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A BOOKLET ON

GEOTECHNICAL TESTING
FOR RAILWAY ENGINEERS

LABORATORY & FIELD TESTS

IMPACT I ABRASION I WATER ABSORPTION I BLANKET MATERIAL

GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

CONSOLIDATION COMPACTION

NUCLEAR
TRIAXIAL SHEAR SOIL TESTS MOISTURE GAUGE

RELATIVE DENSITY DIFFERENTIAL SWELL

ATTERBERG LIMITS

CORE CUTTER I MOISTURE CONTENT I SPECIFIC GRAVITY I PERMEABILITY

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE


R D S O, LUCKNOW-226011

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

SPECIALLY TO INDIAN RAILWAYS


SUGGESTIONS ARE WELCOME
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 2

P R E FA C E
Simple soil tests are required for assessing quality of earthwork on Railway
projects. These tests play an important role in maintaining quality of earthwork
and thereby the performance of Railway formation. However, in field, while
conducting stage inspections on zonal railways, it has been observed that the
testing procedures vary which affects the soil testing results thereby affecting
the quality of work done. Lack of knowledge and proper understanding of rele-
vant specifications have also contributed to this situation.

In order to improve the situation, regular one week course on Quality


Control on Construction Projects have been started at Geotechnical Engineer-
ing Directorate of RDSO, where detailed procedures for various tests are ex-
plained. An abridged version of procedure of soil testing has been framed so
that it is easy for the field supervisors involved in earthwork projects, to under-
stand and appreciate the testing methods. In abridging, we have tried to prepare
this compilation very brief. For details relevant IS code as referred for each test
needs to be gone through.

The tests in this booklet have been divided into four categories i.e. a)
Tests for soil, b) Tests for Ballast, c) Test for Blanket material and d) Field
tests.

Testing of blanket material for use on railway formation developed by


RDSO, which has been standardised, has also been included.

It is hoped that the booklet will prove useful for our field supervisors in
improving quality control of earthwork and ballast apart from designing slope
through slope stability analysis.

Suggestions for further improvement of this booklet may be sent to Geo-


technical Engineering Directorate of RDSO.

RDSO Nand Kishore


Lucknow Executive Director
04/11/2004 Geotechnical Engineering Directorate
RDSO
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 3

Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s

Preface 2
Table of Contents 3
Tests for Soil :
Moisture Content by Oven Dry Method 4
Natural Moisture Content & Dry Density Test 5
Particle Size Distribution Test 6
Liquid limit 7
Plastic limit 8
Shrinkage limit 9-10
Free Swell Index 10
Consolidation 11-12
Specific Gravity 13
Compaction 14
Relative Density 15
Permeability 16-17
Unconfined Compression Strength 18
Direct Shear 19
Triaxial 20

Tests for Ballast :


Impact 21
Water Absorption 22
Abrasion 23
Test for Blanket Material 24-25

Field Tests : Moisture content & Dry density


By Calcium Carbide Method 26
By Core Cutter Method 27
By Sand Replacement Method 28-29
By Nuclear Moisture Density Gauge 30
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 4
WATER CONTENT BY OVEN DRY METHOD
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 2) - 1973 ]

The water content (w) of a soil sample is equal to the mass of water divided by the mass of solids.

w = [(M2 M3) / (M3 M1)] x100

Where M1 = Mass of empty container, with lid.


M2 = Mass of the container with wet soil & lid.
M3 = Mass of the container with dry soil & lid.

APPARATUS
1. Thermostatically controlled oven maintained at a temperature of 110 5C.
2. Weighing balance, with accuracy of 0.04% of the mass of the soil taken.
3. Airtight container made of non-corrodible material with lid.
4. Tongs.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

The soil specimen should be representative of the soil mass. The quantity of the specimen taken would depend upon the
gradation and the maximum size particles.

Size of particles more than 90 percent Minimum quantity of the soil specimen to be taken for
passing IS Sieve test mass in g
425 m 25

2.0 mm 50

4.75 mm 200

10 mm 300

20 mm 500

37.5 mm 1000

PROCEDURE

1. Clean the container, dry it and weight it with lid ( M1 ).


2. Take the required quantity of the wet specimen in the container and clean it with lid. Take the mass ( M2 ).
3. Place the container, with its lid removed, in the oven till its mass becomes constant ( Normally for 24 hours ).
4. When the soil has dried, remove the container from the oven, using tongs.
5. Find the mass ( M3 ) of the container with lid and dry soil sample.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION

S. No. Observation & Calculation Unit Determination No.

OBSERVATIONS : I II III
1. Container No. A B C
2. Mass of empty container (M1) g 20.12
3. Mass of container + Wet soil (M2) g 44.12
4. Mass of container + Dry soil (M3) g 41.18
CALCULATION :
5. Mass of water MW = (M2 M3) g 3.14
6. Mass of solid MS = (M3 M1) g 21.06
7. Water content w = (5/6) x100 % 14.91

RESULT : Average of three determinations shall be taken. The water content of the sample = %

PRECAUTIONS

1. The wet soil specimen should be kept loosely in the container.


2. Care should be taken to avoid over-heating of the soil specimen by maintaining the oven temperature at 105 -
110 C
3. Dry soil specimen should not be left uncovered before weighing.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 5
NATURAL DRY DENSITY AND
NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 2) 1973 ]

Moisture content of soil is generally measured as a ratio of the weight of water to the weight of solids, ex-
pressed as a percentage. As soil behaviour depends on its moisture content, it is one of the basic parame-
ters defining the soil condition.

To a control engineer, even a rapid moisture content check is extremely useful, as it gives an indication of
the existing characteristics of the soil, which enables him some extent to decide on the pattern of test pro-
gramme.

For quality control of compacted earth fill, measurement of in-situ density is essential. All types of earthwork
construction like embankments, dams, roads, airfields and trenches need checking density for quality con-
trol. Equipment for quick checking of density as well as accurate determination is listed here.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

1. Use 75 mm and 50 mm height ring with sharp cutting edge at the bottom and removable dolly at the top.
2. Orient soil stratum to loading direction similar to applied force in field.
3. Insert the density ring to ejected soil sample gradually by pressing with hands.
4. Carefully removed the ring with soil specimen.
5. The top and bottom surface should project above and below the edges of ring for final trimming.
6. Trim perfectly both sides of density ring.

PROCEDURE

1. A volume of soil is taken out by pushing a density ring of known volume into the undisturbed soil sample col-
lected. The spoil in the density ring should be perfectly trimmed on both sides before removing the soil specimen.
2. The wet soil specimen is kept in the oven for drying at the temperature of 105 -110 C for 24 hours. The dry
weight of the specimen is taken.
3. Natural dry density = W d / V g/cc
4. Natural water content = (W W d ) x100/ W d %
5. Average of at least two specimen test results i.e. one from top and the other from bottom of the sample should be
reported.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION

Determination No. Unit I II


Container No. Top Bottom
Wt. of container + wet soil W1 g 202.00
Wt. of container + oven dry soil, W 2 g 181.90
Wt. of container W3 g 96.26
Wt. of water ( W 1 W2 ) g 20.10
Wt. of dry soil ( W2 W3 ) g 85.64
Volume of ring cc 56.56
(W 1 W 2 )
Moisture content = -------------- x 100 % 24.47
(W 2 W 3)
Dry density = ( W 2 W 3 ) / V g / cc 1.54
Average Dry density =

RESULT

Average of two determinations shall be taken.


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 6
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 4) - 1985 ]

There is large variation in types of soils from site to site. Accordingly, their behavior has also varia-
tion. To make understanding of soil in easy manner, their grouping has been done depending on size of soil
particles and their water absorption capacity. Ratio of soil of different sizes are worked out from sieve analy-
sis and hydrometer/laser particle analyzer and capacity to absorb water is worked out from liquid limit, plas-
tic limit tests. These test are used to classify the soils. Sieving is used for gravel as well as sand size parti-
cles and sedimentation procedures are used for finer soils. For soils containing coarse and fine soil particles
both, it is usual to employ both sieving and sedimentation proce-
dures.

APPARATUS
1. Set of fine IS sieves 2 mm, 600, 425, 212, and 75
2. Set of coarse sieves 20 mm, 10 mm, and 4.75 mm.
3. Weighing balance, with accuracy of 0.1% of the mass of sample
4. Oven
5. Mechanical shaker
6. Mortar, with rubber pestle
7. Brushes
8. Trays

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE
1. Soil sample, as received from the field shall be dried in air or in
sun. In wet weather the drying apparatus may be used in which
case the temperature of the sample should not exceed 60 C.
The clod may be broken with wooden mallet to hasten drying .the
organic matter, like tree root and pieces of bark should be re-
moved from the sample.
2. The big clods may be broken with the help of wooden mallet.
Care should be taken not to break up the individual soil particles.
3. A representative soil sample of required quantity (As per Table-3
of IS: 2720-I) is taken and dried in oven at 105 -120 C

PROCEDURE
1. The dried sample is taken in tray and soaked with water and
mixed 2 g of sodium hexametaphosphate of 2 g or sodium hydroxide of 1 g and sodium carbonate of 1 g per liter
of water added as dispersive agent. The soaking of soil continued for 10 -12 hours.
2. Sample is washed through 4.75 mm IS sieve with water till substantially clean water comes out. Retained sample
on 4.75 mm IS sieve shall be oven dried for 24 hours. This dried sample is sieved through 20 mm, 10 mm set of
IS sieves.
3. The portion of the passing 4.75 mm IS sieve shall be oven dried for 24 hours. This oven dried material is riffled
and is taken of about 200 g.
4. This sample of about 200 g is washed on 75 micron IS sieve with half litre distilled water till substantially clear wa-
ter comes out.
5. The material retained on 75 IS sieve is collected and dried in oven at 105 - 120 C for 24 hours. The dried soil
sample is sieved through 2 mm, 600 , 425 , 212 IS sieves. Soil retained on each sieve is weighed.
6. If the soil passing 75 is 10% or more, hydrometer method is used to analysis soil particle size.

(B) Hydrometer Analysis

1. Particles passed through 75 IS sieve along with water is collected and put into a 1000 ml jar for hydrometer
analysis. More water if required is added to make the soil water suspension just 1000 ml. The suspension in the
jar is vigorously shaken horizontally by keeping the jar in between the palms of two hands. The jar is put on the
table.
2. A graduated hydrometer is carefully inserted in to the suspension with minimum disturbance.
3. At different time intervals, the density of the suspension at the c.g. of the hydrometer is noted by seeing the depth
of sinking of the stem. The temperature of suspension is noted for each recording of hydrometer reading.
4. Hydrometer reading is taken at a time of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 15.0, 45.0, 90.0, 180.0 minutes, 6 hrs, 24 / 48 hours.
5. By using the nomogram the diameter of the particles at different hydrometer reading is found out. (Ref. IS : 2720
(Part 4) 1985, page 30).

After completing mechanical analysis and hydrometer analysis the results are plotted on a semi log graph with particle
size as abscissa (log scale) and the percentage smaller than the specified diameter as ordinate. A typical graph of grain
size distribution is shown in Figure on page 25.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 7
LIQUID LIMIT TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 5) - 1985 ]

The Liquid limit of fine-grained soil is the water content at which soil behaves practically like a liquid, bit has
small shear strength. It flow close the groove in just 25 blows in Casagrandes liquid limit device. It is one of
the Atterbergs limits. The Atterbergs limits consist of The Liquid limit, Plastic limit and Shrinkage limit.

As it difficult to get exactly 25 blows in theGtest.


EOTEC 3HtoN I C4
AL ENGINEERIN G
tests are conducted, and the number of blowsD I(N) R E C Tre-
ORATE, R D S O
LUCKNOW-226011
quired in each test determined. A semi-log plot is
drawn between log N and the water content (w).

The Liquid limit is the water content corresponding to


N=25. This index property helps in classification.

APPARATUS

1. Casagrandes limit device


2. Grooving tools of both standard and ASTM types
3. Oven
4. Evaporating dish
5. Spatula
6. 425 micron IS sieve
7. Weighing balance with 0.01 g accuracy
8. Wash bottle
9. Air-tight and non-corrodible container for determination of moisture content.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE
1. Air dry the soil sample (in case drying) and break the clods. Remove the organic matter like tree roots, pieces of
bark etc.
2. About 100 g of the specimen passing 425 micron IS sieve is mixed thoroughly with distilled water in the evapo-
rating dish and left for 24 hours for soaking.

PROCEDURE

1. A portion of the paste is placed in the cup of the Liquid limit device.
2. Level the mix so as to have a maximum depth of 1 cm.
3. Draw the grooving tool through the sample along the symmetrical axis of the cup, holding the tool perpendicular
to the cup.
4. For normal fine grained soil : The Casagrande tool is used which cuts a groove of width 2 mm at the bottom, 11
mm at the top and 8 mm deep.
5. For sandy soil : The ASTM tool is used which cuts a groove of width 2 mm at bottom, 13.6 mm at top and 10 mm
deep.
6. After the soil pat has been cut by proper grooving tool, the handle is rotated at the rate of about 2 revolutions per
second and the nos. of blows counted till the two parts of the soil sample come into contact for about 10 mm
length.
7. Take about 10 g of soil near the closed groove & find water content.
8. The soil of the cup is transferred to the dish containing the soil paste and mixed thoroughly after adding a little
more water. Repeat the test.
9. By altering the water content of the soil and repeating the foregoing operations, obtain at least 5 readings in the
range of 15 - 35 blows. Dont mix dry soil to change its consistency.
10. Liquid limit is determined by plotting a flow curve on semi-log graph between nos. of blows on logarithmic scale
and water content on arithmetical scale.
11. Generally these points lie in a straight line.
12. Water content corresponding to 25 blows is the value of Liquid limit.

RESULT : Read water content corresponding to 25 blows from the graph.


[ Sample graph is given on page-8.]
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 8
PLASTIC LIMIT
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 5) - 1985 ]

The Plastic limit of a fine-grained soil is the water content of the soil below which it ceases to be
plastic. It begins to crumble when rolled in to threads of 3 mm diameter. It is the boundary between Liquid
and Plastic limit. It is one of the Atterbergs limits. The Atterbergs limits consist of The Liquid limit, Plastic
limit and Shrinkage limit.

APPARATUS

1. Porcelain evaporating dish about 120 mm diameter.


2. Spatula
3. Container to determine moisture content
4. Balance with 0.01 g accuracy
5. Oven
6. Ground glass plate 20 x 15 cm for rolling

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

Take out 30 g of air dried soil from a thoroughly mixed sample of the soil passing 425 micron IS sieve, mix the soil with
distilled water in a evaporating dish and leave the soil mass for naturing. This period may be up to 24 hours.

PROCEDURE

1. Take about 8 g of the soil and roll it with fingers on a glass plate. The rate of rolling shall be between 80 to 90
strokes per minutes to form a 3 mm diameter.
2. If the diameter of the threads becomes less than 3 mm without cracks, it shows that water content is more than its
plastic limit. Kneed the soil to reduce the water content and roll it again to thread.
3. Repeat the process of alternate rolling and kneading until the thread crumbles.
4. Collect the pieces of crumbled soil thread in a moisture content container.
5. Repeat the process at least twice more with fresh samples of plastic soil each time.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION

Dish No. Unit Liquid Limit Plastic Limit

A B C D
Nos. of Blow 35 28 20 15 - - -
Weight of Dish + Wet Soil = W 1 g 17.68 17.11 18.29 19.72 21.10 19.71 18.20
Weight of Dish + Dry Soil = W 2 g 14.81 14.26 15.02 16.10 19.80 18.33 16.96
Weight of Dish = W 3 g 6.25 6.22 6.25 7.01 11.71 9.93 9.28
Weight of Water = (W 1 W 2) g 2.87 2.85 3.27 3.62 1.30 1.38 1.24
Weight of Dry Soil = (W 2 W 3) g 8.56 8.04 8.77 9.09 8.09 8.40 7.68
% Moisture = (W 1 W 2) / (W 2 W 3) x 100 % 33.53 35.45 37.29 39.82 16.07 16.43 16.15

Liquid limit % = LIQUID LIMIT TEST


[Read at 25 blows from the Graph]
Plastic limit % = Series1 Log. (Series1)
41
40
Plasticity Index % =
39
Moisture content

38
37
36
RESULT 35
34
The Plastic limit shall be determined for at least three portion of 33
the soil passing 425 micron IS sieve. The average of the result 10 Nos. of Blow (Log scale) 100
calculated to the nearest whole numbers shall be reported as the
Plastic limit of soil.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 9
SHRINKAGE LIMIT TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 5) - 1985 ]

The Shrinkage limit is the water content of the soil when the water is just sufficient to fill all the pores of the soil and the
soil is just saturated. The volume of soil does not decrease when the water content is reduced below the Shrinkage limit.
It can be determined from the following relation -

W s = (M1 Ms) (V1 V2)w X 100


Ms

Where M1 = Initial wet mass, Ms = Dry mass


V1 = Initial volume, V2 = Volume after drying

APPARATUS

1. Shrinkage dish, having a flat bottom, 45 mm diameter and 15 mm


height.
2. Two large evaporating dishes about 120 mm diameters, with a pour out
and flat bottom.
3. One small mercury dish, 60 mm diameter.
4. Two glass plates, one plane and one with prongs, 75 x 75 x 3 mm size.
5. Glass cup, 50 mm diameter and 25 mm height.
6. IS sieve 425 micron.
7. Oven.
8. Desiccator.
9. Weighing balance, accuracy 0.01 g.
10. Spatula
11. Straight edge
12. Mercury

PROCEDURE
1. Take a sample of mass about 100 g from a thoroughly mixed soil passing 425 micron IS sieve.
2. Take about 30 g of soil sample in a large evaporating dish. Mix it with distilled water to make a creamy paste,
which can be readily worked without entrapping the air bubbles.
3. Take the shrinkage dish, clean it and determine its mass.
4. Fill mercury in the shrinkage dish. Remove the excess mercury by pressing the plain glass plate over the top of
the shrinkage dish. The plate should be flush with the top of the dish, and no air should be entrapped.
5. Transfer the mercury of the shrinkage dish to a mercury weighing dish and determine the mass of the mercury to
an accuracy of 0.01 g. The volume of the shrinkage dish is equal to the mass of the mercury in grams divided by
the specific gravity of the mercury.
6. Coat the inside of the shrinkage dish with a thin layer of silicon grease or Vaseline. Place the soil specimen in the
center of the shrinkage dish, equal to about one third volume of shrinkage dish. Tap the shrinkage dish on a firm,
cushioned surface and allow the paste to flow to the edges.
7. Add more soil paste, approximately equal to the first portion and tap the shrinkage dish as before, until the soil is
thoroughly compacted. Add more soil and continue the tapping till the shrinkage dish is completely filled, and ex-
cess soil paste projects out about its edge. Strike out the top surface of the paste with the straight edge. Wipe off
all soil adhering to the out side of the shrinkage dish. Determine the mass of the wet soil ( M1 ).
8. Dry the soil in the shrinkage dish in an air until the colour of pat turns from dark to light. Then dry the pat in the
oven at 105 to 110 C to constant mass.
9. Cool the dry pat in a desiccator. Remove the dry pat from the desiccator after cooling and weigh the shrinkage
dish with the dry pat to determine the dry mass of the soil ( Ms )
10. Place a glass cup in a large evaporating dish and fill it with mercury. Remove the excess mercury by pressing the
glass plate with prong firmly over the top of the cup. Wipe of any mercury adhering to the outside of the cup. Re-
move the glass cup full of mercury and place it in another evaporating dish, taking care not to spill any mercury
from the glass cup.
11. Take out the dry pat of soil from the shrinkage dish and immerse it in the glass cup full of mercury. Take care not
to entrap air under the pat. Press the plate with the prongs on the top of cup firmly.
12. Collect the mercury displaced by the dry pat in the evaporating dish, and transfer it to the mercury weighing dish.
Determine the mass of mercury to an accuracy of 0.01 g. The volume of the dry pat ( V2 ) is equal to the mass of
mercury divided by the specific gravity of mercury.
13. Repeat the test at least 3 times.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION

Continued on page 10 .
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 10
FREE SWELL INDEX TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 40) - 1977 ]

The clay and specially the black cotton soils have a tendency to swell in small or more proportion
when submerged in water. Free swell or differential free swell also termed as free swell index, is the in-
crease in volume of soil with out any external constraint when subjected to submergence in water.

APPARATUS D FS (% ) DEGREE OF EXPANSIVENESS


< 20 LOW
1. Sieve : 425 micron IS sieve
20 35 MODERATE
2. Oven
3. Balance : weighing accuracy of 0.01 g. 35 50 HIGH
4. Graduate glass cylinder : two nos. each of 100 ml capac- >50 VERY HIGH
ity.

PROCEDURE

1. Take two specimens of 10 g each of pulverised soil passing 425 micron IS sieve and oven dried.
2. Pour each soil specimen in 100 ml capacity graduate glass cylinder.
3. Pour distilled water in one and kerosene oil in other cylinder upto 100 ml mark.
4. Remove entrapped air by gentle shaking or stirring with glass rod.
5. Allow attainment of equilibrium state of volume of suspension (for not less than 24 hours).
6. Final volume of soil in each of the cylinder shall be read out.

OBSERVATION

Date Time start Time elapsed Volume of soil in cylinder containing Volume of soil in cylinder containing distilled
( in hours ) Kerosene water
( Vk ) in cc ( Vd ) in cc
0
6
12
18
24

CALCULATION
Vd - Vk
Free swell index = x 100
Vk
Where Vd = volume of soil specimen read from the graduate cylinder containing distilled water.
Vk = volume of soil specimen read from the graduate cylinder containing kerosene.

Continued from page-9

Determination No Unit I II III


Container No. 3 4 5
Wt of container W1 g 7.98 7.37 7.04
Wt of container + wet soil pat W2 g 32.87 31.42 32.39
Wt of container + dry soil pat W3 g 25.99 24.78 25.43
wet weight of soil W2 - W 1 g 24.89 24.05 25.35
wt of oven dry soil pat W3 - W 1 g 18.01 17.41 18.39
Wt of water W2 - W 3 g 6.88 6.64 6.96
Moisture content of soil in (%) % 38.20 38.14 37.85
Volume of wet soil pat cc 12.69 12.52 12.97
Wt of mercury displaced by dry soil pat g 113.97 113.02 114.51
Volume of dry soil pat cc 8.38 8.31 8.42
Density of mercury g/c c 13.6 13.6 13.6
Difference in volume cc 4.31 4.21 4.55
Shrinkage Limit % 14.27 13.96 13.10

RESULT

Shrinkage Limit ( average of three determinations ), W S = 13.78 %


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 11
CONSOLIDATION TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 15) - 1986 ]

Consolidation of a saturated soil occurs due to expulsion of water under static, sustained load. The consolidation charac-
teristics of soil are required to predict the magnitude and the rate of settlement.

A structure (railway formation) constructed over


compressible soft saturated marshy soil settles
with expulsion of water. to work out total settle-
ment and rate of settlement of structure, this
test is required. The following characteristics
are obtained from the consolidation test.

Co-efficient of compressibility = av
Co-efficient of volume change = mv
Compression index = Cc

Co-efficient of consolidation = Cv

APPARATUS
1. Consolidometer with loading device
2. Specimen ring, made of a non-corroding
material
3. Water reservoir to saturate the sample.
4. Porous stones
5. Soil trimming tool, like knife, spatula
6. Dial gauge, accuracy 0.002 mm
7. Pressure pad.
8. Weighing balance, accuracy 0.01g.
9. Oven
10. Ball.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

UNDISTURBED SOIL SPECIMEN :- Clean dry and then lubricate the consolidation ring from inside with silicon grease.
Push the sample directly into the consolidation ring and hold the ring firmly about 5 mm above the sample tube keeping
the cutting face down ward and eject the sample gently and steadily out of the tube by means of hydraulic jack so that it
intrudes into the ring. During this process, continue trimming the specimen care fully from outside the consolidation ring
to reduce friction. Trim and flush the soil sample with the ends of the consolidation ring.

REMOULDED SOIL SPECIMEN :- Prepare the soil sample by compaction method at the OMC and MDD. Place the con-
solidation ring on glass plate with cutting edge upward. Press the remoulded soil into the ring by suitable means. Flush
the soil specimen with the top end of the ring and weigh. Alternatively, the soil specimen may be intruded into the con-
solidation ring.

PROCEDURE

1. Clean and dry the metal ring. Measure its diameter and height. Take the mass of the empty ring.
2. Press the ring into the soil sample at the desired density and the water content. The ring is to be pressed with
hands. Any voids in the specimen due to the removal of large particles should be filled back by pressing the soil
lightly.
3. Trim the specimen flush with the top and bottom of the ring.
4. Saturate the porous stones by boiling them in distilled water for about 15 minutes.
5. Assemble the consolidometer. Place the bottom porous stone, bottom filter paper, specimen, top filter paper and
the top porous stone, one by one.
6. Position the loading block centrally on the top porous stone. Mount the mould assembly on the loading frame.
Centre it such that the load applied is axial in the lever-loading system.
7. Set the dial gauge in the position. Allow sufficient margin for the swelling of the soil.
8. Connect the mould assembly to the water reservoir having the water level at about the same level as the soil
specimen. Allow the water flow into the specimen till it is fully saturated.
9. Take the initial reading of the dial gauge.
10. Apply an initial setting load to give a pressure of 0.05 kg/cm2 to the assembly so that there is no swelling and al-
low the setting load to stand till there is no change in the dial gauge reading or for 24 hours. Take the final gauge
reading under the initial setting load.
11. Normal sequence of pressure to be applied is 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 kg /cm2 and take the dial
gauge reading after application of each load at a time sequence of 0.25, 1.0, 2.25, 4.0, 6.25, 12.25, 16, 20, 25,
36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144, 169, 196, 225, 289, 324, 361, 400, and finally 1440 minutes.
12. After the last load increment had been applied and the reading taken, decrease the load to of the last load and
allow it stand for 24 hours. Take the dial gauge reading after 24 hours. Further reduce the load to of the previ-
ous load and repeat the above procedure, likewise further reduce the load to of the previous and repeat the
procedure. Finally reduce the load to the initial setting load and keep out for 24 hours and take the final dial gauge
reading.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 12

13. Dismantle the assembly. Take out the ring with the specimen. Wipe out the excess surface water using bloating
paper and remove the filter paper both side the specimen.
14. Take weight of the ring with specimen.
15. Dry the specimen in oven for 24 hours and determine the dry weight of the specimen.
16. Determine the specific gravity of soil from the dried specimen.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION

Specific gravity of solid, G = Mass of ring =


Diameter of ring = Mass of ring + wet soil =
Area of ring, A = Mass of dry soil =
Height of ring = Mass of water =
Volume of ring = Degree of saturation, S =
Initial height , Hi = Height of solid, Hs =
Water content before test = Water content after test =

(a) CO-EFFICIENT OF COMPRESSIBILTY :

Initial dial gauge read- Final dial gauge Change in Height Height e = H-Hs Average height Remarks
ing reading height H=Hi+ H of voids H [ in cm ]
[ in cm ] (H-Hs)
[ in cm ]

(b) CO-EFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION :

DIAL GAUGE READING


2
( kg / cm )
T 0.25 0.50 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0
(Minutes)

0.00 (R)
0.25
1.00
2.25
..
..
1440

4760
For each load increment plot time ( t ) as abscissa
4740
and the dial gauge reading ( R ) as ordinate. Deter-
4720
mine the value of t90 from the plot. 4700
dial gauge reading

Now, Cv = 0.848 d / t90 4680

4660

4640

4620

4600

4580

4560
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
sqrt. t90 (in minutes)
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 13
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOLIDS BY THE DENSITY BOTTLE METHOD
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 3 / Sec-2) 1980 ]

Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight in air of a given volume of a material at a standard tem-
perature to the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at the same stated temperature. The equip-
ment mentioned below can be used to test a wide range of materials from clay to sand and gravel smaller
than 10 mm. The specific gravity of solid particles is the ratio of the mass density of solids to that of water. It
is determined in the laboratory using the relation.
Temperature Correction Temperature Correction
( M2 - M1 )
10.0 -0.004173 23.0 -0.001825
G = 10.5 -0.004095 23.5 -0.001700
(M2 M1) (M3 M4 ) 11.0 -0.004015 24.0 -0.001584
11.5 -0.003936 24.5 -0.001428
where M1 = mass of empty bottle M2 = mass of the bottle + dry soil 12.0 -0.003857 25.0 -0.001364
M3 = mass of bottle + soil + water M4 = mass of bottle filled with water 12.5 -0.003778 25.5 -0.001216
only 13.0 -0.003699 26.0 -0.001071
13.5 -0.003620 26.5 -0.000935
The reported result is based on water at 27 C 14.0 -0.003542 27.0 -0.000800
Specific gravity of water at ( Tt ) 14.5 -0.003463 27.5 -0.000660
G ( at 27 C) = G ( at Tt ) x 15.0 -0.003385 28.0 -0.000520
Specific gravity of water at (27 C) 15.5 -0.003306 29.0 -0.000232
APPARATUS 16.0 -0.003228 29.5 -0.000080
16.5 -0.003144 30.0 0.000066
1. 50 ml density bottle with stopper 17.0 -0.003060 30.5 0.000212
2. Oven 17.5 -0.002910 31.0 0.000373
1. Constant temperature water bath (27 C) 18.0 -0.002881 31.5 0.000530
18.5 -0.002786 32.0 0.000688
2. Vacuum desiccator
19.0 -0.002691 32.5 0.000849
3. Weighing balance of accuracy 0.001 g
19.5 -0.002590 33.0 0.001011
4. Spatula.
20.0 -0.002490 33.5 0.001127
20.5 -0.002385 34.0 0.001343
PREPARATION OF SAMPLE 21.0 -0.002271 34.5 0.001413
1. Disturbed soil sample is enough for this test. 21.5 -0.002165 35.0 0.001675
2. Take pulverized soil passed through 2 mm IS sieve. 22.0 -0.002057 35.5 0.001825
22.5 -0.001941 36.0 0.002077

Determination No. Unit I II III


Bottle no. A B C
Temperature C 31 31 31
Weight of bottle ( M1 ) g 18.57
Weight of oven dry soil g 10
Weight bottle + soil ( M2 ) g 28.57
Weight of bottle + soil + water ( M3 ) g 90.88
Weight of bottle + water ( M4 ) g 84.74
CALCULATION

Specific gravity = ( M2 M1 ) ____


- 2.59
(M2 M1) (M3 M4 )

PROCEDURE
1. Clean the bottle with distilled water, dry it in oven, cool in desiccator and weigh it with stopper.
2. Keep about 10-15 g of this soil in the bottle.
3. Cover the soil with air free distilled water from the glass wash bottle and leave for a period of 2 to 3 hours for
soaking. Add water to fill the bottle to about half.
4. Entrapped air can be removed by heating the density bottle on a water bath or a sand bath.
5. Keep the bottle without stopper in vacuum desiccator for about 1 to 2 hours until there is no further loss of air.
6. Gently stir the soil in the density bottle by a clean glass rod, wash off carefully adhering particles from the rod with
some drops of distilled water and see that no more soil particles are lost.
7. Repeat the process till no more air bubbles are observed in the soil water mixture.
8. Observe the temperature of the constant ( C ) in the bottle and record.
9. Insert the stopper in the density bottle, wipe and weigh.
10. Now make the bottle empty, clean thoroughly till the density bottle with distilled water at the same temperature.
Insert the stopper in the bottle, wipe dry from the out side and weigh.
11. Take at least two such observations for the same soil.

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION


Specific gravity of water at ( Tt ) 0.995369
G ( at 27 C) = G ( at Tt ) x = 2.59 x = 2.587
Specific gravity of water at ( 27 C ) 0.996542

RESULT : Average of three determinations shall be taken .


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 14
COMPACTION TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 8) 1983 ]

Compaction is the process of densification of soil by reducing air voids. The degree of compaction of a given
soil is measured in terms of its dry density. The dry density is maximum at the optimum water content. A
curve is drawn between the water content and dry density to obtain
the maximum dry density and optimum water content.
1.900

Dry Density in gm/cc


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G
Dry density = M / V DIRECTORATE, R D S O
LUCKNOW-226011
1+ 1.800
where M = total mass of soil
V = volume of soil
= water content 1.700
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00
%age of Moisture content
APPARATUS

1. Cylindrical metal compaction mould


Capacity : 1000 cc with dia 100 mm + 0.1
2250 cc with dia 150 mm + 0.1
Internal diameter : 100 mm + 0.1
150 mm + 0.1
Internal effective height of mould : 127.3 + 0.1 mm
Collar : 60 mm high
Detachable base plate
2. Rammer Mass : for light compaction = 2.6 kg
heavy compaction = 4.9 kg
Dia : 50 mm
3. IS sieve : 19 mm & 4.75 mm
4. Oven : Thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 105
0
to 110 0C

5. Weighing Balance : sensitivity - 1 g for capacity 10 kg
0.01g for capacity 200 g

6. Steel straight edge of about 300 mm in length with one edge lev-

elled.
7. Gradation jar
8. Large mixing pan

9. Spatula

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE
1. A representative portion of air dried soil sample ( in case of oven

drying temp. < 60 0C) break the clods, remove the organic matter
like free roots , piece of bark etc.
2. Take about 6 kg - ( for soil is not susceptible to crushing during compaction)
15 kg - ( for soil is susceptible to crushing during compaction)
3. Sieve above material through 19 mm IS sieve and 4.75 mm IS sieve and % passing 4.75 mm IS sieve. Do not use
the soil retained on 20 mm sieve. Determine the ratio of fraction retained and that passing 4.75 mm sieve.
4. If % passing retained on 4.75 mm IS sieve is greater than 20 mm IS sieve, use the larger mould of 150 mm di-
ameter.
5. Mix the soil sample retained on 4.75 mm sieve and that passing 4.75 mm sieve in the proportion determined.
6. Thoroughly mix water in
a) Sandy and gravely soil : 3 to 5 %
b) Cohesive soil : 12 to 16 % approx.
Store the soil sample in a sealed container for minimum period of 16 hours.

PROCEDURE
1. Clean and dry the mould and base plate. And apply a thin layer of grease on inside the mould.
2. Weigh the mould to the nearest 1 gram. Attach the collar to the mould and place on a solid base.
3. Compact the moist soil in to the mould in five layers of approximately equal mass, corri layer being given 25 blows
from 4.9 kg rammer dropped from the height of 450 mm above the soil. The blows should be distributed uniformly
over the surface of each layer.
4. Remove the collar and trim off the excess soil projecting above the mould by using straight edge. Take the weight
of mould with compacted soil in it.
5. Remove the 100 g compacted soil specimen for the water content determination.
6. Add water in increment of 1 to 2 % for sandy and gravely soils and 2 to 4 % for cohesive soils.
7. Above procedure will be repeated for each increment of water added. The total number of determination shall be
at least four and moisture content should be such that the OMC at which MDD occurs , is within that range.

PRECAUTION
1. Ramming should be done continuously taking of height of 450 mm free fall accurately.
2. The amount of soil taken for compaction should be in such a way that after compacting the last layer, the soil sur-
face is not more than 5 mm above the top rim of the mould.
3. Weighing should be done accurately.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 15
RELATIVE DENSITY TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 14) - 1983 ]

Relative density relates the dry density of cohesion-less soil to the maximum and minimum densities. The degree of
compaction of cohesion-less soil can be stated in terms of Relative density. The test is used to determine the Relative
density of cohesion less free draining soils containing upto 5 % present by weight of the soil particles passing a 75 mi-
cron IS-sieve. It is also known as Density Index.
Relative Density Consistency Term
max ( d - min ) ( emax e )
Density Index = x 100 = x 100 0-15 Very loose
d ( max - min ) ( emax emin ) 15-35 Loose
35-65 Medium dense
65-85 Dense
APPARATUS 85-100 Very dense

1. Vibratory table : a steel table with cushioned steel vibrating deck about 75 x 75 cm. The vibrator shall have fre-
quency of 3600 vibrations per minute.
2. Mould : Two cylindrical metal unit mass mould of 3000 cc and 15000 cc capacity.
3. Two guide sleeves.
4. Surcharges masses : as per IS: 10837-1984
5. Dial gauge : 50 mm travel with 0.025 mm graduation ( IS: 2092-1962)
6. Calibration bar : for computing the initial dial gauge reading calculating the volume of specimen.
7. Mixing pans : suitable size are 65 x 90 x 10 cm.
8. Weighing scale : portable platform weighing scale, 100 kg capacity.
9. Pouring devices : consisting of funnels 12 mm and 25 mm dia. and 15 cm long with cylindrical spouts.
10. Metal straight edge : about 40 cm long

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

A representative sample of soil should be taken. The mass of soil sample to be taken depends upon the maximum size
particle in the soil.

Maximum size of soil particles in mm Mass of soil sample required in kg Size of mould in cm3
75 45 15000
37.5 12 3000
19 12 3000
9.5 12 3000
4.75 12 3000

The soil sample should be dried in oven at temperature of 105 to 110 C. The soil sample should be pulverized with out
breaking the individual soil particles and through required sieve.

PROCEDURE

A) DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM DENSITY

1. The maximum density may determined by either dry or wet method.


2. Assemble the guide sleeve on the top of the mould and tighten the clamp assemblies so that the inner surface
of the walls of the mould and sleeve are in the line.
3. Tighten the lock nuts with two set screws. Loosen the third clamp, remove the guide sleeve, weight the empty
mould and record its weight.
4. Fill the mould with thoroughly mixed oven dry soil by the procedure explained for minimum test. Attach the
guide sleeve to the mould and place surcharge base plate on soil surface.
5. Surcharge weight should then be lowered on the base plate.
6. Fix the mould to the vibrator deck and loaded soil sample should be vibrated for 8 minutes.
7. Remove the surcharge weight and the guide sleeve. Obtain dial gauge readings on two opposite side of the
mould and record their average.
8. Weigh the mould with soil and record these weight.

B) DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM DENSITY

1. Select pouring device and mould according to the maximum size of the particles.
2. Weigh the mould and record its weight. Oven dry soil should be used.
3. Soil containing particles smaller than 9.5 mm should placed as loosely as possible in the mould by pouring the
soil through spout in a steady stream.
4. The height of free fall of soil is always 25 mm. The mould should be filled approximately 25 mm above the top
and leveled with top by making one continuous pass with steel straight edge.
5. The mould and soil should be weighed and mass recorded.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 16
PERMEABILITY TEST
( by constant head parameter)
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 17) - 1986 ]

The co-efficient of permeability is equal to the rate of flow of water through a unit cross sectional area under
a unit hydraulic gradient. In the constant head parameter, the head causing flow through the specimen re-
main constant throughout the test. The coefficient of permeability ( K ) is obtained from the relation.
K =ql /Ah = QL /Ah t
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Where q = discharge Q = total volume of water,
LUCKNOW-226011
t = time period
h = head causing flow, L = length of specimen, A = cross sectional area

APPARATUS

1. Permeameter mould : internal diameter =100 mm, effective height = 127.3 mm , capacity = 1000 cc.
2. Detachable collar : 100 mm diameter, 60 mm high.
3. Compaction equipment
4. Drainage base, having porous disc.
5. Drainage cap , having a porous disc with a spring attached to the top.
6. Constant head water supply reservoir.
7. Constant head collecting chamber.
8. Stop watch
9. Weighing balance
10. Thermometer

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

A) DISTURBED SOIL SAMPLE


1. Measure the internal dimensions of the mould. Weight the mould to the nearest gram.
2. Apply a little grease on the inside to the mould. Clamp the mould between the base plate and the extension col-
lar and place the assembly on a solid base.
3. Take about 2.5 kg of soil sample, from a thoroughly mixed wet soil in the mould. Compact the soil at the required
dry density, using a suitable compacting device.
4. After the compaction, remove the collar and base plate, trim off the surplus soil mass by means of straight edge
and weigh the mould with a compacted soil.
5. Saturate the stones. Place the filter paper at both the end of the soil specimen in the mould.
6. Attached this mould with the drainage base and cap having saturated porous stone.

B) UNDISTURBED SOIL SAMPLE


For testing the undisturbed soil sample, trim off the undisturbed specimen in the shape of a cylinder of about 85 mm
in dia and height equal to that of mould. Put the filter paper at the both the end of the specimen and place it centrally
over the bottom saturated porous stone of the drainage base fixed to the mould.

Fill the annular space between mould and soil specimen with an impervious material to avoid any leakage from the
sides. The impervious material may be cement slurry or a mixture of 10 % bentonite and 90 % fine sand by weight.
Fix the drainage cap over the top the mould.

PROCEDURE
1. Disconnect the reservoir from the bottom out let.
2. Connect the constant head reservoir to the drainage cap inlet.
3. Open the stop cock and allow the water to flow downward so that all the air is removed.
4. Close the stop cock and allow the water to flow through the soil till a steady state is attained.
5. Start the stop watch, and collect the water flowing out of the base in a measuring flask for some convenient time
interval.
6. Repeat this thrice, keeping the interval the same. Check that quantity of water collected is approximately the
same each time.
7. Measure the difference of head ( h ) in levels between the constant head reservoir and the outlet in the base.
8. Repeat the test for at least two more different interval.
9. Stop the flow of water and disconnect all the part of assembly. Record the temperature of the water used in the
test.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION

Length of soil sample (L) = 12.73 cm


Diameter of the soil sample (d) = 10.00 cm
(It is remoulded specimen)
For undrained sample, dia. = 8.5 cm
Area of the soil specimen (A) = 78.54 cm
Height of reservoir above the out let of the bottom plate (h) = 150 cm
Temperature of water (T) = C
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 17

S. No. Observation Unit Determination No.


I II III
1 Mass of empty mould g 5110
2 Mass of mould + soil g 7000
3 Hydraulic head ( h ) mm 150
4 Time interval ( t ) minutes 300

Quality of flow ( Q ) ml
1210
a) First time in period ( t ) ml
1205
b) Second time in period ( t ) ml
5 1210
c) Third time in period ( t )
1215
Average ml
= 1210 x 10
mm
Calculation
6 Permeability ( K ) =QL / A h t cm/sec
Mass of soil ( 2-1 ) = 1890 g.
Bulk density, = Mass / Volume
Water content , =
Dry density, d = / 1+
Void ratio, e = G / d

RESULT

Average of three determinations shall be taken.

Permeability Values (cm/s)

10-6 10-3 100


clays silts sands gravels

Fines Coarse
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 18
UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
A COHESIVE SOI L
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 10) 1973 ]

The unconfined compressive strength ( qu ) is the load per unit area at which the cylindrical specimen of a
cohesive soil fails in compression.
P
qu =
A
Where, P = axial load at failure,
A = corrected area = A o / ( 1- )
Ao = initial area of the specimen
= axial strain = change in length / original length.

The undrained shear strength (s) of the soil is equal to one half of the unconfined compressive strength,

s = qu / 2

APPARATUS

1. Unconfined compression apparatus comprising hydraulic loading device with proving ring and defor-
mation dial gauge.
2. Vernier caliper
3. Sample extractor
4. Coning tool
5. Sampling tube
6. Spatula
7. Split mould.

PROCEDURE

1. Coat the split mould lightly with a thin layer of grease.


2. Push the sample out of the sampling tube into the split mould using the sample extractor with negligi-
ble disturbance of the specimen.
3. Remove the specimen from the split mould by splitting the mould into two part and use the coning tool
to form cones on two ends of the specimen.
4. Measure the length and diameter of the specimen and weigh it.
5. Place the specimen on the bottom plate of the compression machine. Adjust the upper plate to make
contact with the specimen.
6. Adjust dial gauge and proving ring gauge to zero.
7. The rate strain of 1.5 mm / minute is applied to soil specimen.
8. Continue the test until failure surfaces have clearly developed or until an axial strain of 20 % is
reached.
9. Take the sample from the failure zone of the specimen for water content determination.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 19
DIRECT SHEAR TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 13) - 1986 ]

The Direct Shear test is carried out with an apparatus consisting of a square or circular box divided into two
halves. The specimen, contained in the box, is subjected to a constant normal load while an increasing horizontal force
is applied to one of the sections of the shear box. This force causes a shear failure along the juncture between the box
sections. The shear force and the normal load are measured directly. The rate of strain is adjusted by the speed of the
horizontal force applied. The loading unit has V-Strips on which the shear box housing rests. The pre-calibrated load
yoke helps counter balance the loading system. The load yoke with direct and through level system for applying normal
load upto 8 Kg/cm2 capacity. Fixtures for proving ring, brackets for holding consolidation and strain dial gauges are pro-
vided. The lead screw connected to the shear box housing helps application of shear stress.

Shear strength of the soil is its maximum resistance to


shearing stress. The shear strength is expressed as -

s = c + tan

Where c = effective cohesion


= effective stress
= effective angle
APPARATUS

1. Shear box, divided into two halves by a horizontal


plane and fitted with locking and spacing screw.
2. Box container to hold the shear box.
3. Base plate having cross grooves on its top surface.
4. Grid plates perforated (2 nos.)
5. Porous stones 6 mm thick (2 nos.)
6. Proving ring
7. Dial gauge accuracy 0.01 mm 2 mm
8. Static compaction device, spatula.
9. Loading yoke, loading frame, loading pad.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

A) UNDISTURBED SAMPLE : Specimen is prepared by pushing a cutting ring of size 10 cm dia and 3 cm high , in
the undisturbed soil sample. The square specimen of size 6 cm x 6 cm x 2.4 cm is then cut from circular speci-
men.
B) DISTURBED SAMPLE :
(a) cohesive soil :- the soil may be compacted to required density and moisture content directly into the shear
box after fixing the two halves of the shear box together by mean of the fixing screw.
(b) cohesion less soil :- soil may be tamped in the shear box itself with base plate and grid plate or porous stone
as required in place at the bottom of the box.

PROCEDURE

1. Measure the internal dimension of the shear box and average thickness of the grid plates
2. Fix the upper part of the box to the lower part using the locking screw. Attach the base to the lower part .
3. Place the grid plate in the shear box keeping the serrations of the grid at right angle to the direction of shear.
Place a porous stone over the grid plate.
4. Weight the shear box with base plate, grid plate and porous stone.
5. Place soil specimen in the box and weight the box.
6. Place inside the box container and the loading pad on the box. Mount the box container on the loading pad.
7. Bring the upper half of the box in contact with the proving ring. Check the contact by giving slight movement.
8. Fill the container with water and mount the loading yoke on the ball placed on loading pad.
9. Mount one dial gauge on the loading yoke to record the vertical displacement and another dial gauge on the con-
tainer to record the horizontal displacement.
10. Place the weight on loading yoke to apply a normal stress.
11. Allow the sample to consolidate under the applied normal stress. Note reading of vertical displacement dial
gauge.
12. Remove the locking screws. Using the spacing screws, raise the upper part slightly above the lower part such as
that gap is slightly larger than the maximum particle size. Remove the spacing screws.
13. Adjust all dial gauges to read zero. The proving ring also read zero.
14. Apply the horizontal shear load at constant rate of strain.
15. Record reading of the proving ring, the vertical displacement dial gauge.
16. Continue the test, till the specimen fails or till a strain of 20 % is reached.
17. At the end of the test, remove the specimen from the box.
18. Repeat the test on identical specimens under the normal stress.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 20
TRIAXIAL TEST
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 11)-1971 ]

Different types of soils show different characteristics on being subjected to loading. The test helps to
determine load supporting capacity of a particular soil under fully saturated condition. This test is required for
design of foundation for structure and analysis of slope stability. The test is used to determine the shear
strength parameter ( C and ) of soil by consolidated undrained triaxial test.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G
PREPARATION OF SAMPLE DIRECTORATE, R D S O
LUCKNOW-226011

1. Remove wax sealing from field sample tube.


2. Place sample cutter tube (38 mm inner dia ) on field
sample tube.
3. Insert sample cutter tube in the soil with the help of
hydraulic jack.
4. Take out the sample cutter tube from field sample
tube by pushing soil with hydraulic jack.
5. Transfer soil sample from sample cutter tube to split
mould of proper length (76 mm).
6. Take out soil specimen from split mould.

LOADING OF SAMPLE

1. Clean base of triaxial cell.


2. Put porous stone over bottom pedestal and a filter
paper of 38 mm dia over this porous stone.
3. Place soil specimen over filter paper and put another
filter paper then porous stone on the top of the soil
specimen.
4. Place about 8 filter paper strips vertically around soil specimen extending from top porous stone to
bottom porous stone to facilitate uniform and quick saturation.
5. Put rubber membrane around the soil specimen with the help of stretcher.
6. Place O ring around top and bottom pedestal in the grooves.
7. Place the triaxial cell and tight the nut to the base plate.

TESTING OF SPECIMEN

1. Saturate the soil sample from 24 to 48 hours, by opening drainage valve, which is connected with bu-
rette filled with water. Water level in burette is kept little more than the top of specimen.
2. After saturation triaxial cell is filled with water and all around cell pressure ( 3 ) is applied by mercury
controlled device. The pore water pressure is measured the sample is saturated until it satisfies B pa-
rameter of 1 ( not less than 90% of 3 ).
3. Four soil specimen of a sample are tested at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kg / cm2 of lateral pressure ( 3 ).
For consolidated un-drained test ( CU ), the sample is to be placed for consolidation and B parameter
has to be checked. The drainage reading during consolidation in the burette is to be recorded in time
interval of 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36.....minutes up to 24 hrs .
4. On account of consolidation the length and diameter of specimen changed.
5. Changed length, cross sectional area and rate of strain on consolidated specimen have to be calcu-
lated.
6. Apply calculated rate of strain on con-
solidated specimen and note down the Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion
deformation and corresponding load on
[ Shear stress (kg/cm2)]

specimen un till the failure of specimen.


7. Four specimen has been tested at four
confining pressure ( 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2
Kg / cm2 ) as explained above. Failure Envelope
8. Now from above reading plot Mohrs cir-
cle and get the shear parameter C and
.

c
_

[ Effective Normal stress (kg/cm2) ]


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 21

Ballast (stone broken in specified range of size) transfers load from sleeper to formation soil. Ballast parti-
cles are subjected to high level of impact from sleepers and abrasion among each other due to vibrations.
Test results indicate suitability or otherwise of the ballast.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

1. Take ballast sample which passes 12.5 mm IS sieve and is retained on a 10 mm IS sieve.
IMPACT
2. The sample shall be oven dried for 4VALUE
hoursOF at COARSE
a temperature AGGREGATE
of 100-110 C and cooled.
[ As per IS: 2386 (Part 4) 1963 ]
3. The measure shall be filled about one third full with the prepared aggregate and tamped with 25
strokes of the tamping rod. A further similar quantity of aggregate shall be added and further tamping
of 25 strokes given.
4. The measure shall finally be filled to over flowing tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregate stuck
off, using the tamping rod as straight edge. The net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall be
determined to the nearest gm. ( weight A ).

PROCEDURE

1. The cup shall be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of test sample
placed in it and compacted by a single tamping of 25 strokes of the tamping rod.
2. The 13.5 -14 kg hammer shall be raised until its lower face is 380 mm above the upper surface of the
aggregate in the cup and allowed to fall freely on to the aggregate. The test sample shall be subjected
to total of 15 such blows each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second.
3. The crushed sample shall then be removed from the cup and the whole of it sieved on the 2.36 mm IS
sieve.
4. The fraction passing through shall be weighed ( weight B ). The fraction retained on the sieve shall
also be weighed ( weight C ).
5. If the total weight ( B&C ) is less than the initial weight ( weight A ) by more than one gram the result
shall be discarded and a fresh test made.
6. Two tests shall be made.

CALCULATION
B
Aggregate impact value = x 100
A

OBSERVATION
S. No. Weight of sample Weight of sample passing Weight of sample retained on Impact value Remark
taken before impact 2.36 mm IS Sieve after impact 2.36 mm IS sieve after impact B
(A) (B) (C) x 100 %
( in g ) ( in g ) ( in g ) A

1 308 56 252 18

2 310 57 253 18.38

RESULT

Average value of two results = %.


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 22
WATER ABSORPTION OF AGGEREGATE
[ As per IS: 2386 (Part 3) - 1963 ]

APPARATUS

1. Wire basket, perforated, electroplated


G E O T Eor
C Hplastic
NICAL ENcoated, with
GINEERIN G wire hangers for suspending it from the
balance. DIRECTORATE, R D S O
LUCKNOW-226011
2. Water-tight container for suspending the basket.
3. Dry soft absorbent cloth 75 x 45 cm size (2 nos.)
4. Shallow tray of minimum 650 square cm area
5. Air-tight container of capacity similar to basket
6. Drying oven
7. Test sample
8. A sample of not less than 2000 g shall be used.

PROCEDURE

1. The sample shall be thoroughly washed to remove finer particle and dust, drained and then placed in
the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22-32 C.
2. After immersion the entrapped air shall be removed by lifting the basket and allowing it to drop 25 sec-
onds. The basket and sample shall remain immersed for a period of 24+ hours afterwards.
3. The basket and aggregate shall then be removed from the water, allowed to drain for few minutes, af-
ter which the aggregate shall be gently emptied from the basket on to one of dry clothes and gently
surface dried with the cloth, transferring it to second dry cloth when the first will remove no further
moisture. The stone aggregate shall be spread on the second cloth and exposed to atmosphere until it
appears to be completely surface dry. The aggregate then shall be weighed ( weight A ).
4. The aggregate shall then be placed in an oven at a temperature of 100 110 C for 24 hours. It shall
then be removed from oven, cooled and weighed ( weight B ).

(A-B)
Water absorption = x 100
B
Two such tests shall be made and individual and mean results shall be reported.

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION

Determination No. Unit I II III

Weight of saturated surface dry sample in air (A) g 2409 2380 2491

Weight of oven dry sample in air (B) g 2404 2375 2486

A-B
5/2404 5/2375 5/ 2486
Absorption % = - x 100 %
=0.207 = 0.210 = 0.201
B

RESULT

Average value of I, II, & III = 0.206 %.


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 23
ABRASION VALUE OF COARSE AGGREGATE
[ As per IS: 2386 (Part 4) 1963 ]

This test covers the determining the abrasion value of coarse aggregate.

APPARATUS

1. Los Angeles Abrasion testing machine: Machine shall consist of hallow steel cylinder closed at both
ends, having an inside diameter 700 mm and inside length of 500 mm.
2. IS sieves : 50, 40, 2 5, 1.7 mm IS sieves having square hole.
3. Abrasion charge : Abrasion charge of 12 spheres weighing 5000 25 g shall be used.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

1. The sample shall be consist of ballast :


Passing 50 mm IS Sieve and retained on 40 mm square IS Sieve = 5000 g
Passing 40 mm retained on 25 mm square IS Sieve = 5000 g
Total = 10000 g

2. The sample shall be dried in oven at 100 -110 C to a constant weight and weighed (A).

PROCEDURE

1. The test sample and the abrasive charge shall be placed in the Los Angles Abrasion testing machine
and the machine started at a speed of 20 to 33 revolution / minute.
2. The abrasive charge shall consist of 12 nos. of cast iron or steel sphere approx. 48 mm dia and each
weighing between 395 to 445 g ensuring total weight of charge as 5000 25 g.
3. At the completion of test , the material shall be discharged and sieved through 1.7 mm IS Sieve.
4. The material coarser than 1.7 mm IS Sieve shall be washed, dried in oven at 100-110 C to a con-
stant weight and weighed (B).

The difference between the original weight and the final weight of the test sample shall be expressed as a
percentage of the original weight of the test sample. This value shall be reported as,
A-B
Aggregate Abrasion Value = x 100
A

where A = original weight of the sample.


B = final weight of the sample.

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION

S Sample pass- Sample re- Weight of sample Category No of Weight of sample Calculation of abra- Remarks
No ing IS sieve in tained on IS taken in g charges retained on 1.7 mm sion value [(A - B)/ A]
mm sieve in mm (A) IS sieve after test x 100
(B) in g %
50 40 5000
1 f 12 8650 13.5
40 25 5000
50 40 5000
2 f 12
40 25 5000
50 40 5000
3 f 12
40 25 5000

RESULT

Average value of 1, 2, & 3 = %.


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 24
RDSO STANDARD TEST PROCEDURE
FOR BLANKET MATERIAL
[ IRS: GE-3 ]

RDSO standard test procedure of blanket material has been evolved for the purpose to address to specific need of the
blanket material and to ascertain its suitability for use on Railway formation over sub-grade soil. This method covers the
determination of the particle size distribution of blanket material. This test procedure also covers determination of per-
centage of fraction ( finer than 75 micron ) by washing or wet sieving with the objective of accurate determination of fines
present in the material. Test procedure covers for the different type blanket materials either obtained from natural
sources such as river bed, hill sides, from quarry dust or manufactured through stone crusher plant using graded
screens.

This method is used primarily to determine the grading of material proposed for use as blanket material on railway for-
mation. The results are to determine compliance of the particle size distribution and other parameters such as coefficient
of uniformity CU, coefficient of curvature CC to the specified values as per guidelines of earthwork in railway formation.
Material finer than 75 micron can be separated from larger particles much efficiently and completely by wet sieving than
through the use of dry sieving only. Therefore for accurate determination of fines particles, wet sieving through 75 mi-
cron is used on the samples prior to dry sieving of blanket material. In case of crusher / manufacturing plants, the parti-
cle size distribution and other parameters of the material will be helpful to control the production / manufacturing process
viz screen opening crusher & etc. adjustable amount of shaking to obtain final product as per specification and will be
useful for identification. Usually the percent fines through wet sieving is slightly greater than through dry sieving. If it is
large, efficiency of washing operation should be checked. It could also be an indication of degradation of material in
presence of water.

REFERENCES

1. IS: 2720 (part 4) - 1985, grain size analysis


2. IS: 2720 (part 1) - 1983, preparation of soil sample
3. IS: 460 - 1978, specifications for wire cloth sieves.

SUMMARY OF METHOD
1. A oven dried sample of known weight is washed in prescribed manner and the decanted wash water containing
suspended and dissolved is passed through 75 micron IS sieve. The percentage reduction in weight of the origi-
nal material by washing is then reported as percentage fines in the blanket material.
2. A oven dried sample of known weight is separated through a set of IS sieves of progressively smaller opening for
obtaining the percentage of the material passed through each sieve and determination of particle size distribution.

APPARATUS
1. Balance : A balance readable and accurate to 0.1 g for fines particles and to 0.5 g for coarse fraction or to 0.2 %
of the test load whichever is greater.
2. Sieves : IS sieves conforming to the requirement of IS: 460 (Part 1) - 1978 of following sizes 75 mm, 40 mm, 20
mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm, 2 mm, 1.36 mm, 425 micron, 75 micron.
Note :- The sieves should be periodically checked for aperture sizes and other defects such as clogging / torn
wire cloth or presence of one or big opening especially in case of 425 micron & 75 micron sieves.
3. Oven : thermostatically controlled oven of appropriate size to maintain temperature inside between 105 to 110 C
with interior of non-corroding material.
4. Mechanical sieve shaker.
5. Tray : two or more of size approximately 30 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm.
6. Brushes : Wire brushes / sieve brushes.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE
1. The weight of field sample should normally be four times approximately weight required for lab test, which is gov-
erned the maximum size of particles present in the material in substantial quantity. Following quantities are re-
quired for grain size analysis as per table below.
2. Quantity of soil required for laboratory test

Max. size of material present in Minimum mass of field sample Mass to be taken for test
substantial quantities (in mm) (in Kg) (in Kg)

40 75 25

25 50 13

19 25 6.5

12.5 15 3.5

10 10 1.5

6.5 6 0.75

4.75 5 0.4
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 25

3. The representative sample shall be thoroughly mixed and spread on a flat surface. The spread sample shall be
divided into four quadrant and diagonally opposite quadrants are mixed. This process shall be repeated till the
desired quantity of sample is obtained.
4. The big clods if present, may be broken with the help of wooden mallet. Further pulverization if required may be
done in pestle and mortar. Care should be taken not to break-up the individual coarse size particles.

PROCEDURE

1. Dry the test sample to constant weight in thermostatically controlled oven at temperature 105 to 110 C and weigh
it to the nearest 0.1 % of the weight of the sample. If large quantity of particle size greater than 4.75 mm is pre-
sent that may be separated to avoid over loading of individual sieves by sieving during 4.75 mm IS sieve. Re-
tained material on 4.75 mm IS sieve is kept separately.
2. After drying and weighting, place the test sample in the container and soak it with water. The soaking of soil con-
tinued for 10 -12 hours. No dispersing agent or other substance shall be added to the water.
3. Agitate the sample with sufficient vigour to result in complete separation of all particles finer than the 75 micron IS
sieve from the coarser particles, and bring the fine material into suspension.
4. Sample is washed through 4.75 mm IS sieve and 75 micron IS sieve with water till substantially clean water
comes out. The retained sample on sieves shall be oven dried at 105 to 110 C for 24 hours. Soil gleaned as
each sieves is weighed to the nearest 0.1% of the original weight of the sample.
5. Percentage of soil passing on each sieve is worked out and grain size distribution curve is drawn.

CALCULATION

1. Calculate percentages passing, total percentages retained or percentages in versus size fraction to the nearest
0.1% on the basis of the total weight of the initial dry sample.
2. Calculate the amount of material passing a 75 micron IS sieve by working as follows -

A = [ ( B - C ) / B ] x 100

Where A = percentage of material finer than a 75 micron IS sieve by washing.


B = original dry weight of sample g.
C = dry weight of sample after washing g.

REPORT

Report the percentage of material finer than the 75 micron IS sieve by washing to the nearest 0.1%.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 26
WATER CONTENT
BY CALCIUM CARBIDE METHOD
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 2) - 1973 ]

An apparatus based on the principle that a gas is released when calcium carbide reacts with soil water from
the calibrated scale of the pressure gauge. The percentage of the water on total (wet) mass of soil is ob-
tained and the same is converted to water content on dry mass of soil.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
APPARATUS LUCKNOW-226011

1. Metallic pressure vessel : with clamp for sealing cup and a gauge calibrated in percentage water con-
tent.
2. Counter poised balance : for weighing sample.
3. Scoop : for measuring absorbent (Calcium carbide)
4. Steel Balls : Three steel balls of about 12.5 mm dia and one steel ball of 25 mm diameter.
5. One bottle of the absorbent (Calcium carbide)

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE

Sand : No special preparation.


Coarse : It may be ground and pulverized.
Cohesive and Plastic soil : Material are tested with addition of steel ball in the pressure vessels.
This test requires about 6 gm of soil sample.

PROCEDURE

1. Set up the balance, place the sample in the pan till the mark on the balance arm mass lines up with
the index mark.
2. Check that cup and body are clean.
3. Hold the body horizontal and gently deposit are leveled scoop full of absorbent (Calcium carbide) in-
side the chamber.
4. Transfer the soil weighed out from the pan to the cup.
5. Holding cup and chamber horizontal, bring them together without disturbing sample & absorbent.
6. U - clamp sound & clamp the cup tightly into place, if the sample is bulky, reverse the above place-
ment that is, put the sample in the chamber and the absorbent in the cup.
7. In case of clayey soils place the 3 smaller and one bigger steel balls in the body along with the absor-
bent.
8. Shake the unit up and down vigorously in this position for about 15 seconds.
9. Holding the unit horizontal, rotate it for ten second so that the balls rolled round the in side circumfer-
ence of the body.
10. Rest for 20 seconds.
11. Repeat the above cycle until the gauge reading is constant & note the reading. (Usually the take 4 to 8
min.)
12. Finally release the pressure slowly by opening the clamp screw and taking the cup out, empty the con-
tents and clean the instrument with brush.

CALCULATION

From the water content (m) obtained the wet mass basis.
The reading on the rapid moisture meter.
The water content (w) on the dry mass basis shall be calculated as follows:-

W = [ m / ( 100 - m ) ] x 100 Percent

PRECAUTION

The absorbent shall not be exposed to atmosphere.


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 27
DRY DENSITY BY CORE CUTTER METHED
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 29) 1975 ]

The method is widely used for the determination of the field density of fine-grained natural or compacted soil
free from aggregates. By measuring unit weight and moisture content and
using empirical relations, various strength,Gdeformation,
E O T E C H N I C A L Epermeability
N G I N E E R I N G and
consolidation parameters can be estimated. This D I R Ealso
C T O Rentails
A T E , R Dknowing
LUCKNOW-226011
S O the
composition of soil.

APPARATUS

1. Cylindrical core cutter


2. Steel rammer
3. Balance : with an accuracy of 1 g
4. Straight edge
5. Square metal tray 300 mm x 300 mm x 40 mm
6. Trowel

PROCEDURE

1. Measure the inner dimension of the cutter and calculate its volume.

2. Clean and level the ground where field density of soil is required.

3. Put the cylindrical cutter into the soil its full depth by gently ram-
ming it.
4. Lift the cutter up carefully with the help of trowel and trim the top
and bottom surface of soil in cutter carefully.
5. Determine the weight of cutter with soil and then without soil.
6. Take a small specimen from the centre portion of the soil and de-
termine its water content.



OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION

1. Weight of cutter + soil = W1 g


2. Weight of cutter = W2 g
3. Weight of soil = (W 1 W 2) g
4. Volume of soil / volume of cutter = V cm
5. Bulk density of soil b = ( W 1 W 2 )/ V g / cm
6. Moisture content =
7. Dry density of soil d = 100 b g / cm
100+

S. Observation Unit Determination No.


No.
I II III

1 Internal diameter mm 100

2 Internal height mm 129.75

3 Weight of cutter g 1130

4 Weight of cutter + soil g 3120

5 Weight of soil g 1990

6 Volume of soil / volume of cutter cm 1019.05

7 Moisture content % 17.75

8 Dry density g / cm 1.66

RESULT

Average value of I, II, & III = %.


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 28
IN-SITU DRY DENSITY BY
SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD
[ As per IS: 2720 (Part 28) - 1974 ]

A hole of specified dimension is excavated in the ground. The mass of the excavated soil is determined. The
volume of the hole is determined by filling it with clean, uniform sand whose dry density ( s ) is determined
separately by calibration. The volume of the hole is equal to the
mass of the sand filled in the hole divided Gby its dry density.
EOTECHNICAL ENGINEERIN G
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
LUCKNOW-226011
The dry density of the excavated soil is determined as

s= M/V
1+
where M = mass of the excavated soil; V = volume of the hole and
= water content.

APPARATUS

1. Sand pouring cylinder


2. Calibrating container, 100 mm dia and 150 mm height
3. Soil cutting and excavating tools such as a scraper tool, bent spoon
4. Glass plate 450 mm square and 9 mm thick
5. Metal container to collect excavated soil
6. Metal tray, 300 mm square and 40 mm deep with a hole of 100 mm
dia at the center
7. Weighing balance
8. Moisture content cans
9. Oven
10. Desiccator.
11. Clean, uniform sand passing 1 mm IS sieve and retained on 600 mi-
cron IS sieve in sufficient quantity

PROCEDURE

PART- I CALIBRATION
1. Determine the internal volume of the calibrating container by filling it
with water and determining the mass of water required. The mass of
water in gram is approximately equal to the volume in ml. The volume may also be determined from the meas-
ured dimension of the container.
2. Fill the sand pouring cylinder with sand within about 10 mm of its top. Determine the mass of the cylinder ( M1 ) to
the nearest gram.
3. Place the sand pouring cylinder vertically on the calibrating container. Open the shutter to allow the sand to run
out from the cylinder into the calibrating container till it fills the cone of the cylinder and the calibrating container
when there is no further movement of the sand in the cylinder, close the shutter.
4. Lift the pouring cylinder from the calibrating container and weigh it to the nearest gram ( M3 ).
5. Again fill the pouring cylinder with sand within 10 mm of its top.
6. Open the shutter and allow the sand run out of the cylinder. When the volume of the sand let out is equal to the
volume of the calibrating container, close the shutter.
7. Place the cylinder over a plane surface such as a glass plate. Open the shutter, the sand fills the cone of the cyl-
inder. Close the shutter when no further movement of sand takes place.
8. Remove the cylinder. Collect the sand left on the glass plate. Determine the mass of the sand ( M2 ) that had filled
the cone by weighing the collected sand.
9. Determine the density of sand, as shown in the data sheet part-1

PART-II DRY DENSITY

1. Expose an area of about 450 mm2 on the surface of the soil mass. Trim the surface down to a level surface, using
a scraper tool.
2. Place the metal tray on the levelled surface .
3. Excavate the soil through the central hole of the tray, using the hole in the tray as a pattern. The depth of exca-
vated hole should be about 150 mm.
4. Collect all the excavated soil in a metal container and determine the mass of soil ( M ).
5. Remove the metal tray from the excavated hole.
6. Fill the sand pouring cylinder within 10 mm of its top. Determine its mass ( M1 ).
7. Place the cylinder directly over the excavated hole. Allow the sand to run out of the cylinder by opening the shut-
ter. Close the shutter when the hole is completely filled and no further movement of the sand is observed.
8. Remove the cylinder from the filled hole. Determine the mass of the cylinder ( M4 ).
9. Take a representative sample of the excavated soil. Determine its water content.
10. Determine the dry density of soil, as shown in the data sheet part-2.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 29

Data sheet for sand replacement method

Part-I Calibration for dry density of sand


S. No. Observation and calculations Unit Determination No.
I II III
1. Volume of calibrating cone ( Vc ) ml 980

2. Mass of pouring cylinder ( M1 ) filled with sand g 11040


Mass of pouring cylinder after pouring sand into the vibrating container
3. g 9120
and cone ( M3 )
4. Mass of sand in the cone ( M2 ) g 450

5. Mass of sand in the calibrating container Mc = (2) - (3) - (4) g 1470

6. Dry density of sand (s ) = Mc / Vc g/ml 1.5

Part- II Dry density of soil

S. No. Observation and calculation Unit Determination No.


I II III
1. Mass of excavated soil ( M ) g 2310

2. Mass of pouring cylinder ( M1 ) filled with sand g 11040

3. Mass of pouring cylinder after pouring into the hole and cone ( M4 ) g 8840

4. Mass of sand in the hole Ms = M1 -M4 -M2 g 1750

5. Volume of sand in the hole V = Ms / s g 1166.67

6. Bulk density = M / V g/ml 1.98

7. Water content ( ) % 15

Dry density = / 1+ = M / V
8. g/ml 1.72
1+

Average Dry density =

RESULT

Average of three determinations shall be taken.


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 30
NUCLEAR MOISTURE DENSITY GAUGE

Nuclear moisture density gauge is a non-destructive testing apparatus which gives values of moisture content, density
and degree of compaction very quickly (1 to 2 minutes) and accurately. It is a simple equipment with computer backup to
assess moisture content, density and degree of compaction in the field. Large number of tests with data acquisition and
storage facilities can be done in short time with lesser manpower as compare to the conventional method. Conventional
method is very cumbersome and output is not commensurate with the progress of earthwork. It is an excellent equip-
ment to conduct quality check of railway formation including bituminous layers on
highway projects.

APPARATUS

Model : TROXLER 3440


Case : Polycarbonate top shell with alu-
minium cast base
Weight : 13.2 kg. [Shipping weight 40.8 kg.]

MAIN PARTS
1. Source Rod
2. Index Rod
3. Index trigger
4. Handle
5. Display screen

ACCESSORIES
1. Reference block
2. Scrapper plate
3. Drill rod
4. Drill rod extraction tool
5. Transportation case

FEATURES Depth
1. Memory and storage facility upto 300 locations
2. Results are faster and better quality controlled
PR
3. 200 locations can be tested in a day Time xxx sec.
STANDARD ACCURACY
1. For moisture 0.20 % Current Proj. No.
2. For density 0.20 % xxx
Date : mm/dd/yy
PROCEDURE New Project No. ?
SITE PREPARATION
Project Number
1. Place the scraper plate on the surface to be tested. The surface should be plane free from
all vegetation.
Input Number and
2. Put the drill rod through the extraction tool and then through one of the guide holes on the
plate.
Press ENTER
3. Hammer the drill rod upto the desired depth, say 200 mm.
4. Remove the drill rod by pulling & rotating up straight.
5. Mark the outline around the scraper plate. % PR xxx
6. Pickup the scraper plate. DD xxx
7. Put up the gauge on marked area. WD xxx
8. Lower the source rod into the hole. M = xxx % M =

For selecting a Project Number, Press SHIFT and PROJECT for the display.

Press YES to enter new project number, Display shows

Input the new project number with the numeric keys and press ENTER.

1. Press ON the gauge


2. Let for self-test for 300 seconds.
3. Standardized the gauge before go for testing.
4. Feed MDD value of the embankment soil.
5. Put gauge exactly on the hole and press the source rod into the hole upto desired depth.
6. Note the Degree of compaction, Dry density and Moisture content.
7. Shift the gauge to next location for further testing.

Press START / ENTER.


Display shows after 60 seconds the result .
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DIRECTORATE, R D S O
Page 31

THIS BOOKLET IS PREPARED

UNDER GUIDANCE OF
SHRI S. K. RAINA, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

PREPARED BY : KAUSHAL KISHORE DIRECTOR


CHECKED BY : S. K. AWASTHI ARE
CONTRIBUTIONS BY : SHIV KUMAR CRA / GE LAB
DRAWINGS BY : Y. R. TIRPUDE CDA

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE


RDSO, LUCKNOW - 226011

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE


RDSO, LUCKNOW - 226011

Geotechnical Engineering Directorate


Research Designs & Standards Organisation
Manak Nagar, Lucknow - 226011
Uttar Pradesh (INDIA)

Phone: 0522-2450395
Fax: 0522-2450395
Email: edge@railnet.gov.in
kaushal1565@sancharnet.com