General Certificate of Secondary Education Welsh Joint Education Committee and OCR (former Midland Examining Group) syllabus

Additional materials: OS Map Extract (1987/M) Scale: 1 : 50 000 Resource Sheet (1987/1/2/RS) Answer Paper

1 hour 30 minutes


1 hour 30 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Write your name, Centre number and candidate number in the spaces at the top of the separate Answer Paper. This question paper is in three sections (Sections A, B and C). Each section contains two questions. Answer only one question from each section. Answer all parts of the question on your Answer Paper. Make sure each answer is clearly numbered. Begin each question on a new page of your Answer Paper. At the end of the examination complete the grid on your Answer Paper. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES You are strongly advised to read through each section carefully before answering a question. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. Credit will be given for relevant use of sketch maps and diagrams. You are reminded of the need for good English and clear presentation in answers.

This question paper consists of 19 printed pages and 1 blank page.
SB (KN) 35574/3 © OCR 2003

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2 SECTION A CLIMATE, THE ENVIRONMENT AND PEOPLE Answer EITHER Question A1 OR Question A2. Question A1 (a) Study the weather map below. It shows a depression (low pressure weather system) over the east coast of North America in 1993. It also shows the locations of weather stations A and B.

West Virginia Virginia

North Carolina

South Carolina








Atlantic Ocean
98 8


Gulf of Mexico


0 km 250

Weather map for 13th March 1993

Source: based on data provided by the United States Weather Service

1987/2 Spec03



Weather map symbols CLOUD Symbol Cloud amount (oktas) 0 1 or less 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PRECIPITATION WIND Symbol Precipitation Symbol Wind speed (knots) Drizzle Rain and drizzle Rain Rain and snow Snow Calm 1-2 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 For each additional half-feather add 5 knots Pressure 992 Isobars are drawn at intervals of 4 mb Wind speed and direction

Station model Cloud cover Temperature (°C) Precipitation

Warm front (i) Describe the location of: • the centre of low pressure; • the warm front; • the cold front. (ii) (iii)

Cold front

[3] [2]

Describe four features of the weather at weather station A. Use the key to help.

Give three ways in which the weather at weather station B is different from the weather you have described at weather station A. [3]

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4 (b) Study the diagram below. It shows a cross-section from X to Y through the depression.

Cold front Direction of weather system movement Warm front Weather Station A X 0 Key Snow Drizzle Rain Cloud 250 Warm Air Weather Station B Km 500

Cold air

Cold air Y 750 1000

Use the diagram and map to: (i) (ii) describe the location of weather station A and weather station B; explain the differences between the weather at station A and station B. [2] [4]

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5 (c) Look at the map below. It shows the route of the depression between 12th and 14th March 1993.
Canada 14th March a.m. Record low temperature in east USA and south of Canada 12 metre high waves at sea

Lake Ontario Lake Erie

New York State
14th a.m. 963

New York
Pennsylvania 13th March p.m. Heavy snow 1 metre deep Winds at 80 kph


13th p.m. 964

Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
13th a.m. 973 13th a.m. 967

13th March p.m. High tides and freezing temperatures

Atlantic Ocean

13th-15th March Giant waves at sea N
13th a.m. 973

Route of depression Date and pressure (millibars) state boundaries international boundaries

Gulf of Mexico

Flo rid a

12th p.m. 989



250 13th March a.m. Thunderstorms and tornadoes

Position of low pressure centre on 12th March 1993 Source: based on continuous satellite images (NASA)

(i) (ii) (iii)

Describe the route of the centre of the depression between 12th and 14th March.


Use evidence from the map to describe how the pressure at the centre of the depression changed between 12th and 14th March. [2] Explain how the extreme weather events labelled on the map could have affected people and environments. [5]

(d) CASE STUDY: A type of climate and its effects on people and the environment. (i) (ii) (iii) Name and locate a type of climate you have studied. Describe the main features of the climate type. Explain how it affects or has affected people and the environment. End of Question A1 [Turn over [8] Total mark 30

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6 Answer EITHER Question A1 OR Question A2. Question A2 The distribution of major world ecosystems (biomes)

Tropic of Cancer


Tropic of Capricorn

Location of Pitea (Sweden) Key: Arctic tundra and mountains Coniferous forest Deciduous forest and scrub Grassland Tropical rain forest Desert
Source: World Vegetation map (Internet)

(a) Study the world map above. It shows the distribution of major ecosystems (biomes). Describe the distribution of coniferous forest. [2]

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7 (b) Study the climate graph and information below. It is for the town of Pitea which is in Sweden. Pitea is located on the world map opposite. A climate graph for Pitea in Sweden 15 Temperature (°C) 10 5 0 -5 15 10 5 0 -5

Precipitation (mm)

100 50

Total precipitation = 600 millimetres

100 50



Growing season temperatures above 6°C Coniferous trees grow well around Pitea. They have thin needles and a thick bark. They use cones for spreading seeds and have long roots. Their tall, thin shape is also an advantage. (i) (ii) (iii) Describe how the temperature changes through the year at Pitea. Explain how temperature changes affect the growing season near Pitea. [2] [2]

Give two reasons to explain how coniferous trees have adapted to grow in this type of climate. [4]

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;;;; ;;;; ;;; ;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;; ; ;; ;;; ;;
8 Acid rain over Scandinavia (numbers show the pH)
0 200 400km N 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.5 Pitea 4.2 Finland Sweden 4.5 Norway 4.4 4.0 4.5

(c) Study the map below. It shows the distribution of acid rain over Scandinavia. Acid rain is measured using the pH scale.

Pr w eva in d ilin g




United Kingdom


Scandinavia = Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark Key: Net importers of acid rain Net exporters of acid rain


Why is acid rain an issue of international concern?

[1] [1]


Scandinavia is a ‘net importer’ of acid rain. What is meant by this?


Study the map above and the diagram below. Explain how the United Kingdom (UK) may cause acid rain in Scandinavia. [4] How the United Kingdom causes acid rain in Scandinavia

Prevailing wind
Acid rain

Sulphur and nitrogen emissions

Lake North Sea



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9 (d) Study the diagram below. It shows a food web for the ecosystem near Pitea. A food web for the area around Pitea Secondary and tertiary consumers Primary consumers Producers Lynx Arctic fox Snowy owl Arctic wolf Woodpecker

Arctic hare





Moss, lichen & grasses

Coniferous trees



(i) (ii)

What is meant by the term ‘a sustainable ecosystem’? Suggest how acid rain may be making this ecosystem near Pitea unsustainable.

[2] [4]

(e) CASE STUDY: The sustainable management of an ecosystem. (i) (ii) (iii) Name and locate an ecosystem you have studied. Describe how the ecosystem has been managed for sustainability. Explain how successful this management has been. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question A2

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10 SECTION B WATER, LANDFORMS AND PEOPLE Answer EITHER Question B3 OR Question B4. Question B3 (a) Study the diagram below. It shows part of a drainage basin.

;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;
Cloud Condensation Transpiration Precipitation Evaporation Infiltration Soil Ground water flow River channel Throughflow Rocks (i) Name two stores and two flows from the diagram. [2] (ii) Explain how the cutting down of the trees may affect the water cycle. [3] (b) Study the map on the separate Resource Sheet. It shows an area of China which flooded in 1997. (i) (ii) Describe the locations of the areas that were flooded. Suggest two reasons for the flooding. Use evidence from the map to help. [2] [4]
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11 (c) Study the flood hydrograph below. It shows rainfall and river flow at Harbin City which is located on the map. River discharge in cubic metres per second (cumecs) Peak 1 Peak 2



Level above which river will flood



0 Rainfall in millimetres 100 80 60 40 20 0 11th 13th 15th 17th 19th 21th 23th 25th 27th Rainfall and river flow at Harbin City, July 1997 (i) (ii) Describe the pattern of river discharge shown by the graph. Suggest reasons for the time lag between the peaks of rainfall and river discharge. [3] [4] Peak 1 Peak 2

(d) Suggest two measures that people or organisations might take to protect property when given a flood warning. Explain your choices. [4] (e) CASE STUDY: A water shortage and its effects on people and places. (i) (ii) (iii) Name a place which has been affected by a water shortage. Describe how the water shortage caused problems for people and the environment. Explain what is being done or could be done to prevent a water shortage in future. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question B3
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12 Answer EITHER Question B3 OR Question B4. Question B4 (a) Study the Ordnance Survey (OS) Map Extract provided. It shows part of the Yorkshire coast. (i) (ii) Give a six figure grid reference for point D. [1]

Use evidence from the map to describe what might happen to material eroded at point D. [2]

(b) Photograph A on the Resource Sheet shows point D on the map. (i) (ii) (iii) Describe the appearance of the coast shown in the photograph. Suggest and explain the processes that may be affecting this coast. [2] [3]

Give two ways in which the changes to the cliff may affect the owners of the house in the photograph. Explain your choices. [4]

(c) Study the OS map between point S and point T and study Photograph B on the Resource Sheet. They show a part of the coast at Hornsea which has been protected by the local council. Describe and explain how the coast has been protected in this area. Use both map and photograph evidence. [4] (d) Only some areas of this coast have been protected by the local council from erosion. Suggest reasons for this decision. You may use map evidence to help. [6] (e) CASE STUDY: A landform created by a river and its use by people. (i) (ii) (iii) Name and locate a landform created by a river. Describe how it was formed. Use maps and diagrams if you wish. Explain how it has been used by people. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question B4

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13 SECTION C PEOPLE, WORK AND DEVELOPMENT Answer EITHER Question C5 OR Question C6. Question C5 (a) The line D-D on the world map below divides the world into MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries) and LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries). A table of indicators comparing France (an MEDC) and Senegal (an LEDC) is also shown.

More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) France
Tropic of Cancer


Tropic of Capricorn

Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs)

D D Children per woman France Senegal 1.9 6.2 Life expectancy Gross National (years) Product per head (Dollars) 77 50 22,260 780 Percentage of population with access to safe water 96 47

(i) (ii)

Describe two ways in which LEDCs are different from MEDCs. Give a reason for each of the differences you have described.

[2] [4]

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14 (b) Study the map below. It shows life expectancy in part of Africa. Life expectancy in North Africa (1996)


Morocco Algeria

23 °N
1 2

Western Sahara



Tropic of Cancer

23 1°N 2 20°N

Senegal Gambia

Mauritania Mali Niger Chad
Guinea Burkina Faso Ivory Coast Liberia Ghana Togo Eritrea





Guinea Bissau Sierra Leone

Central African Republic Cameroon


Equator Key






ma lia

66 years or more 61-65 years 56-60 years 51-55 years 50 years or less (i) Name a country with a life expectancy of: • 50 years or less; • more than 65 years. (ii) (iii)


km 500 1000 1500

[2] [2]

Describe the distribution of countries with a life expectancy of 55 years or less.

Suggest two reasons to explain why some countries in this part of Africa have a higher life expectancy than others. [4]

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15 (c) Look at the information in the table below. It shows the population structure and the employment structure for Senegal and for France. Population structure in Senegal an LEDC Population structure in France an MEDC Age group 70+ 61-70 51-60 41-50 31-40 21-30 11-20

20% 15% 10% 5% Male (43%)

Employment structure in Senegal 15% 5%


Compare the two countries under the following headings: • population structure;

• employment structure. (ii)

;; ;; ; ;; ;; ; ; ;; ; ;;
0-10 0 5% 10% 15% 20% Female (57%) 10% 5% 0% 5% 10% Male (47%) Female (53%) Employment structure in France
8% 20%

;; ;; ;;
80% Primary industry

Secondary industry

Suggest how trade and aid from MEDCs could help Senegal develop its economy and improve the quality of life of its people. You may use evidence from the table to help. [4]

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;; ;;

Tertiary industry


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16 (d) CASE STUDY: A country or region outside the United Kingdom (UK) where changing employment opportunities are affecting people and the area. Choose a country or region outside the UK where employment opportunities are changing. (i) (ii) (iii) Name the country or region. Describe how employment opportunities are changing. Explain how these changes are affecting people and the area. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question C5

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17 Answer EITHER Question C5 OR Question C6. Question C6 (a) Study the graphs below. They show how employment structures have changed in South Korea, an LEDC (Less Economically Developed Country) and the United Kingdom, an MEDC (More Economically Developed Country). Employment structure in the United Kingdom 1950-1996 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 1950

y Ter tiar


1970 Year




Employment structure in South Korea 1950-1996 70 60
Pr i

50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 1950

ma ry

Ter tiary

y dar con Se


1970 Year




(i) (ii)

Describe the trend in secondary employment in the UK between 1950 and 1996.


Compare the changes in employment structure in South Korea with the UK between 1950 and 1996. [3] [Turn over 1987/2 Spec03

18 (b) Samsung is a multi-national company based in South Korea. The map below shows the distribution of Samsung factories and offices across the world. Where Samsung factories and offices are located More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs)
Europe Asia Tropic of Cancer Africa Equator South America South Korea

North America

Tropic of Capricorn

Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs)


Key Factories Offices

Samsung is a multi-national company. It is one of the world's leading companies in manufacturing electronic goods.

(i) (ii)

What is ‘a multi-national company’? Compare the global distribution of Samsung factories with the Samsung offices.



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19 (c) Look at the two maps below. Map 1: Links to European countries from Teesside ports Map 2: The Samsung site in North East England
United Kingdom Teesside



North Sea Hartlepool

C.I.S. Germany

Republic of Ireland

Samsung Wynyard Park

France Italy Hungary

Stockton -on-Tees Darlington

r ve e Te s





Samsung will employ over 3000 local people here by 2001 Key:

Main distribution centres/towns


Acknowledgement: Tees Valley Development Company


Use Map 1 to help suggest two reasons why Samsung have located a factory in the UK. [2]


Use Map 2 to suggest advantages for Samsung of locating the factory at Wynyard Park in north-east England. [3]

(d) Study Photograph C on the Resource Sheet. It shows the Samsung factory at Wynyard Park. (i) Suggest disadvantages that the building of this factory may have on the environment. [2] Suggest advantages and disadvantages that the building of this factory may have on the local economy and people. [6]


(e) CASE STUDY: The effect of the location of a primary or tertiary economic activity on people and the environment. (i) (ii) (iii) Name and locate a primary or tertiary economic activity you have studied. Describe the location of the economic activity. (Use maps or diagrams if you wish). Explain how this location has affected people and the environment. [8] Total marks 30 End of Question C6

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European Union members 1996






Motorway/roads Settlement with a university International airport Settlement


1987/2 Spec03

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