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S.V.C.E.T ME Dept.

Thermal Engineering Lab

ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY


OF IC ENGINES

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S.V.C.E.T ME Dept
Engineering Lab

Thermal

Aim: To study the different types of I.C engines, various parts of I.C engines, cycles
of operation etc.,
Introduction:
Any type of engine, which derives heat energy from the combustion of fuel
and converts this energy into mechanical work, is termed as a heat engine. These
are classified as
1. External Combustion engines (E.C)
2. Internal Combustion engines (I.C)
If the combustion of fuel takes place outside the working cylinder then
the engine is called External Combustion Engine. If the combustion takes place
inside the working cylinder the engine is called Internal Combustion Engine. The
most common examples of E.C engines are steam engines and steam turbines. I.C
engines are used in scooters, cars, locomotives, agriculture and earth moving
machinery, power generation and in many industrial applications. The advantages
of I.C engines over E.C engines are high efficiency, simplicity, compactness, light
weight, easy starting and low cost.
Classification of I.C Engines:
I.C Engines are classified as follows
1. According to the fuel used: Petrol engine, Diesel engine and Gas engine.
2. According to cycle of operations: 2-stroke engine and 4-stroke engine
3. According to the method of ignition: Spark ignition (S.I) engine, Compression
Ignition (C.I) engine.
4. According to the number of cylinders: single cylinder engine, multi cylinder
engine.
5. According to the method of cooling the cylinder: Air-cooled engine and Watercooled engine.
6. According to the arrangement of cylinder: Horizontal engine, Vertical engine
and Radial engine.
I.C Engine Parts and their Function:
An I.C engine consists of many different parts, however the main
components are described below.
1.Cylinder: The heart of the engine is the cylinder and its primary function is to
contain the working fuel under pressure and the secondary function is to guide the
piston. To avoid the wear of the cylinder block cylinder liners are provided. The
cylinder is made of Gray Cast Iron.

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S.V.C.E.T ME Dept
Engineering Lab

Thermal

2.Cylinder Head: One end of the cylinder is closed by means of a removable


cylinder head, which usually contains the inlet valve for admitting fuel and exhaust
valve for discharging products of combustion. The valves are operated by means of
cams geared to the engine shaft. The cylinder head is usually made of cast iron or
alloy cast iron containing Nickel, Chromium and Molybdenum.

3.Piston: The piston used in I.C engines is usually of trunk type and are open at
one end. The main function of the piston is to receive the impulse from the
expanding gas and transmit the energy to the crankshaft through the connecting
rod. At the same time the piston must also disperse a large amount of heat from
the combustion chamber to the cylinder walls. Pistons are made of cast iron or
Aluminum alloys for lightness.
4. Piston Rings: These are circular rings and made of special steel alloys, which
retain elastic properties even at high temperatures. The piston rings are housed in
the circumferential grooves provided on the outer surface of the piston. Generally
there are two sets of rings mounted on the piston. The function of the upper rings
is to provide air tight seal to prevent leakage of the burnt gases into the lower
portion. Similarly the function of the lower rings is to provide effective seal to
prevent leakage of the oil into the engine cylinder.
5.Connecting Rod: One end of the connecting rod is connected to the piston
through piston pin and the other end is connected to the crank through the crank
pin. The usual cross section of connecting rod is I-section or H-section and these
are made of carbon steel or alloy steel. The main function is to transmit force from
the piston to the crankshaft. Moreover, it converts reciprocating motion of the
piston into the circular motion of the crank shaft in the working stroke.
6.Crank shaft: crank shaft consists of the shaft part which revolve in the main
bearing. The big end of the connecting rod is connected to the crank pin. The crank
web connects to the crank pin and shaft part. The function of the crankshaft is to
transform reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Crankshafts are made of carbon
steel.
7.Cam shaft: It is driven from the crank shaft by timing gears on a chain. It
operates the intake valve and the exhaust valve through the cams and followers,
push rods and rocker arms.
8.Fly wheel: It is a big wheel mounted on the crank shaft whose function is to
reduce the vibrational fluctuations. It stores excess energy during power stroke and
releases during the other strokes.
Cycle of operation: The number of strokes of the piston required to complete the
cycle varies with the type of engine. There are two types of engines namely four

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S.V.C.E.T ME Dept
Engineering Lab

Thermal

stroke cycle engine and two stroke cycle engine. A four-stroke cycle engine
requires four strokes of piston or two revolutions of the crankshaft to complete one
cycle. In a two-stroke engine there are two strokes of the piston or one revolution
of the crankshaft to complete one cycle. The four stroke and two stroke engines
are further divided into petrol and diesel engines according to the type of fuel
used.
Four stroke petrol / Diesel engine: The four stroke engine utilizes four strokes
namely suction stroke, compression stroke, power stroke, and exhaust stroke for
completion of a cycle and it has two valves, one for the inflow of the air fuel
mixture or pure air and the other for the exhaust of burnt gases. At the start of the
working cycle, the piston is at the top dead center position (TDC). As the piston
begins its outward stroke the inlet valve opens and a mixture of fuel and air in
metered proportions flows in, If the engine is of the spark ignition type only, air
flows in through the inlet valve. When the piston starts moving back into the
cylinder, both inlet and exhaust valves closes. The air or air fuel mixture thus
trapped between the piston and the cylinder head is now compressed until the
piston reaches the TDC at the end of compression stroke. Just before the end of the
compression stroke of the piston ignition occurs due to a spark in case of petrol
engines or a spray of oil injected into the cylinder in case of diesel engines. In
either case, the thermal energy released makes the compressed gas expand
rapidly and drives the piston outwards. The resulting stroke is called the power
stroke. As the piston completes the power stroke and returns T.D.C, the exhaust
valve opens and the burnt exhaust gases in the cylinder are driven out. At the
instant the, piston reaches the TDC position, the exhaust valve closes and the inlet
valve will be ready to open, starting a new cycle of operation again.
Two stroke S.I / C.I engines:
The two stroke engines utilize only two strokes (Compression stroke and
power stroke) for the completion of a cycle. In two-stroke engine there are two
ports. One in the inlet and one in the outlet for gasses. The opening and closing of
the ports depends on the position of the piston in the cylinder. The piston is at
T.D.C both outlet and transfer ports are closed when the compressed air fuel
mixture or air in the cylinder is about to be ignited by either a sparking device or
fuel injection. When piston travels back during the power stroke, it uncovers the
exhaust port first and a moment later the transfer port. The opening of the transfer
port puts the cylinder in contact with the crankcase containing a slightly
compressed air fuel mixture or air. The incoming fresh charge helps in driving out
the burnt gases through the exhaust port. The head of the piston being shaped to
assist this scavenging action. As the piston returns into the cylinder, it covers both
the transfer and exhausts ports and compresses the trapped gas until it reaches
the T.D.C position. At the same time a fresh charge is drawn into the crankcase
through the inlet port. A cycle is thus completed with one power stroke in every
two-piston strokes.

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S.V.C.E.T ME Dept
Engineering Lab

Thermal

In a two stroke engine a small amount of burnt gas always


remains in the cylinder along with the fresh charge when the piston covers the
ports and starts compressing the gases trapped inside. Moreover, since both
transfer port and exhaust ports are simultaneously open during part of the piston
stroke, some of the incoming fresh charge escapes with the burnt gases. As a
result the efficiency of a two stroke engine is lower, further two stroke engines
consume large amounts of lubricating oil compared with four stroke engines and
are likely to be noisier because of the sudden opening of the exhaust ports.

Valve Timing Diagram:

The valve timing diagram shows the position of the crank when the various
operations, i.e. suction, compression, expansion and exhaust begin and end.
The valve timing is the regulation of the positions in the cycle at which
the valves are set to open and close. Since the valves requires a finite period of
time to open or close without a rupture, a slight lead time is necessary for the
proper operation. The design of valve operating can provide for smooth transition
from one position to the other, while cam setting determines the timing of the
valve.
Theoretically it may be assumed that the valves open and close and
spark (or injection of fuel) occurs at the engine dead centers. However, in actual
operation the valves do not operate at it center positions but operate some
degrees away on either side of the dead centers. The opening occurs earlier and
the exhaust continues even at later crank angles. The ignition is also timed to
occur earlier. The injection of fuel in the case of diesel engine is also timed to occur
in advance of the completion of compression stroke.
The timing of these events referred in terms of crank angles from dead
center positions, is presented on a valve-timing diagram. The correct timings are of
fundamental importance for the efficient and successful running of the I.C engine.

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S.V.C.E.T ME Dept
Engineering Lab

[Type text]

Thermal