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Soalan 14

Sindrom Pernafasan Timur Tengah (MERS) adalah penyakit pernafasan yang disebabkan oleh
virus korona, biasanya dirujuk sebagai Coronavirus Sindrom Pernafasan Timur Tengah, atau
MERS-CoV. MERS-CoV pertama kali dilaporkan di Arab Saudi pada September 2012. Dalam
kenyataan akhbar yang dikeluarkan pada 2 Mei 2014, Pusat Kawalan dan Pencegahan (CDC)
Amerika telah mengenalpasti 401 kes yang disahkan jangkitan MERS-CoV di 12 buah negara,
dengan kesemua laporan kes berasal dari Semenanjung Arab. Virus ini merebak dari seorang
ke seorang yang lain melalui hubungan rapat, tetapi mungkin juga merebak kepada manusia
daripada haiwan. Satu kajian keatas unta dari Arab Saudi diterbitkan pada Disember 2013
mendedahkan kehadiran MERS-CoV dalam 90% daripada unta yang dikaji. Ini menunjukkan
bahawa unta bukan sahaja boleh menjadi takungan utama MERS-CoV, tetapi juga sumber
haiwan bagi MERS.
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus,
usually referred to as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, or MERS-CoV.
MERS-CoV was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. In a press release issued
May 2, 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of America identified 401
confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection in 12 countries, with all reported cases originating in
the Arabian Peninsula. The virus spreads from person-to-person through close contact, but
might also be transmitted to humans from animals. A study on camels from Saudi Arabia
published in December 2013 revealed the presence of MERS-CoV in 90% of the evaluated
camels, suggesting that camels not only could be the main reservoir of MERS-CoV, but also the
animal source of MERS.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan virus korona. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan seekor unta.
Diagram 1.1 shows a corona virus. Diagram 1.2 shows a camel.

Rajah 1.1
Diagram 1.1

Rajah 1.2
Diagram 1.2

(a) Berikan cadangan anda bagaimana virus ini boleh menyebabkan jangkitan MERS-CoV
di 12 buah negara.
Give your suggestion on how the virus can cause MERS-CoV infection in 12 countries.

Mencipta ( 3 markah)
(b) Berikan pendapat anda tentang kesan virus kepada kesihatan seseorang.
Give your opinions on the effect of the virus to the person health.

Mencipta (3 markah)
(c) Bagaimana MERS-CoV adalah sama dengan Sindrom Pernafasan Akut Yang Teruk,
(SARS)?
How MERS-CoV is similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, (SARS)?

Analysis (2 markah)
(d) Bolehkah anda terangkan apa yang pasti berlaku kepada sistem imun apabila
seseorang dijangkiti oleh MERS-CoV.
Can you explain what must have happen to immune system when the person is infected
by MERS-CoV.


Analisis ( 4 marks)
(e) Is there a better solution for eliminate the coronavirus?
Adakah terdapat penyelesaian yang lebih baik untuk menghapuskan coronavirus?

Menilai (2 marks)

Sampl
e2
(a)

Sample answers

(b)

when a patient has had MERS-CoV, it has then spread to others


who are in close physical contact with the patient
transmission from infected patients to healthcare personnel
transmission from the camel to human/ patient by contact
transmission from the surface of object to human/ patient

patients for MERS-CoV infection if they develop fever


symptoms of respiratory illness, such as cough or shortness of
breath
Pneumonia
Gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea
had organ failure, especially of the kidneys

(c)

Both are cause by virus


Both are respiratory illness
Both are transmitted disease
Both can be transmit by animal, human, trough touching

(d)

virus is pathogen
third line of body defense is specific defense
lymphocyte will produce antibody
to fight against the pathogen/virus
the amount of antibody must achieve the immunity level

(e)

eliminate environmental factors that promote the growth of virus


identify and eliminate the source of infection and routes of exposure
that are still ongoing
identify and eliminate primary source of infection for humans/camel
evaluate patients with respiratory symptoms and fever who have
been in contact with a symptomatic recent traveler from this
infected area

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