Railway was opened, Brunel was moving on to
his next project: transatlantic shipping. He used his prestige to convince his railway
company employers to build the Great Western, at the time by far the largest
steamship in the world, and the much longer the Great Eastern, fitted out with the
most luxurious appointments and capable of carrying over 4,000 passengers.

IE

LT

The Great Eastern was designed to be able to cruise under her own power
nonstop from London to Sydney and back since engineers of the time were under the
misapprehension that Australia had no coal reserves, and she remained the largest
ship built until the turn of the century. Like many of Brunels ambitious projects, the
ship soon ran over budget and behind schedule in the face of a series of momentous
technical problems. She has been portrayed as a white elephant, but it can be argued
that in this case Brunels failure was principally one of economics his ships were
simply years ahead of their time. His vision and engineering innovations made the
building of large-scale, screw driven, all-metal steamships a practical reality, but the
prevailing economic and industrial conditions meant that it would be several decades
before transoceanic steam ship travel emerged as a viable industry. Great Eastern
was built at John Scott Russells Napier Yard in London, and after two trial trips in
1859, set forth on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York on 17 June
1860.
Though a failure at her original purpose of passenger travel, she eventually
found a role as an oceanic telegraph cable layer, and the Great Eastern remains one of
the most important vessels in the history of shipbuilding the Trans Atlantic cable

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had been laid, which meant that Europe and America now had a telecommunications
link.

ep

Brunel died at the relatively early age of fifty seven, had led a charmed life,
for on several occasions his life was in danger. In 1838, while aboard the steamer
Great Western, he fell down a ladder, and was found unconscious with his face in a
pool of water. Twice he was nearly killed on the Great Western Railway; and he had
yet another escape when he swallowed a half sovereign which, after being six weeks
in his windpipe, was at last extracted by means of an apparatus designed by the
engineer himself. The patient was attached to an enlarged edition of a looking glass
frame and then the frame and the patient quickly inverted. After several attempts the
coin fell into his mouth. While his life was in danger, public excitement was intense,
so high was his place in public estimation.

st

Question 1-7

Great Eastern Steamship

Great Western Railway


Thames Tunnel

-b

St
ep

Clifton Suspension Bridge

y-

Classify the following statements with the corresponding project designed by


Brunel.

W
T

IE

LT

1. ___________ adopted broader gauge for tracks than normal.


2. ___________ had not been completed before the death of Brunel.
3. ___________ started a telecommunications link between Europe and
America by the laying an underseas cable.
4. ___________ contained the longest railway tunnel in the world at that time.
5. ___________ is believed to be the first famous architectural project Brunel
took part in.
6. ___________ was selected and modified from four of Brunels original
designs.
7. ___________ was compared to a white elephant.

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Question 8-13
Complete the summary of the Great Eastern.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each
answer.

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-b

y-

st

ep

Before the Great Western Railway was opened, Brunel convinced his railway
company employers to build the Great Western. The Great Eastern was planned to be
outfitted with the capability of carrying 8 ___________, cruising to the destination of
9 ___________ without any breaks. The project was almost considered a failure due
to its limited 10 ___________ and postponed 11 ___________ due to technological
difficulties. Despite transoceanic travel was undeveloped and had not been
considered as a viable industry, Brunels innovation made the outdated steamships a
12 ___________. And even the original concept of passenger travel was not fully
implemented, the Great Eastern played a role as an 13 ___________, connecting
Europe with America.

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KEY

st

ep

W
C
E
W
T
C
E
over 4,000 passengers
Sydney
budget
schedule
practical reality
ocean telegraph cable-layer

IE

LT

St
ep

-b

y-

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

103
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CONTENT
The study of laughter ............................................................................................ 2
Shoemaker Levy 9 Collision with Jupiter .......................................................... 7
Dealing with Different Sleep Patterns ................................................................ 13
From Novices to Experts .................................................................................... 18
The Myth of the Five Senses .............................................................................. 24
TV Addiction ...................................................................................................... 29
Antarctica and Global Warming......................................................................... 35

te
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Magnetic Therapy............................................................................................... 41

by
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Insects and Inspired Artificial Robots ................................................................ 46

Ss

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Extinction of Aussie Animals............................................................................. 52

LT

A Brief History of Rubber .................................................................................. 57

m
/IE

Desertification .................................................................................................... 61

.c
o

The Legend of Tea.............................................................................................. 66

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A Second Look at Twin Studies ......................................................................... 71

ce
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Torch Relay ........................................................................................................ 77

.fa

Hurricane ............................................................................................................ 82

//w

Save the Turtles .................................................................................................. 87

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Fears.................................................................................................................... 92

1
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The study of laughter


Humans dont have a monopoly on laughter, says Silvia Cardoso. A behavioral
biologist at the State University of Campinas, Brazil, she says its a primitive reflex
common to most animal; even rats laugh. She believes that too little laughter could
have serious consequences for our mental, physical and social well-being.

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Laughter is a universal phenomenon, and one of the most common things we


do. We laugh many times a day, for many different reasons, but rarely think about it,
and seldom consciously control it. We know so little about the different kinds and
functions of laughter, and our interest really starts there. Why do we do it? What can
laughter teach us about our positive emotions and social behavior? Theres so much
we dont know about how the brain contributes to emotion and many scientists think
we can get at understanding this by studying laughter.

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Only 10 or 20 percent of laughing is a response to humor. Most of the time, its


a message we send to other people, communicating joyful disposition, a willingness
to bond and so on. It occupies a special place in social interaction and is a fascinating
feature of our biology, with motor, emotional and cognitive components. Scientists
study all kinds of emotions and behavior, but few focuses in this most basic
ingredient. Laughter gives us a clue that we have powerful systems in our brain
which respond to pleasure, happiness and joy. Its also involved in events such as
release of fear.

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Many professionals have always focused on emotional behavior. Researchers


spent many years investigating the neural basis of fear in rats, and came to laughter
via that route. It is noticed that when they were alone, in an exposed environment,
they were scared and quite uncomfortable. Back in a cage with others, they seemed
much happier. It looked as if they played with one another real rough and tumble, and
researchers wondered whether they were also laughing. The neurobiologist Jaak
Panksepp had shown that juvenile rats make short vocalizations, pitched too high for
humans to hear, during rough-and-tumble play. He thinks these are similar to
laughter. This made us wonder about the roots of laughter.
We only have to look at the primate closest to humans to see that laughter is
clearly not unique to us. This is not too surprising, because humans are only one
among many social species and theres no reason why we should have a monopoly on
laughter as a social tool. The great apes, such as chimpanzees, do something similar
to humans. They open their mouths wide, expose their teeth, retract the corners of
their lips, and make loud and repetitive vocalizations in situations that tend to evoke
2
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human laughter, like when playing with one another or with humans, or when tickled.
Laughter may even have evolved long before primates. We know that dogs at play
have strange patterns of exhalation that differ from other sounds made during passive
or aggressive confrontation.
But we need to be careful about over-interpreting panting behavior in animals
at play. Its nice to think of it as homologous to human laughter, but it could just be
something similar but with entirely different purposes and evolutionary advantages.

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Everything humans do has a function, and laughing is no exception. Its


function is surely communication. We need to build social structures in order to live
well in our society and evolution has selected laughter as a useful device for
promoting social communication. In other words, it must have a survival advantage
for the species.

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The brain scans are usually done while people are responding to humorous
material. Brainwave activity spread from the sensory processing area of the occipital
lobe, the bit at the back of the brain that processes visual signals, to the brains frontal
lobe. It seems that the frontal lobe is involved in recognizing things as funny. The left
side of the frontal lobe analyses the words and structure of jokes while the right side
does the intellectual analyses required to get jokes. Finally, activity spreads to the
motor areas of the brain controlling the physical task of laughing. Researchers also
found out that these complex pathways involved in laughter from neurological illness
and injury. Sometimes after brain damage, tumors, stroke or brain disorders such as
Parkinsons disease, people get stonefaced syndrome and cant laugh.

ht

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//w

We are sure that laughter should differ between the sexes, particularly the uses
to which the sexes put laughter as a social tool. For instance, women smile more than
laugh, and are particularly adept at smiling and laughing with men as a kind of
social lubricant. It might even be possible that this has a biological origin, because
women dont or cant use their physical size as a threat, which men do, even if
unconsciously.
Laughter is believed to be one of the best medicines. For one thing, its
exercise. It activates the cardiovascular system, so heart rate and blood pressure
increase, then the arteries dilate, causing blood pressure to fall again. Repeated short,
strong contractions of the chest muscles, diaphragm and abdomen increase blood
flow into our internal organs, and forced respiration the ha! ha! making sure that
this blood is well oxygenated. Muscle tension decreases, and indeed we may
temporarily lose control of our limbs, as in the expression weak with laughter. It
may also release brain endorphins, reducing sensitivity to pain and boosting
3
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endurance and pleasurable sensations. Some studies suggest that laughter affects the
immune system by reducing the production of hormones associated with stress, and
what when you laugh the immune system produces more T-cells. But no rigorously
controlled studies have confirmed these effects. Laughters social role is definitely
important.

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Todays children may be heading for a whole lot of social ills because their
play and leisure time is so isolated and they lose out on lots of chances for laughter.
When children stare at computer screens, rather than laughing with each other, this is
at odds with whats natural for them. Natural social behavior in children is playful
behavior, and in such situations laughter indicates that make-believe aggression is
just fun, not for real, and this is an important way in which children from positive
emotional bonds, gain new social skills and generally start to move from childhood
to adulthood. Parents need to be very careful to ensure that their children play in
groups, with both peers and adult, and laugh more.

LT

Ss

Question 14-15

//w

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All animals share the phenomenon of laughter.


Laughter can influence both adult and child health.
Laughter is not unique to humans.
Human mental, physical and social well-being are closely related.
Laughter teaches us how to behave.

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A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

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Choose TWO letters from A-E

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Which of the following claims and arguments are presented in the passage
above?

4
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Question 16-20
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 2?
On your answer sheet please write
YES

if the statement agrees with the writer

NO

if the statement contradicts with the writer

NOT GIVEN

if there is no information about this in the passage.

16. Laughter is one of the most common expressions shared by all humans.

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18. Communication is the only purpose of laughter.

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17. There are complicated systems in the human brain that take the
responsibility of our emotions as happiness and fear.

Ss

19. Reduced blood pressure would lead to a stimulated cardiovascular system.

Question 21-26

oo
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Complete the summary below.

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20. With the mass production of T-cells from the laughter, stress hormones
would be deducted from the immune system.

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b

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each
answer.

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//w

Emotional behavior takes academic concerns. For years scientists have been
examining the origin of 21 ___________ and laughter that comes from the same
route as rats. Within an open environment, they have been noticed to be 22
___________ when they are alone, and happier when they are back with others. Jaak
Panksepp even found that rats make 23 ___________ when they are in a chaotic
state. It is well understand that humans are not the only living species that laughs and
laughter may have developed long before 24 ___________. Despite such facts, we
need to pay attention when we explain various animal behavior, as they may express
with differed 25 ___________ and 26 ___________.

5
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KEY

te
p

by
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te
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B
C (14 -15 in any order)
YES
YES
NOT GIVEN
NO
NOT GIVEN
fear
scare/uncomfortable
(short) vocalizations
primates
purposes
evolutionary advantages

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LT

Ss

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

6
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Shoemaker Levy 9 Collision with Jupiter

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A.
The last half of July 1994 witnessed much interest among the
astronomical community and the wider public in the collision of comet Shoemaker
Levy 9 with Jupiter. The comet was discovered on 25 March 1993 by Eugene and
Carolyn Shoemaker and David Levy, using a 450 mm Schmidt camera at the Mount
Palomar Observatory. The discovery was based on a photographic plate exposed two
days earlier. The Shoemakers are particularly experienced comet hunters with 61
discoveries to their credit. Their technique relied on the proper motion of a comet to
identify the object as a non-stellar body. They photograph large areas of the sky,
typically with an eight minute exposure, and repeat the photograph 45 minutes later.
Comparison of the two photographs with a stereo-microscope reveals any bodies
which have moved against the background of fixed stars.
B.
As so often in science, serendipity played a large part in the discovery of
the Shoemaker Levy 9. The weather in the night of 23 March was so poor that the
observers would not normally have bothered putting film into their camera. However,
they had a box of old film to hand which had been partially exposed by accident
some days previously, so decided to insert it into the camera rather than waste good
film. Fortunately, two of the film plates, despite being fogged round the edges
captured the first image of a very strange, bar-shaped object. This object, which
Carolyn Shoemaker first described as a squashed comet, later became known as
comet Shoemaker Levy 9.
C.
Other, more powerful, telescopes revealed that the comet was in fact
composed of 21 cemetery fragments, strung out in a line, which accounted for the
unusual shape. The term string of pearls was soon coined. Some graphic proofs
obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope shows the main fragments which at that time
spanned a linear distance of approximately 600,000 km. Initially the fragments were
surrounded by extensive dust clouds in the line of the nuclei but these later
disappeared. Some of the nuclei also faded out, while others split into multiple
fragments.
D.
The size of the original comet and each of the fragments was, and still is,
something of a mystery. The first analysis of the orbital dynamics of the fragments
suggested that the comet was originally some 2.5 km in diameter with an average
fragment diameter of 0.75 km. Later work gave corresponding diameters of
approximately 10 km and 2 km and these values are now considered more likely.
There was considerable variation in the diameters of different fragments.
E.
Further calculations revealed that the cemetery fragments were on
7
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ht

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//w

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course to collide with Jupiter during July 1994, and that each fragment could deliver
an energy equivalent to approximately 500,000 million tons of TNT. The prospect of
celestial fireworks on such a grand scale immediately captured the attention of
astronomers worldwide!
F.
Each fragment was assigned an identity letter A-W and a coordinated
program of observations was put in place worldwide to track their progress towards
impact with Jupiter. As the cemetery fragments reached the cloud tops of Jupiter, they
were travelling at approximately 30,000,000 km. The impacts occurred during 16-22
July. All took place at a latitude of approximately 48 degrees south which nominally
placed them in the SSS Temperate Region, however visually they appeared close to
the Jovian polar region. The impacts all occurred some 10-15 degrees round the limb
in the far side of the planet as seen from Earth. However the rapid rotation of the
planet soon carried the impact sites into the view of Earth-based telescopes. The
collisions lived up to all but the wildest expectations and provided a truly impressive
spectacle.
G.
Jupiter is composed of a relatively small core of iron and silicates
surrounded by hydrogen. In the depths of the planet the hydrogen is so compressed
that it is metallic in form; further from the center, the pressure is lower and the
hydrogen is in its normal molecular form. The Jovian cloud tops visible from Earth
consist primarily of methane and ammonia. There are other elements and compounds
lurking in the cloud tops and below which are thought to be responsible for the colors
seen in the atmosphere.
H.
The smaller cemetery fragments plunged into Jupiter, rapidly
disintegrated and left little trace; three of the smallest fragments, namely T, U and V
left no discernible traces whatsoever. However, many of the cemetery fragments were
sufficiently large to produce a spectacular display. Each large fragment punched
through the cloud tops, heated the surrounding gases to some 20,000 K on the way,
and caused a massive plume or fireball up to 2,000 km in diameter to rise above the
cloud tops. Before encountering thicker layers of the atmosphere and disintegrating in
a mammoth shock wave, the large fragments raised dark dust particles and ultraviolet absorbing gases high into the Jovian cloud tops. The dark particles and ultraviolet absorbing gases manifested themselves as a dark scar surrounding the impact
site in visible light.
I.
Somedays after collision the impact sites began to evolve and fade as
they became subject to the dynamics of Jupiters atmosphere. No one knows how
long they will remain visible from Earth, but it is thought that the larger scars may
persist for a year or more. The interest of professional astronomers in Jupiter is now
8
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ht

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s:

//w

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LT

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waning and valuable work can therefore be performed by amateurs in tracking the
evolution of the collision scars. The scars are easily visible in a modest telescope, and
a large reflector will show them in some detail. There is scope for valuable observing
work from now until Jupiter reaches conjunction with the Sun in November 2004.
J.
Astronomers and archivists are now searching old records for possible
previously unrecognized impacts on Jupiter. Several spots were reported from 1690
to 1872 by observers including William Herschel and Giovanni Cassini. The records
of the BAA in 1927 and 1948 contain drawings of Jupiter with black dots or spots
visible. It may be possible that comet impacts have been observed before, without
their identity being realized, but no one can be sure.

9
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Question 27-31
Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-F from the list of headings
below
Write appropriate numbers (i-x) in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all
List of Headings
Camera settings for observation

ii

Collisions on stage

iii

Size of comet

iv

String of pearls

Scientific explanations

vi

Hubble Space Telescope

vii

First discovery of the squashed comet

viii

Power generated from the collisions

ix

Calculations, expectations and predictions

Change of the fragments shape

Paragraph C

29

Paragraph D

30

Paragraph E

31

Paragraph F

.fa

28

Paragraph B

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27

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10
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Questions 32 -35
Reading Passage 3 contains 10 paragraphs A J.
Which paragraphs state the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A J in boxes 32 -35 on your answer sheet.
32. Shoemaker Levy 9 comets had been accidentally detected.
33. The collision caused a spectacular vision on Jupiter.
34. Every single element of Shoemaker Levy 9 was labeled.
35. Visual evidence explains the structure of Shoemaker Levy 9.

te
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Questions 36 -40

by
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Complete the summary bellow.

Ss

te
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Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each
answer.

ht

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//w

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LT

The core of Jupiter, which is enclosed by hydrogen, consists of 36


___________ and 37 ___________. Hydrogen is in metallic form as it is squeezed by
pressure generated from the depths of the planet. The pressure is gradually reduced
from the center to the outside layers, where hydrogen is in normal form of 38
___________. Far from the ground, methane and ammonia structures the 39
___________, which can be observed from earth. Colors seen in the atmosphere is
largely due to other particles 40 ___________ in the cloud.

11
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KEY

Ss

te
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by
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te
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vii
iv
iii
viii
ii
B
H
F
C
iron
silicates
molecule
Jovian cloud tops
lurking

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LT

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

12
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Dealing with Different Sleep Patterns


Sleep medicine is a relatively young field in the UK, with only a couple of
centers until the 1980s. In the last decade a number of centers have sprouted, often
led by chest physicians and ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) surgeons with an interest in
obstructive sleep apnoea, forcing neurologists and neurophysiologists to wake up and
contribute to the non respiratory aspect of this neglected subject.

by
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te
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Within sleep, two states are recognized non rapid eye movement (NREM) and
rapid eye movement (REM). These alternate cyclically through the night with cycle
time of 90 minutes (50 ~ 60 minutes in the newborn). NREM sleep evolved with the
homeothermic state and is divided into four stages: stage 1and 2 which are considered
light sleep, and stages 3 and 4 which are considered deep sleep with high arousal
threshold.

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REM is ontogenecally primitive with EEG (electroencephalo graph) activity


closer to wake state, intermittent bursts of REMs and muscle atonia interrupted by
phasic burst producing asynchronous twitching. The atonia of REM sleep prevents
acting out of dreams and is lost in REM behavior disorder when dreams content
becomes violent and patients act out their dream, often resulting in injury.

//w

.fa

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REM behavior disorder can be a precursor of neurodegenerative disease


including Parkinsons. Dream content pleasant or unpleasant will be remembered
on waking from REM sleep but there is often little or no memory of the preceding
mental activity on arousals from NREM sleep, even when associated with complex
behaviors and autonomic disturbance as occurs in night terrors or sleep walking.

ht

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In the newborn, 50 percent of total sleep time is occupied by REM sleep,


progressively shrinking to 25 percent in the adult, the first block of REM sleep
occurring about 90 minutes after sleep onset. Abrupt withdrawal of alcohol and many
centrally acting recreational and non-recreational drugs can cause REM sleep to
occur at sleep onset. This can also increase total REM sleep, leading to intense vivid
often frightening dreams, similar to that experienced by patients with narcolepsy.
The NREM/REM sleep states are interrupted by brief arousals and transient
awakenings. The frequency of the arousals may increase with emotional disturbance
or environmental discomfort but also in many intrinsic sleep disorders such as
periodic leg movements in sleep, obstructive sleep apnoea and narcolepsy.
A basic rest/activity cycle originates in fetal life. The newborn sleeps an equal
amount during the day and night, the sleep/wake cycle organized around three to four
13
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hourly feeds. By the second month favoring of sleep towards night time occurs and
by six months the baby will have about 12 hour of sleep at night in addition to a
couple of daytime naps.
In general, children born prematurely have a tendency to be awake more at
night in the first year and breast-fed babies wake more frequently, but the difference
disappears by the second year. Persistent night awakenings in infants and toddlers
usually reflect the childs inability to self-soothe back to sleep without parental
attention and will respond to a well supported behavioral programme.

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The establishment of a consolidated night sleep pattern in children reflects


brain maturation and may be disrupted in children with developmental problems.
Even in this group success is possible by persisting with behavioral work, though
many paediatricians prescribe melatonin for these children with some success. But as
the long term safety of melatonin remains unknown it should be used as a last resort.

m
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LT

Ss

There are now good studies looking at short term use of melatonin in sleep
wake cycle disorders such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. Its use as a hypnotic
should be discouraged, especially in the developing child as there is uncertainty on
other cycles, such as menstrual.

ce
b

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.c
o

In addition to the NREM/REM cycles, there is a circadian sleep/wake cycle


entrained by intrinsic rhythms melatonin and body temperature and extrinsic factors
light and social cues such as mealtimes, work times.

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.fa

The pineal hormone melatonin plays a role in entraining the sleep/wake cycle
to the light/dark cycle. Melatonin secretion is high in darkness and low in daylight
hours, the process beginning in the retina with the supra chiasmatic nucleus playing a
major role as a sleep regulator via melatonin. Blind people may lose this entrainment
and develop a free running sleep/wake cycle with progressive advancement of sleep
onset time.
Polymorphism of the circadian clock gene has now been identified with the
population divided between morning types (larks) and evening types (owls). Those
predisposed to later sleep onset time are susceptible to developing delayed sleep
phase syndrome especially during adolescence when sleep requirement increases and
there is a tendency towards later time for sleeping and waking.
In delayed sleep phase syndrome, sleep onset is delayed to the early hours of
the morning with consequent difficulty in waking in time for school/work. Once
established advancing sleep onset time is difficult and requires treatment with

14
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appropriately timed melatonin or bright light therapy, or chronotherapy advancing


sleep onset progressively forwards until the desired sleep time is reached.
In contrast the elderly who are more susceptible to perturbation in their
sleep/wake schedule can develop advanced sleep phase syndrome with sleep onset
occurring early in the evening. Shift workers often struggle to cope with shift patterns
as they grow older due to difficulty in re-adjusting their circadian clock. In general,
morning bright light exposure is a more powerful synchronizer of the circadian
rhythm than melatonin.

Question 1-8

On your answer sheet please write

by
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Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 1?
if the statement is true

FALSE

if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage.

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TRUE

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1. Growth interest on sleeping disorder studies caused growth number of


centers for researching on sleep medicines.
2. People are often injured when dreaming aggressive scenes or sleepwalking.
3. Parkinsons is scientifically proved to be the only result of REM disorders.
4. REM sleep counts for less proportion of total sleep time for grownups then
newborns.
5. Frightening dreams are considered irrelevant to alcohols and drugs.
6. According to the author, babies would sleep more at night from the second
month of their births.
7. During the night, children born prematurely wake as frequently as breastfed babies.
8. Children require more deep sleep and less disruption during their sleep in
the first half of the night.

15
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Question 9-14
Complete the summary below.
Choose your answer from the list below and write them in boxes 9-14 on your
answer sheet.
NB There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all.

bright

entraining

daylight

physiological

cycle

ce
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identical

body

shift workers

elders

blind

younger

sight

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paces

different

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Researchers had laid their eyes on using medicines in sleep-wake cycle


disorders. The NREM/REM cycles affect sleep along with human 9 ___________
and outside factors. Melatonin plays a determinant role in 10 ___________ the sleepwake cycle to the day-night cycle. Scientists found that melatonin is high within 11
___________ environment, with an exception of 12 ___________ subject who may
build up a free cycle. Circadian clock genes are 13 ___________ between morning
people and night people. It is difficult for people with delayed sleep phase
syndrome to wake in time. Conversely, 14 ___________ are more susceptible to
sleep early in the evening.

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KEY

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TRUE
NOT GIVEN
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
rhythms
entraining
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different
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

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From Novices to Experts


Expertise is commitment coupled with creativity. Specifically, it is the
commitment of time, energy, and resources to a relatively narrow field of study and
the creative energy necessary to generate new knowledge in that field. It takes a
considerable amount of time and regular exposure to a large number of cases to
become an expert.

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An individual enters a field of study as a novice. The novice needs to learn the
guiding principles and rules the heuristics and constraints of a given task in order
to perform that task. Concurrently, the novice needs to be exposed to specific cases,
or instances, that test the boundaries of such heuristics. Generally, a novice will find a
mentor to guide her through the process of acquiring new knowledge. A fairly simple
example would be someone learning to play chess. The novice chess player seeks a
mentor to teach her the object of the game, the number of spaces, the names of the
pieces, the function of each piece, how each piece is moved, and the necessary
conditions for winning or losing the game.

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In time, and with much practice, the novice begins to recognize patterns of
behavior within cases and, thus, becomes a journeyman. With more practice and
exposure to increasingly complex cases, the journeyman finds patterns not only
within cases but also between cases. More importantly, the journeyman learns that
these patterns often repeat themselves over time. The journeyman still maintains
regular contact with a mentor to solve specific problems and learn more complex
strategies. Returning to the example of the chess player, the individual begins to learn
patterns of opening moves, offensive and defensive game playing strategies, and
patterns of victory and defeat.

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When a journeyman starts to make and test hypotheses about future behavior
based on past experiences, she begins the next transition. Once she creatively
generates knowledge, rather than simply matching superficial patterns, she becomes
an expert. At this point, she is confident in her knowledge and no longer needs a
mentor as a guide she becomes responsible for her own knowledge.
In the chess example, once a journey man begins competing against experts,
makes predictions based on patterns, and tests those predictions against actual
behavior, she is generating new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the game.
She is creating her own cases rather than relying on the cases of others.
The chess example is a rather short description of an apprenticeship model.
Apprenticeship may seem like a restrictive 18th century mode of education, but it is
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still a standard method of training for many complex tasks. Academic doctoral
programs are based on an apprenticeship model, as are fields like law, music,
engineering, and medicine. Graduate students enter fields of study, find mentors, and
begin the long process of becoming independent experts and generating new
knowledge in their respective domains.

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To some, playing chess may appear rather trivial when compared, for example,
with making medical diagnoses, but both are highly complex tasks. Chess has a welldefined set of heuristics, whereas medical diagnoses seem more open ended and
variable. In both instances, however, there are tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of
potential patterns. A research study discovered that chess masters had spent between
10,000 and 20,000 hours, or more than ten years, studying and playing chess. On
average, a chess master stores, 50,000 different chess patterns in long-term memory.

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Similarly, a diagnostic radiologist spends eight years in full time medical


training four years of medical school and four years of residency before she is
qualified to take a national board exam and begin independent practice. According to
a 1988 study, the average diagnostic radiology resident sees forty cases per day, or
around 12,000 cases per year. At the end of a residency, a diagnostic radiologist has
stored, on average, 48,000 cases in long-term memory.

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Psychologists and cognitive scientists agree that the time it takes to become an
expert depends on the complexity of the task and the number of cases, or patterns, to
which an individual is exposed. The more complex the task, the longer it takes to
build expertise, or, more accurately, the longer it takes to experience and store a large
number of cases or patterns.

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Experts are individuals with specialized knowledge suited to perform the


specific tasks for which they are trained, but that expertise does not necessarily
transfer to other domains. A master chess player cannot apply chess expertise in a
game of poker although both chess and poker are games, a chess master who has
never played poker is a novice poker player. Similarly, a biochemist is not qualified
to perform neurosurgery, even though both biochemists and neurosurgeons study
human physiology. In other words, the more complex a task is the more specialized
and exclusive is the knowledge required to perform that task.
An expert perceives meaningful patterns in her domain better than non-experts.
Where a novice perceives random or disconnected data points, an expert connects
regular patterns within and between cases. This ability to identify patterns is not an
innate perceptual skill; rather it reflects the organization of knowledge after exposure
to and experience with thousands of cases.
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Experts have a deeper understanding of their domains than novices do, and
utilize higher order principles to solve problems. A novice, for example, might
group objects together by color or size, whereas an expert would group the same
objects according to their function or utility. Experts comprehend the meaning of data
and weigh variables with different criteria within their domains better then novices.
Experts recognized variables that have the largest influence on a particular problem
and focus their attention on those variables.

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Experts have better domain specific short term and long term memory than
novices do. Moreover, experts perform tasks in their domains faster than novices and
commit fewer errors while problem solving. Interestingly, experts go about solving
problems differently than novices. Experts spend more time thinking about a problem
to fully understand it at the beginning of a task than do novices, who immediately
seek to find a solution. Experts use their knowledge of previous cases as context for
creating mental models to solve given problems.

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Better at self-monitoring then novices, experts are more aware of instances


where they have committed errors or failed to understand a problem. Experts check
their solutions more often than novices and recognize when they are missing
information necessary for solving a problem. Experts are aware of the limits of their
domain knowledge and apply their domains heuristics to solve problems that fall
outside of their experience base.

20
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Question 15-21
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 2?
On your answer sheet please write
YES

if the statement agrees with the writer

NO

if the statement contradicts with the writer

NOT GIVEN

if there is no information about this in the passage.

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15. Both freshmen and journeymen need the help of a mentor to solve specific
problems.
16. Novices take more time to deal with a large number of cases than experts.
17. The apprenticeship model is always used to analyze the behavior of experts
and novices.
18. A chess master is certainly qualified to play poker well.
19. Experts and novices comprehend the meaning of data and weigh variables
in different ways.
20. Experts generally have better memories than novices do.
21. Interestingly, experts take more time to solve problems than novices who
immediately seek to find a solution.

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Question 22-24

Complete the summary below.

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Choose your answer from the list below and write them in boxes 22-24 on your
answer sheet.

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NB There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all.
The 22 ___________ is not only a mode of education, but a standard method
of training. On this basis, 23 ___________ have been developed. Graduates seek their
24 ___________ in respective fields and begin the long process of becoming experts.
mentors

chess

description

laws

apprenticeship

new knowledge

doctoral programs

complex tasks

21
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Questions 25-27
Complete the flowchart below
Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
From a novice chess player to an expert
A novice

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Learns
Patterns of opening moves
26 ___________ game playing strategies
Pattern of victory and defeat

Ss

A 25 ___________

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An expert
Makes predictions based on patterns
Tests those predictions against actual behavior
Generates new knowledge
Create 27 ___________

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22
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te
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Learns
The object of the game
The number of spaces
The name and function of each piece
How each piece is moved
The necessary conditions to win or close

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KEY

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YES
NOT GIVEN
NOT GIVEN
NO
YES
NOT GIVEN
NO
apprenticeship
academic doctoral programs
mentors
journeyman
offensive and defensive
her own cases

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Ss

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

23
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The Myth of the Five Senses

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A.
We see with our eyes and taste with our tongues. Ears are for hearing,
skin is for feeling and noses are for smelling. Would anyone claim that ears can smell,
or that tongues can see? As a matter of fact, yes. Paul Bach-y-Rita, a neuroscientist at
the University of Wisconsin at Madison, believes that the senses are interchangeable;
for instance, a tongue can be used for seeing. This revolutionary study actually
stems from a relatively popular concept among scientists; that the brain is an
accommodating organ. It will attempt to carry out the same function, even when part
of it is damaged, by redirecting the function to another area of the brain. As opposed
to previous mainstream scientists understanding that the brain is compartmentalized,
it is now more acceptable that the individual part of the brain could be somewhat
interchangeable.
B.
Paul Bach-y-Ritas experiments suggest that we experience the five
senses, but where the data comes from may not be so important. In the article Can
You See With Your Tongue? the journalist was blindfolded with a small video
camera strapped to his forehead, connected to a long plastic strip which was inserted
into his mouth. A laptop computer would convert the videos image into a fewer
number of pixels, and those pixels would travel through the plastic strip as electric
current, reaching the grid of electrodes that was placed inside the mans mouth. The
scientist told the man that she would soon be rolling a ball towards his right side, left
side, or center, and he would have to catch it. And as the journalist stated, my eyes
and ears have no way to tell where its going. That leaves my tongue has more
tactile nerve endings than any part of the body other than the lips. The scientist
rolled the ball and a tingling passed over the mans tongue, and he reached out with
his left hand and caught the ball.
C.
If the brain can see a ball through a camera and a wet tongue, many new
questions arise. What does this concept imply in terms of blindness and deafness?
Rather than attempting to reserve these sensory disabilities through surgeries and
hearing aids, should we be trying to circumvent them by using different receptors?
Can we still trust in the idea of the five senses, or was it wrong to categorize our
perception of the outside world so strictly?
D.
In fact, the five senses may well be another story that should be
discarded in lieu of new observation. Aside from the emerging possibility of
interchanging a tongue and an eye, there is the highly accepted possibility that our
original list of senses is incomplete. Many scientists would add at least these two
senses to the list: the kinesthetic sense and the vestibular sense. The first is a sense of
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self, mostly in terms of limbs and their placement. For instance, I know where my
right foot is without looking or feeling for it. It is something that my brain knows.
This is said to be because of information sent to the brain by the muscles, implying
that muscles should be added to the list of sensory organs. If more observations were
to be collected on this subject, a more accommodating explanation could potentially
be reached. Secondly, the vestibular sense is what most would consider a sense of
balance.
E.
Why were these two senses not included in our limited list? It might be
the result of a lack of external symbolism. A nose or an eye is an obvious curiosity
because of the question it generates: What does this thing do? But we have no limb
or facial organ dedicated to balance or to kinesthetic awareness. On the other hand, if
the vestibular sense and the kinesthetic senses occur solely in the brain, are they truly
senses? Should experiences be labeled as senses without representation by an external
organ? If one believes that the brain is the true sensory organ and the rest are simply
interchangeable receptors, then yes, we should remain open to labeling many new
experiences as senses. But, is there perhaps an overlying truth that directly
relates the five senses to the human experience of life?
F.
On way of gaining new insight is to explore the animal world of senses.
Migrating animals, for example, are said to have a sixth sense, a term which alludes
to all unexplainable phenomenon. In reality, what we call the sixth sense includes any
number of unrelated senses that everyday humans do not possess and therefore know
little about. Perhaps there is a sense of placement on the earth, similar to the
kinesthetic sense of bodily placement, which helps animals return home. Perhaps it is
simply a sense of direction that is more developed or more substantial than what
human possess. Scientists have even conjectured that traces of magnetite, found in
pigeons and monarch butterflies, could be used as a compass, enabling the animal to
sense the magnetic fields of the earth. Those who use the term mysterious sixth
sense rarely give details about which of these strange abilities they are referring to?
The term relating to past our understanding is used in such a sweeping, general way
that there is no one solid, falsifiable hypothesis. This term does not bring us closer to
our understanding of the senses.
G.
In addition to internal mysteries, many animals also possess external
sensory organs which we do not. Fish, for instance, have an organ that runs along the
sides of their bodies called the lateral-line system. It is made of tiny hair-like sensors
that receive information about movements in the water. There is even the ability to
distinguish between ordinary, background movement and strange movement that
could signify a predator or another creature. This sense also helps the fish to orient
25
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themselves within the current and the stream flow. Interestingly, land vertebrates
lost their lateral-line systems somewhere along the evolutionary path, all vertebrates
started out with them Of course, we no longer consider this sense to be a human
perception of life because we no longer possess the organ. But has the sense
remained? Perhaps the feeling of being watched, of being followed on a dark
sidewalk, is a dull shadow of the sense we used to possess. It is particularly
noteworthy that this feeling of being followed is often referred to as intuition.
How is intuition related to senses? In the same sense, how are emotions and senses
the same?
H.
New stories that could expand our categorical concepts of the senses are
emerging constantly, but we seem to prefer holding onto the old concept of five
senses. We would urge towards expanding that category numerically and
conceptually. There is much to be explored in terms of the relation of sense and
emotion, the utilizations and disabilities of the senses, and a vertebrates need for
senses compared to other types of animals, in terms of participating in life. The
interconnectedness of our senses within the brain and among the external organs is a
concept worthy of more attention and exploration, and it will explored more easily
when the old, rather arbitrary myth of the five senses is discarded.

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Questions 28-32

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Reading Passage 3 contains 8 paragraphs A H.

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Which paragraphs state the following information?

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Write the appropriate letters A H in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.

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28. Practices of animal migration have helped expand our knowledge of the
senses.
29. The subject caught the ball with the help of his tongue.
30. The brain knows where my right foot is without looking at it.
31. An example showing that peoples intuition may work.
32. Humans probably lost a kind of sensory organ during evolution.

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Questions 33-37
Complete the summary below.
Choose your answer from the list below and write them in boxes 33-37 on your
answer sheet.
NB There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all.

placement

limb

entrain

movement

stability

dark

muscles

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tongue
representation
picture

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Question 38-40

sensory organs

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Many scientists believe that our 33 ___________ list of senses lacks other
important elements, like the sense of kinesthetic and vestibular. For the first itself,
majority cases are about the 34 ___________ of our arms and legs. For example, we
can feel our feet without looking for them, due to the information link between brain
and our 35 ___________. For the vestibular sense, it would provide us with 36
___________. That these two senses are excluded from our list might be the result of
a lack of external 37 ___________.

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Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 3?

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TRUE

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On your answer sheet please write


if the statement is true
if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage.

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FALSE

38. Senses are transposable just as the tongue can also be used to hear sounds.
39. Animals are considered to have senses other than the original five.
40. New stories and research have persuaded us to accept the conception of five
senses.

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KEY

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F
B
D
G
G
initial
placement
muscles
stability
representation
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE

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28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

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TV Addiction

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A.
In 1977, Winn argued in The Plug-in Drug that television has properties
of addiction. Researchers have been intrigued by this idea, but few have tried to study
it systematically. Anecdotal accounts and speculation comprise most of the research
on television addiction. Furthermore, similar to the alcohol and drug abuse literature,
a conceptual haze between the concepts of heavy exposure, reliance, dependence, and
addiction to television remains problematic. A clear distinction needs to be made
between these concepts to determine the difference between normal and problem
viewing.
B.
Foss and Alexander had researched on objects that contain both selfdefined heavy viewers (6 hours per day) and non-viewers. They found that many nonviewers called television a drug or a religion and believed that it caused less
interaction with friends and family, less time spent doing more productive or healthier
things, and less critical thought. Non-viewers reported that television was simply too
seductive to have around. Heavy viewers saw addiction to television as a likely
outcome, but not for themselves. For them, it was simply a means for escape and
relaxation. People who avoid television tend to cite its addictive properties as the
reason. Non-viewers in Australia wouldnt watch because they couldnt resist its
power. They regarded it as a depressant drug that dulls the senses. Mander collected
around 2,000 anecdotal responses to television that made it sound like a machine
that invades, controls and deadens the people who view it. Common statements
resulted, such as I feel hypnotized and I just cant keep my eyes off it. In talking
about their television behavior, people compared themselves to mesmerized, druggedout, and spaced-out vegetables. Similarly, Singer asked, why do we turn the set on
almost automatically on awakening in the morning or on returning home from school
or work? Singer, though, said that addiction to television is an extreme position, and
speculated that televisions magnetism can be explained by a human orienting
reflex. That is, we are programmed to respond to new or unexpected stimuli, and
because novel and sudden, images are key features of television, it draws our
attention. Singer said that the addictive power of television is probably to minimize
problems by putting other thoughts in your mind.
C.
In an empirical search for this seemingly pervasive psychological
phenomenon, Smith used popular literature to generate items for a measure of
television addiction. Although the resultant scale was not directly based on the DSMIV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), it included some of the
concepts such as loss of control, time spent using, withdrawal, attempts to quit, and
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guilt. Her study via mail of 491 adults living in some mountain areas found that very
few of the participants identified with the concepts in her measure; only 11 out of 491
respondents admitted television addiction, although 64% of the respondents reported
that television was addictive. Smith found a strong relationship between the amount
of time spent viewing and the tendency to call oneself an addict.
D.
Nothing that there have been almost no empirical studies of television
addiction, McIlwraith, Jacobvitz, Kubey, and Alexander cited an earlier version of the
DSM-IV to discuss a possible relationship to television viewing. Using Smiths
measure, they found that only 17 out of 136 college students were self-designated
addicts. They reported twice as much television viewing as non-addicts, more mind
wandering, distractibility, boredom, and unfocused daydreaming, and tended to score
higher on scales measuring introversion and neuroticism. They also reported
significantly more dysphoric mood watching, and watching to fill time.
E.
Also using Smiths measure of television addiction, Anderson, Collins,
Schmitt, and Jacobvitz found that, for women, stressful life events predicted
television addiction-like behavior and guilt about television watching. They argued
that women used television in a way that was analogous to alcohol, and wondered
if television watching served to delay more healthy and appropriate coping strategies.
Also using Smiths measure, McIlwraith found only 10% of the 237 participants
sampled while visiting a museum identified themselves as television addicts.
McIlwraith found that those who admitted addiction to television watched
significantly more hours of television than others, and watched more to escape
unpleasant moods and to fill time. McIlwraiths sample echoed Smiths, who found
that participants most often responded never on all the items about television
addiction.
F.
According to Smith, the phenomenon of television addiction is
unsubstantiated in empirical research, but is robust in anecdotal evidence. For
example, like other addictions, television watching is thought to contribute to conflict
and breakdowns in family relationships. One woman explained how her husbands
addiction to television contributed to their separation: There was absolutely no way
of spending an evening alone with my husband without television. He was most
resentful if I stuck out for my choice of program and most resentful if I turned it off
while he slept in front of it. There are worse stories. Fowles related tragic newspaper
accounts due to quarrels about television: Charles Green of East Palo Alto,
California stabbed his sister to death with a hunting knife after she took out the
electrical fuses so he would stop viewing. In Latwell, Louisiana, John Gallien shot
his sister-in-law because she kept turning down the volume. Studies of television
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deprivation also indicate profound and real withdrawal-like symptoms, supporting the
notion of addiction.
G.
A handful of studies have attempted to study other types of media
addiction directly using APA criteria. For example, Fisher found that children could
be classified as addicted to video games. The childrens pathological video game
playing was based on model criteria such as frequency and duration of play,
supernormal expenditures, borrowing and selling of possessions to play, and selfawareness of a problem. Phillips, Rolls, Rouse, and Griffiths studied the video game
habits of 868 children, aged 11 to 16. They found that 50 could be classified as
addicts. The addicted children played nearly every day, for longer time periods than
intended, often to the neglect of homework. They reported feeling better after play,
and using play to avoid other things. Also based on APA criteria, a case study in the
United Kingdom effectively diagnosed a young man as addicted to pinpall machines.
Consistent with third-person effect literature, the young man thought that he played
too much, but that he was not addicted.
H.
Therefore, anecdotal and inferential evidence suggests that television
can be extremely compelling and important in peoples lives, even beyond
dependence or habit. Whether television viewing can truly be addictive is still
unclear. Although many have made the comparison and some have even studied
addiction based on concepts drawn from popular literature, no researchers have
studied and measured television addiction based purely on DSM-IV criteria.
Recently, Kubey argued that at least 5 of the 7 DSM-IV criteria are probably
applicable to television viewing, but this remains to be tested. Although he did not
believe that the addiction criteria of tolerance and continued use despite problems
seemed likely for television use, he did believe that all the others could clearly apply.
According to Kubey, although we dont think of television as a substance, we do take
it into our minds. Although this is a fruitful area of study, methods to diagnose
television dependence have not been established. So, it seems that television use
may be addictive for some people, but addiction has not been effectively
conceptualized in the communication literature. Psychiatry has provided criteria for
dependence/addiction that have taken decades to develop, but communication
scholars have yet to attempt to use them fully.

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Questions 1-6
Choose the most suitable heading for paragraphs A-G from the list of heading
below.
Write appropriate number (i-xi) in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings
Television and family feuds

ii

Comparisons made among heavy viewers and non-viewers

iii

Psychological expertise helps to interpret television addiction

iv

Television addiction being proved by tragedies

Resist the power of television addiction

vi

Children receive less affection

vii

Similarities between using television and alcohol

viii

Findings from the campus

ix

Conception of television addiction being proposed

Empirical search for DSM-IV

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Paragraph B

Example

Answer

Paragraph C

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4.
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6.

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Using methods from television addiction studies on other

xi
platforms
1.
2.

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Paragraph D
Paragraph E
Paragraph F
Paragraph G

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Questions 7-13
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-W) with
opinions or deeds (listed 7-13) below.
Write the appropriate letters A-W in boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet.
NB Some people may match more than one discovery
Anderson

Alexander

Fowles

Fisher

Kubey

Mander

Smith

Winn

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7. ___________ found television addiction over two decades ago.


8. ___________ found audiences would get hypnotized from viewing too
much television.
9. ___________ found there are certain relationships among television and
other media.
10. ___________ found that most people did not answer all the questions about
television addiction.
11. ___________ found that previous studies remains limited.
12. ___________ related dreadful incidents due to television addiction.
13. ___________ found females may be more likely to feel guilty when
watching TV.

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KEY

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ii
viii
vii
iv
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

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Antarctica and Global Warming

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A.
If you are an aficionado of the global warming debate, you have
probably read at one time or another that current trends in the Antarctic show that
there is no such thing as global warming. This is, of course, not true. But the
Antarctic is a vast region and it can be daunting to piece together the science stories
that do get out into the mainstream press into one coherent picture.
B.
Antarctica can be divided into three major geographic regions: East
Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula. The Transantarctic
Mountains divide the continent into eastern and western regions. The large East
Antarctic Ice Sheet flows slowly through most of its interior, until the ice approaches
the coast and is channeled through fast-flowing outlet glaciers. The ice sheet surface
is high, dry, and very cold. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is a faster flowing ice mass
that may be vulnerable to rapid change.
C.
The Antarctic ice sheets store 90% of the ice on Earth and close to 70%
of the planets fresh water. The West Antarctic ice sheet contains enough ice to raise
sea level between 5 and 6 meters, were this all to melt. The East Antarctic Ice Sheet
holds about 10 times more. The relatively warm Antarctic Peninsula supports a series
of ice caps and outlet glaciers that together are estimated to contain less than half a
meter of sea level equivalent. The continent is surrounded, seasonally, by sea ice that
freezes at the ocean surface. Just as in the Arctic, sea ice formation in the Antarctic is
important to many parts of the Earth system, including ocean circulation and climate.
D.
The climate of Antarctica does not allow extensive vegetation. A
combination of freezing temperatures, pure oil quality, lack of moisture, and lack of
sunlight inhibit the flourishing of plants. As a result, plant life is limited to mostly
mosses and liverworts. The autotrophic community is made up of mostly protists. The
flora of the continent largely consists of lichens, bryophytes, algae, and fungi. Growth
generally occurs in the summer and only for a few weeks at most.
E.
On the other hand, varieties of marine animals exist and rely, directly or
indirectly. Antarctic sea life includes penguins, blue whales, orcas, colossal squids
and fur seals. The Emperor penguin is the only penguin that breeds during the winter
in Antarctica, while the Adlie Penguin breeds farther south than any other penguin.
The Rockhopper penguin has distinctive feathers around the eyes, giving the
appearance of elaborate eyelashes. King penguins, Chinstrap penguins, and Gentoo
Penguins also breed in the Antarctic. The Antarctic fur seal heavily hunter in the 18th
and 19th centuries for its pelt by sealers from the United States and the United
Kingdom. The Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell
35
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Sea. Antarctic krill, which congregates in large schools, is the keystone species of the
ecosystem of the Southern Ocean, and is an important food organism for whales,
seals, leopard seals, fur seals, squid, ice-fish, penguins, albatrosses and many other
birds.
F.
The passing of the Antarctic Conservation Act in the U.S. brought
several restrictions to U.S. activity on the continent. The introduction of alien plants
or animals can bring a criminal penalty, as the extraction of any indigenous species.
The overfishing of krill, which plays a large role in the Antarctic ecosystem, led
officials to enact regulations on fishing. The Conservation for the Conversation of
Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty that came into force in
1980, requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider
potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem. Despite these new acts,
unregulated and illegal fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish, remains a serious
problem. The illegal fishing of toothfish has been increasing, with estimates of
32,000 tons in 2000.
G.
Most of Antarcticas icy mass has so far proven largely impervious to
climate change, being situated on solid rock; its deep interior is actually growing in
volume as a result of increased precipitation. The Antarctic contribution to sea-level
rise has long been uncertain. A recent report by CPOM suggests that Antarctica has
provided, at most, a negligible component of observed sea-level rise indeed a survey
of 72% of the Antarctic ice suggest an attributable short-term lowering of global sea
levels by 0.08 mm per year. Conversely, a 10 year comparison of the balance between
glacier decline and snowfall accumulation found that ice loss had increased 75%. In
2006, Antarctica lost a net 200 billion tones of ice.
H.
However, Antarcticas periphery has been warming up, particularly on
the Antarctic Peninsula and in Pine Island Bay, which together are contributing to a
rise in sea levels. In 2003 the Larsen-B ice shelf collapsed. Between 28 February and
8 March 2008, about 570 square kilometers of ice from the Wilkins Ice Shelf in
Western Antarctica collapsed, putting the remaining 15,000 square kilometers of the
ice shelf at risk. The ice is being held back by a thread of ice about 6 km wide.
According to NASA the most significant Antarctic melting in the past 30 years
occurred in 2005, when a mass of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted
and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as 5C.
I.
Indeed, changing weather patterns in the coming years due to such
gradual warming of the Earth will affect agricultural-based businesses and
communities that most. Agriculture in New South Wales, Australia had reported that
187,240 proprietors and partners and 311,148 employees in agriculture are on the
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frontline, facing the adverse effects of rising temperature, reduced access to water,
higher salinity and frequent and intense droughts and floods. The report, based on
research by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
(CSIRO), stated that how climate change in the next 50 years will decrease water
resources, increase temperatures, reduce are of arable land, cut livestock output and
affect crop quality.
J.
Penguins, whales and seals in the Antarctic Southern Ocean went hungry
also because of the result of global warming. Scientists had warned that the
population of krill, at the heart of the food chain, has fallen about 80% since the
1970s. They say the most likely reason for the decline of the shrimp-like crustacean is
to do with the sea ice around the Antarctic peninsula, where the air temperature has
risen. Krill feed on algae beneath the ice, which also provides shelter. Angus
Atkinson, a biologist with the British Antarctic Survey, who led the research, said:
We dont fully understand how the loss of sea ice here is connected to the warming,
but we believe it could be behind the decline in krill. The team, whose study in
published today in Nature, looked at the scientific fishing records of nine countries
working in Antarctic, involving a total of nearly 12,000 net hauls from 1926-39 and
from 1976-2003.There is only roughly a fifth of the krill around now that were
around in the mid-70s Dr. Atkinson said.
K.
The drop in krill numbers could explain declines in several species of
penguin. Scientists had suspected krill stocks were dropping but earlier estimates
were based on local surveys.

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Questions 14-18
Choose the most suitable heading for paragraphs B-F from the list of heading
below.
Write appropriate number (i-ix) in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings
The profile of Antarctic animals

ii

Legal measures taken to protect Antarctic

iii

Ocean farming remain forbidden

iv

Live surroundings for machine animals

The flora under extreme conditions

vi

The importance of Antarctic ice

vii

Alert for melting from Antarctic ice sheet

viii

Geographical description

ix

The flourishing of plants in Antarctic

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Paragraph B
Paragraph C
Paragraph D
Paragraph E
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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

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Question 19-22
On your answer sheet please write
TRUE

if the statement is true

FALSE

if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage.

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19. West Antarctic ice sheet stores water that is enough to raise see level 5 to 6
meters globally.
20. According to the author, it is impossible for any vegetation to survive on
Antarctica.
21. People should bring outside plants or animals to Antarctica to enrich its
ecosystem.
22. The Weddell seal and Antarctic krill are located at pivotal stages of the
South Ocean ecosystem.

LT

Questions 23-27

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Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

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Raising temperatures on earth have caused the alternations of 23 ___________


in the coming years, and has certainly changed the way our 24 ___________ operate
and the society as a whole. CSIRO had warmed us that climate change in this way
will decrease our available water, land, livestock and 25 ___________ outputs. In the
mean time, animals will get 26 ___________ due to global warming. The population
of krill remains 27 ___________% of that in the 1970s.

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KEY

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weather patterns
agricultural-based business
crop
hungry
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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

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Magnetic Therapy

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A.
For hundreds of years people have known of the beneficial effects of
magnetism on the human body. There is no doubting that the placement of permanent
magnets on or near a persons body makes them feel good. Magnets are a complete
safe and natural product. Magnets are non invasive, totally reusable, last for decades,
and you only have to pay once. Therapeutic Magnets have been used for centuries as
a treatment for many ailments. Magnets are also commonly used for pain relief and
for a sense of general well being. Natural magnets or lodestones as these were known
as in time gone by, have been documented over thousands of years in relation to the
treatment of pain and disease in many ancient cultures and civilizations.
B.
It is only in recent times that magnetic therapy has been seen as an
alternative treatment. This is because it flies in the face of the more modern quick
fix drug culture that is so prevalent in todays society. When in fact our modern
drugs and treatments should really be the products that are labeled as alternative
treatment. This is because when compared to magnetic therapy, these new drugs
often only offer short term relief and are relatively new and untested by the passage
of time. Modern drugs can also be addictive and often have severe side effects.
C.
It is common knowledge that the Earth itself is a giant magnet. We cant
see its magnetic field, we cant touch it, we cant hear it, we cant even smell it, but
with sophisticated equipment we can measure it and prove its existence beyond
doubt. Just like every other magnet, the Earth has both North and South poles and the
magnetic field strongly influences almost everything around us. Things like the
weather, our environment, our water, our food, including meat, vegetables, fruit, dairy
products and everything else that we put into our body. In fact the Earths magnetic
field influences our environment in countless ways to the extent that our very health
and existence strongly depends on these magnetic fields.
D.
Most people would not be surprised to know that the Sun also has a
magnetic influence on our lives. Scientists have shown that when sunspots explode,
the magnetic energy levels are altered dramatically. There is strong evidence that
sunspots affect us in a very strange way. By monitoring the occurrence of sunspots
over many years and comparing these with hospital records from around the world,
scientists have discovered that periods of sunspot activity correlate with periods
where records show a remarked increase in accidents and injuries. The vast majority
of these injuries are recorded as resulting from daydreaming or a lack of
concentration. This research indicates the possible existence of a link between human
behavior and the Suns magnetic energy.
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E.
The jury is still out on exactly how magnetic therapy products help our
body and make us feel better. However it is generally accepted that our body draws
some benefit from the Earths magnetic field. It stands to reason that if this field is
interrupted and perhaps even corrupted before it reaches our body, then the benefit we
receive will be at the least diminished and quite possibly non-existent. The theory is
that when we place permanent magnets near our body, we are able to draw on the
magnetic field created thus replacing the magnetic energy that we should be
absorbing from the Earth. This is said to restore the balance within our body and
therefore allow us to function at our optimum level. This line of thought is backed up
by NASA. Astronauts in the early space missions regularly complained of muscle
soreness. Medical examinations also revealed a loss of bone density, even after short
periods away from Earth. This was originally thought to be caused by the absence of
gravity, however, it was later found to be resulting from a total lack of the Earths
magnetic field. This problem was easily solved by the placement of magnets in both
the spacecraft and spacesuits.
F.
Magnets are also often used in the relief of pain. Many people claim to
feel a dramatic reduction and often a total elimination of both acute and chronic aches
and pains. The evidence is anecdotal, however, it does indicate that magnets are
extremely effective on most types of pain for a large percentage of the people who
used these in their treatment. Recent research suggests that magnetic energy increases
the bodys ability to produce endorphins. These endorphins are the bodys natural
pain killer. It stands to reason the more endorphins our body produces, the less pain
we feel. Research also shoes that magnetic fields dilate our capillaries and in doing so
dramatically enhances our blood flow to the affected region of the body. Our blood
carries many tools that our body needs to repair itself. Good circulation is also
essential in the process of removing toxins from our body. Fresh oxygenated blood is
instrumental in flushing our body clean, and assisting in the removal of lactic acid
and toxins that are associated with disease. This in turn enhances our bodys healing
process resulting in a reduction in the time that our body takes to recover from illness
or injury.
G.
The two main goals of magnetic healing are to speed healing and reduce
pain. In terms of healing an area of the body, magnets are placed either on or near the
body, and its believed that the magnets act to stimulate the cellular and chemical area
where the healing is to occur. That is, blood is accelerated to the area, which increases
the oxygenation of the blood and dilates the blood vessels, providing additional
oxygen and nutrients to the place in need of healing. In terms of reducing pain, some
doctors believe that pain reduction with magnets works similarly to using a heating
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pad. The magnets are again placed on or near the body, and are used to stimulate
nerve endings by acting to interrupt pain signals to the brain. The difference is that
heat treatment can be more intense, while magnetic healing is more constant. So,
while you cant wear a heating pad for hours at a time, you can wear a magnetic
bracelet every day.

Questions 28-33
Choose the most suitable heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of heading
below.
Write appropriate number (i-x) in boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet.

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NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
Not an optional treatment

ii

Earth itself as the biggest magnet

iii

Magnetic field affects environment

iv

Benefits of the Suns magnetic energy

Utilize the power from natural magnetic field

vi

History of magnet therapy

vii

Implications of Suns magnetic power

viii

Magnetic field changed our society

ix

The Earths magnetic field benefits the human body

Pain-reducing effects

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28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.

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List of Headings

Paragraph A
Paragraph B
Paragraph C
Paragraph D
Paragraph E
Paragraph F

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Questions 34-36
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 3?
On your answer sheet please write
TRUE

if the statement is true

FALSE

if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage.

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34. NASA astronauts demonstrated the relationship between magnets and


peoples health.
35. Magnetic therapy often has some side effects.
36. It is more efficient to reduce pain by using a heating pad than magnets.

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Questions 37-40

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Magnets can also be considered as pain killer, and many patients claim to feel a
distinct 37 ___________ of aches and pains. Research advocates that the magnetic
power generates 38 ___________ to relieve pain, and enlarge 39 ___________ to
strengthen the blood flow. This process can remove 40 ___________ and make our
body recover from illness or injury.

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KEY

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ix
x
TRUE
NOT GIVEN
NOT GIVEN
reduction
endorphins
capillaries
toxins

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29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

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Insects and Inspired Artificial Robots

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A.
The creation of artificial devices with life-like characteristics has been
pursued for over 2,000 years, beginning, as did so many things in our modern world,
in Ancient Greece. For example, among the inventions of Hero of Alexandria were a
windmill-operated pipe organ and a mechanical theatrical play.
B.
With the raise of cybernetic approaches in the late 1940s and early
1950s. A wide variety of electromechanical machines designed to mimic biological
processes and systems were constructed. Perhaps the best-known and most directly
relevant to biorobotics is W. Gray Walters robotic tortoises Elsie and Elmer.
Walters was a physiologist who made important early contributions to
electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. His tortoises were small
mobile robots covered by a hard shell. The robots were driven by steerable motorized
wheels and possessed a headlight, a light sensor, and a touch sensor that responded
when the shell was hit. Their behavior was controlled by electronic circuit analogues
of neural circuits. The behavioral repertoire of the tortoises included exploration, both
positive and negative phototropism, and obstacle avoidance. The activation of these
different behaviors in interaction with the robots environment could produce a
variety of behavioral sequences. Although originally designed to explore Walters
theories of brain function, the tortoises became objects of popular fascination in much
the same way that ancient automata did.
C.
The seeds of the modern renaissance of biorobotics were sown from the
mid 1980s to mid 1990s. A key event in this resurgence was Rodney Brooks work on
behavior-based robots. Although not as directly based on biology as later work would
be, Brooks argues that nontrivial and flexible behavior in a robot could be generated
by the interaction between simple control machinery and its environment,
demonstrating his point with robots accomplishing such tasks as insect-like walking.
Another important milestone was Raiberts work on hopping and legged robots,
which emphasized the central role of energetics in the dynamic balance and
locomotion of animals. Based on studies of serpentine motion, Hirose developed a
number of snake-like locomotors and manipulators. In the early 1990s, Beer, Quinn,
Chiel & Ritzmann developed a series of hexapod robots based directly on cockroach
and stick insect body morphology and neural control. Early biorobotic work on the
sensory side includes Franceshinis robotic compound eye based on studies of insect
eyes and motion-sensitive neurons in the fly, Webbs robotic model of cricket
phonotaxis and Grasso et als robotic model of lobster chemical orientation strategies.
An early example of robots whose control was based on theories of human brain
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function is given by the work of Edelman et al.


D.
There has been an explosion of work in biorobotics in recent years, with
robotic vocal tracts, jaws, retinas, expressive faces, hands, arms, legs, etc. deployed
on robotic worms, snakes, ants, flies, crickets, cockroaches, walking stick insects,
dinosaurs, bats, lobsters, tuna, pickerel, turkeys, apes and humanoids. Thus, no brief
survey could possibly do justice to the range of work being undertaken.
E.
A recent example of biologically-inspired robotics is Spenko et als work
on a hexapedal robotic climber called RiSE. In order to grip a vertical surface, this
robot combines both bonding mechanisms inspired by the structure of gecko feet and
interlocking mechanisms inspired by the structure of insect spines and claws. In
addition, its design is based on a set of principles that have been found to be common
to many climbing animals: a sprawled posture keeps the body close to the surface so
as to reduce the pitch-back moment; front limbs pull inward and rear limbs push
outward so as to counteract the pitch-back moment; a long body reduces the pull-in
force required of the front limbs; lateral forces act inward toward the central axis of
the body; complaint legs, ankles and toes so as to distribute contact forces. Each of
the six legs of RiSE have two degrees of freedom and the robot also possesses s static
tail that presses against the surface to reduce the pull-in forces required of the front
legs. The robot uses a wave gait in which only one leg at a time is lifted from the
surface. In addition to an open-loop gait generator, RiSE utilizes a variety of feedback
controllers, including traction force control, normal force control and gait regulation.
In addition, the robot has a pawing behavior that allows a foot that fails to grasp on
initial contact to reestablish a grip on the climbing surface. Spenko et al have
demonstrated that RiSE is able to traverse a variety of horizontal and vertical
surfaces, including climbing trees and brick or cinder block walls.
F.
A powerful example of biorobotic modeling is provided by the
aerodynamics of insect flight. Although quasi-steady-state aerodynamical analyses of
the sort used to understand aircraft have been successfully applied to larger animals,
they have not been very successful for explaining the generation of lift in small flying
insects due to the tiny wingspans, relatively slow flight speeds and extremely fast
wing movements involved. However, a recent biorobotic model by Dickinson and
colleagues has begun to shed considerable light on the unsteady aerodynamics insect
flight. Because of the delicate size and high speed of insect wings, direct
measurement of the forces involved is extremely difficult. For this reason, a robotic
model with a 60 cm wingspan was used to explore the non-steady-state airflow
during hovering by the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In order to reproduce the
Reynolds number relevant to small insects flying in air, their model was submerged
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in mineral oil and scaled both in space and time. Force sensors at the base of one
wing allowed direct measurement of the forces produced and illumination of air
bubbles in the tank allowed direct observation of the fluid flow around the robotic
wings. Dickinson and colleagues found that three major mechanisms contributed to
lift generation in the model. First, vortices formed at the leading edge of the wing
produce lift during much of the power stroke. Second, additional lift is produced by
circulation of air around the wings due to rapid rotation at the beginning and end of
each stroke. Third, further forces are produces at the start of each upstroke and
downstroke due to collisions of the wings with the swirling wake produced by the
previous stroke, a mechanism termed wake capture. Due to the sensitivity of these
latter two mechanisms to the timing of wing rotation, the model suggests that the
control of small details of wing motion can be used in steering flight.

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Questions 1-6
Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs A-F from the list of heading
below.
Write appropriate number (i-x) in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings
A biorobotic model exploring insect flight

ii

Modern practices of artificial device usage

iii

Robotic climber better than gecko

iv

Insect fight inspires the applications of steering operation

Prosperity of biorobot family

vi

The revival of modern biorobotics

vii

Combine machines and environment

viii

The advent of robots and their ettects on modern society

ix

The most famous biorobot in early days

Bionics device is not a modern conception

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Paragraph A
Paragraph B
Paragraph C
Paragraph D
Paragraph E
Paragraph F

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6.

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Questions 7-11
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-E) with
opinions or deeds (listed 7-11) below.
Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 7-11 on your answer sheet.
NB Some people may match more than one discovery
W. Gray Walters

Rodney Brooks

Michael Dickinson

Spenko et al

Edelman et al

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14.___________ made contributions to neurophysiology.


15.___________ endowed robots with agility from the innovation of
machinery environmental fit.
16.___________ generated mechanical intelligence inspired by the way human
brain works
17. ___________ modified mechanical models based on the structure of
insects.
18. ___________ found the mechanism of insect flight

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19. What plays the most critical role in Raiberts hopping and legged robots?
20. What allowed direct measurement of the lifting forces of the biorobotic
model?

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KEY

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x
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B
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D
C
Energetic
Force sensors

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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

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Extinction of Aussie Animals

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A.
World Wildlife Fund Australia has revealed its list of extinct wildlife to
coincide with Australia Day. The list covers a wide range of species, from birds to
reptiles, marsupials, insects and even flowers. Top of the list is the green and gold
frog which has had its home decimated by drought. Many Aussie spices need our
help in order to survive, WWF threatened species program manager Kat Miller said.
Without knowing the reason many had disappeared for, we will risk losing another
346 animal and 1249 plant species listed as threatened under federal legislation.
Australia has the one of the worst record of mammal extinction in the world. WWFAustralia said 9 percent of birds, 7 percent of reptiles and 16 percent of amphibians
are extinct since early human settlement.
B.
The conservation group said half the mammals that have become extinct
globally in the last 200 years have been Australian species. Ancient hunters and
gatherers may have triggered the failure of the annual Australian Monsoon some
12,000 years ago by burning massive tracts of the countrys interior, resulting in the
desertification that is evident today, says a new study. Researcher Gifford Miller of
the University of Colorado at Boulder said the new study builds on his research
groups previous findings that dozens of giant animal species became extinct in
Australia 50,000 years ago due to ecosystem changes caused by human burning. This
study, appearing in Geology, indicates such burning may have altered the flora
enough to decrease the exchange of water vapor between the biosphere and
atmosphere, causing the failure of the Australian Monsoon over the interior.
C.
The question is whether localized burning 50,000 years ago could have
had a continental-scale effect, said Miller. The implications are that the burning
practices of early humans may have changed the climate of the Australian continent
by weakening the penetration of monsoon moisture into the interior. A paper on the
subject by Miller appears in the January issue of Geology. Co-authors include CUBoulders Jennifer Mangan, David Pollard, Starley Thompson and Benjamin Felzer
of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder and John Magee of
Australian National University in Canberra.
D.
Geologic evidence indicates the interior of Australia was much wetter
about 125,000 years ago during the last interglacial period. Although planetary and
meteorological conditions during the most recent ice age caused Earths major
monsoons to waver, all except the Australian Monsoon were reinvigorated to full
force during the Holocene Period beginning about 12,000 years ago, he said.
Although the Australian Monsoon delivers about 39 inches of rain annually to the
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north coast as it moves south from Asia, only about 13 inches of rain now falls on the
continents interior each year, said Miller. Lake Eyre, a deep-water lake in the
continents interior that was filled by regular monsoon rains about 60,000 years ago,
is now a huge salt flat that is occasionally covered by a thin layer of salty water.
E.
The earliest human colonizers are believed to have arrived in Australia
by sea from Indonesia about 50,000 years ago, using fire as a tool to hunt, clear paths,
signal each other and promote the growth of certain plants, he said. Fossil remains of
browse-dependent birds and marsupials indicate the interior was made up of trees,
shrubs and grasses rather than the desert scrub environment present today.
F.
The researchers used global climate model simulations to evaluate the
atmospheric and meteorological conditions in Australia over time, as well as the
sensitivity of the monsoon to different vegetation and soil types. A climate model
simulating a forested Australia produced twice as much annual monsoon precipitation
over the continental interior as the model simulating arid scrub conditions, he said.
G.
Systematic burning across the semiarid zone, where nutrients are the
lowest of any continental region, may have been responsible for the rapid
transformation of a drought-tolerant ecosystem high in broad-leaf species to the
modern desert scrub, he said. In the process, vegetation feedbacks promoting the
penetration of monsoon moisture into the continental interior would have been
disrupted. More than 85 percent of Australias mega fauna weighing more than 100
pounds went extinct roughly 50,000 years ago, including an ostrich-sized bird, 19
species of marsupials, a 25-foot-long lizard and a Volkswagen-sized tortoise, he said.
H.
Evidence for burning includes increased charcoal deposits preserved in
lake sediments at the boundary between rainforest and interior desert beginning about
50,000 years ago, Miller said. In addition, a number of rainforest gymnosperms
plants whose seeds are not encased and protected and are therefore more vulnerable
to fire went extinct at about that time. Natural fires resulting from summer lightning
strikes have played an integral part in the ecology of Australias interior, and many
plant species are adapted to regimes of frequent fires, he said. But the systematic
burning of the interior by the earliest colonizers differed enough from the natural fire
cycle that key ecosystems may have been pushed past a threshold from which they
could not recover.

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Questions 14-16
Reading Passage 2 contains 8 paragraphs A H.
Which paragraphs state the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A H in boxes 14 -16 on your answer sheet.
14. Why did an interior Australian lake change to a dry flat?
15. When did an ostrich-sized bird go extinct?
16. Why did the ancient settlers in Australia burn the forests?

Questions 17-20

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Ancient hunters and gatherers


January issue of Geology
Fossil remains
A climate model

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18.
19.
20.

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Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-G below to complete each of
the sentences 17-20 below. Write the appropriate letters (A-G) in boxes 17-20 on
your answer sheet.

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A
___________ caused the failure of the annual Australian Monsoon by
burning tracts.

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___________ showed that in the past the interior of Australia was not a

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desert.

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___________ were responsible for the distinction of an Australian giant
animal species because of their massive hunting.

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D
___________ altered the flora to decrease the exchange of water vapor
between the biosphere and atmosphere.
E
___________ suggested that the changed climate of the Australian
continent was led by the weakened penetration of monsoon moisture into the interior.
F

___________ indicated that the forests facilitated more rainfall.

G
___________ indicated that the extinction of an Australian species
resulted from changes in the local ecosystem.

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Question 21-26
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 2?
On your answer sheet please write
TRUE

if the statement is true

FALSE

if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage.

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21. According to the WWF, Australia has the worst record of animal extinction
in the world.
22. In Australia, hundreds of endangered animals and plants species will keep
disappearing.
23. The distinction of Australian giant animals was a knock-on effect after
human burning ceased the monsoon.
24. Lake Eyre has always been filled with salty water.
25. It is a theoretic assumption that early humans burned massive tracts in
Australia.
26. Varieties of plants from Australias interior have now adapted to recurrent
fires.

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KEY

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A
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NOT GIVEN
NOT GIVEN
TRUE
FALSE
FALSE
TRUE

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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

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A Brief History of Rubber

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A.
Rubber is one of the most important products to come out of the
rainforest. Though indigenous rainforest dwellers of South America have been using
rubber for generations, it was not until 1839 that rubber had its first practical
application in the industrial world. In that year, Charles Goodyear accidentally
dropped rubber and sulfur on a hot stovetop, causing it to char like leather yet remain
plastic and elastic. Vulcanization, a refined version of this process, transformed the
white sap from the bark of the Heave tree into an essential product for the industrial
age.
B.
With the invention of the automobile in the late 19th century, the rubber
boom began. As demand for rubber soared small dumpy river towns like Manaus,
Brazil, were transformed into over night into bustling centers of commerce. Manaus,
situated on the Amazon where it is met by Rio Negro, became the opulent heart of the
rubber trade. Within a few short years Manaus had Brazils first telephone system, 16
miles of streetcar tracks, and an electric grid for a city of a million, though it had a
population of only 40,000.
C.
The opulence of the rubber barons could only be exceeded by their
brutality. Wild Heave trees, like all primary rainforest trees are widely dispersed, with
an adaptation that protects species from the South American leaf blight which easily
spreads through and decimates plantations. Thus to make a profit, barons had to
acquire control over huge tracts of land. Most did so by hiring their own private
armies to defend their claims, acquire new land, and capture native laborers. As the
Indians died, production soared.
D.
The Brazilian rubber market was crushed by the rapid development of
the more efficient rubber plantations of Southeast Asia. However, the prospects of
developing plantations did not begin on a high note. Rubber seeds, rich with oil and
latex, could not survive the long Atlantic journey from Brazil. Finally, in 1876, an
English planter, Henry Wickham, collected 70,000 seeds and shipped them to
England. 2800 of the seeds germinated and were sent to Colombo, Ceylon (present
day Sri Lanka). After several false starts, including one planter in northern Borneo
who felled his plantation after finding no rubber balls hanging from the braches, the
prospects were grim. One major obstacle was the success of tea and coffee gave
planters no reason to try an untested crop.
E.
Finally in 1895, Henry Ridley, head of Singapores botanical garden,
persuaded two coffee growers to plant two acres of Heave tress. Twelve years later
more than 300,000 ha of rubber grew in plantations in Ceylon and Malaya. New
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innovations increased efficiency and production doubled every two years. Rubber
could be produced at only a fraction of the cost of collecting wild rubber in Brazil. By
1910, Brazilian production had fallen to 50%. In 1914, Brazils market share was
down around 30%; 1918 -20%, and 1940 -1.3%.
F.
However the Second World War threatened to shift the rubber wealth.
With Japan occupying prime rubber producing areas in Southeast Asia, the US feared
it would run out of the vital material. Every tire, hose, seal, valve, and inch of wiring
required rubber. The rubber Development Corporation, the chief overseer of rubber
acquisition, sought out other sources including establishing a rubber program that
sent intrepid explorers into the Amazon seeking rubber specimen that would be used
to produce high yields, superior product, and possibility of resistance against leaf
blight. The ultimate goal of the program was to establish rubber plantations close to
home. In addition to searching the Amazon and establishing experimental plantations
in Latin America, the program came up with some novel plans to produce rubber.
Extensive work on synthetic rubber yielded a product that, in time, economists
predicted would replace natural rubber. By 1964 synthetic rubber made up 75% of the
market.
G.
However the situation changed drastically with the OPEC oil embargo of
1973 which doubled the price of synthetic rubber and made oil consumers more
conscious of their gas mileage. The concern over gas mileage brought unexpected
threat to the synthetic market: the wide-spread adoption of the radial tire. The radial
tire replaced the simple bias tires (which made up 90% of the market only 5 year
earlier) and within a few years virtually all cars were rolling in radials. Synthetic
rubber did not have the strength for radials; only natural rubber could provide the
required sturdiness. By 1993 natural rubber had recaptured 39% of the domestic
market. Today nearly 50% of every auto tire and 100% of all aircraft tires are made of
natural rubber. 85% of this rubber is imported from Southeast Asia meaning that the
US is highly susceptible to disruptions caused by an embargo or worse, the
unintentional or intentional introduction of leaf blight into plantations. None of the
trees in plantations across Southeast Asia has resistance to blight so a single act to
biological terrorism, the systematic introduction of fungal spores so small as to be
readily concealed in a shoe, could wipe out the plantations, shutting down production
of natural rubber for at least a decade. It is difficult to think of any other raw material
that is as vital and vulnerable.

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Questions 1-7
Reading Passage 1 contains 7 paragraphs A G.
Which paragraphs state the following information?

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The extensive acceptance of radial tires.


Searching for new specimens to overcome leaf blight
The first trading center for the rubber business.
Asia dominated the rubber market year by year
Rubber seeds are vulnerable to long distance transport
Individual wealth accumulated by rubber trading
Natural rubber gave way to its replacement

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4.
5.
6.
7.

Write the appropriate letters A G in boxes 1 -7 on your answer sheet.

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Questions 8-13

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Complete the summary below based on paragraph G

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Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

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OPEC doubled revenue from synthetic rubber and made oil consuming nations
more attentive of 8 ___________. This brought threats to the synthetic market by
espousing the 9 ___________, which would replace all the simple bias tires within a
few years. Because 10 ___________ is the only material that provides the entailed
toughness, synthetic rubber lost significant market share. The US industry is very
fragile to disruptions caused by an 11 ___________. Whats even worse, since the
rubber trees in plantations across Southeast Asia cannot withstand 12 ___________,
the small fungal spores could be so dangerous as to shut down production of natural
rubber for a decade. Rubber, hence, is the most 13 ___________ raw material in the
world.

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KEY

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G
F
B
E
D
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their gas mileage
radial tire
natural rubber
embargo
blight
vital and vulnerable

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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

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Desertification

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A.
The worlds great deserts were formed by natural processes interacting
over long intervals of time. During most of these times, deserts have grown and
shrunk independent of human activities. Paleodeserts, large sand seas now inactive
because they are stabilized by vegetation, extend well beyond the present margins of
core deserts, such as the Sahara. In some regions, deserts are separated sharply from
surrounding, less arid areas by mountains and other contrasting landforms that reflect
basic structural differences in the regional geology. In other areas, desert fringes form
a gradual transition from a dry to a more humid environment, making it more difficult
to define the desert border.
B.
These transition zones have very fragile, delicately balanced ecosystems.
Desert fringes often are a mosaic of microclimates. Small hollows support vegetation
that picks up heat from the hot winds and protects the land from the prevailing winds.
After rainfall the vegetated areas are distinctly cooler than the surroundings. In these
marginal areas, human activity may stress the ecosystem beyond its tolerance limit,
resulting in degradation of the land. By ponding the soil with their hooves, livestock
compact the substrate, increase the proportion of fine material, and reduce the
percolation rate of the soil, thus encouraging erosion by wind and water. Grazing and
the collection of firewood reduces or eliminates plants that help to bind the soil.
C.
This degradation of formerly productive land desertification is a
complex process. It involves multiple causes, and it proceeds at varying rates in
different climates. Desertification may intensify a general climatic trend toward
greater aridity, or it may initiate a change in local climate.
D.
Desertification does not occur in linear, easily mappable patterns.
Deserts advance erratically, forming patches on their borders. Areas far from natural
deserts can degrade quickly to barren soil, rock, or sand through poor land
management. The presence of a nearly desert has no direct relationship to
desertification. Unfortunately, an area undergoing desertification is brought to public
attention only after the process is well underway. Often little or no data are available
to indicate the previous state of the ecosystem or the rate of degradation. Scientists
still question whether desertification, as a process of global change, is permanent or
how and when it can be halted or reversed.
E.
Desertification became well known in the 1930s when part of the Great
Plains in the United States turned into the Dust Bowl as a result of drought and
poor practices in farming, although the term itself was not used until almost 1950.
During the dust bowl period, millions of people were forced to abandon their farms
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and livelihoods. Greatly improves methods or agriculture and land and water
management in the Great Plains have prevented that disaster from recurring, but
desertification presently affects millions of people in almost every continent.
Increased population and livestock pressure on marginal lands has accelerated
desertification. In some areas, nomads moving to less arid areas disrupt the local
ecosystem and increase the rate of erosion of the land. Nomads are trying to escape
the desert, but because of their land-use practices, they are bringing the desert with
them.
F.
It is a misconception that drought cause desertification. Droughts are
common in arid and semiarid lands. Well-managed lands can recover from drought
when the rains return. Continued land abuse during droughts, however, increases land
degradation. By 1973, the drought that began in 1968 in the Sahel of West Africa and
the land-use practices there had caused the deaths of more than 100,000 people and
12 million cattle, as well as the disruption of social organizations from villages to the
national level.
G.
At the local level, individuals and governments can help to reclaim and
protect their lands. In areas of sand dunes, covering the dunes with large boulders or
petroleum will interrupt the wind regime near the face of the dunes and prevent the
sand from moving. Sand fences are used throughout the Middle East and the United
States, in the same way snow fences are used in the north. Placement of straw grids,
each up to a square meter in area, will also decrease the surface wind velocity. Shrubs
and trees planted within the grids are protected by the straw until they take root. In
areas where some water is available for irrigation, shrubs planted on the lower onethird of a dunes windward side will stabilize the dune. This vegetation decreases the
wind velocity near the base of the dune and prevents much of the sand from moving.
H.
Oases and farmlands in windy regions can be protected by planting tree
fences or grass belts. Sand that manages to pass through the grass belts can be caught
in strips of trees planted as wind breaks 50 to 100 meters apart adjacent to the belts.
Small plots of trees may also be scattered inside oases to stabilize the area. One a
much larger scale, a Green Wall, which will eventually stretch more than 5,700
kilometers in length, much longer than the famous Great Wall, is being planted in
northeastern China to protect sandy lands deserts believed to have been created by
human activity.
I.
More efficient use of existing water resources and control of salinization
are other effective tools for improving arid lands. New ways are being sought to use
surface-water resources such as rain water harvesting or irrigating with seasonal
runoff from adjacent highlands. Research on the reclamation of deserts also is
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focusing on discovering proper crop rotation to protect the fragile soil, on


understanding how sand-fixing plants can be adapted to local environments, and on
how grazing lands and water resources can be developed effectively without being
overused.

Questions 14-19
Reading Passage 2 contains 9 paragraphs A I.
Which paragraphs state the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A I in boxes 14 -19 on your answer sheet.

Ss

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te
p

Desertification poses a threat to people worldwide.


It is difficult to describe the process of desertification.
Desertification may alter local climates.
People have misconceptions regarding desertification origins.
It is hard to notice desertification in its early stages.
Straw grids diminish the swiftness of the surface wind.

LT

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

m
/IE

Questions 20-23

oo
k

.c
o

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 2?

ce
b

In boxes 20-23 write

if the statement agree with the views of the writer

NO

if the statement contradicts with the views of the writer

//w

.fa

YES

if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.

tp

s:

NOT GIVEN

ht

20. All desert borders are difficult to define.


21. Desertification is a reversible process.
22. Part of the Great Plains did not become a so-called Dust Bowl until
almost 1950.
23. Nomads cannot get away from the desert because of their current land-use
methods.

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Questions 24-26
Complete the flowchart below
Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

ht

tp

s:

//w

.fa

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Ss

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Tree fences or grass belts planted inside oases can catch sand in the wind and
24 ___________ these areas as well. The Green Wall is an example. Water
resource management and prevention of 25 ___________ are also effective in
protecting lands. Scientists are trying to find 26 ___________ to protect the
vulnerable soil.

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KEY

te
p

by
s

te
p

E
D
C
F
D
G
NO
NOT GIVEN
NO
YES
stabilize
salinization
proper crop rotation

ht

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Ss

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

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The Legend of Tea

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A.
The story of tea began in ancient China over 5,000 years ago. According
to the legend, Shen Nung, an early emperor was a skilled ruler, creative scientist and
patron of the arts. His far-sighted edicts required, among other things, that all
drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. One summer day while visiting a
distant region of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. In accordance with his
ruling, the servants began to boil water for the court to drink. Dried leaves from the
near by bush fell into the boiling water, and a brown liquid was infused into the
water. As a scientist, the Emperor was interested in the new liquid, drank some, and
found it very refreshing. And so, according to legend, tea was created.
B.
Tea consumption spread throughout the Chinese culture reaching into
every aspect of the society. In 800 A.D. Lu Yu wrote the first definitive book on tea,
the Cha Ching. His work clearly showed the Zen Buddhist philosophy to which he
was exposed as a child. It was this form of tea service that Zen Buddhist missionaries
would later introduce to imperial Japan.
C.
The first tea seeds were brought to Japan by the returning Buddhist
priest Yeisei, who had seen the value of tea in China in enhancing religious
mediation. As a result, he is known as the Father of Tea in Japan. Because of this
early association, tea in Japan has always been associated with Zen Buddhism. Tea
received almost instant imperial sponsorship and spread rapidly from the royal court
and monasteries to the other sections of Japanese society.
D.
Tea was elevated to an art form resulting in the creation of the Japanese
Tea Ceremony. The best description of this complex art form was probably written by
the Irish-Greek journalist- historian Lafcadio Hearn, one of the few foreigners ever to
be granted Japanese citizenship during this era. He wrote from personal observation,
The Tea ceremony requires years of training and practice to graduate in art...yet the
whole of this art, as to its detail, signifies no more than the making and serving of a
cup of tea. The supremely important matter is that the act be performed in the most
perfect, most polite, most graceful, most charming manner possible.
E.
Such a purity of form, of expression prompted the creation of supportive
arts and services. A special form of architecture developed for tea houses, based on
the duplication of the simplicity of a forest cottage. The cultural/artistic hostesses of
Japan, the Geishi, began to specialize in the presentation of the tea ceremony. As
more and more people became involved in the excitement surrounding tea, the purity
of the original Zen concept was lost. The tea ceremony became corrupted, boisterous
and highly embellished. Tea Tournament were held among the wealthy where
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ht

tp

s:

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nobles competed among each other for rich prizes in naming various tea blends.
Rewarding winners with gifts of silk, armor, and jewelry was totally alien to the
original Zen attitude of the ceremony.
F.
The first European to personally encounter tea and write about it was the
Portuguese Jesuit Father Jasper de Cruz in 1560. Portugal, with her technologically
advanced navy, had been successful in gaining the first right of trade with China. The
Portuguese developed a trade route by which they shipped their tea to Lisbon, and
then Dutch ships transported it to France, Holland, and the Baltic countries. Because
of the success of the Dutch navy in the Pacific, tea became very fashionable in the
Dutch capital. This was due in part to the high cost of the tea (over $100 per pound)
which immediately made it the domain of the wealthy. Slowly, as the amount of tea
imported increased, the price fell as the volume of sale expanded.
G.
As the consumption of tea increased dramatically in Dutch society,
doctors and university authorities argued back and forth as to the negative and/or
positive benefits of tea. Known as tea heretics, the public largely ignored the
scholarly debate and continued to enjoy their new beverage though the controversy
lasted from 1635 to roughly 1657. Throughout this period France and Holland led
Europe in the use of tea.
H.
As the craze for things oriental swept Europe, tea became part of the
way of life. The social critic Marie de Rabutin made the first mention in 1680 of
adding milk to tea. During the same period, Dutch inns provided the first restaurant
service of tea. Tavern owners would furnish guests with a portable tea set complete
with a heating unit. The independent Dutchman would then prepare tea for himself
and his friends outside in the taverns garden. Tea remained popular in France for
only about fifty years, being replaced by a stronger preference for wine, chocolate,
and exotic coffees.
I.
By 1650 the Dutch were actively involved in trade throughout the
Weatern world. Peter Stuyvesant brought the first tea to America to the colonists in
the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam (later re-named New York by the English).
Settlers here were confirmed tea drinkers. And indeed, on acquiring the colony, the
English found that the small settlement consumed more tea at that time then all
England put together.
J.
Great Britain was the last of the three great sea-faring nations to break
into the Chinese and East Indian trade routes. The first samples of tea reached
England between 1652 and 1654. Tea quickly proved popular enough to replace ale
as the national drink of England. Tea mania swept across England as it had earlier
spread throughout France and Holland. Tea importation rose from 40,000 pounds in
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1699 to an annual average of 240,000 pounds by 1708. Tea was drunk by all levels of
society.

Questions 27-31
Reading Passage 3 contains 10 paragraphs A J.
Which paragraphs state the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A J in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.

te
p

Coffee took the place of tea.


Religious implications were abandoned.
Tear aroused controversies in Europe.
Tea was once the symbol of the wealth in the Netherlands.
A kind of ceremonical art was born related to tea.

by
s

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

te
p

Questions 32-35

m
/IE

LT

Ss

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 3?

.c
o

On your answer sheet please write

if the statement is true

FALSE

if the statement is false

if the information is not given in the passage.

.fa

NOT GIVEN

ce
b

oo
k

TRUE

ht

tp

s:

//w

32. The introduction of tea to imperial Japan originates from missionary


purposes.
33. Tea had spread to all sections of Japanese society over a very long time.
34. Drinking tea has significant health benefits.
35. Dutchmen preferred to add milk to their tea.

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Questions 36-40
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed 36-40) with
opinions or deeds (listed A-J) below.
Write the appropriate letters A-J in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
NB Some discovery may match more than one person.
Jasper de Cruz
Peter Stuyvesant
Lu Yu
Lafcadio Hearn
Shen Nung

te
p

36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

by
s

A ___________ discovered the value of tea as a refreshing drink.

te
p

B ___________ published a book about tea and Buddhism.

LT

Ss

C ___________ introduced tea to Japanese society.

m
/IE

D ___________ depicted the art of tea ceremony.

.c
o

E ___________ elevated tea drinking to an art.

ce
b

oo
k

F ___________ realized the value of tea in strengthening religious


intervention.

.fa

G ___________ wrote about tea and his country started the first tea trade with
China.

//w

H ___________ developed a trade route by shipping tea to Lisbon.

tp

s:

I ___________ first brought tea to America.

ht

J ___________ brought the first tea to Americans in the Netherlands.

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KEY

Ss

te
p

by
s

te
p

H
E
G
F
D
TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN
NOT GIVEN
G
I
B
D
A

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27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

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A Second Look at Twin Studies


More than a century after Galtons observation, twin studies remain a favorite
tool of behavioral geneticists. Researchers have used twin studies to try to disentangle
the environmental and genetic backgrounds of a cornucopia of traits, from aggression
to intelligence to schizophrenia to alcohol dependence.

te
p

But despite the popularity of twin studies, some psychologists have long
questioned assumptions that underline them, like the supposition that fraternal and
identical twins share equal environments or that people choose mates with traits
unlike their own. The equal environments assumption, for example, has been debated
for at least 40 years. Many researchers have found evidence that the assumption is
valid, but others remain skeptical.

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Overall, twin studies assumptions remain controversial, says psychologist


James Jaccard, PhD, a psychologist who studies statistical methods at the University
at Albany of the State University of New York. In response, though, researchers are
working to expand and develop twin study designs and statistical methods. And while
the assumptions question remains a stumbling block for some researchers, many
agree twin studies will continue to be an important tool, along with emerging genome
and molecular research methods, in shedding light on human behavioral genetics.

ht

tp

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//w

.fa

ce
b

The classical twin study design relies on studying twins raised in the same
family environments. Monozygotic (identical) twins share all of their genes, while
dizygotic (fraternal) twins share only about 50 percent of them. So, if a researcher
compares the similarity between sets of identical twins to the similarity between sets
of fraternal twins for a particular trait, then any excess likeness between the identical
twins should be due to genes rather than environment.
Researchers use this method, and variations on it, to estimate the heritability of
traits: The percentage of variance in a population due to genes. Modern twin studies
also try to quantify the effect of a persons shared environment (family) and unique
environment (the individual events that shape a life) on a trait. The assumptions those
studies rest on, questioned by some psychologists, including, in recent work:
Random mating. Twin researchers assume that people are as likely to choose
partners who are different from themselves as they are to choose partners who are
similar for a particular trait. If, instead, people tend to choose mates like themselves,
then fraternal twins could share more than 50 percent of their genes and hence more
similarities on genetically influenced traits, because they would receive similar genes
from their mothers and fathers.
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Equal environments. Twin researchers also assume that fraternal and identical
twins raised in the same homes experience equally similar environments. But some
research suggests that parents, teachers, peers and others may treat identical twins
more similarly than fraternal twins.
Gene-environment interaction. Some researchers think that interaction between
genes and environment, rather than genes and environment separately, may influence
many traits. A recent study from Science by Avshalom Caspi, PhD, of Kings
College London, for example, suggests that a gene might moderate propensity for
violence, particularly in people who are severely maltreated as children. Many twin
study designs dont take this type of complication into account.

m
/IE

LT

Ss

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Genetic mechanisms. Traits can be inherited through different genetic


mechanisms. For traits governed by dominant genetic mechanisms, a dominant gene
inherited from one parent trumps a recessive gene inherited from the other parent: If a
person inherits a recessive gene for blue eyes from one parent and a dominant gene
for brown eyes from the other parent, then the dominant brown gene wins, and the
persons eyes are brown.

.fa

ce
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oo
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.c
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Additive genetic mechanisms, in contrast, mix together a plant that receives


on red gene and one white gene might, if the genes are additive, turn out pink.
Epistatic mechanisms are complex cases where interactions among multiple genes
may determine the outcome of one trait. Twin studies, in general, assume that only
one type of genetic mechanism usually additive is operating for a particular trait.

ht

tp

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//w

Twin researchers acknowledge that these and other limitations exist. But, they
say, the limitations dont negate the usefulness of twin studies. For traits that are
substantially influenced by heredity, the approximately two-fold difference in genetic
similarity between two types of twins should outweigh any complications, says John
Hewitt, PhD, director of the Institute for Behavioral Genetics at the University of
Colorado at Boulder.
And the extent to which different assumptions matter may depend on which
trait is being studied. Studies have suggested, for example, that people are more
likely to select mates with similar levels of intelligence than they are mates with
similar levels of neuroticism, extraversion and other personality traits. So, researchers
who use twins to study intelligence might have to worry more about nonrandom
matting than researchers who study personality.
Twin study designs and statistical analysis methods are also constantly
evolving and improving. The original twin study design has expanded to include
72
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studies of twins extended families, longitudinal studies and other variations. Some of
these variations allow researchers to address previous limitations they can
investigate the effects of nonrandom matting, for example, by including the spouses
of twins in studies. In fact, says psychologist Dorret Bomsma, PhD, of Vrije
University in the Netherlands, all of these assumptions can be tested, given the proper
data. She argues that they should not be seen as assumptions at all, but instead as
mechanisms whose relevance can be tested using study designs that go beyond the
classical twin study design.

by
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te
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Analysis methods, likewise, dont remain static. People are always thinking
about ways to improve the analyses, Hewitt says. Jaccard acknowledges that this is
true. For some designs, we dont have to make as strong assumptions as we used to
make, he says. Instead of having to assume away four constructs, we only have to
assume away two or three.

m
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In the age of molecular genetics, meanwhile, the classical twin study design is
only one aspect of genetics research. Twin studies estimate the heritability of a trait,
but molecular genetics attempts to pinpoint the effects of a particular gene.

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The future of twin research will involve combining traditional twin studies
with molecular genetics research, according to Hewitt, who believes that day is
already here. When we conduct a study of twins these days, we always get DNA on
everyone, Hewitt says. And well use that DNA to try and identify specific
individual genes that contribute to the overall pattern of heritability.

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Questions 1-7
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 1?
On your answer sheet please write
TRUE

if the statement is true

FALSE

if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage..

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1. The environmental assumptions for twin studies have been challenged for a
long time.
2. Scientists only developed three methods to study human behavioral
genetics.
3. Questioning previous on assumptions has made twin studies a useless tool.
4. Identical twins share more similarities than fraternal twins.
5. Because of an addictive genetic mechanism, people will inherit dominant
genes from their parents.
6. Numerous genetic elements may join together to determine the result of one
trait.
7. Twin studies investigate the effect of a single gene.

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Questions 8-12
Complete the summary below.
Choose your answer from the list below and write them in boxes 8-12 on your
answer sheet.
NB There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all.

Ss

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te
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Twin studies are constantly evolving and improving. The classical twin study
design is on the basis of studying twins raised in the 8 ___________. Modern twin
studies try to quantify the effect of a persons family and 9 ___________ on a trait.
Twin researchers acknowledge that some assumptions and limitations exist and
expand the original twin study to include studies of twins extended families, 10
___________ and other variations. In the time of 11 ___________, the classical twin
study has its limitation. It does not pinpoint the implication of the particular gene,
although it helps to assess individuals 12 ___________.
environment

longitudinal studies

unique environment

acknowledges

molecular genetics

heritability

appropriate figures

oo
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LT

behavioral genetics

same family

ce
b

restrictions

accuracies

ht

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.fa

obstacles

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assumptions

identical
distinct

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KEY

by
s

te
p

TRUE
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
same family
unique environment
longitudinal studies
molecular genetics
heritability

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

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Torch Relay

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A.
Fire is a sacred symbol dating back to prehistoric times. In ancient
Greece it symbolized the creation of the world, renewal and light. It was also the
sacred symbol of Hephaestus, and a gift to the human race from Prometheus, who
stole it from Zeus. At the center of every city-state in ancient Greece there was an
altar with an ever-burning fire and in every home the sacred Flame burned, dedicated
to Hestia, goddess of the family.
B.
Torch Relay races started in ancient Greece as religious rituals held at
night. Soon they turned into a team athletic event, initially among adolescents, and
further developed to become one of the most popular ancient sports. The enchanting
power of fire was a source of inspiration. Sacred flames lit by the rays of the sun
always burned in Olympia, in an altar dedicated to Hestia. Fire was ignited with the
help of a concave mirror, which has the ability to concentrate the rays of the sun on a
single spot. When the head priestess touched that point with the Torch, the Flame was
lit.
C.
The Ancient Greeks held a lampadedromia (the Greek word for Torch
Relay), where athletes competed by passing on the Flame in a relay race to the finish
line. In ancient Athens the ritual was performed during the Panathenaia fest, held
every four years in honor of the goddess Athena. The strength and purity of the sacred
Flame was preserved through its transportation by the quickest means; in this case a
relay of Torchbearers. The Torch Relay carried the Flame from the altar of
Prometheus to the altar of goddess Athena on the Acroppolis. Forty youths from the
ten Athenian tribes had to run a distance of 2.5 kilometers in total.
D.
For the modern Olympic Games the sacred Flame is lit in Olympia by
the head priestess, in the same way as in antiquity, and the ritual includes the athletes
oath. The Flame is then transmitted to the Torch of the first runner and the journey of
the Torch Relay begins. The modern Torch Relay is a non-competitive replication of
the ancient Flame relay and a symbolic celebration of the Olympic Games. In a
prophetic speech at the end of the Stockholm Games, on June 27, 1912, Baron Pierre
de Coubertin said: And now great people have received the Torch and have thereby
undertaken to preserve and quicken its precious Flame. Lest or youth temporarily let
the Olympic Torch fall from their hands other young people on the other side of the
world are prepared to pick it up again.
E.
The Torch Relay, as the opening of the Olympic celebration, was
received in the Berlin Olympiad in 1936 and since then the Torch Relay has preceded
every Olympic Summer Games. Starting from Olympia and carried by the first
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ht

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runner, the young athlete Konstantinos Kondylis, the Flame travelled for the first time
hand to hand until it reached the Berlin Olympic Stadium. Since, the Flames magic
has marked and has been identified with the beginning of the Games. In Olympiads
that followed, the Torch Relay continued to play an important role, having been
enriched with the characteristics and cultures of the host countries. The choice of the
athlete who lights the Flame in the Olympic stadium is always symbolic to the host
country.
F.
For the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome, the Flame followed a route in
homage to the Greek and Roman civilizations. It was carried from Piraeus to Rome
on the ship Americo Vespucci and passed through some of the best-known or
important historical monuments of the two countries. It was the first time that the
event was covered by television. In the Mexico Olympiad in 1968, the Flame
followed the route taken by Christopher Columbus, and the athletics champion
Enriqueta Basilio was the first woman to light the Flame in the Olympic stadium. For
the Montreal Games in 1976, the Flame travelled by satellite from Athens to Ottawa,
and in the 1992 Games in Barcelona, a Paralympics archery medalist Antonio
Rebollo lit the Flame in the stadium with burning arrow. In Sydney 2000, the Flame
made its journey underwater in the Great Barrier Reef. And the Beijing 2008
Olympic Torch Relay will traverse the longest distance, cover the greatest area and
include the largest number of people.
G.
The design of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch takes advantage of
Chinese artistic heritage and technological expertise. The design of the aluminum
torch features traditional scrolls and Lucky Cloud. It stands 72 centimeters high
and weighs 985 grams. The Torch incorporates technological innovations to be able
to remain lit in winds of up to 65 kilometers-an-hour and lit in rain of up to 50
millimeters-an-hour. And the torch can keep burning for 15 minutes. Other
technological advancements prevent color discoloration and corrosion around the
cone from which the Flame burns. The Torch construction is also environmentallyconscious. The materials are recyclable, and the propane fuel meets environmental
requirements. The Beijing Olympic Torch boasts both distinctive Chinese cultural
features, and technical excellence and sophisticated materials. It will carry the
friendship that Chinese people extend to the world and the Olympic spirit to the five
continents and to the peak of Mt. Qomolangma said BOCOG President Liu Qi. The
torch and the Olympic Flame are symbols which embody the Olympic Values of
excellence, respect and relationship. They inspire us to be the best we can be in all
that we do added IOC President Jacques Rogge. The magnificent design of the
torch for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch Relay will also add a very unique Chinese
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flavor to the relay, as the Clouds of Promise carry the Beijing Games message to the
world.

Questions 13-18
Choose the most suitable heading for paragraphs A-D and paragraphs F and
G from the list of headings below.
Write appropriate number (i-x) in boxes 13-18 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings
ii

How ancient Greeks used fire?

iii

The origin of Torch Relay

iv

How to light a torch?

How ancient Greeks performed Torch Relay

vi

Selecting right athletes for carrying torches

vii

Torch Relay as a mark for modern Olympics

viii

Technologies adapted in Torch Relay

ix

Different Torch Relay practices in modern Olympics

Combination of culture and technology

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Paragraph A
Paragraph B
Paragraph C
Paragraph D
Paragraph F
Paragraph G

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Symbolic meanings of fire

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13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

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Questions 19-26
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 2?
On your answer sheet please write
TRUE

if the statement is true

FALSE

if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage.

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19. Altars had been built in every ancient Greek city for the Olympics.
20. There were only ten tribes living in Ancient Greece.
21. The ancient and modern Olympic Games obtained the sacred Flame in
Olympia in different ways.
22. The Torch Relay was reintroduced at the Berlin Olympic Games during the
opening ceremony.
23. The opening ceremony had been suspended temporarily before the Berlin
Olympiad.
24. Host countries choose their national symbols to light the Olympic flame.
25. In the Mexico Olympiad in 1968, the Flame was lit by Christopher
Columbus.
26. The Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch can keep burning in light rain

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Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage to answer the
question 27.

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27. Name three basic Olympic Values mentioned in the passage.

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KEY

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i
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v
vii
ix
x
TRUE
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
TRUE
NOT GIVEN
NOT GIVEN
FALSE
TRUE
excellence, respect, friendship

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13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

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Hurricane
They are essential features of the Earths atmosphere, as they transfer heat and
energy between the equator and the cooler regions towards to poles.
Section A
A hurricane is a large rotating storm centered around an area of very low
pressure with strong winds blowing at an average speed in excess of 74 miles per
hour. The whole storm system may be up to 10 miles high and on average 500 miles
wide. It moves forward like an immense spinning top, at speeds up to 20 mph.
Section B

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There are various trigger mechanisms required to transform frequent storms


into rarer hurricanes. These trigger mechanisms depend on several conditions being
right at the same time. One of the most influential factors are sources of very warm,
moist air, which derived from tropical oceans with surface temperatures greater than
26C, and sufficient spin or twist from the rotating earth, which is related to latitude.

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As the warm sea heats the air above it, a current of very warm moist sir rises
up quickly, creating a center of low pressure at the surface. Trade winds rush in
towards this low pressure and the inward spiralling winds whirl upwards releasing
heat and moisture before descending.

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The rotation of the Earth causes the rising column to twist, gradually taking on
the form of a cylinder whirling around an eye of relatively still air, free from clouds.
The rising air cools and produces towering cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds.
Further aloft at 6 miles the cloud tops are carried outwards to give thick layer clouds
due to the outward spiraling winds leaving the hurricane core.
Section C

Great amounts of energy are transferred when warm water is evaporated from
tropical seas. This energy is stored within the water vapor contained in moist air. As
this air ascends, 90% of the stored energy is released by condensation, giving rise to
the towering cumulus clouds and rain.
The release of heat energy warms the air locally causing a further decrease in
pressure aloft. Consequently, air rises faster to fill this area of low pressure, and more
warm moist air is drawn off the sea feeding further energy to the system. Thus a selfsustaining heat engine is created.

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Only as little as 3% of the heat energy may be converted mechanical energy of


the circulating winds. This relatively small amount of mechanical energy equates to a
power supply of 360 billion kilowatt hours per day-or 6 months supply of electrical
energy for the whole of the USA!
Section D
Hurricanes form between 5 and 30 latitude and initially move westward (owing
to easterly winds) and slightly towards the poles. Many hurricanes eventually drift far
enough north or south to move into areas dominated by westerly winds (found in the
middle latitudes). These winds tend to reverse the direction of the hurricane to an
eastward path.

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As the hurricane moves poleward it picks up speed and may reach between 20
and 30 mph. An average hurricane can travel about 300 to 400 miles a day, or about
3000 miles before it dies out. Hurricanes occur between July and October in the
Atlantic, eastern Pacific and the western Pacific north of the equator. South of the
equator, off Australia and in the Indian Ocean, they occur between November and
March.

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The name hurricane should only be used for those tropical storms occurring in
the Atlantic. In the Pacific they are known as typhoons, in the Indian Ocean as
cyclones. They are given names beginning with A, B etc. In order of occurrence
and the names are alternately male and female.

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Section E

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These phenomena can cause major destruction, especially when the hurricanes
path takes it over land. However a path over land also causes the destruction of the
hurricane itself. As it moves over land its energy source is depleted and friction
across the land surface distorts the air flow. This leads to the eye filling with cloud
and the hurricane dies.
Section F
Other than basic knowledge of general hurricane occurrence there are no
atmospheric conditions that can be measured and combined to predict where a
hurricane will develop. Therefore we can only forecast its path once formed. A
network of instruments, men and equipment at the National Hurricane Center in
Miami, Florida search out potential hurricanes in their early stages and track them
through their life cycle until they decay and die.

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Satellites detect hurricanes in their early stages of development and can help to
provide early warning of imminent hurricanes. Reinforced aircraft fitted with
instruments fly through and over hurricanes, and weather radar can locate storms
within 200 miles of the radar station.
A hurricane warning is issued to coastal areas where winds of 74 mph or
greater are definitely expected to occur, or dangerously high water or high waves are
predicted. The general public are usually informed via television broadcasts and
through a system of flying flags by day and lanterns by night.

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More recently, the National Hurricane Centers website has recently been
developed to allow people to type in their zip code and get specific information about
potential hazards in their area and where to evacuate to if necessary.

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A current of heated 28 ___________ raised up from the warm ocean

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The 31 ___________ helps the column to twist, taking on the form of a


cylinder spinning around an eye of the still air.

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The rising air cools and produces towering cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds.

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Question 32-38
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
Passage 3?
On your answer sheet please write
TRUE

if the statement is true

FALSE

if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage.

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32. Hurricanes often form around the equator.


33. Hurricanes are normally generated above the sea surface under relatively
higher temperatures.
34. 3% of the mechanical energy generated from hurricanes could power the
USA for half a year.
35. Hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones are all the same type of tropical storms.
36. Once the eye of the hurricane eye is filled with moist air, it will die.
37. We are still not capable of anticipating where a hurricane will develop.
38. A system of flying flags and lanterns is used to warn of hurricanes within
200 miles.

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39. How fast does hurricane normally travel?


40. How broad is a typical hurricane system?

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KEY

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moist air
low pressure
heat and moisture
rotation of Earth
TRUE
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
NOT GIVEN
20 mph
500 miles wide

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28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

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Save the Turtles

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A.
Leatherback turtles follow the general sea turtle body plan of having a
large, flattened, round body with two pairs of very large flippers and a short tail. Like
other sea turtles, the leatherbacks flattened forelimbs are specially adapted for
swimming in the open ocean. Claws are noticeably absent from both pair of flippers.
The leatherbacks flippers are the largest in proportion to its body among the extant
sea turtles. Leatherback front flippers can grow up to 2.7 meters in large specimens,
the largest flippers (even in comparison to its body) of any sea turtle. As the last
surviving member of its family, the leatherback turtle has several distinguishing
characteristics that differentiate it from other sea turtles. Its most notable feature is
that it lacks the bony carapace of the other extant sea turtles.
B.
During the past month, four turtles have washed up along Irish coasts
from Wexford to Kerry. These turtles are more typical of warmer waters when they
stray off course. It is likely that they may have originated from Florida, America. Two
specimens have been taken to Coastal and Marine Resources Centre, University
College Cork, where a necropsy will be conducted to establish their age, sex and their
exact origin. During this same period, two Leatherback turtles were found in
Scotland, and a rare Kemps Ridley turtle was found in Wales, thus making it an
exceptional month for stranded turtles in Ireland and the UK.
C.
Actually, there has been extensive research conducted regarding the sea
turtles abilities to return to their nesting regions and sometimes exact locations from
hundreds of miles away. In the water, their path is greatly affected by powerful
currents. Despite their limited vision, and lack of landmarks in the open water, turtles
are able to retrace their migratory paths. Some explanations of this phenomenon have
found that sea turtles can detect the angle and intensity of the earths magnetic fields.
D.
However, leatherback turtles are not normally found in Irish waters,
because water temperatures here are far too cold for their survival. Instead, adult
Leatherback prefer the warmers waters of the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and
North Americas east coast. The four turtles that were found have probably originated
from the North American. However it will require genetic analysis to confirm this
assumption. It is thought that after leaving their nesting beach as hatchlings, these
tiny turtles enter the North Atlantic Gyre that takes them from America, across to
Europe, down towards North Africa, before being transported back again to America
via a different current. This remarkable round trip may take many years during which
these tiny turtles grow by several centimeters a year. Leatherback may circulate
around the North Atlantic several times before they settle in the coastal waters of
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Florida or the Caribbean.


E.
These four turtles probably on their way around the Atlantic when they
strayed a bit too far north from the Gulf Stream. Once they did, their fate was sealed,
as the cooler waters of the North East Atlantic are too cold for Leatherback, unlike
some other turtles which have many anatomical and physiological adaptations to
enable them to swim in different seas. Once in cool waters, the body of a Leatherback
begins to shut down as they get cold stunned, then get hypothermia and die.
F.
Leatherbacks are in immanent danger of extinction. A critical factor is
the harvesting of eggs from nests. Values as a food delicacy, Leatherback eggs are
falsely touted to have aphrodisiacal properties in some cultures. The Leatherback,
unlike the Green Sea turtles, is not often killed for its meat; however, the increase in
human populations coupled with the growing back market trade has escalated their
egg depletion. Other critical factors causing the leatherbacks decline are pollution
such as plastics leatherbacks eat this debris thinking it is jellyfish; fishing practices
such as longline fishing and gill nets, and development on habitat areas. Scientists
have estimated that there only about 35,000 Leatherback turtles in the world.
G.
We are often unable to understand the critical impact a species has on the
environment that is, until that species becomes extinct. Even if we do not know the
role a creature plays in the health of the environment, past lessons have taught us
enough to know that every animal and plants is one important link in the integral
chain of nature. Some scientists now speculate that the Leatherback may play an
important role in the recovery of diminishing fish populations. Since the Leatherback
consumes its weight in jellyfish per day, it helps to keep jellyfish populations in
check. Jellyfish consume large quantities of fish larvae. The rapid decline in
Leatherback populations over the last 50 years has been accompanied by a significant
increase in jellyfish and a marked decrease in fish in our oceans. Saving sea turtles is
an International endeavor.

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Questions 1-6
Choose the most suitable heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of heading
below.
Write appropriate number (i-x) in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings
Sea turtles are found in unusual locations

ii

Unique features of the Leatherbacks

iii

The Leatherbacks contribution

iv

Methods used for routes tracking

Predict the migration routes

vi

Remains multiplicity within the species

vii

The progress of hatching

viii

The fate of the lost turtles

ix

How trips suppose to look like?

Factors leading to population decline

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Paragraph B
Paragraph C
Paragraph D
Paragraph E
Paragraph F
Paragraph G

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

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Questions 7-13
Choose words from the passage to answer the questions 7-13. Write NO
MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

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7. How many Leatherback turtles are there in the world?


8. What is the most noticeable difference between other sea turtles and
leatherbacks?
9. What caused leatherback turtles to die in Irish waters?
10. Where did the four turtles probably come from?
11. By which means can sea turtles retrace their migratory paths?
12. For what purpose are Green Sea turtles killed by people?
13. What kind of species will benefit from a decline in Leatherback population?

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KEY

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i
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ix
viii
x
iii
35,000
the bony carapace
cold waters/ temperature
Florida, America, the North American
(detecting) magnetic fields
its meat
jellyfish

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

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Fears

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A.
Over the years, most people acquire a repertoire of skills for coping with
a range of frightening situations. Scientists are addressing this problem by identifying
specific brain processes that regulate fear and its associated behaviors. Despite the
availability of noninvasive imaging techniques, such information is still extremely
difficult to obtain in humans. Hence, they have turned the attention to another
primate, the rhesus monkey. These animals undergo many of the same physiological
and psychological developmental stages that humans do, but in a more compressed
time span. As they gained more insight into the nature and operation of neural circuits
that modulate fear in monkeys, it should be possible to pinpoint the brain processes
that cause inordinate anxiety in people and to devise new therapies to counteract it.
B.
For 20 years, Ned Kalin, a psychiatrist at the University of WisconsinMadison, has studied fear in people and monkeys. He explained that monkeys have a
palette of fearful, or defensive, behaviors that are controlled by different brain
mechanisms. Each winter, Kalin and colleagues Steven Shelton and John Berard
study a free-living colony of primates called Rhesus macaques on a 38-acre islet
called Cayo Santiago of the coast of Puerto Rico. Over the years, they noticed that the
monkeys responded differently to different threats.
C.
Working in a lab back in Madison, Kalin and Shelton put young
macaques through three tests, and saw three adaptive fearful responses: when left
alone for 10 minutes, most of the monkeys started cooing to attract their mothers
attention. Being separated from mother terrifies infant primates, so this is a smart,
adaptive reaction. When a human intruder entered the room and looked away from
the monkey, most of the animals skulked toward the back of their cage and froze.
Such freezing minimizes the chance of being detected and gives the animal time to
figure out what to do. When a person stared expressionless at the monkey, the animal
started a kind of defensive aggression reaction, with deep barking, bared teeth, and
rattling the cage. Staring, Kalin notes, can be very threatening, since it can signify
that a predator has located you or that another member of your species is trying to
dominate you.
D.
So far, so good. But why did some monkeys freeze for a few seconds,
and others for minutes at a time? Why did 5 percent of the preadolescent monkeys
freeze when they were stared at, while 95 percent got aggressive? To further define
these types of fearful behavior, Kalin gave small amounts of drugs to the monkeys.
He found that opiates inhibited the cooing for the mother, which made sense since
opiates made naturally by the body are known to affect attachment behavior, but not
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the aggressive barking. Anti-anxiety drugs like diazepam, or valium, had little or no
affect on cooing, but it did decrease barking and freezing.
E.
What does all this mean for people plagued by fear and anxiety
disorders? For one thing, that fearful responses combine several elements; fear is not
one single thing. For another, the problem is not simply having too much emotion,
Kalin says, but of having the wrong one, or being unable to hit the off switch.
People in the past have conceptualized problems of emotions as being overly intense
responses. But we find animals that are unable to turn off a specific reaction, or
which express the wrong reaction.
F.
Based on earlier observations in humans, the scientists knew that
humans carry two versions of the gene, long and short. Some people have two long
versions (L/L), but the people with one of each (S/L) are known to experience a
higher incidence of social anxiety and other behaviors. Scientists from Duke
University Medical Center conducted three experiments with male monkeys that had
been genotyped for the S/L or L/L variants to learn how genetic variation might
influence their responses to social rewards and punishments. They found that
monkeys with one copy of the short gene spent less time gazing at images of the face
and eyes of other monkeys, were less likely to engage in risk-taking behavior, and
less likely to want to view a picture of a high-status male. For both human and nonhuman primates, faces and eyes are rich source of social information, and its well
established that humans tend to direct visual attentions to faces, especially the eye
region, Platt said. Rhesus monkeys live in highly despotic societies, and convey
social rank information by making threats and showing dominant and submissive
behaviors.
G.
In a second experiment, the S/L monkeys were less willing to take risks
after they were primed with the faces of high-status males. They more often chose a
safe option of a fixed volume of juice, rather than the chance for a greater of lesser
amount, the risky choice. Previous studies have found that inducing fear in human
subjects makes them more risk-averse.
H.
The final experiment was a pay-per-view set-up. The monkeys could
have a juice reward paired with an image. The images were of high-status male faces,
low-status male faces, or a gray square. The L/L monkeys actually had to be paid
juice to view the dominant males, while the S/L monkeys gave up juice for a look at
these faces.
I.
Altogether, data showed that genetic variation does contribute to social
reward and punishment in macaques, and thus shapes social behavior in both humans
and rhesus macaques. This study confirms rhesus monkeys can serve as a model of
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what goes on in our brains, even in the case of social behavior.

Question 14-18
Reading Passage 3 contains 9 paragraphs A I.
Which paragraphs state the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A I in boxes 14 -18 on your answer sheet.

Classification of responses to fear.


Face of high-status males cause greater fear in the S/L monkey.
Facial expressions contain social information.
Fear is not a simple emotion.
Medicine does not work in some cases.

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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

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Questions 19-22

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19. What do humans and animals differ while they share the similar
physiological and psychological developmental stages?
20. What reaction did the monkey start with when they were gazed at
expressionless?
21. How many preadolescent monkeys became aggressive when they were
facing domination from another member of their own species?
22. According to the passage, what determines social behavior in both humans
and monkeys?

94
Mr. ZenicNguyen

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Mr. ZenicNguyen

Tel: 0169. 489. 3232


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Questions 23-27
Complete the summary of the Great Eastern.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each
answer.

ht

tp

s:

//w

.fa

ce
b

oo
k

.c
o

m
/IE

LT

Ss

te
p

by
s

te
p

In order to understand the brain processes that cause 23 ___________ in


people, and how genetic variation might influence social behavior, scientists first
conducted three experiments to gain more insight into fear in monkeys. For both
human and monkeys, 24 ___________ can convey social information. It was found
that monkeys with one copy of the short gene were less likely to look at the face of a
25 ___________ and to take a risk. The monkey without a 26 ___________ would
sight on dominant males if they were rewarded, while the 27 ___________ monkeys
waived the reward.

95
Mr. ZenicNguyen

Tel: 0169. 489. 3232


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Mr. ZenicNguyen

Tel: 0169. 489. 3232


www.facebook.com/IELTSstepbystep

KEY

Ss

te
p

by
s

te
p

C
G
F
E
D
time span
defensive aggression
95 percent
genetic variation
inordinate anxiety
faces and eyes
high-status male
short gene
S/L

ht

tp

s:

//w

.fa

ce
b

oo
k

.c
o

m
/IE

LT

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

96
Mr. ZenicNguyen

Tel: 0169. 489. 3232


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