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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (Timpul present simplu)

Forma:
[VERB] + s/es la pers. a III-a sg.
Exemple:

You speak English.

She speaks English.

He does his homework.


Pentru obtinerea formei de interogativ, se utilizeaza vb. auxiliar do (si respectiv does pt. pers. a III-a sg.), care va fi
pozitionat inaintea subiectului.
Exemple:

Do you speak English?

Does she speak English?


Pentru obtinerea formei de negativ, se utilizeaza vb. auxiliar do la forma negativa (do not sau forma contractata
dont si respectiv does not sau forma contractata doesnt pt. pers. a III-a sg.), care va fi pozitionat intre subiect si
verbul de conjugat.
Exemple:

You do not speak English.

You dont speak English.

She does not speak English.

She doesnt speak English.


Majoritatea verbelor se conjuga dupa modelul verbului "to run" (a alerga) de mai jos. Observati modalitatea de adaugare a
terminatiei "s" la pers. a III-a sg.
Afirmativ

Negativ

I run.
You run.
He runs.
She runs.
It runs.
We run.
They run.

Interogativ
I do not run.
He does not run.
She does not run.
It does not run.
You do not run.
We do not run.
They do not run.

Do I run?
Do you run?
Does he run?
Does she run?
Does it run?
Do we run?
Do they run?

Anumite clase de verbe primesc terminatia es la persoana a III-a sg.


I. Verbele terminate in ss:
I dress. He dresses.

II. Verbele terminate in x:


I fix the car. He fixes the car.

III. Verbele terminate in ch:


I watch TV. He watches TV.

IV. Verbele terminate in sh:


I wash the dishes. He washes the dishes.

V. Verbele terminate in o:

I go to school. He goes to school.

Verbul to have (a avea), la pers. a III-a sg., afirmativ, are forma neregulata:
Afirmativ

Negativ

I have.
You have.
He has.
She has.
It has.
We have.
They have.

Interogativ
I do not have.
You do not have.
He does not have.
She does not have.
It does not have.
We do not have.
They do not have.

Do I have?
Do you have?
Does he have?
Does she have?
Does it have?
Do we have?
Do they have?

Verbul to be (a fi) are foma neregulata la timpul Simple Present:


Afirmativ

Negativ

I am. (Im)
You are. (youre)
He is. (hes)
She is. (shes)
It is. (its)
We are. (were)
They are. (theyre)

Interogativ
I am not. (Im not)
You are not. (you arent)
He is not. (he isnt)
She is not. (she isnt)
It is not. (it isnt)
We are not. (we arent)
They are not. (they arent)

Am I?
Are you?
Is he?
Is she?
Is it?
Are we?
Are they?

Verbele Modale
Verbele modale constituie o clasa speciala de verbe utilizate pentru a exprima idei cum sunt: posibilitatea, intentia,
obligatia, necesitatea. Exemple de astfel de verbe sunt: can, must, should. Aceste verbe nu primesc terminatia s sau
es la pers. a III-a sg.
Afirmativ

Negativ

I should go.
You should go.
He should go.
She should go.
It should go
We should go.
They should go.

Interogativ
I should not go.
You should not go.
He should not go.
She should not go.
It should not go.
We should not go.
They should not go.

Should I go?
Should you go?
Should he go?
Should she go?
Should it go?
Should we go?
Should they go?

Utilizari
1. Actiuni care se produc in mod repetat sau de obicei; aceasta actiune poate fi un obicei, un hobby, un eveniment
zilnic, un eveniment planificat sau o actiune care are loc deseori (everyday, every week/year/month, usually,
always, daily, often, never etc.)

Exemple:
I play tennis.

She does not play tennis.


Does he play tennis?
The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
The train does not leave at 9 AM.

When does the train usually leave?


She always forgets her purse.
He never forgets his wallet.
Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
Does the Sun circle the Earth?

2. Fapte sau generalizari despe persoane sau lucruri; in aceasta situatie, timpul prezent simplu poate indica faptul ca
vorbitorul considera ca un anumit lucru a fost adevarat inainte, este adevarat acum si va fi adevarat si in viitor; nu
conteaza daca vorbitorul are sau nu dreptate in ceea ce priveste acest lucru.
Exemple:
Cats like milk.
California is not in the United Kingdom.
Birds do not like milk.
Windows are made of glass.
Do pigs like milk?
Windows are not made of wood.
California is in America.
New York is a small city. IT IS NOT IMPORTANT
THAT THIS FACT IS UNTRUE.

3. Evenimente planificate in viitorul apropiat


Vorbitorii folosesc ocazional timpul prezent simplu pentru a vorbi despre evenimente planificate in viitorul apropiat; in acest
caz, prezentul simplu este folosit de obicei atunci cand se vorbeste despre transportul in comun dar poate fi utilizat si cu
evenimente planificate.
Exemple:
The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
The party starts at 8 o'clock.
The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
When does class begin tomorrow?
When do we board the plane?

4. Now (acum) cu verbe care nu pot fi trecute la forma continua


Vorbitorii folosesc timpul prezent simplu pentru a expima faptul ca o actiune se petrece sau nu se petrece acum (now); in
aceasta situatie pot fi utilizate insa numai verbele care nu pot fi trecute la forma continua.
Exemple:
I am here now.
He does not need help now.
She is not here now.
He has his passport in his hand.
He needs help right now.
Do you have your passport with you?

Present Continuous Tense (Timpul Prezent continuu)


FORMA
Vb. to be (a fi) la present simple + vb. de conjugat + ing
Forma vb. + ing se numeste participiu present.
Example:
You are watching TV.
Are you watching TV?
You are not watching TV.

Affirmative
Subject

+ to be

+ vb. +ing

she

is

talking

Negative
Subject

+ to be + not

+ vb.
+ing

she

is not (isn't)

talking

Interrogative
to be

+ subject

+ vb. +ing

is

she

talking?

Exemplu: to go, present continuous


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am going

I am not going

Am I going?

You are going

You aren't going.

Are you going?

He, she, it is going He, she, it isn't going Is he, she, it going?
We are going

We aren't going

Are we going?

You are going

You aren't going

Are you going?

They are going

They aren't going

Are they going?

Reguli de scriere ale participiului prezent (vb. + ing)


Urmatoarele verbe sufera o serie de transformari la adaugarea terminatiei ing:
I. Verbele terminate in e pierd e final la adaugarea terminatiei ing.
Exemplu: take- taking
II. Verbele alcatuite dintr-o singura silaba, terminate intr-o consoana precedata de o singura vocala
accentuata, dubleaza consoana finala la adaugarea terminatiei ing.
Exemplu: stop- stopping
Observatie: aceasta regula nu se aplica verbelor terminate in w, x, y, z!
III. Verbele alcatuite din doua silabe, terminate intr-o silaba accentuate, care, la randul ei este terminate intro consoana precedata de o vocala, dubleaza consoana finala la adaugarea terminatiei ing.
Exemplu: begin-beginning; refer- referring
IV. Verbele terminate in ie, transforma ie in y la adaugarea terminatiei ing.
Exemplu : lie- lying ; die-dying

Utilizari
1 Actiuni care se petrec in momentul vorbirii (now, at the moment)
Exemple:
You are learning English now.
You are not swimming now.
Are you sleeping?
I am sitting.
I am not standing.

Is he sitting or standing?
They are reading their books.
They are not watching television.
What are you doing?
Why aren't you doing your homework?

2 Actiuni aflate in progres, momentul vorbirii fiind inclus


In limba engleza, "now" (acum) poate insemna: in clipa aceasta, astazi, luna aceasta, anul acesta,
secolul acesta etc. Cateodata, utilizam timpul prezent continuu atunci cand dorim sa exprimam faptul ca
ne aflam in procesul de a face o actiune de durata, aflata in progres; cu toate acestea, este posibil sa nu
facem actiunea in clipa respectiva.
Example: (Toate aceste propozitii pot fi rostite in timpul unei cine, la restaurant)
I am studying to become a doctor.
I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
I am not studying to become a dentist.
I am not reading any books right now.

Are you working on any special projects


at work?

Aren't you teaching at the university now?

3. Actiuni sau evenimente temporare


Exemplu:
He usually plays the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight.
The weather forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment.

4. Viitorul apropiat
Cateodata, vorbitorii pot utiliza prezentul continuu pentru situatii sau actiuni care vor avea loc in viitorul
apropiat; de obicei aceasta utilizare apare in cadrul contextului de planuri personale.
Exemple:
I am meeting some friends after work.
I am not going to the party tonight.
Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
Isn't he coming with us tonight?

5. Actiuni repetate, iritante, cu adverbe de frecventa ("always", constantly,


forever etc.)
Exemple:
She is always coming to class late.
He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.
I don't like them because they are always complaining.

Verbe care nu pot fi utilizate la forma continua (Non-Continuous Verbs)


1. Verbe care exprima perceptii senzoriale: see, feel, hear, smell, taste, sound, seem,
appear etc.
Aceste verbe pot fi utilizate la forma continua atunci cand accentul nu mai este pus pe
perceptie, senzatie iar verbul capata un cu totul alt sens :
a. This coat feels nice and warm. (= your perception of the coat's qualities)
b. John's feeling much better now (= his health is improving)
a. The soup tastes good. (= perception on the soups quality)
b. I am tasting the soup. (= the action of tasting)
a. I can see Anthony in the garden (= perception)
b. I'm seeing Anthony later (= We are planning to meet)
a. That appears to be stale. (appear = 'look like')
b. Jack Daniels is performing at the Paramount tonight. (appear = 'be on stage / perform')

2. Verbe care exprima opinii si stari mentale: believe, doubt, imagine, know, think,
realize, recognize, remember, suppose, understand, agree, disagree, deny, mean, promise
etc.
Aceste verbe pot fi utilizate la forma continua atunci cand, in functie de context, verbul
capata un cu totul alt sens :
I think we should leave immediately. (think = 'have an opinion')
He's thinking hard about the problem. (think = 'use the brain')

3. Verbe care exprima stari emotionale: impress, please, satisfy, surprise, astonish,
dislike, like, love, hate, prefer, want, wish etc.
4. Verbe care exprima posesia si situatii permanente: be, belong, consist, contain, cost,
measure, weight, depend, fit, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess etc.
Aceste verbe pot fi utilizate la forma continua atunci cand accentul nu mai este pus pe
posesie sau pe starea permanenta a subiectului iar verbul capata un cu totul alt sens :
a. She has three dogs and a cat. (=possession)
b. She's having supper. (= She's eating)

5. Verbe diverse: look (=resemble), seem, be (in most cases), can, must