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Chapter 10: Rotation

10.1: What is physics?

Angular position, velocity, acceleration


Constant angular acceleration
Angular and linear quantities
Rotational kinetic energy
Rotational inertia
Torque
Newtons 2nd law for rotation
Work and rotational kinetic energy

In previous chapters we have discussed the


translational motion
In this chapter we will discuss the motion when object
turn about an axis (Rotational Motion)
Variables in rotational motion are analogous to those for
translational motion with few changes We will

10.2: Rotational variables:

10.2: Rotational variables

We will focus on rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis


Rigid body: body that can rotate with all its parts packed
together without any change in its shape

Discuss the quantities in angular variables (we will focus on the


angle when object rotating) find the angular position, velocity ,
and acceleration.
Apply Newton second law but instead of force and mass we will
use torque and rotational inertia.
Apply energy concepts to angular quantities like work kinetic
energy theorem

Consider a particle on rigid object at point p rotates through an angle

As object rotates, the point P make an Arc length s

Fixed axis: rotation about an axis that does not move

Figure shows a rigid body of arbitrary


shape in pure rotation about the z- axis
of a coordinate System every point
of the body moves in a circle whose
center lies on the axis of rotation (see
the arbitrary reference line), and every
point moves through the same angle
during a particular time interval

Angular position

s
r

s = r

in radians (rad.)
or revolution

Radians: ratio between the two length s


and r dimensionless quantity
When r = s = 1 rad. 57.3
Full circle = 360 = 2 rad. 1 revolution ().
where = 22/7 = 3.14 we can convert between
rad. and degree from the correlation:
Degree
rad.
2
360
2
(rad) =
(deg)
360

??

10.2: Rotational variables


Angular
displacement:

= f i

Average
angular speed:
Instantaneous
angular speed:

avg =

= lim

t 0

f i

(Rad.)

(Rad/s) s-1
t

d
=
t
dt

(Rad/s) s-1

t f ti

Average angular = f i =
acceleration: avg
t f ti
t
Instantaneous
angular
acceleration:

= lim

t 0

10.2: Rotational variables: Example


As particle moves
from angular position
i to f

(Rad/s) s-2

= 7200
rev/min

d
=
(Rad/s) s-2
t
dt

90

R=6 cm

All particles of a rigid object rotate at the same angular


displacement, speed and acceleration.

10.2: Rotational variables: Example


A childs top is spun with angular acceleration
At t = 0, the top has angular velocity 5 rad/s, and a reference line on
it is at angular position (i) = 2 rad. Find (a) angular velocity at
the top at any time (b) angular position at any time
tf

tf

a) = dt

b)

ti

= dt
ti

i = (5t 3 4t )dt

5
i = ( t 4 2t 2 + 5)dt
4
0

5
5 = t 4 2t 2
4
5 4
= t 2t 2 + 5
4

1
2
2 = t 5 t 3 + 5t
4
3
1 5 2 3
= t t + 5t + 2
4
3

10.3: are angular quantities vectors?

Angular velocity , is arvector


it can be written as
For rotation about a fixed axis,
the direction of the angular
velocity is along the axis of
rotation.
Use the right hand rule to
determine direction.
Also angular acceleration is a
vector quantity
can be
r
written having same rules
for direction and same rules of
speeding up rotation or slowing
down rotation

For rotation
counterclockwise
()
+ve

For rotation
clockwise
()
-ve

10.4: Rotation with constant angular


acceleration
For rotational motion with constant rotational acceleration
The equations of motion are similar in to the equation of
motion in one dimension (1D);
Only do the following symbol replacement

x
v
a

10.4: Rotation with constant angular


acceleration
Linear (1D) Motion

Rotational Motion

with constant linear acceleration, a

with constant rotational acceleration,

v = v0 + at

= 0 + t

x = x0 + 12 (v0 + v)t

= 0 + 12 (0 + )t

x x0 = x = 12 (v0 + v)t

0 = = 12 (0 + )t

x f xi = x = (vi + v f )t
1
2

1
= 0t + t 2
2

1
x = v0t + at 2
2

2 = 0 2 + 2

v 2 = v0 + 2ax

10.4: Rotation with constant angular


acceleration: Example

10.4: Rotation with constant angular


acceleration: Example: continued from
previous slide
= 3.5rad / s 2 , ti = 0 s, t = 2.00 rad s , t f = 2.00 s
i

= ?, revolutions = ?, t f = ?

1 rev.
= 11 rad
= 1.75 rev.
2 rad .
= 3.5rad / s 2 , ti = 0 s, t = 2.00 rad s , t f = 2.00 s
i

= ?, revolutions = ?, t f = ?

10.4: Rotation with constant angular


acceleration: Example
While you are operating a Rotor cylinder, the angular velocity of the
cylinder from 3.4 rad/s to 2.0 rad/s in 20 rev., at constant angular
acceleration. Find (a) the angular acceleration (b) time to decrease
the angular speed.
We have i= 3.4 rad/s
f = 2 rad/s
= 20 rev.
a)
2
2
rad
.

2 = 0 + 2 with = 20 rev.(
) = 125.7 rad .

1 rev.

2 0 2
=
2

b)

4 11.56
=
= 0.03 rad/s
251.4

= 0 + t

0
t =

t =

2 3.4
= 46.7 s
0.03

10.5: Relating The Linear And Angular


Variables: Example
A race car accelerates constantly from a speed of 40 m/s to 60 m/s in 5 s
around a circular track of radius 400 m. When the car reaches a speed of
50 m/s find the (a) Angular speed (b) Centripetal acceleration, Tangential
acceleration, and angular acceleration (d) The magnitude of the total
acceleration.

We have

v1 40
=
= 0.1 rad / s
r 400
v2 = 60 m/s 2 = 0.15 rad / s

t = 5s, v1 = 40 m/s 1 =

at v = 50 m/s find =?, ac =?,

at =?,

atot=?

v 50
a) v = r = =
= 0.125 rad/s
r 400
b) ac =

v 2 (50) 2
=
= 6.25 m/s 2 or ac = r 2 = 400(0.125) 2 = 6.25 m/s 2
r
400

10.5: Relating The Linear And Angular


Variables
For a rotating object, both linear and angular
quantities are simultaneously exist there must
be a relation between them

Arc length s:

Tangential speed of a
point P:

s = r
v = r

at = r

Centripetal acceleration
for rotation object:

ar =

Tangential acceleration
of a point P:

Magnitude of total
acceleration

Rotational axis out of page

v2
= r 2
r
2

a = ar + at2

Rotational axis out of page

10.5: Relating The Linear And Angular


Variables: Example: continued from
previous slide
We have t = 5s,

v1 = 40 m/s 1 = 0.1 rad / s, v2 = 60 m/s 2 = 0.15 rad / s

at v = 50 m/s at =?, atot=?


c) From linear quantities we can find the linear acceleration at

v2 v1 60 40
=
= 4 m/s
5
t
4
at
= 0.01 rad . / s 2
at = r = =
r 400

v2 = v1 + at t at =

Or from angular quantities we can find angular acceleration

2 1

0.15 0.1
= 0.01 rad / s 2
5
t
at = r = 400(0.01) = 4m / s 2

2 = 1 + t =

c) The total acceleration

a = ac2 + at2 = 6.252 + 4 2 = 7.42 m/s 2

10.6: Kinetic Energy Of Rotation

10.6: Kinetic Energy Of Rotation: Example

a collection of n particles rotating about a fixed


axis has a rotational kinetic energy of:
1 n
1 n
K = mi vi2 = mi ri 2 2
2 i =1
2 i =1
vi is the linear speed for i particle

KR =

1 2
I
2

Mathematically, Similar in
shape to linear K with the
(J) following replacements
I m, v

Spheres of mass m has I=0 because r=0, they lie on y-axis

where I is the moment of inertia


or rotational inertia:

I = mi ri
i

(kg.m2) (for collection of particles)


r is the distance from rotational axis

10.6: Kinetic Energy Of Rotation: Example:


continued from previous slide

10.7: Calculating the rotational inertia

for collection of particles, we had:

I mi ri

For an extended, rigid object:

I = mi ri 2 for mi 0
i

I = r 2 dm
m=V dm= dV
m=A dm=dA
m=L dm=dL

If dm = dV

I = r 2 dV

10.7: Calculating the rotational inertia:


Example

10.7: Calculating the rotational inertia:


Moments of inertia for various objects
ICM : Moment of inertia about an axis of rotation through the center of mass

Extended object

; dL=dx (L is on x-axis)
and

10.7: Calculating the rotational inertia:


Parallel axis theorem

10.8: Torque
Fsin

If ICM is known, the moment of inertia through a parallel axis


of rotation a distance h away from the center of mass is:

I = I CM + Mh

Fcos

I = I CM + Mh 2
Is angle between F
and r directions

I=

1
L 1
ML2 + M = ML2
12
3
2

Consider a rigid object about a pivot point () .


A force is applied to the object.
This force causes the object to rotate having what is
called Torque .

= rF sin

Torque
and Angular Acceleration
10.8: Torque
consider a particle of mass m rotating a bout a fixed axis under
an influence of applied force F
The component Fr does no torque since (anti-parallel to r)
the tangent component Ft has a torque

= Ft r

10.8: Torque: Example


Two forces T1 and T2 are applied as shown

(sin 90 = 1)

but

Ft = mat

and

at = r

For rotation
counterclockwise
()
+ve

= Ft r = mr 2

= I
If more than one force
applied to the object

net

= I

10.8: Example: a uniform disk, with mass M = 2.5 kg and radius R = 20 cm,
mounted on a fixed horizontal axle. A block with mass m = 1.2 kg hangs from a
massless cord that is wrapped around the rim of the disk. Find the acceleration of
the falling block, the angular acceleration of the disk, and the tension in the cord.
The cord does not slip, and there is no friction at the axle.

Extended object look at the CM

a=?

solution

L
= rF sin = rF = ( ) Mg
2
L
but = I = ( ) Mg

1
1
with I = MR 2 = (2.5)(0.2) 2 = 0.05 kg.m 2
2
2
a = 4.8m / s 2 , T = 6 N , and = 24 rad / s 2

10.8: Example: A uniform rod of length L and mass M is


attached as shown. The rod is released from rest in the
horizontal position. What are the initial angular acceleration of
the rod and the initial translational acceleration of its right end?
=? and at=?
* The rode will move like pendulum
under the effect of Fg=Mg

=?
T=?

For rotation
clockwise (
) -ve

Newtons second law


in rotation

2
( L / 2) Mg 3g
= =
=
I
1 / 3ML2
2L

at
The translational
acceleration is

10.8: Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy

10.8: Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy:


Work Kinetic Energy theorem

Work in linear motion

dW = F ds
r r
W = F s
dW r r
= F .v
P =
dt

The work-kinetic energy theorem for linear motion:

1
2

1
2

2
2
W = mv f mvi

External work done on an object changes its kinetic energy

Work in rotational motion

dW = F ds
dW = d
W =
P =

10.8: Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy:


Example
In previous example of disk, if the disk start
from rest at time t = 0 . What is its
rotational kinetic energy KR at t = 2.5 s?
From previous example we have
1
1
I = MR 2 = (2.5)(0.2) 2 = 0.05 kg.m 2
2
2
a = 4.8m / s 2 , T = 6 N , and = 24 rad / s 2

KR =

1 2
I
2

We need to find at t = 2.5s

= 0 + t = 0 + 24(2.5) = 60 rad/s
KR =

1 2 1
I = (0.05)(60) 2 = 90J
2
2

M = 2.5 kg ,radius R = 20 cm, and m = 1.2 kg

and for rotational motion:

W = 2 I

2
f

1
2
Ii = K R
2

External rotational work done on an object changes its


rotational kinetic energy

10.8: Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy:


Example: continued from previous slide
or

K R = W
K f K i = K 0 = ( )
We need to find and

= RT = ( 0.2 )( 6 ) = 1.2 N.m


1
1
= 0t + t 2 = 0 + (24)(2.5) 2 = 75 rad
2
2

K R = = (1.2)(75) = 90J
M = 2.5 kg ,radius R = 20 cm, and m = 1.2 kg

Review

Linear quantities have analogous angular counterparts.

Review

Object rotating make both linear and angular quantities


at same instant there is a relation with angular and
linear quantities
Torque is the tendency of a force to rotate an object.
The total kinetic energy of a rotating object has to
include its rotational kinetic energy.