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THEORY

o CREATIONISM=religious belief that universe and life originated from


specific acts of divine creation.
o BIG BANG=universe originated in an explosion from a single point of nearly
infinite energy density.
o STEADY STATE=universe has always existed and has always been expanding
continuosly.
EARTHS BIOSYSTEM
o HYDROSPHERE=water
o LITHOSPHERE=earth
o ATMOSPHERE=air
o BIOSPHERE=animals,plants,fungi,protists,archaebacteria/eubacteria
TYPES OF ROCKS
o IGNEOUS= formed throughthe cooling and solidification of magma or lava
o SEDIMENTARY=formed from sediments that being weathered from its rock.
o METAMORPHIC=bregin either igneous or sedimentary,can formed through the
metamorphosis.
MINERAL RESOURCES
o OCCURRENCE=concentration of a mineral that is of scientific or technical
interest
o MINERAL DEPOSIT= a mineral that has not been tested
o ORE DEPOSIT= a mineral that has been tested
o AGGREGATE=rock or mineral material used
=generally used o describe nonmetallic deposit
o ORE= naturally occurring
TYPES OF MINERAL RESOURCES
o METALLIC=must broken apart and chemically processed to extract he useful
metal of the mineral
o NON-METALLIC=have no metallic luster and break easily
ORIGIN OF MINERAL DEPOSITS
o MAGMATIC ORE DEPOSITS=accumulation of magmatic minerals
o HYDROTHERMAL ORE DEPOSITS=formed by the precipitation of solids
from hot mineral-laden water
o SEDIMENTARY ORE DEPOSITS=chemical precipitation coming from lakes or
sea water
o PLACER ORE DEPOSITS= formed by the concentration of valuable substance
through gravity separation during sedimentary process.
o RESIDUAL ORE DEPOSITS=accumulation of valuable materials

RENEWABLE RESOURCES=is a resource which can be used repeatedly because it


replaced naturally.
o GEOTHERMAL ENERGY=thermal energy stored in the Earth.
o HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY=is the process obtaining heat or energy from a
large body of a water.
o SOLAR ENERGY=energy from the sun that converted to thermal or electrical
energy.
o WIND ENERGY=process by which wind is used o generae electricity.
o BIOMASS ENERGY=energy from plants.
NON- RENEWABLE RESOURCES=are used faster than they can be replaced.
o FOSSIL FUELS=formed in the geologic past from the remains of living
organism.
Coal
Oil
Natural gas
HOW FOSSIL FUELS FORM?
=million of years need to form again
Saturated water
Anaerobic condition
Extreme pressure
Extreme temperature
SOIL RESOURCES
Sand
Silt
Clay
Loam
o DESERTIFICATION
Climate changes
Overgazing
Illegal logging
Land compaction
Salinization=too much minerals in soil
Erosion
Water logging
EXOGENIC PROCESS
o EROSION=process of transporting sediments
Water
Streams

#Transported sediments
1.Dissolved loads=ions dissolved in a solution
2.Suspended loads=solid carried by streams(fast current-for heavier loads, slow current-for
lighter loads)
3.Bed loads=the current cant carry this load.
.Erosion by ground water
1.Aluvial fans=located in arid regions
2.-Deltas= a piece of land shaped like atriangle that is formed when ariver splits into smaller
riversbefore it flows into an ocean.
*estuaris=meeting point if salt water and fresh water.
3.Flood plains-as the water spread out over the land ,it's slow down and drops it's sediment.
4.Levee= it is a raised strip of sediments deposit close to the water's edge.
.Erosion by waves
#3 things that affect the rate of sediment erosion.
A.the speed of the wind
B.the length of time the wind blows
C.the distance of the wind blows
*the bigger the wave the better erosion of sediments
(Ex.wave cut cliffs, sea arches,sea stacks )
.Glacial Erosion
=it has more force than the other erosional agents because of they incredible mass
=it can erode the landscape
#Mass wasting=movement of rock particles and soil due to gravity and erosion thru
surface,water,wave action, wind action and glacial movement.

ENDOGENIC PROCESS
o Volcanoes and other Igneous activity
=The viscosity of magma is directly related to its silica content.
*Rhyolitic lava=high silica content,very viscous.
*Basaltic lava=lower silica content,is more fluid and may travel a long distance before
congealing
=dissolved gasses provide the force that propels molten rock from the vent of a volcano *more
dissolved the more explosive
*less dissolved the less explosive
=Most active volcanoes are associated with plate boundaries.

WHY IS EARTH'S INTERIOR HOT?


=The earth's interior is hot because of the pressure,the earth is still cooling from when it is
temperature also increase.We are still cooling from when Earth formed,because we already know
that the earth was made of elements came from the heavenly bodies (asteriods, meteorites

etc.)that bumped to each other .And the earth's core was very hot and it has uranium that is very
dense and radioactive.
TWO TYPES OF METAMORPHISM
o CONTACT METAMORPHISM=heat and rocks
o REGIONAL METAMORPHISM=pressure and convergent
FOLDING/FAULTING OF ROCKS
o TYPES OF FOLDING
=There are five types of folding.Monocline it is a kind of folding involves a slight bend
in otherwise parallel layers of the rocks.Anticline is a convex up fold in rock that
resembles or arch like structure with the rock beds.Syncline is a reverse type of anticline
which convex down fold of rock.Recumbent has an essentially horizontal axial
plane.And overturned that has the axial plane inclined to such an extent that the strata on
one limb are overturned.
o KINDS OF FAULTS
=Faults form in rocks resulting in fracture
. 1.Normal Fault=tensional forces at in opposite direction
2.Reverse Fault=counter acted
3. Graben Fault=when tensional stress result in the subsidence of block of rock.(ex.rift valleys)
4.Horse Fault=development of two reverse faults causing a block of rock to be pushed up.
5.Strike-slip or Transform Fault=a fault in which rock strata are displaced mainly in a horizontal
direction, parallel to the line of the fault.
MOVEMENT/STRESS
=There was three types of stress.First,the compression stress that moves toward each other it can
cause subduction and mountain forming. Second, the tension stress that moves away from each
other it can cause new seafloors and trenches.Lastly,the shear stress that grind each other.
PLATE TECTONICS
=Plate tectonic was offered by Alfred Wegener in 1900's.He said that the earth's rigid outer
shell ,called lithosphere,it consists of seven large and numerous segments called plates that are in
motion relative to each other.And he also gave the three plate boundaries. The first boundary is
the convergent plate boundaries which the boundaries are moving toward to each other resulting
of subduction.It has three kinds of convergent.The continental to continental that can be result of
forming mountains and subductions,continental to oceanic that can be result of,and oceanic to
oceanic that can result volcanic arch like in Hawaii. The second kind is the divergent plate
boundaries that moves away from each other it can result new sea floor and trenches. And the
last is the transform fault boundaries that gtimd each other without the production or destruction
of lithosphere.And he has evidences that supported his plate tectonics the paleomagnetism the
direction and intensity of earth's magnetismn in geologic past,the global distribution of

earthquakes and their close association with plate boundaries, the ages of sediments from the
floors of the deep-ocean basins, and the existence of island groups that formed over hotspots and
provide a frame of reference for tracing the direction of plate motion
THREE BASIC MODEL FOR MANTLE CONVECTION ATE CURRENTLY BEING
EVALUATED.
* convection-cyclic movement of molecules.
1.Slab-pull= occurs when an oceanic plate subducts into the underlying mantle.
2.Ridge push= Gravitational force that causes a plate to move away from the crest of an ocean
ridge, and into a subduction zone.
3.Mantle plumes= is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the earths mantle
CATASTOPHISM/UNIFORMITARIANISM
o CATASTROPHISM
=Its a idea of that many of Earths surface has been scarred by catastrophic
disaster.And the theory that the Earth has been asffected in the past by sudden events
such as floods.And the changes because of what happen suddenly in the past.But it has
no evidences that can approved it.
o UNIFORMITARIANISM
=it was introduced by James Hutton ,the father of geology.He disagreed the idea of
catastrophism because he made some observation and he find out that the castostrophism
is wrong. So he proposed the idea of unifortarianism.It is the idea that the processes that
the shape of the world now,is also the shaped in the pass.And the processes that happen
in the enormous of timeor slowly not suddenly . And its approved by Charles Lyell
GEOLOGIC HISTORY
o ABSOLUTE
=Determining the actualage of the rock of fossil using radio active decay.
o RELATIVE DATING
=Determining which rock,fossil or event came first,second ,third etc.

DATING

FOSSILS
=Its are the bremains or traces of organisms that lived in the past.And most preserved
remains of them are hard bones,teeth and shells. It also use in studying of what happen in
the past.And also the evidence that there are big animals lived in the earth before the
came in this world. There are four types of fossils:the mold fossil that found in
sedimentary rocks an d its formed when sediments fills the inside or covers the outside
of the dead organism so the shape of the organism print out in the sedimentary through
very long time,cast fossils the results of the minerals of dead organism mare deposited
in this mold,trace fossils is the traces or bodys prints of a organism and true form
fossils ,the fossils that real or the actual animal.

GEOLOGICAL TIME PERIODS


o PRECAMBRIAN
=divided in three erasthe;Hadean,Archean,and the Proterozoic .
=also known as the cryptozoic or obscure life

o CAMBRIAN PERIOD
=Time of trilobites
=most of living organism live in water
=first geological period of the Paleozoic Era(time of ancient life)
=long period of recurrent ice ages
o ORDOVICIAN PERIOD
=Time of invertibrates animals
= second geological period of the Paleozoic Era(time of ancient life)
o SILURIAN PERIOD
=evolution of fishes
=time of vertibrates animals
=evolution of plants
= third geological period of the Paleozoic Era(time of ancient life)
o DEVONIAN PERIOD
=Ages of fishes
= forth geological period of the Paleozoic Era(time of ancient life)

CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD
=Ages of large insects
= fifth geological period of the Paleozoic Era(time of ancient life)
=good for making fossil fuels because the swaps surroundings
o MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD
=early period
o PENNSYLVANIAN PERIOD
=lately period

o PERMIAN PERIOD
=Ages of reptiles

=last period in Paleozoic Era

o TRIASSIC PERIOD
=first period in Mesozoic Era
=time of tremendous change and rejuvenation
=in this period saw the rise of reptiles and first dinosaurs

o JURASSIC PERIOD

=saw the rise of dinosaurs and big birds

=Pangea was beginning to break out


=second period in Mesozoic Era
o CRETACEOUS PERIOD
=ending of extinction of dinosaurs and big birds
=longest and last period in Mesozoic Era

TERM PAPER IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
S11ES

EVANGELISTA,CARMELA,T,

NOVEMBER 03,2016