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MT-338

Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulics


& Pneumatics
Class Introductions

Lecture: 1

Fluid Mechanics, Hyd & Pneumatics


Fluid Mechanics as a Subject

Deals with the study of all fluids under static and dynamic
situations
The study area deals with many and diversified problems
such as surface tension, fluid statics, flow in enclose
bodies, or flow around bodies, internal / Pipe flows, etc.
It is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a
relationship between forces, motions, and static conditions
in a continuous material

Fluid Mechanics

MT-338 : Fluid Mechanics


Course Learning Objective
Upon successful completion of the course, the student will
demonstrate competency by being able to:
Understand the basics of principles and governing equations
for Fluid Mechanics both for internal flows and external flows.
Understand and predict the behavior of fluids (Liquids and
Gases) at Rest as well as in Motion for simple but a variety of
applications.
Understand the basics of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems.
Able to undertake advance courses in Fluid Mechanics and
other courses in Mechatronics Engineering.
Fluid Mechanics

MT-338 : Text Books


1. Fundamentals of Fluid
Mechanics 5th Edition by Bruce
R. Munson, Donald F. Young and
Theodore H. Okiishi
2. Fluid Power System Dynamics,
by W. Durfee and Z. Sun

Fluid Mechanics

MT-338 : Reference Books


1. Fluid Mechanics, 5th P Edition by Frank M. White:
McGraw Hill

2. A Text Book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic


Machines, by Dr. R. K. Bansal

Fluid Mechanics

MT-338 : Fluid Mechanics, Hyd & Pneu


Grading Based on

Assignments
Quizzes
Mid-Term
Lab
Final

: 5%
: 10%
: 20%
: 20%
: 45%

Violation of academic integrity


First offense

: zero score for the test (applies to


assignments as well)

Second offense : failure of the course


Fluid Mechanics

Assignments
Philosophy
One of the best ways to learn something is through
practice and repetition
Therefore, homework assignments are extremely
important in this class!
Homework sets will be carefully designed,
challenging, and comprehensive. If you study and
understand the homework, you should not have to
struggle with the exams

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

Assignments
Policy

Homework in a week is due before first class of next week (at


the beginning of class).
Homework turned in late will receive partial credit according to the
following rules:
1. 10% penalty if turned in after class, but before 2:00 on the due
date
2. 25% penalty if turned in after 2:00 on the due date, but by 2:00
the next school day
3. 50% penalty if turned in after 2:00 the next school day, but
within one week
4. No credit if turned in after one week
Your chances of scoring well in quizzes are directly
proportional to the effort put in doing the homework.
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

Introduction to Fluid
Mechanics

Characteristics of Fluid
Unlike Solid substances,
Fluids due to their molecular
structure have the ability to deform continuously under Force /
Shear Stress of any magnitude
Under Fixed / Controlled Boundary Conditions, Fluids adjust to
shape of Boundaries
Fluids are generally categorized as Liquids and Gases

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

12

Characteristics of Fluid
The study of Fluid Mechanics is divided into Fluid Statics and
Fluid Dynamics. We will study both in this course
Fluid Statics deals with the study of fluids at rest and the
resultant pressures and forces
Fluid Dynamics deals with the study of fluid in motion and
the resulting forces and other effects on its surroundings
Remember that any type of flow has a deriving potential. For fluid
motion, it is Pressure Difference and / or Dynamic Head, and is
called Potential Head which causes fluid to flow

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

13

Examples
Flow in pipes and channels

Blood flow in human body


Air resistance or drag
Wing loading

Projectile motion
Jets, shock waves
Lubrication

Combustion
Irrigation & sedimentation
Meteorology & oceanography
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Examples
Aerodynamics

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15

Examples
Bio-Engineering

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16

Examples
Pipe Flows

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17

Examples
Energy Generation

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

18

Examples
Geology

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Examples
River Hydraulics

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20

Examples
Hydrodynamics

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21

Examples
Meteorology

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22

Examples
Fluid Mechanics can be Beautiful; if put in a little effort

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

23

Examples

Or it can put you in a hot


spot; if you are not
regular!

It can even turn into a nightmare if you are


careless.
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

24

Scope of Fluid Mechanics - 1


Scope:
Science of the mechanics of liquids and gases
Based on same fundamental principles as solid mechanics
More complicated subject, since in fluids separate elements are
more difficult to distinguish
We'll solve problems of fluids on the surface of the Earth, within
reasonable ranges of pressure and temperature
Branches:
Fluid statics: fluids at rest
Fluid kinematics: velocities and streamlines
Fluid dynamics: velocity & accelerations (forces)
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

25

Scope of Fluid Mechanics - 2


Classical hydrodynamics
Mathematical subject
Deals with ideal frictionless fluids

Classical hydraulics:
Experimental science
Deals with real fluids

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Scope of Fluid Mechanics - 3


Modern Fluid Mechanics:
Combines mathematical principles with experimental data
Experimental data used to verify or complement theory or
mathematical analysis

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)


Numerical solution of fluid flow equations including the NavierStokes Equation
Methods:
Finite differences
Finite elements
Boundary elements
Analytic elements
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Types of Analysis
Analytical Fluid Dynamics:
Analytical solution of fluid flow equations such as the NavierStokes Equation

Experimental Fluid Dynamics:


Use of various experimental techniques for :
Flow visualization
Smoke generators
Helium bubbles
Particle image velocimetry (PIV)

Velocity measurement
Hot-wire anemometers

Pressure measurement
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Deriving Potentials of Various Flows

Type of Flow

Flow
Commodity

Deriving Potential

Electric

Current

Voltage

Heat Transfer

Heat

Temperature Difference

Fluid

Liquid / Gas

Pressure Difference/Dynamic Head

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

Dimensions
Before we define and discuss certain fluid properties that
are related to Fluid Behavior, under static or dynamic
conditions it is necessary to review basic properties and
their units and dimensions
Lecture: 2
11 February 2016
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Properties: Units & Dimensions


The quantitative representation of any property requires:
A NUMBER and
A STANDARD (Unit)

For example standard for


TIME are: Hours, Minutes or Seconds
LENGTH are: Inch, Foot or Meter, etc.
Each Standard or Unit of a property can be expressed in term
of Primary Quantity or DIMENSION
Unit of Velocity is m/sec

Can be expressed as Length/Time or LT-1


Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Properties Units & Dimensions


In Fluid Mechanics all properties can be expressed in term
of four Primary Dimensions:
Mass (M), Length (L), Time (T) and Temperature ()
Sometimes for ease of calculations properties are also
expressed in terms of:
Force (F), Length (L), Time (T) and Temperature ()

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Properties Units & Dimensions


All equations; basic or derived, must be used as
dimensionally homogeneous equations:
i.e. LHS must have same units as RHS

The concept of Dimensions is also used to form the


powerful tool of Dimensional Analysis and to form
Dimensionless Groups / Properties

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Quantities, Dimensions, and Units


Quantity
Length (L)
Time (T)
Mass (M)
Area (A)
Volume (Vol)
Velocity (V)
Acceleration (a)
Discharge (Q)
Force (F)
Pressure (p)
Shear stress (t)
Energy/Work/Heat (E)
Power (P)
Kinematic viscosity (u)
Density ()
Specific weight (g)
Dynamic viscosity ()
Surface Tension

Dimensions
(M,L,T)
(F,L,T)
L
L
T
T
M
FT2L-1
L2
L2
L3
L3
LT-1
LT-1
LT-2
LT-2
L3T-1
L3T-1
F
MLT-2
ML-1T-2
FL-2
ML-1T-2
FL-2
FL
FL
ML2T-3
FLT-1
L2T-1
L2T-1
ML-3
FT2L-4
ML-2T-2
FL-3
-1T-1
ML
FTL-2 1
Fluid-2 Mechanics : Chapter
MT
FL-1

Preferred units
S.I.
E.S.
m
s
kg
m2
m3
m/s
m/s2
m3/s
N
Pa
Pa
J
W
m2/s
kg/m3
N/m3
N s/m2
N/m

ft
s
slug
ft2
ft3
ft/s or fps
ft/s2
ft3/s or cfs
lb
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb ft
lb ft/s
ft2/s
slug/ft3
lb/ft3
lb s/ft2 34
lbf / ft

Dimensions and units (1)


Units needed to properly express a physical quantity

Systems to be used:
S.I. (Systeme Internationale d'Unites)
Adopted in 1960

Used by nearly every major country including Pakistan,


except the U.S.
Likely to be adopted by the U.S. in the near future

B.G. (British Gravitational system)


Used in the technical literature for years
Preferred system in the U.S.
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Dimensions and units (2)


Basic dimensions used in fluid mechanics:
Length (L)
Mass (M)
Time (T)
Temperature ()
Dimensions of acceleration: [a] = LT-2
Newton's 2nd law: F = [m][a] = MLT-2

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Dimensions and units (3)


Commonly used units in SI and BG

Dimension
Length (L)
Mass (M)
Time (T)
Force (F)
Temperature ()
Absolute
Ordinary

BG unit
foot (ft)
slug (=lb sec2 /ft)
second (sec)
pound (lb)

SI unit
meter, metre (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
newton (n) (=kg m/s2)

Rankine (R)

Kelvin (K)

Fahrenheit (F)

Celsius (C)

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Dimensions and units (4)


Weight

W = mg
g = gravitational acceleration
On the surface of Earth

g = 32.2 ft/s2 = 9.81 m/s2


Weights of unit mass
BG units: W = mg = (1 slug)(32.2 ft/s2) = 32.2 lb
SI units: W = mg = (1 kg)(9.81 m/s2) = 9.81 N

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Example Weight calculation


Gravity on the surface of the moon (gm) is 1/6 that of
Earth:
i.e., gm = g/6.
What is the weight, in newtons, of m = 2.5 kg of water on
Earth, and on the surface of the moon?
On Earth:
W =mg = (2.5 kg)(9.81 m/s2) = 24.53 N
On the moon:
Wm =mgm = mg/6= (2.5 kg)(9.81 m/s2)/6 = 4.087 N

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Dimensions and units (5)


Other systems of units used (now obsolete):
English Engineering (EE) - inconsistent
M (pound mass, lbm), F (pound force, lbf)
MKS (m-kg-s) metric - inconsistent
M (kg mass, kgm), F (kg force, kgf)
Cgs (cm-g-s) metric consistent
M (g), F(dyne = g cm/s2)
1 dyne = 10-5 N, a very small quantity
Equivalently, the dyne is defined as "the force required
to accelerate a mass of one gram at a rate of
one centimeter per second squared"
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Dimensions and units (6)


SI System used in Europe and other countries
A kilo of sugar or other produce, represents a mass of 1 kg
A kilo, therefore, represents a weight of 9.81 N
A pound of weight has a mass of about 0.4536 kg

Thus, the conversion factor for popular usage is


1.00/0.4536 = 2.205 lb/kgf
In engineering:
Reserve kg for mass only
And N for force only

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Dimensions and units (7)


Other units (B.G.)

Length: 1 in = 1/12 ft, 1 mi = 5280 ft, 1 yd = 3 ft

Area: 1 Acre = 43,560.17 ft2

Volume: 1 gallon (U.S.) = 0.1337 ft3


1 acre-ft = 43,560.17 ft3

Velocity: 1 mph = 1.467 fps

Pressure: 1 psi [lb/in2] = 144 psf,


1 in-Hg = 70.73 psf,
1 ft-H20 = 62.37 psf

Energy: 1 BTU = 778.17 lb ft

Power: 1 hp = 550 lb ft/s


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Dimensions and units (8)


Unit prefixes in S.I.
Factor
109
106
103
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9

Prefix
giga
mega
kilo
centi
milli
micro
nano

Symbol
G
M
k
c
m

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Unit abbreviations (1)


Abbreviations
kg = kilogram
lb = pound(s), not lbs
Time units:
s, min, h, d, y (S.I.)
Sec, min, hr, day, yr (B.G.)

Non-standard abbreviations
Speed:
fps = feet per second (B.G.)

Flow Rate:
gpm = gallons per minute (B.G.)
cfs or cusecs = cubic feet per second (B.G.)
cumecs = cubic meters per second (S.I.)
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

44

Unit abbreviations (2)


Abbreviations
Units named after people:
Upper case when abbreviated: N, J, Pa
Lower case when spelled out: newton, joule, pascal
Use L (capital) for liter (to avoid confusing l with 1 )
S.I. absolute temperature is in K (kelvin) not K

1 British or imperial gallon = 1.2 U.S. Gallon (0.1%)

When not specified, assume U.S. gallons

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Derived quantities (1)


Basic dimensions: mass (M), length (L), time (T)

Velocity = Length / Time


Acceleration = Velocity / Time = Length / Time2
Discharge = Volume / Time
Force = Mass Acceleration
Pressure = Force / Area (also Stress)
Work = Force Length (also Energy, Torque)
Power = Work / Time = Force Velocity
Angular Velocity = Angle / Time
Angular Acceleration = Angular Velocity / Time
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Example Mass, Force, Pressure


1. A mass m = 2.5 kg is subject to an acceleration of
a = 4 m/s2. What is the force applied to the mass?
F = ma = (2.5 kg)(4 m/s2) = 10 N
2. A force F = 20 lb produces an acceleration of
a = 2 ft/s2, determine the mass m?
m = F/a = (20 lb)/(2 ft/s2) = 10 slugs
3. Determine the pressure P produced by a force F = 10 lb
on an area A = 5 ft2:
P = F/A = (10 lb)/(5 ft2) = 2 psf
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Example Pressure, Work, Power


1. A force F = 40 N is applied on an area of A = 2 m2, what
is the average pressure P on the area?
P = F/A = (40 N)/(2 m2) = 80 Pa
2. If the force F = 40 N moves a mass a distance x =2 m in
a time t = 10 s, what is the work developed and the
corresponding power?
W = F x = (40 N)(2 m) = 80 J
P = W/t = (80 J)/(10 s) = 8 W

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Example Pressure, Work, Power


1.A force F = 4000 N is applied on an area of A = 20 m2,
what is the average pressure p on the area?
P = F/A = (4,000 N)/(20 m2) = 80,000 Pa = 80 kPa
2.If the force F = 4000 N moves a mass a distance
x= 2000 m in a time t = 10 s, what is the work developed
and the corresponding power?
W = F x
P = W/t

= (4,000 N)(2,000 m) = 8,000,000 J = 8 MJ


= (8,000,000 J)/(10 s) = 800,000 W
= 800 kW = 0.8 MW

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Derived quantities (2)


Basic units for derived quantities
Derived quantity

BG unit

SI unit

Velocity

ft/sec = fps

m/s

Acceleration

ft/sec2

m/s2

Discharge

ft3/s = cfs

m3/s

Mass

slug = lb sec2/ ft

kg

Force

lb

N = kg m/s2

Pressure

lb/ft2 = psf

Pa = N/m2

Work

lb-ft

J = N-m

Power

lb-ft/sec

W = J/s

Angular velocity

rad/sec

rad/s

Angular acceleration

rad/sec2

rad/s2

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50

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

Fluid Properties

Lecture: 3
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

51

Fluid Properties
Density ( ); Defined as mass per unit volume
mass m
Volume

The units of are Kg/m3 (in SI units) or Slugs/ft3 ( in British units)


(we will be using SI units in this course)
= 1000 Kg/m3 for water at 15 0 C
Density of fluids is strongly influenced by Pressure and Temperature
of the fluid.
With increase in Temperature the density decreases whereas
increase in pressure the density increases
Specific Volume ( v ) is reciprocal of Density
v 1 V ; generally used in thermodynamics not in Fl. Mech.

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Fluid Properties (Contd.)


Specific Weight ( w or g ) and Specific Gravity ( SG )
w or g is defined as weight per unit volume and is related to density
() as: W mg

The units of w are N/m3 (in SI units) or lb/ft3 ( in British units)


Specific Gravity is defined as ratio of density of fluids to the
density of water at specified temperature; (usually it is 4 0C) which is
1000 Kg/m3 or 1.94 Slug/ft3

SG

H O@4
2

Density and Specific Weight can only define the behavior of fluid
in static conditions. For Fluid Dynamics or moving fluid, these
properties cannot predict the Fluid behavior
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Fluid Properties (Contd.)


Viscosity (m)
It may be noted that 02 independent properties; Density & Specific
Weight are not sufficient to uniquely characterize how fluids behave
while flowing
Two fluids (such as water and oil) can have approximately the same
value of density but behave quite differently while flowing
There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe
the "fluidity" of the fluid. Viscosity m can also be considered to be the
internal stickiness of a fluid.
Viscosity is related to:
Pressure Force applied to the flow and
Resulting Shear Stress (resistance) by the fluid and Shear Strain
(deformation) on the Fluid
Viscosity can further be categorized as Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Fluid Properties (Contd.)


To define Viscosity, consider Fluid flow between Two plates (infinite
in width) as shown in diagram below:

dy

Under no slip conditions, the fluid touching with lower plate will
remain static whereas fluid at upper plate will move with the
a
du

speed of plate U; such that :


t
The fluid velocity between the two plates is u = u(y) or, u = U(y/b)
Thus, a velocity gradient, du/dy, is developed between the plates
Here velocity gradient is constant as du/dy = U/b, but in more
complex flow situations this would not be true
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Fluid Properties (Contd.)


For small displacement of plate da the angular displacement of line AB ; is
db. This small displacement is called shear strain ( g ) and the Rate of
Shear Strain is defined as: t dlim
t 0

db
dt

From geometry of figure above we can see that tan db

da ut

dy
y

and for

infinitesimal changes, we know that and partial derivatives ( d ) becomes


db
du

dt
dy

total derivatives ( d ), thus we can write above expression as


for a given instant.
This shows that Rate of Shear Strain is
equal to velocity gradient. t

du U

dy b

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

dy

56

Fluid Properties (Contd.)


Recall your knowledge on stress-strain relation of solids; which is
also applicable to Fluids.
du
g
thus t
or t
dy
t
du
t

m
Using proportionate of equality (m), we can write it as
dy
where m is Viscosity m is also called Absolute Viscosity or Dynamic
Viscosity.
t is shear stress and u is the velocity in the x-direction. The quantity
du/dy is called velocity gradient.
The units of t are N/m2 or Pa and of m are N.s/m2.
The kinematic viscosity n is defined as ratio of dynamic viscosity to
m
density n
and the unit of n is (m2/s)

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Fluid Properties (Contd.)


Viscosity is an extremely important fluid property in the study of fluid flows.
A thick liquid like honey which has high viscosity will take long time to flow
than water.
Thus m controls the amount of fluid that can be transported in a pipeline
during a specific period of time. It accounts for pressure and energy losses
in pipes.
du
t

m
If the shear stress is directly proportional to velocity gradient (
)
dy
the fluid is said to be Newtonian.
Common fluids such as water, air and oil are Newtonian fluids.
The other fluids which do not obey Newtonian law of viscosity are called
non-Newtonian fluids.
Milk, plastic, paints are non-Newtonian.
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Viscosity

t vs du/dy for Newtonian Fluid

t vs du/dy for Various Fluids

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Viscosity

m vs Temp

The variation of m with T is widely governed


by following two Imperical Equations :
3
2
For Gases ;
: m CT
(Sutherland Equation)
T S

For Liquids;

: m De

B
T

(Andrade Equation)

Where C, S, D and B are empirical constant and T is absolute temperature


Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

60

Ideal Gas Law


Gases are highly compressible in comparison to liquids, with
changes in gas density directly related to changes in
pressure and temperature through the equation

p = RT
Where p is the absolute pressure, the density, T the absolute
temperature, and R is a gas constant. Above Equation is
commonly termed the ideal or perfect gas law, or the
equation of state for an ideal gas. It is known to closely
approximate the behavior of real gases under normal
conditions when the gases are not approaching liquefaction.

Pressure in a fluid at rest is defined as the normal force per


unit area exerted on a plane surface (real or imaginary)
immersed in a fluid and is created by the bombardment of the
surface with the fluid molecules.
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Ideal Gas Law


From the definition, pressure has the dimension of FL-2, and in
BG units is expressed as lb/ft2 (psf) or lb/in2 (psi) and in SI units
as N/m2.
In SI units; 1 N/m2 is defined as a pascal, abbreviated as Pa,
and pressures are commonly specified in pascals.
The pressure in the ideal gas law must be expressed as an
absolute pressure, denoted (abs), which means that it is
measured relative to absolute zero pressure (a pressure that
would only occur in a perfect vacuum).

Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure (by international


agreement) is 14.696 psi (abs) or 101.33 kPa (abs), For most
calculations these pressures can be rounded to 14.7 psi and
101 kPa, respectively.
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Ideal Gas Law


In engineering it is common practice to measure pressure
relative to the local atmospheric pressure, and when measured
in this fashion it is called gage pressure.
Thus, the absolute pressure can be obtained from the gage
pressure by adding the value of the atmospheric pressure.
For example, a pressure of 30 psi (gage) in a tire is equal to
44.7 psi (abs) at standard atmospheric pressure.
Pressure is a particularly important fluid characteristic and it will
be discussed more fully in the next chapter.

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Ideal Gas Law


The gas constant, R, which appears in Ideal Gas Law, depends
on the particular gas and is related to the molecular weight of
the gas.
Values of the gas constant for several common gases are listed
in Tables 1.7 and 1.3. In these tables the gas density and
specific weight are also given for standard atmospheric
pressure and gravity and for the specified temperature.

More complete tables for air at standard atmospheric pressure


can be found in Appendix B (Tables B.3 and B.4).

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64

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

Fluid Properties - 2

Lecture: 4
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

65

Compressibility of Fluids
The Bulk Modulus of Elasticity is a material property characterizing
the compressibility of a fluid - how easy a unit of the fluid volume
can be changed thru changing the pressure working upon it.
The Bulk Modulus of Elasticity can be expressed as
E = - dp / (dV / V)

(1)

or - (dV / V) = dp / E

Where:
E = bulk modulus of elasticity
dp = differential change in pressure on the object
dV = differential change in volume of the object
V = initial volume of the object
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Compressibility of Fluids

The Bulk Modulus Elasticity can be alternatively expressed as


E = dp / (d /)
(2)
Where:
d = differential change in density of the object
= initial density of the object
1. An increase in the pressure will decrease the volume
2. A decrease in the volume will increase the density
The SI unit of the bulk modulus elasticity is N/m2 (Pa)
The imperial (BG) unit is lbf/in2 (psi)
1 lbf/in2 (psi) = 6.894 103 N/m2 (Pa)
3. A large Bulk Modulus indicate a relative incompressible fluid.
4. Bulk Modulus for some common fluids can be found in the
table below.
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

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Compressibility of Fluids
Imperial Units - BG

Bulk Modulus - E

SI Units

(105 psi, lbf/in2)

(109 Pa, N/m2)

Acetone

1.34

0.92

Benzene

1.5

1.05

Gasoline

1.9

1.3

Glycerin

6.31

4.35

Mercury

41.4

28.5

Paraffin Oil

2.41

1.66

SAE 30 Oil

2.2

1.5

Seawater

3.39

2.34

Sulfuric Acid

4.3

3.0

Water

3.12

2.15

Water in oil emulsion

3.3

2.3

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

68

Compressibility of Fluids
Compression and Expansion of gases
Gases are compressed (or expanded) the relationship between P and
(or v) depend on the type of process, e.g.

Isothermal Process : P/ = Constant


Isentropic Process : P/k = Constant

We can now have the value of d/, for each above process and
putting its value in definition of Ev , we get :

Ev = P for Isothermal and


Ev = kP for Isentropic process of a gas

Calculating Ev for air and knowing the value for water (2.15x109 N/m2),
we can appreciate that air is about 15000 time compressible than water
Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

69

Compressibility of Fluids
An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which
the temperature remains constant: T = 0.
This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an outside
thermal reservoir (heat bath), and the change occurs slowly enough to
allow the system to continually adjust to the temperature of the
reservoir through heat exchange.
In contrast, an adiabatic process is where a system exchanges no
heat with its surroundings (Q = 0).
In an isothermal process, the value T = 0 but Q 0,
While in an adiabatic process, T 0 but Q = 0.

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Compressibility of Fluids
An isentropic process is one in which, for purposes of engineering
analysis and calculation, one may assume that the process takes place
from initiation to completion without an increase or decrease in the
entropy of the system, i.e., the entropy of the system remains
constant.
It can be proven that any reversible adiabatic process is an isentropic
process.
A simple more common definition of isentropic would be "No change
in entropy".

An isentropic process is an idealization of an actual process, and


serves as a limiting case for an actual process.

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Compressibility of Fluids
Speed of Sound
Any disturbance created in fluid flow travels with a definite velocity
that can be calculated from Bulk Modulus
The disturbance travels with acoustic velocity or Speed of Sound
and is defined as :
c

dp

Ev

For small disturbance in flow of gas, the process can be assumed as


isentropic , (Ev = kP for Isentropic flow) thus we can write
c

kP

kRT

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Vapor Pressure ( Pv )
It is defined as the pressure exerted by saturated vapors on the
liquid surface.
It is closely associated with molecular activity of liquid and depends
on temperature
Pv of water at 100 0C is 101.32 KN/m2
Boiling of liquid is the formation of vapor bubbles within the fluid
mass and is initiated when absolute pressure in the fluid reaches
the vapor pressure
At high altitudes, the water boils at lower temperatures
In flowing fluids it is possible to develop very low pressure regions
and if the fluid pressure decreases to Vapor Pressure, boiling of
fluid will occur
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73

Surface Tension
Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of
a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. of liquids.

It is revealed, for example, in the floating of some


objects on the surface of water, even though they
are denser than water, and in the ability of some
insects (e.g. water striders) to run on the water
surface.
This property is caused by cohesion of similar molecules, and is
responsible for many of the behaviors of liquids.

Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length.


The cohesive forces among liquid molecules are responsible for
the phenomenon of surface tension.
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Surface Tension
In the bulk of the liquid, each molecule is pulled equally in every
direction by neighboring liquid molecules, resulting in a net force
of zero.
The molecules at the surface do not have other molecules on all
sides of them and therefore are pulled inwards. This creates
some internal pressure and forces liquid surfaces to contract to the
minimal area.

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Surface Tension
Surface tension is responsible for the shape of liquid droplets.
Although easily deformed, droplets of water tend to be pulled into
a spherical shape by the cohesive forces of the surface layer.
In the absence of other forces, including gravity, drops of virtually
all liquids would be perfectly spherical. The spherical shape
minimizes the necessary "wall tension" of the surface layer.

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Surface Tension
Formation of a Meniscus
When liquid water is confined in a tube, its surface (meniscus) has a
concave shape because water wets the surface and creeps up the side
Mercury does not wet glass - the cohesive forces within the drops are
stronger than the adhesive forces between the drops and glass. When liquid
mercury is confined in a tube, its surface (meniscus) has a convex shape
because the cohesive forces in liquid mercury tend to draw it into a drop
Capillary Action
Capillary action is the rise of a liquid that wets a tube up the inside of a small
diameter tube (i.e., a capillary) immersed in the liquid.
The liquid creeps up the inside of the tube (as a result of adhesive forces between
the liquid and the inner walls of the tube) until the adhesive and cohesive forces of
the liquid are balanced by the weight of the liquid.
The smaller the diameter of the tube, the higher the liquid rises
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77

Assignments / Self Study


Examples 1.1 to 1.7; Solve yourself
Do problems 1.1, 1.14, 1.20, 1.31, 1.25, 1.36,
1.48, 1.58, 1.71, from Chapter 1 of text book

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78

References & Acknowledgements


1. Data, figures and theory has been used from various sources including:
a) A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 5th ed. - D. Young, et al., (Wiley,
2011)
b) Fluid Mechanics 4th ed - Frank White (McGraw Hill)
c) Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 5th Edition by Bruce R. Munson, et al.,
(John Wiley)
d) Fluid Mechanics Demystified, Merle C. Potter, (McGraw Hill)
e) Wikipedia

f)

Other Internet Sources

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