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Constant angular acceleration

Angular and linear quantities

Rotational kinetic energy

Rotational inertia

Torque

Newtons 2nd law for rotation

Work and rotational kinetic energy

translational motion

In this chapter we will discuss the motion when object

turn about an axis (Rotational Motion)

Variables in rotational motion are analogous to those for

translational motion with few changes We will

Rigid body: body that can rotate with all its parts packed

together without any change in its shape

angle when object rotating) find the angular position, velocity ,

and acceleration.

Apply Newton second law but instead of force and mass we will

use torque and rotational inertia.

Apply energy concepts to angular quantities like work kinetic

energy theorem

shape in pure rotation about the z- axis

of a coordinate System every point

of the body moves in a circle whose

center lies on the axis of rotation (see

the arbitrary reference line), and every

point moves through the same angle

during a particular time interval

Angular position

s

r

s = r

in radians (rad.)

or revolution

and r dimensionless quantity

When r = s = 1 rad. 57.3

Full circle = 360 = 2 rad. 1 revolution ().

where = 22/7 = 3.14 we can convert between

rad. and degree from the correlation:

Degree

rad.

2

360

2

(rad) =

(deg)

360

??

Angular

displacement:

= f i

Average

angular speed:

Instantaneous

angular speed:

avg =

= lim

t 0

f i

(Rad.)

(Rad/s) s-1

t

d

=

t

dt

(Rad/s) s-1

t f ti

Average angular = f i =

acceleration: avg

t f ti

t

Instantaneous

angular

acceleration:

= lim

t 0

As particle moves

from angular position

i to f

(Rad/s) s-2

= 7200

rev/min

d

=

(Rad/s) s-2

t

dt

90

R=6 cm

displacement, speed and acceleration.

A childs top is spun with angular acceleration

At t = 0, the top has angular velocity 5 rad/s, and a reference line on

it is at angular position (i) = 2 rad. Find (a) angular velocity at

the top at any time (b) angular position at any time

tf

tf

a) = dt

b)

ti

= dt

ti

i = (5t 3 4t )dt

5

i = ( t 4 2t 2 + 5)dt

4

0

5

5 = t 4 2t 2

4

5 4

= t 2t 2 + 5

4

1

2

2 = t 5 t 3 + 5t

4

3

1 5 2 3

= t t + 5t + 2

4

3

it can be written as

For rotation about a fixed axis,

the direction of the angular

velocity is along the axis of

rotation.

Use the right hand rule to

determine direction.

Also angular acceleration is a

vector quantity

can be

r

written having same rules

for direction and same rules of

speeding up rotation or slowing

down rotation

For rotation

counterclockwise

()

+ve

For rotation

clockwise

()

-ve

acceleration

For rotational motion with constant rotational acceleration

The equations of motion are similar in to the equation of

motion in one dimension (1D);

Only do the following symbol replacement

x

v

a

acceleration

Linear (1D) Motion

Rotational Motion

v = v0 + at

= 0 + t

x = x0 + 12 (v0 + v)t

= 0 + 12 (0 + )t

x x0 = x = 12 (v0 + v)t

0 = = 12 (0 + )t

x f xi = x = (vi + v f )t

1

2

1

= 0t + t 2

2

1

x = v0t + at 2

2

2 = 0 2 + 2

v 2 = v0 + 2ax

acceleration: Example

acceleration: Example: continued from

previous slide

= 3.5rad / s 2 , ti = 0 s, t = 2.00 rad s , t f = 2.00 s

i

= ?, revolutions = ?, t f = ?

1 rev.

= 11 rad

= 1.75 rev.

2 rad .

= 3.5rad / s 2 , ti = 0 s, t = 2.00 rad s , t f = 2.00 s

i

= ?, revolutions = ?, t f = ?

acceleration: Example

While you are operating a Rotor cylinder, the angular velocity of the

cylinder from 3.4 rad/s to 2.0 rad/s in 20 rev., at constant angular

acceleration. Find (a) the angular acceleration (b) time to decrease

the angular speed.

We have i= 3.4 rad/s

f = 2 rad/s

= 20 rev.

a)

2

2

rad

.

2 = 0 + 2 with = 20 rev.(

) = 125.7 rad .

1 rev.

2 0 2

=

2

b)

4 11.56

=

= 0.03 rad/s

251.4

= 0 + t

0

t =

t =

2 3.4

= 46.7 s

0.03

Variables: Example

A race car accelerates constantly from a speed of 40 m/s to 60 m/s in 5 s

around a circular track of radius 400 m. When the car reaches a speed of

50 m/s find the (a) Angular speed (b) Centripetal acceleration, Tangential

acceleration, and angular acceleration (d) The magnitude of the total

acceleration.

We have

v1 40

=

= 0.1 rad / s

r 400

v2 = 60 m/s 2 = 0.15 rad / s

t = 5s, v1 = 40 m/s 1 =

at =?,

atot=?

v 50

a) v = r = =

= 0.125 rad/s

r 400

b) ac =

v 2 (50) 2

=

= 6.25 m/s 2 or ac = r 2 = 400(0.125) 2 = 6.25 m/s 2

r

400

Variables

For a rotating object, both linear and angular

quantities are simultaneously exist there must

be a relation between them

Arc length s:

Tangential speed of a

point P:

s = r

v = r

at = r

Centripetal acceleration

for rotation object:

ar =

Tangential acceleration

of a point P:

Magnitude of total

acceleration

v2

= r 2

r

2

a = ar + at2

Variables: Example: continued from

previous slide

We have t = 5s,

c) From linear quantities we can find the linear acceleration at

v2 v1 60 40

=

= 4 m/s

5

t

4

at

= 0.01 rad . / s 2

at = r = =

r 400

v2 = v1 + at t at =

2 1

0.15 0.1

= 0.01 rad / s 2

5

t

at = r = 400(0.01) = 4m / s 2

2 = 1 + t =

axis has a rotational kinetic energy of:

1 n

1 n

K = mi vi2 = mi ri 2 2

2 i =1

2 i =1

vi is the linear speed for i particle

KR =

1 2

I

2

Mathematically, Similar in

shape to linear K with the

(J) following replacements

I m, v

or rotational inertia:

I = mi ri

i

r is the distance from rotational axis

continued from previous slide

I mi ri

I = mi ri 2 for mi 0

i

I = r 2 dm

m=V dm= dV

m=A dm=dA

m=L dm=dL

If dm = dV

I = r 2 dV

Example

Moments of inertia for various objects

ICM : Moment of inertia about an axis of rotation through the center of mass

Extended object

; dL=dx (L is on x-axis)

and

Parallel axis theorem

10.8: Torque

Fsin

of rotation a distance h away from the center of mass is:

I = I CM + Mh

Fcos

I = I CM + Mh 2

Is angle between F

and r directions

I=

1

L 1

ML2 + M = ML2

12

3

2

A force is applied to the object.

This force causes the object to rotate having what is

called Torque .

= rF sin

Torque

and Angular Acceleration

10.8: Torque

consider a particle of mass m rotating a bout a fixed axis under

an influence of applied force F

The component Fr does no torque since (anti-parallel to r)

the tangent component Ft has a torque

= Ft r

Two forces T1 and T2 are applied as shown

(sin 90 = 1)

but

Ft = mat

and

at = r

For rotation

counterclockwise

()

+ve

= Ft r = mr 2

= I

If more than one force

applied to the object

net

= I

10.8: Example: a uniform disk, with mass M = 2.5 kg and radius R = 20 cm,

mounted on a fixed horizontal axle. A block with mass m = 1.2 kg hangs from a

massless cord that is wrapped around the rim of the disk. Find the acceleration of

the falling block, the angular acceleration of the disk, and the tension in the cord.

The cord does not slip, and there is no friction at the axle.

a=?

solution

L

= rF sin = rF = ( ) Mg

2

L

but = I = ( ) Mg

1

1

with I = MR 2 = (2.5)(0.2) 2 = 0.05 kg.m 2

2

2

a = 4.8m / s 2 , T = 6 N , and = 24 rad / s 2

attached as shown. The rod is released from rest in the

horizontal position. What are the initial angular acceleration of

the rod and the initial translational acceleration of its right end?

=? and at=?

* The rode will move like pendulum

under the effect of Fg=Mg

=?

T=?

For rotation

clockwise (

) -ve

in rotation

2

( L / 2) Mg 3g

= =

=

I

1 / 3ML2

2L

at

The translational

acceleration is

Work Kinetic Energy theorem

dW = F ds

r r

W = F s

dW r r

= F .v

P =

dt

1

2

1

2

2

2

W = mv f mvi

dW = F ds

dW = d

W =

P =

Example

In previous example of disk, if the disk start

from rest at time t = 0 . What is its

rotational kinetic energy KR at t = 2.5 s?

From previous example we have

1

1

I = MR 2 = (2.5)(0.2) 2 = 0.05 kg.m 2

2

2

a = 4.8m / s 2 , T = 6 N , and = 24 rad / s 2

KR =

1 2

I

2

= 0 + t = 0 + 24(2.5) = 60 rad/s

KR =

1 2 1

I = (0.05)(60) 2 = 90J

2

2

W = 2 I

2

f

1

2

Ii = K R

2

rotational kinetic energy

Example: continued from previous slide

or

K R = W

K f K i = K 0 = ( )

We need to find and

1

1

= 0t + t 2 = 0 + (24)(2.5) 2 = 75 rad

2

2

K R = = (1.2)(75) = 90J

M = 2.5 kg ,radius R = 20 cm, and m = 1.2 kg

Review

Review

at same instant there is a relation with angular and

linear quantities

Torque is the tendency of a force to rotate an object.

The total kinetic energy of a rotating object has to

include its rotational kinetic energy.

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