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Table of Contents

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Abstract

Keywords
.
Introduction
.
Objectives of study
.
Methodology

Population

Sample

Research tool
..
Data analysis

Findings, (discussion and conclusions)


Recommendations

References
.

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PHSYCHOLINGUISTICS PROBLEMS
ABSTRACT
Although various psycholinguistic models of speech and language processing have been developed to account for
levels of breakdown in developmental speech disorders, it is not obvious how they are to be applied in educational
practice. At the same time, speech and language experts have routinely been using a wide range of procedures,
including published tests, that tap different levels of phonological processing in the child. When analyzed and
classified appropriately, these procedures can form the basis for a comprehensive psycholinguistic investigation of

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developmental speech disorders. The aim of this paper is to present interview study useable, needs- for investigation
of psycholinguistic problems faced by students during speaking English. It is illustrated by means of a case study of
a student with a psycholinguistic problems at intermediate level. Which will reveals a complex pattern of deficits
within the speaking processing chain. The study is performed on 60 students of intermediate level.

KEYWORDS
Psycholinuistic models, speech disorders, phonological processing,students

INTRODUCTION
There are many considerations that need to be taken into account when teaching an individual to read and speak. It is
estimated that the average child comes to school with a speaking and listening vocabulary of 24,000 words (Adams,
239), so teaching an individual to read should be easy if you just need to help them match spoken words which they
already know with letters to create a visual meaning. However, this is not normally the case. Children between the
ages of 3 and 5 begin school and their abilities vary greatly, anywhere from gifted, to at risk of a learning disability.
Some may speak a few different languages, some may be slow learners, a child may be gifted and find it boring to
read or listen to books that are at a level suitable for the rest of the class, others might be the youngest in their class
and be expected to perform at the same level as children almost a full year older. With such diversity in the school
system, one needs to ask what is the best way of teaching reading to students who are just learning to read? There is
a century-old debate over the efficacy of teaching reading through phonics (sound-based) versus the whole-word
method (meaning-based)(McGunness, 2004). Since reading is a great way of increasing one's knowledge and
vocabulary it seems reasonable that there should be guidelines for teachers to follow as they teach students to read.
The curriculum is a good indicator of what a student should know or learn during a specific grade but since research
is always advancing how is one supposed to stay upto date with the newest learning styles. Teaching reading is
difficult because a teacher must adapt their teaching style to the student and figure out the best way to teach. This
disscussion brings us to a very widely debated topic: What is the right way to teach reading? Good teaching enables
students to learn to read and read to learn.
Even though psychololinguistic problems faced by student has been observed and studied for over 100 years, the
exact cause has only recently begun to become clear. This is most likely because psycholinguistic and English
reading problems has many disorders which may seem to be causing it, but might actually just co-occur with
psycholinguistic and English reading problems. For example, deficits in categorical perception, where one has
difficulty making the distinction between syllables, often occurs in individuals with psycholinguistic and English
reading problems but has also been shown to extend beyond language. This problem may, in part, cause
psycholinguistic and English reading problems or it might just commonly occur along side it (Dehaene, 2009).
At the core of psycholinguistic and English reading problems is a problem with phonological decoding, the conversion
of written symbols into speech sounds. Specifically, people who suffer from psycholinguistic and English reading
problems seem to have difficulty processing phonemes. Psycholinguistic and English reading problems is diagnosed
based on the symptoms which are presented in the individual, their background information, and behavioral
observations made to assess the validity of their symptoms (Pennington, Peterson, and McGrath, 2009). Symptoms
and assessments are compared against the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for reading disorder to determine whether or
not an individual has psycholinguistic and English reading problems (American Psychiatric Association [DSM-IVTR], 2000).

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OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

to assess the strong and weak psycholinguistic sides of the individual students.
to find what factors prevent them from reading effectively.
to act as a guide for proper remediation for therapists and teachers on the basis of observation checklist.
In order to investigate the strategies that individuals use for decoding single words, how well those strategies work, and
the reasons why those strategies are not working as effectively as they could be.

METHODOLOGY
Research was carried out on march 16 2016,on students of intermediate level at National public school Abbott bad in
academic year of 2016. In this study we had taken total number of 20students from PRE ENGINEERING 20 STUDENTS OF
PRE MEDICLE 20 OF ART. and sector using questionnaire 20 close ended questions dealing with psycholinguistic problems
those students faces.

POPULATION

60 intermediate students(2o premedical,20 pre engineering, 20 art).


20 close ended questions in each questionare.

SAMPLE
SAMPLE(X)=60.

RESEARCH TOOL
The study tool used for research is questionnaire having 20 close ended questions.
STUDENT NAME:----------------------ROLL NUM:-------------------------COURSE:--------------------------

OPINION
S.NO

QUESTIONS

Speaking English feels


difficult because my
English vocabulary is
limited

I feel uneasy and lack


confidence when I
speak English.

Speaking English
quite difficult because
I am careless in

AGREE

DISAGREE

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learning English.

Grammatical errors
are a serious problem
for me

Mother tongue
interference
(urdu)makes me
confused

Pronunciation of
words in English is
difficult.

Reading and
understanding English
texts are not easy.

My family encourages
me to learn English

I feel proud among my


colleagues when I
speak
English.

10

the syllabus of study


helps in learning
english

11

My religion influences
me to learn the
languages of other
people.

12

I am fascinated by the
American and English
societies

13

I will lose my identity

14

I have some negative


attitudes towards
English and its native
speakers.

15

my friends makes fun


of me while I speak

if I speak English.

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English.

16

I dont bother to speak


English.

17

I am not fluent in
speaking English.

18

Much time in English


period you get chance
for improving yours
speaking skill.

19

Can you read English


news paper, read other
English books?

20

Does your teacher


speak English all the
time in your class?

DATA ANALYSIS

S.NO

QUESTIONS

Speaking English feels


difficult because my
English vocabulary is
limited
I feel uneasy and lack
confidence when I
speak English.
Speaking English
quite difficult because
I am careless in

2
3

4
5

learning English.
Grammatical errors
are a serious problem
for me
Mother tongue
interference
(urdu)makes me
confused

OPINION OF STUDENTS IN
PERCENTAGE
AGREE %
DISAGREE %
98.3%

1.67%

80%

20%

76.7%

23%

70%

30%

75%

25%

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7
8
9

10
11

12
13
14

15
16
17
18

19
20

Pronunciation of
words in English is
difficult.
Reading and
understanding English
texts are not easy.
My family encourages
me to learn English
I feel proud among my
colleagues when I
speak
English.
the syllabus of study
helps in learning
english
My religion influences
me to learn the
languages of other
people.
I am fascinated by the
American and English
societies
I will lose my identity
if I speak English.
I have some negative
attitudes towards
English and its native
speakers.
my friends makes fun
of me while I speak
English.
I dont bother to speak
English.
I am not fluent in
speaking English.
Much time in English
period you get chance
for improving yours
speaking skill.
Can you read English
news paper, read other
English books?
Does your teacher
speak English all the
time in your class?

65%

35%

69%

31%

73%

27%

80%

20%

63.3%

36.7%

51.7%

48.3%

49.3%

51.7%

58.3%

41.7%

63.3%

36.7%

60%

40%

66.7%

33.3%

70%

30%

65%

35%

55%

45%

55%

45%

FINDINGS,(DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS)

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The study helped to locate problems of student in speaking English though most of students faces problems of lack of
confidence, in adequate vocabulary, hesitation of fluent speaking, English learning chances. Teachers should work hard and try
to improve students writing as well as speaking skills through extra reading or computer assisted programs. On the basis of the
research findings, it is concluded that students are hesitant in speaking English and using reading skill. It is recommended that
the exercise part should be improved and exercises should be added in order to improve the reading, writing and speaking skills
of the students.

RECOMENDATIONS
On the basis of findings and conclusion following recommendations are made.
First, Give more attention to language teaching at schools. This will produce students with good command of English.
Second, Give more attention to advising students on different issues related to the difficulties they face in English.
Third, Encourage student-student interaction in order to give students more chances to communicate.
Fourth, Encourage instructors to vary their methods and use more teaching aids.
Fifth, Motivate and encourage students to work harder. Motivation is an influential factor in
second language learning.

REFRENCES
Uzma Chaudry. 5655 Project psycholinguistics and language teaching AIOU
Dec 28, 2010
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision).
Washington, DC: Author.
Beaton, A. A. (2004). Psycholinguistic and English reading problems, Reading, and the Brain. New York: Psychology Press.
Bourassa, D. C. & Treiman, R. (2008). Morphological Constancy in Spelling: A Comparison of Children with Psycholinguistic
and English reading problems and Typically Developing Children. Psycholinguistic and English reading problems, 14 (3), 155169.
Davis, M., Knopik, V. S., Olson, R. K., Wadsworth, S. J., & DeFries, J. C. (2001). Genetics and environmental influences on
rapid naming and reading ability. Annals of Psycholinguistic and English reading problems, 51, 231-247.
DeFries, J. C., Fulker, D. W., & LaBuda, M. C. (1987). Evidence for genetic aetiology in reading disability of twins. Nature,
329, 537-539.
DeFries, J. C., Singer, S. M., Foch, T. T., & Lewitter, F. I. (1978). Familial nature of reading disability. British Journal of
Psychiatry, 132, 361-367.
Borbla. Rieger. (2009). Hungarian University Students Beliefs about Language Learning: A
Questionnaire Study, WoPaLP Vol. 3, 2009