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& Pneumatics

Class Introductions

Lecture: 1

Fluid Mechanics as a Subject

Deals with the study of all fluids under static and dynamic

situations

The study area deals with many and diversified problems

such as surface tension, fluid statics, flow in enclose

bodies, or flow around bodies, internal / Pipe flows, etc.

It is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a

relationship between forces, motions, and static conditions

in a continuous material

Fluid Mechanics

Course Learning Objective

Upon successful completion of the course, the student will

demonstrate competency by being able to:

Understand the basics of principles and governing equations

for Fluid Mechanics both for internal flows and external flows.

Understand and predict the behavior of fluids (Liquids and

Gases) at Rest as well as in Motion for simple but a variety of

applications.

Understand the basics of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems.

Able to undertake advance courses in Fluid Mechanics and

other courses in Mechatronics Engineering.

Fluid Mechanics

1. Fundamentals of Fluid

Mechanics 5th Edition by Bruce

R. Munson, Donald F. Young and

Theodore H. Okiishi

2. Fluid Power System Dynamics,

by W. Durfee and Z. Sun

Fluid Mechanics

1. Fluid Mechanics, 5th P Edition by Frank M. White:

McGraw Hill

Machines, by Dr. R. K. Bansal

Fluid Mechanics

Grading Based on

Assignments

Quizzes

Mid-Term

Lab

Final

: 5%

: 10%

: 20%

: 20%

: 45%

First offense

assignments as well)

Fluid Mechanics

Assignments

Philosophy

One of the best ways to learn something is through

practice and repetition

Therefore, homework assignments are extremely

important in this class!

Homework sets will be carefully designed,

challenging, and comprehensive. If you study and

understand the homework, you should not have to

struggle with the exams

Assignments

Policy

the beginning of class).

Homework turned in late will receive partial credit according to the

following rules:

1. 10% penalty if turned in after class, but before 2:00 on the due

date

2. 25% penalty if turned in after 2:00 on the due date, but by 2:00

the next school day

3. 50% penalty if turned in after 2:00 the next school day, but

within one week

4. No credit if turned in after one week

Your chances of scoring well in quizzes are directly

proportional to the effort put in doing the homework.

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

Introduction to Fluid

Mechanics

Characteristics of Fluid

Unlike Solid substances,

Fluids due to their molecular

structure have the ability to deform continuously under Force /

Shear Stress of any magnitude

Under Fixed / Controlled Boundary Conditions, Fluids adjust to

shape of Boundaries

Fluids are generally categorized as Liquids and Gases

12

Characteristics of Fluid

The study of Fluid Mechanics is divided into Fluid Statics and

Fluid Dynamics. We will study both in this course

Fluid Statics deals with the study of fluids at rest and the

resultant pressures and forces

Fluid Dynamics deals with the study of fluid in motion and

the resulting forces and other effects on its surroundings

Remember that any type of flow has a deriving potential. For fluid

motion, it is Pressure Difference and / or Dynamic Head, and is

called Potential Head which causes fluid to flow

13

Examples

Flow in pipes and channels

Air resistance or drag

Wing loading

Projectile motion

Jets, shock waves

Lubrication

Combustion

Irrigation & sedimentation

Meteorology & oceanography

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

14

Examples

Aerodynamics

15

Examples

Bio-Engineering

16

Examples

Pipe Flows

17

Examples

Energy Generation

18

Examples

Geology

19

Examples

River Hydraulics

20

Examples

Hydrodynamics

21

Examples

Meteorology

22

Examples

Fluid Mechanics can be Beautiful; if put in a little effort

23

Examples

spot; if you are not

regular!

careless.

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

24

Scope:

Science of the mechanics of liquids and gases

Based on same fundamental principles as solid mechanics

More complicated subject, since in fluids separate elements are

more difficult to distinguish

We'll solve problems of fluids on the surface of the Earth, within

reasonable ranges of pressure and temperature

Branches:

Fluid statics: fluids at rest

Fluid kinematics: velocities and streamlines

Fluid dynamics: velocity & accelerations (forces)

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

25

Classical hydrodynamics

Mathematical subject

Deals with ideal frictionless fluids

Classical hydraulics:

Experimental science

Deals with real fluids

26

Modern Fluid Mechanics:

Combines mathematical principles with experimental data

Experimental data used to verify or complement theory or

mathematical analysis

Numerical solution of fluid flow equations including the NavierStokes Equation

Methods:

Finite differences

Finite elements

Boundary elements

Analytic elements

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

27

Types of Analysis

Analytical Fluid Dynamics:

Analytical solution of fluid flow equations such as the NavierStokes Equation

Use of various experimental techniques for :

Flow visualization

Smoke generators

Helium bubbles

Particle image velocimetry (PIV)

Velocity measurement

Hot-wire anemometers

Pressure measurement

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

28

Type of Flow

Flow

Commodity

Deriving Potential

Electric

Current

Voltage

Heat Transfer

Heat

Temperature Difference

Fluid

Liquid / Gas

29

Dimensions

Before we define and discuss certain fluid properties that

are related to Fluid Behavior, under static or dynamic

conditions it is necessary to review basic properties and

their units and dimensions

Lecture: 2

11 February 2016

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

30

The quantitative representation of any property requires:

A NUMBER and

A STANDARD (Unit)

TIME are: Hours, Minutes or Seconds

LENGTH are: Inch, Foot or Meter, etc.

Each Standard or Unit of a property can be expressed in term

of Primary Quantity or DIMENSION

Unit of Velocity is m/sec

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

31

In Fluid Mechanics all properties can be expressed in term

of four Primary Dimensions:

Mass (M), Length (L), Time (T) and Temperature ()

Sometimes for ease of calculations properties are also

expressed in terms of:

Force (F), Length (L), Time (T) and Temperature ()

32

All equations; basic or derived, must be used as

dimensionally homogeneous equations:

i.e. LHS must have same units as RHS

powerful tool of Dimensional Analysis and to form

Dimensionless Groups / Properties

33

Quantity

Length (L)

Time (T)

Mass (M)

Area (A)

Volume (Vol)

Velocity (V)

Acceleration (a)

Discharge (Q)

Force (F)

Pressure (p)

Shear stress (t)

Energy/Work/Heat (E)

Power (P)

Kinematic viscosity (u)

Density ()

Specific weight (g)

Dynamic viscosity ()

Surface Tension

Dimensions

(M,L,T)

(F,L,T)

L

L

T

T

M

FT2L-1

L2

L2

L3

L3

LT-1

LT-1

LT-2

LT-2

L3T-1

L3T-1

F

MLT-2

ML-1T-2

FL-2

ML-1T-2

FL-2

FL

FL

ML2T-3

FLT-1

L2T-1

L2T-1

ML-3

FT2L-4

ML-2T-2

FL-3

-1T-1

ML

FTL-2 1

Fluid-2 Mechanics : Chapter

MT

FL-1

Preferred units

S.I.

E.S.

m

s

kg

m2

m3

m/s

m/s2

m3/s

N

Pa

Pa

J

W

m2/s

kg/m3

N/m3

N s/m2

N/m

ft

s

slug

ft2

ft3

ft/s or fps

ft/s2

ft3/s or cfs

lb

lb/ft2

lb/ft2

lb ft

lb ft/s

ft2/s

slug/ft3

lb/ft3

lb s/ft2 34

lbf / ft

Units needed to properly express a physical quantity

Systems to be used:

S.I. (Systeme Internationale d'Unites)

Adopted in 1960

except the U.S.

Likely to be adopted by the U.S. in the near future

Used in the technical literature for years

Preferred system in the U.S.

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

35

Basic dimensions used in fluid mechanics:

Length (L)

Mass (M)

Time (T)

Temperature ()

Dimensions of acceleration: [a] = LT-2

Newton's 2nd law: F = [m][a] = MLT-2

36

Commonly used units in SI and BG

Dimension

Length (L)

Mass (M)

Time (T)

Force (F)

Temperature ()

Absolute

Ordinary

BG unit

foot (ft)

slug (=lb sec2 /ft)

second (sec)

pound (lb)

SI unit

meter, metre (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

newton (n) (=kg m/s2)

Rankine (R)

Kelvin (K)

Fahrenheit (F)

Celsius (C)

37

Weight

W = mg

g = gravitational acceleration

On the surface of Earth

Weights of unit mass

BG units: W = mg = (1 slug)(32.2 ft/s2) = 32.2 lb

SI units: W = mg = (1 kg)(9.81 m/s2) = 9.81 N

38

Gravity on the surface of the moon (gm) is 1/6 that of

Earth:

i.e., gm = g/6.

What is the weight, in newtons, of m = 2.5 kg of water on

Earth, and on the surface of the moon?

On Earth:

W =mg = (2.5 kg)(9.81 m/s2) = 24.53 N

On the moon:

Wm =mgm = mg/6= (2.5 kg)(9.81 m/s2)/6 = 4.087 N

39

Other systems of units used (now obsolete):

English Engineering (EE) - inconsistent

M (pound mass, lbm), F (pound force, lbf)

MKS (m-kg-s) metric - inconsistent

M (kg mass, kgm), F (kg force, kgf)

Cgs (cm-g-s) metric consistent

M (g), F(dyne = g cm/s2)

1 dyne = 10-5 N, a very small quantity

Equivalently, the dyne is defined as "the force required

to accelerate a mass of one gram at a rate of

one centimeter per second squared"

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

40

SI System used in Europe and other countries

A kilo of sugar or other produce, represents a mass of 1 kg

A kilo, therefore, represents a weight of 9.81 N

A pound of weight has a mass of about 0.4536 kg

1.00/0.4536 = 2.205 lb/kgf

In engineering:

Reserve kg for mass only

And N for force only

41

Other units (B.G.)

1 acre-ft = 43,560.17 ft3

1 in-Hg = 70.73 psf,

1 ft-H20 = 62.37 psf

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

42

Unit prefixes in S.I.

Factor

109

106

103

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

Prefix

giga

mega

kilo

centi

milli

micro

nano

Symbol

G

M

k

c

m

43

Abbreviations

kg = kilogram

lb = pound(s), not lbs

Time units:

s, min, h, d, y (S.I.)

Sec, min, hr, day, yr (B.G.)

Non-standard abbreviations

Speed:

fps = feet per second (B.G.)

Flow Rate:

gpm = gallons per minute (B.G.)

cfs or cusecs = cubic feet per second (B.G.)

cumecs = cubic meters per second (S.I.)

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

44

Abbreviations

Units named after people:

Upper case when abbreviated: N, J, Pa

Lower case when spelled out: newton, joule, pascal

Use L (capital) for liter (to avoid confusing l with 1 )

S.I. absolute temperature is in K (kelvin) not K

45

Basic dimensions: mass (M), length (L), time (T)

Acceleration = Velocity / Time = Length / Time2

Discharge = Volume / Time

Force = Mass Acceleration

Pressure = Force / Area (also Stress)

Work = Force Length (also Energy, Torque)

Power = Work / Time = Force Velocity

Angular Velocity = Angle / Time

Angular Acceleration = Angular Velocity / Time

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

46

1. A mass m = 2.5 kg is subject to an acceleration of

a = 4 m/s2. What is the force applied to the mass?

F = ma = (2.5 kg)(4 m/s2) = 10 N

2. A force F = 20 lb produces an acceleration of

a = 2 ft/s2, determine the mass m?

m = F/a = (20 lb)/(2 ft/s2) = 10 slugs

3. Determine the pressure P produced by a force F = 10 lb

on an area A = 5 ft2:

P = F/A = (10 lb)/(5 ft2) = 2 psf

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

47

1. A force F = 40 N is applied on an area of A = 2 m2, what

is the average pressure P on the area?

P = F/A = (40 N)/(2 m2) = 80 Pa

2. If the force F = 40 N moves a mass a distance x =2 m in

a time t = 10 s, what is the work developed and the

corresponding power?

W = F x = (40 N)(2 m) = 80 J

P = W/t = (80 J)/(10 s) = 8 W

48

1.A force F = 4000 N is applied on an area of A = 20 m2,

what is the average pressure p on the area?

P = F/A = (4,000 N)/(20 m2) = 80,000 Pa = 80 kPa

2.If the force F = 4000 N moves a mass a distance

x= 2000 m in a time t = 10 s, what is the work developed

and the corresponding power?

W = F x

P = W/t

= (8,000,000 J)/(10 s) = 800,000 W

= 800 kW = 0.8 MW

49

Basic units for derived quantities

Derived quantity

BG unit

SI unit

Velocity

ft/sec = fps

m/s

Acceleration

ft/sec2

m/s2

Discharge

ft3/s = cfs

m3/s

Mass

slug = lb sec2/ ft

kg

Force

lb

N = kg m/s2

Pressure

lb/ft2 = psf

Pa = N/m2

Work

lb-ft

J = N-m

Power

lb-ft/sec

W = J/s

Angular velocity

rad/sec

rad/s

Angular acceleration

rad/sec2

rad/s2

50

Fluid Properties

Lecture: 3

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

51

Fluid Properties

Density ( ); Defined as mass per unit volume

mass m

Volume

(we will be using SI units in this course)

= 1000 Kg/m3 for water at 15 0 C

Density of fluids is strongly influenced by Pressure and Temperature

of the fluid.

With increase in Temperature the density decreases whereas

increase in pressure the density increases

Specific Volume ( v ) is reciprocal of Density

v 1 V ; generally used in thermodynamics not in Fl. Mech.

52

Specific Weight ( w or g ) and Specific Gravity ( SG )

w or g is defined as weight per unit volume and is related to density

() as: W mg

Specific Gravity is defined as ratio of density of fluids to the

density of water at specified temperature; (usually it is 4 0C) which is

1000 Kg/m3 or 1.94 Slug/ft3

SG

H O@4

2

Density and Specific Weight can only define the behavior of fluid

in static conditions. For Fluid Dynamics or moving fluid, these

properties cannot predict the Fluid behavior

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

53

Viscosity (m)

It may be noted that 02 independent properties; Density & Specific

Weight are not sufficient to uniquely characterize how fluids behave

while flowing

Two fluids (such as water and oil) can have approximately the same

value of density but behave quite differently while flowing

There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe

the "fluidity" of the fluid. Viscosity m can also be considered to be the

internal stickiness of a fluid.

Viscosity is related to:

Pressure Force applied to the flow and

Resulting Shear Stress (resistance) by the fluid and Shear Strain

(deformation) on the Fluid

Viscosity can further be categorized as Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

54

To define Viscosity, consider Fluid flow between Two plates (infinite

in width) as shown in diagram below:

dy

Under no slip conditions, the fluid touching with lower plate will

remain static whereas fluid at upper plate will move with the

a

du

t

The fluid velocity between the two plates is u = u(y) or, u = U(y/b)

Thus, a velocity gradient, du/dy, is developed between the plates

Here velocity gradient is constant as du/dy = U/b, but in more

complex flow situations this would not be true

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

55

For small displacement of plate da the angular displacement of line AB ; is

db. This small displacement is called shear strain ( g ) and the Rate of

Shear Strain is defined as: t dlim

t 0

db

dt

da ut

dy

y

and for

db

du

dt

dy

for a given instant.

This shows that Rate of Shear Strain is

equal to velocity gradient. t

du U

dy b

dy

56

Recall your knowledge on stress-strain relation of solids; which is

also applicable to Fluids.

du

g

thus t

or t

dy

t

du

t

m

Using proportionate of equality (m), we can write it as

dy

where m is Viscosity m is also called Absolute Viscosity or Dynamic

Viscosity.

t is shear stress and u is the velocity in the x-direction. The quantity

du/dy is called velocity gradient.

The units of t are N/m2 or Pa and of m are N.s/m2.

The kinematic viscosity n is defined as ratio of dynamic viscosity to

m

density n

and the unit of n is (m2/s)

57

Viscosity is an extremely important fluid property in the study of fluid flows.

A thick liquid like honey which has high viscosity will take long time to flow

than water.

Thus m controls the amount of fluid that can be transported in a pipeline

during a specific period of time. It accounts for pressure and energy losses

in pipes.

du

t

m

If the shear stress is directly proportional to velocity gradient (

)

dy

the fluid is said to be Newtonian.

Common fluids such as water, air and oil are Newtonian fluids.

The other fluids which do not obey Newtonian law of viscosity are called

non-Newtonian fluids.

Milk, plastic, paints are non-Newtonian.

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

58

Viscosity

59

Viscosity

m vs Temp

by following two Imperical Equations :

3

2

For Gases ;

: m CT

(Sutherland Equation)

T S

For Liquids;

: m De

B

T

(Andrade Equation)

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

60

Gases are highly compressible in comparison to liquids, with

changes in gas density directly related to changes in

pressure and temperature through the equation

p = RT

Where p is the absolute pressure, the density, T the absolute

temperature, and R is a gas constant. Above Equation is

commonly termed the ideal or perfect gas law, or the

equation of state for an ideal gas. It is known to closely

approximate the behavior of real gases under normal

conditions when the gases are not approaching liquefaction.

unit area exerted on a plane surface (real or imaginary)

immersed in a fluid and is created by the bombardment of the

surface with the fluid molecules.

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

61

From the definition, pressure has the dimension of FL-2, and in

BG units is expressed as lb/ft2 (psf) or lb/in2 (psi) and in SI units

as N/m2.

In SI units; 1 N/m2 is defined as a pascal, abbreviated as Pa,

and pressures are commonly specified in pascals.

The pressure in the ideal gas law must be expressed as an

absolute pressure, denoted (abs), which means that it is

measured relative to absolute zero pressure (a pressure that

would only occur in a perfect vacuum).

agreement) is 14.696 psi (abs) or 101.33 kPa (abs), For most

calculations these pressures can be rounded to 14.7 psi and

101 kPa, respectively.

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

62

In engineering it is common practice to measure pressure

relative to the local atmospheric pressure, and when measured

in this fashion it is called gage pressure.

Thus, the absolute pressure can be obtained from the gage

pressure by adding the value of the atmospheric pressure.

For example, a pressure of 30 psi (gage) in a tire is equal to

44.7 psi (abs) at standard atmospheric pressure.

Pressure is a particularly important fluid characteristic and it will

be discussed more fully in the next chapter.

63

The gas constant, R, which appears in Ideal Gas Law, depends

on the particular gas and is related to the molecular weight of

the gas.

Values of the gas constant for several common gases are listed

in Tables 1.7 and 1.3. In these tables the gas density and

specific weight are also given for standard atmospheric

pressure and gravity and for the specified temperature.

can be found in Appendix B (Tables B.3 and B.4).

64

Fluid Properties - 2

Lecture: 4

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

65

Compressibility of Fluids

The Bulk Modulus of Elasticity is a material property characterizing

the compressibility of a fluid - how easy a unit of the fluid volume

can be changed thru changing the pressure working upon it.

The Bulk Modulus of Elasticity can be expressed as

E = - dp / (dV / V)

(1)

or - (dV / V) = dp / E

Where:

E = bulk modulus of elasticity

dp = differential change in pressure on the object

dV = differential change in volume of the object

V = initial volume of the object

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

66

Compressibility of Fluids

E = dp / (d /)

(2)

Where:

d = differential change in density of the object

= initial density of the object

1. An increase in the pressure will decrease the volume

2. A decrease in the volume will increase the density

The SI unit of the bulk modulus elasticity is N/m2 (Pa)

The imperial (BG) unit is lbf/in2 (psi)

1 lbf/in2 (psi) = 6.894 103 N/m2 (Pa)

3. A large Bulk Modulus indicate a relative incompressible fluid.

4. Bulk Modulus for some common fluids can be found in the

table below.

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

67

Compressibility of Fluids

Imperial Units - BG

Bulk Modulus - E

SI Units

Acetone

1.34

0.92

Benzene

1.5

1.05

Gasoline

1.9

1.3

Glycerin

6.31

4.35

Mercury

41.4

28.5

Paraffin Oil

2.41

1.66

SAE 30 Oil

2.2

1.5

Seawater

3.39

2.34

Sulfuric Acid

4.3

3.0

Water

3.12

2.15

3.3

2.3

68

Compressibility of Fluids

Compression and Expansion of gases

Gases are compressed (or expanded) the relationship between P and

(or v) depend on the type of process, e.g.

Isentropic Process : P/k = Constant

We can now have the value of d/, for each above process and

putting its value in definition of Ev , we get :

Ev = kP for Isentropic process of a gas

Calculating Ev for air and knowing the value for water (2.15x109 N/m2),

we can appreciate that air is about 15000 time compressible than water

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

69

Compressibility of Fluids

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which

the temperature remains constant: T = 0.

This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an outside

thermal reservoir (heat bath), and the change occurs slowly enough to

allow the system to continually adjust to the temperature of the

reservoir through heat exchange.

In contrast, an adiabatic process is where a system exchanges no

heat with its surroundings (Q = 0).

In an isothermal process, the value T = 0 but Q 0,

While in an adiabatic process, T 0 but Q = 0.

70

Compressibility of Fluids

An isentropic process is one in which, for purposes of engineering

analysis and calculation, one may assume that the process takes place

from initiation to completion without an increase or decrease in the

entropy of the system, i.e., the entropy of the system remains

constant.

It can be proven that any reversible adiabatic process is an isentropic

process.

A simple more common definition of isentropic would be "No change

in entropy".

serves as a limiting case for an actual process.

71

Compressibility of Fluids

Speed of Sound

Any disturbance created in fluid flow travels with a definite velocity

that can be calculated from Bulk Modulus

The disturbance travels with acoustic velocity or Speed of Sound

and is defined as :

c

dp

Ev

isentropic , (Ev = kP for Isentropic flow) thus we can write

c

kP

kRT

72

Vapor Pressure ( Pv )

It is defined as the pressure exerted by saturated vapors on the

liquid surface.

It is closely associated with molecular activity of liquid and depends

on temperature

Pv of water at 100 0C is 101.32 KN/m2

Boiling of liquid is the formation of vapor bubbles within the fluid

mass and is initiated when absolute pressure in the fluid reaches

the vapor pressure

At high altitudes, the water boils at lower temperatures

In flowing fluids it is possible to develop very low pressure regions

and if the fluid pressure decreases to Vapor Pressure, boiling of

fluid will occur

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

73

Surface Tension

Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of

a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. of liquids.

objects on the surface of water, even though they

are denser than water, and in the ability of some

insects (e.g. water striders) to run on the water

surface.

This property is caused by cohesion of similar molecules, and is

responsible for many of the behaviors of liquids.

The cohesive forces among liquid molecules are responsible for

the phenomenon of surface tension.

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

74

Surface Tension

In the bulk of the liquid, each molecule is pulled equally in every

direction by neighboring liquid molecules, resulting in a net force

of zero.

The molecules at the surface do not have other molecules on all

sides of them and therefore are pulled inwards. This creates

some internal pressure and forces liquid surfaces to contract to the

minimal area.

75

Surface Tension

Surface tension is responsible for the shape of liquid droplets.

Although easily deformed, droplets of water tend to be pulled into

a spherical shape by the cohesive forces of the surface layer.

In the absence of other forces, including gravity, drops of virtually

all liquids would be perfectly spherical. The spherical shape

minimizes the necessary "wall tension" of the surface layer.

76

Surface Tension

Formation of a Meniscus

When liquid water is confined in a tube, its surface (meniscus) has a

concave shape because water wets the surface and creeps up the side

Mercury does not wet glass - the cohesive forces within the drops are

stronger than the adhesive forces between the drops and glass. When liquid

mercury is confined in a tube, its surface (meniscus) has a convex shape

because the cohesive forces in liquid mercury tend to draw it into a drop

Capillary Action

Capillary action is the rise of a liquid that wets a tube up the inside of a small

diameter tube (i.e., a capillary) immersed in the liquid.

The liquid creeps up the inside of the tube (as a result of adhesive forces between

the liquid and the inner walls of the tube) until the adhesive and cohesive forces of

the liquid are balanced by the weight of the liquid.

The smaller the diameter of the tube, the higher the liquid rises

Fluid Mechanics : Chapter 1

77

Examples 1.1 to 1.7; Solve yourself

Do problems 1.1, 1.14, 1.20, 1.31, 1.25, 1.36,

1.48, 1.58, 1.71, from Chapter 1 of text book

78

1. Data, figures and theory has been used from various sources including:

a) A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 5th ed. - D. Young, et al., (Wiley,

2011)

b) Fluid Mechanics 4th ed - Frank White (McGraw Hill)

c) Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 5th Edition by Bruce R. Munson, et al.,

(John Wiley)

d) Fluid Mechanics Demystified, Merle C. Potter, (McGraw Hill)

e) Wikipedia

f)

79

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