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# 6/7/2012

## 2-Week ISTE Workshop on CFD under the

National Mission of Education Through ICT
(MHRD, Govt. of India)

## Derivation of DIFFERENTIAL Equation:

Rate of change of Internal Energy = Heat Gained by
(Conduction + Heat Generation)

qr r r r

qcond

cp

(q ) (q )

lim

0
r

(qr ) r r r r (qr ) r r
lim

r r
r 0

q r

q r
qr r

T
1 q rqr
kT
T

r
qgen
qgen
2
t
r
r
r r
r r
2

6/7/2012

## Derivation of ALGEBRAIC Equation:

T n1 TPn
VP c p P
Qcond P QgenP
t
I Level of Approximation: Surface Averaging to
qn x
calculate heat flux at CV Faces
n
Conduction Heat Transfer Gain

Qcond P

f w ,s

q f S f

f e , n

w
q

q f S f w y

## Derivation of Algebraic Equation: Unsteady

State Heat Conduction
II Level of Approximation: piecewise linear
approximation
N

e qe y

s q x
s

qex

T T
T T
qe k E P ; qw k P W
rPe
rPw
qn k

qw y

T T
TN TP
; qs k P S
rn
rs

n
P e qey

w s
qsx

VP c p

cp

T T

T T
T
k
rP
rs P
t
rs
rP w

n
n
n
n
TE TP

TN TP
k
rP
rn P q VP
rn
rP e

n 1
P

n
P

n
P

n
W

n
P

n
S

T n TWn
T n TSn rs
TPn 1 TPn
k 2 P
P

t
rP rs rP
rP P w
T n TPn
T n TPn rn
k 2E
rP N
q
rP rn rP
rP P e

Physical
i
Domain

1,imax

jmax
j

Boundary CVs:
i=1 & imax;
j=2 to jmax-1
j=1 & jmax;
i=2 to imax-1

Interior CVs:
i=2 to imax-2;
j=2 to jmax-2

6/7/2012

## Implementation Details: Grid points for

Heat Fluxes and Temperature
Computational Domain
jmax

A Pseudo Code:
Calculate Heat Flux in r-Direction
For j=1,jmax-1
For i=2,imax-1
deltar_f(j,i)=rcell(j+1,i)=rcell(j,i)
qr(j,i)=-k (T(j+1,i) T(j,i))
/deltar_f(j,i)
end; end

qr(j,i)

N
W

qt(j,i)

T(j,i)

S
1

imax

## For j=2,imax-1 and i=2,imax-1

Qcond(j,i)=(qt(j,i-1))-qt(j,i))*deltar + (qr(j-1,i) )*r(j-1,i )-qr(j,i)*r(j,i))*deltatheta
T(j,i)=T(j,i)+(dt/(rho*cp*dV)) * Qcond(j,i)

## A Composite Plate subjected to

Constant Temperature on the Boundary

L1 Tb4

1: COPPER

2: IRON

Tb1

Tb3
4:STAINLESS
STEEL
AISI 304

L2

3:ALUMINUM

Tb2

6/7/2012

jmax

L2

N
W
1

S
1

imax

Boundary CVs:
i=1 & imax;
j=2 to jmax-1
j=1 & jmax;
i=2 to imax-1
Border CVs:
i=2 & imax-1;
j=2 to jmax-1
j=2 & jmax-1;
i=2 to imax-1
Interior CVs:
i=2 to imax-1;
j=2 to jmax-1

## Special Topics: CMSHT

Interface Treatment
Harmonic Mean of the Properties at the Interface
T T
ke1 ke 2
qe ke E P
E
P e
W
xe

TE TP
x e / 2 k e1 x e / 2 k e 2

2 1
1

k e k e1 k e 2

## Example: Steel Plate

Tb1=1000C, Tb2=2000C,
Tb3=3000C, Tb4=4000C

## Example: Steel Plate

Tb1=1000C, Tb2=2000C,
Tb3=3000C, Tb4=4000C

400
400
360

350 350

25
0

310

34 0

21

15 0

310

0 20

0.6

360
0
35

34 35
0 0

0.8

400
400
390

30

22

300

300

0
26

25
210
200

0.5

TEMP
400
350
300
250
200
150
100

300

0200
0

290

300

0.2

280

300

2 50

0.4
200

Temperature (Line
and Flooded)
Contours

1250

20
150

Temperature (Line
and Flooded)
Contours

xe / 2

150

L1

250

6/7/2012

Thermal BCs

h,T

L1
COPPER

## Example: Steel Plate

Tb1=1000C,
h=100W/m2.K, T=300C
k=63.9W/m.K,
qW=10KW/m2

qW

IRON

L2

TW
STAINLESS
STEEL
AISI 304

Temperature (Line
and Flooded)
Contours

ALUMINUM

Insulated

## Special Topics: CMSHT

Example: Steel Plate
Tb1=1000C,
h=100W/m2.K, T=300C
k=63.9W/m.K,
qW=10KW/m2

12

0.9

140

11

100

0.7

12

150

0.6

14

110

0.4

130

0.5

120

0.3
0.2

110

0.1

130

Temperature (Line
and Flooded)
Contours

13

0.8

0.5

98510

TEMP
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30

Non-Linear
Heat Conduction

6/7/2012

## Special Topics: Nonlinearity in Conduction Heat

Transfer
L
T1
T2
i=1 2
3 w4
5
6 7
e
W
P
E

Governing Equation:

Exact Solution:

T T1

Heat Transfer

## Stainless Steel AISI 304: k0 7.2223; b 0.00246

Pure Iron (T<1000K): k0 135.7778; b 0.000794

b T 2 T12
2

Thermal Conductivity:

b T22 T12 x

T2 T1
2
L

T n TWn
T n1 TPn
T n TPn
VP c p P
ken E
Se kwn P
S w
t
xe
xw

## Calculate thermal conductivity using the old time value

of temperature and then use the updated value of k to
calculate temperature for new time level.
Thus, calculation of k is lagged by one time step.

## Special Topics: Nonlinearity in Conduction

Heat Transfer
Thermal Conductivity:

T1 0 C ; T2 100 C ;
0

k0 1W / m.K

K
Tx=0.5
(T1-T2)
1 1-101 70.4
0
1
50
-0.01 1-0
29.3

100

k=k0(1+bT)
b=1.0
b=0
b=-0.01

80
60

40

20