You are on page 1of 2

Unit 1

Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes


Origins
- Early philosophy 400 BC - Socrates/Plato/Aristotle mind, memory,
self, mind/body
- Philosophers continue interest 1500s-1700s Descartes/Mill/Locke
associationism
- Early medicine 1800s brain/mind/memory Gall,Broca, Wernike
localization of function
- Science of behaviour Wundt 1879 first lab in Europe focus on
sensation/consciousness/introspection
Psychology: Schools/Perspectives on the science of human nature
Structuralism: Wundt then Tichener- analyze consciousness into its basic
elements and investigate how the elements are related.
Sensation/perception. Use introspections: examination of ones conscious
experience. Complaints too subjective
Functionalism: James at Harvard-focus on science, change in perspectiveconsciousness not individual elements but is a flowing stream of
consciousness. Focus on the purpose served (i.e., function) by our mental
processes in adapting to our environment
Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud. Focus on psychopathology
Behaviorism (U.S.) John Watson/B.F. Skinner
science, objective behavior only, dismissed role of inner states (e.g.,
emotions, plans, goals, feelings, etc).
Rewards and punishments shape behavior and learning
Humanistic: Psychology (U.S.) Carl Rogers (Ohio State University)
Freud Dark Side
Humanistic positive aspects, potential for growth, consciousness raising,
self-actualization, peak experience
Behaviorism too mechanistic, deterministic
Forerunner of positive psychology
Current dominant trend: Neuroscience
-brain is key to understanding human behavior
Psychology as a science: goals of science
1. Describe: Through describing the behavior of humans and other
animals we are better able to understand it and gain a better
perspective on what is considered normal and abnormal
2. Explain:
3. Predict:
4. Control and change:
Research approaches-5 research goals.- 3 A,B,C
Describe (A)

1. Naturalistic Observation: A study method that involves covertly or


overtly watching subjects behaviors in their natural environment,
without intervention
2. Case study: A small intensive inclusive of a small single unit or
individual
3. Survey Research: The survey is a method for collecting information or
data as reported by individuals. Surveys are questionnaires that are
administered to research participants who answer the question
themselves. Ex, phone polls for products
Prediction(B)
4. Correlational Research: is there an association between two variables.
Variable is something it can be measured and it differs/varies across
persons (ex, iq, height, age, race). correlation coefficient (is a statistic, a
number representing the degree of association)
Negative correlation
Experiment
-manipulation of one variable under controlled conditions so that resulting changes in another
variable can be observed
-Independent variable (IV) = variable manipulated
-Dependent variable (DV) = variable affected by manipulation
Important Concepts
Hypothesis
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Extraneous Variables
Example: Height and Reaction Time
Tall = 6 and above
Advantages
Disadvantages