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FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE “Notes on Nursing: What It Is, What It Is Not” (first nursing theory) -manipulating one’s environment (noise, nutrition, hygiene, light, comfort, socialization and hope) to promote wellness -reparative process of getting well VIRGINIA HENDERSON “The Nature of Nursing Model” “14 Fundamental Needs Theory” -unique function of the nurse: to assist the clients, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health and its recovery -assisting the client in gaining independence as rapidly as possible -14 fundamental needs: breath, eat, drink, eliminate, posture, sleep, dress, temperature, hygiene, communicate worship, work, play, learn and avoid danger FAYE ABDELLAH “Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing Model” “21 Nursing Problems” -nursing as a well prepared service to individuals and families therefore to society -nursing as an art and science that molds the attitudes, intellectual, competencies, and technical skills of the individual nurse into the desire and ability to help people, sick or well and cope with their health needs DOROTHY E. JOHNSON “The Behavioral System Model” -each person as a behavioral system is composed of 7 subsystems: ingestive, eliminative, affiliative, aggressive, dependence, achievement, sexual and role identity behavior -each person strives to achieve balance and stability both internally and externally and to function effectively by adjusting and adapting to environmental forces through learned patterns of response IMOGENE KING “Goal Attainment Theory” “Open system Model” -nursing as a helping profession that assist individuals and groups in society to attain, maintain and restore health -nursing as an interaction process between client and nurse to help the client reestablish a positive adaptation to his/her environment MADELEINE LEININGER “Transcultural Nursing Model” -nursing is a humanistic and scientific mode of helping a client through specific cultural caring processes (cultural values, beliefs and practices) to improve or maintain health conditions MYRA ESTRIN LEVIN “Four Conservation Theory” -nursing is a human interaction aimed at conserving energy to optimize use of client’s resources 4 conservation Principles
• Conservation of Energy- human body needs producing input (foods, oxygen, fluids) to allow energy
utilization as output
• Conservation of Structural Integrity- human body has physical boundaries (skin and mucous
membrane) that must be maintained to facilitate health and prevent harmful agents from entering the body individual client’s personality
• Conservation of Personal Integrity- nursing interventions are based on the conservation of the • Conservation of Social Integrity- social integrity of the client reflects the family and the community in
which the client functions. It is important for nurses to consider the individual in the context of the family
BETTY NEUMAN “Health Care System Model” -nursing is a unique profession in that it is concerned with all the variables affecting an individual’s response to stresses, which are intra (within the individual), inter (between one or more other people) and extrapersonal (outside the individual) in nature -concern of nursing is to prevent stress invasion to protect the client’s basic structure and to obtain a maximum level of wellness DOROTHEA OREM “Self Care and Self Care Deficit Theory” “Nursing: Concept of Practice” -defined self care as the practice of activities that individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf in maintaining life, health and well-being 3 Nursing Systems
• Wholly Compensatory- when the nurse is expected to accomplish all the patient’s therapeutic self care
or to compensate for the patient’s inability to engage in self-care
• Partially Compensatory- when both nurse and patient engage in meeting self care needs • Supportive-Educative- the system requires assistance in decision making, behavior control and
acquisition of knowledge and skills HILDEGARD PEPLAU “Interpersonal Model” -nursing as an interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between an individual who is sick or in need of health services and a nurse especially educated to recognize and respond to the need for help -4 phases of nurse-client relationship: orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution MARTHA ROGERS “Science of Unitary Human Beings” -unitary man is an energy filed in constant interaction with the environment -human beings are more than and different from the sum of their parts; the distinctive properties of the whole are significantly different from those of its parts SISTER CALLISTA ROY “Adaptation Model” -each person as a unified biopsychosocial system in constant interaction with a changing environment -person as an adaptive system, functions as a whole through interdependence of its parts -all people have certain needs when they endeavor to meet in order to maintain integrity. These needs are divided into four different modes: physiological, self concept, role function and interdependence LYDIA HALL “Nursing: What Is It?” -nursing centers on 3 components: care (nurturance and is exclusive to nursing) core (therapeutic use of self and emphasize the use of reflection) cure (nursing, disease and treatment) -coined the term Nursing Process IDA JEAN ORLANDO “The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship Model” -nurse helps patients meet a perceived need that the patients cannot meet themselves -nurse provides direct assistance to meet an immediate need for help in order to avoid or to alleviate distress or helplessness -nursing action can be automatic (those chosen for reasons other than the immediate need for help) or deliberative (those resulting from validating the need for help, exploring the meaning of the need, and validating effectiveness of the action taken to meet the need) -advocated that the 3 elements composing nursing situation are: client behavior, nurse reaction and nurse action
JEAN WATSON “Human Caring Model” (Nursing: Human Science and Human Care) -nursing is the application of the art and human science through transpersonal caring transactions to help persons achieve mind-body-soul harmony, which generates self-knowledge, self-control, self-care and self- healing -focus on the curative factors derived from a humanistic perspective and from scientific knowledge ROSEMARIE RIZZO PARSE “Theory of Human Becoming” “Man-Living-Health Theory of Nursing” -free choice of personal meaning in relating value priorities, co-creating of rhythmical patterns, in exchange with the environment and contranscending in many dimensions as possibilities unfold -focus on humans as living unity and human’s qualitative participation with health experience JOYCE TRAVELBEE “Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing Model” “Human-to-Human Relationship Model” -goal of nursing is to assist individuals or family in preventing or coping with illness, regaining health, finding meaning in illness, or maintaining maximal degree of health -interpersonal process is a human-to-human relationship formed during illness and experience of suffering CLAUDE BERNARD “Concept of Health on Internal Milieu” -health is the ability to maintain the internal milieu. Illness is the result of failure to maintain the internal environment WALTER CANNON “Concept of Health on Homeostasis” -health is the ability to maintain homeostasis or dynamic equilibrium. Homeostasis is regulated by the negative feedback mechanism HANS SELYE “Modern Stress Theory” - Stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it
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