You are on page 1of 80

THRASS

®

Teaching Handwriting Reading And Spelling Skills

Spelling

THE THRASS INSTITUTE
(Australasia & Canada)

THRASS

®

TEACHING HANDWRITING READING AND SPELLING SKILLS

AN INTEGRATED PHONOGRAPHIC TOOL FOR TEACHING
THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF LITERACY

SPELLING

COPYRIGHT NOTICE
A comprehensive explanation of copyright guidelines relating to the files on this
CD and other THRASS resources may be found in the COPYRIGHT folder, on
this CD.
If for some reason you are unable to find or access this information, contact
THRASS for assistance.
In all instances of uncertainty about copyright relating to any THRASS resources,
contact THRASS for clarification, before using the resource.

DENYSE RITCHIE & ALAN DAVIES

SPELLING
CONTENTS
pdf number
4-11
12-35
36-37
38
39
40
41
42
43-66
67
68-79
80

Page Content
Teaching Notes
Grapheme Sheets
Common Words Sheets
Spelling Sheet
Name Sheet
Week Sheet
Year Sheet
Blends Sheets - Notes
Blend Sheets
Appendix Contents Page
MASUTA Spelling Model
Spelling Grid

Page Number
1-8
9-32
33-34
35
36
37
38
39
40-63

SPELLING SECTION
Note: Phonemes are indicated by brackets ( ) and letter names by apostrophes, ' '. Although we
recognise the importance of IPA, we have not used its symbols to denote phonemes, as many
people will not be familiar with these. Instead we have used common graphemes (spelling choices).

The SPELLING SECTION introduces the key graphemes for each of the 44 phonemes of
English as well as common consonant blends.
The Grapheme Sheets in this section are for revision and consolidation. Use the THRASS MASUTA
Spelling Model and Spelling Grid from the Appendix for revision and consolidation.

At this stage it is important to reiterate that there are 44 phonemes in spoken English.

A phoneme may be represented by more than one grapheme.

Graphemes may be graphs (one letter), digraphs (two letters), or trigraphs (three letters). Graphemes are
therefore, single letters or letter combinations that represent the 44 phonemes of spoken English.

META-LANGUAGE USED IN SPELLING

SPELLING - involves changing phonemes to graphemes.
GRAPH - one letter representing one phoneme
DIGRAPH - two letters representing one phoneme
TRIGRAPH - three letters representing one phoneme
QUADGRAPH - four letters representing one phoneme
DIPHONE - one letter representing two phonemes
GRAPHEME - graph, digraph and trigraph.
PHONOGRAPHIC - the relationship between phonemes and grapheme
KEY GRAPHEME - the THRASS selected grapheme/s for each phoneme
The activities in the SPELLING SECTION encourage learners to:

articulate the 44 phonemes;

identify graphs, digraphs and trigraphs;

develop an awareness for the phonemes in words (phonemic awareness);

learn common graphemes for a specific phoneme (graphemic awareness);

develop an awareness for the phonographic relationships in words - e.g. that the phoneme ( f ) may be spelled
'f', 'f' 'f', or 'p' 'h' and the consonant blend ( s ) ( t ) is spelled 's' 't'.

THRASS®

THRASS SPELLING - TEACHING NOTES

1

Name and write over the grey grapheme. Say the phoneme. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. a and he I in is Circle all the graphs. 6. 'was'. This gives them the whole picture reference for the phonemes. Spelling Sheet 2.HOW TO USE THE SPELLING SECTION Each of the 120 THRASSWORDS has been selected to demonstrate a grapheme choice represented on the THRASSCHART. rabbit cat Say the phoneme. Check. and write over the key grapheme in each word. Name and write over all the letters. then name and overwrite all the letters. Week Sheet Year Sheet 1. They then identify and circle the graphemes in the words. c k ck ch q PHONEME-BOXES b bb * c k ck ch q * ♦ Learners say the phoneme. 'is'. duck 5. 'of'. The grapheme choice is referred to as the 'Key Grapheme'. rabbit ♦ Learners identify the grapheme as a graph. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Learners say the word. name all the letters then write them. The 'f' in 'of' and the 'o' in 'to' are GCAs on the GRAPHEMECHART. The answers are displayed on the Phoneme Sheets in the COMMON WORDS SHEETS READING SECTION. GRAPHEME SHEETS b bb ♦ Learners locate the phoneme-box/es on the GRAPHEMECHART. 2. 'and'. name all the letters and write them. 'to'. covering the word). kitten 4. 'he'. digraphs and trigraphs. The SPELLING SECTION is divided into five areas. Write over the grey grapheme in each word. bird rabbit cat kitten duck ♦ Learner say the phoneme. 'I'. THRASS SPELLING 9 Many teachers and Dolch consider that the 12 most common words for writing and reading are: 'a'. 'it'. Learners say the word. ♦ Learners tick the Check box when they can spell the word. Next they say the word. a THRASS® THRASS® and he I in is THRASS SPELLING THRASS SPELLING .TEACHING NOTES 33 2 . Learners tick the Check box when they can spell the words. ◆ ◆ ◆ Say the word. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card ◆ Write the word. 1. Circle all the graphs. Common Words Sheets 4. Write the word. digraph or trigraph. 'that'. bird THRASS® 2. Grapheme Sheets 3. then name and overwrite the key grapheme in each word. 3. bird 1. by identifying the graphs. Most of these words contain graphs that represent phonemes other than those taught in traditional phonics teaching. 'in'. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Name Sheet 5. ◆ Check. cat kitten duck ♦ Learners then circle all the graphemes in each word. 'the'.

2. ♦ Learners tick the Check box when they can spell the name.synthesising U . ◆ Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). ♦ Learners copy five names into the spaces provided. 5. 4. of the letters. My name is Copy five names (of people or places) into the spaces and then learn how to spell them. 2.testing A . NAME SHEET ♦ Learners should be encouraged to spell the names of people and places. ◆ Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 3. THRASS® THRASS® THRASS SPELLING 36 THRASS SPELLING . 3. M . 1.analysing S . 9. ◆ Name and write over all. then name and overwrite all. THRASS MASUTA 4. THRASS® THRASS SPELLING 35 4.meaning A .3. 8. 10.TEACHING NOTES 3 . or some. 7. ♦ Then they say the word and name all of the letters until they can do it with the word covered. ◆ Say the word. ◆ Check. ◆ Write the word. ♦ Learners say the word. ◆ Write the word. 5. or some. or some. of the letters.understanding T .application 6. SPELLING SHEET ♦ This sheet is used to review and consolidate spelling words. ♦ Use the THRASS MASUTA model to teach the words. then write the word. 1. ◆ Name and write over all. ◆ Check. ◆ Say the word. of the letters.

7. Check. 5.5. ♦ Which day was it yesterday? ♦ Which day comes before Friday? ♦ What do we do on Thursdays? 3. 6. day. 7. 2.TEACHING NOTES 4 . 9. 5. covering 1. January February March April May June July August September October November December THRASS SPELLING 38 ♦ How many months are there? ♦ Which month is it now? ♦ In which month is your birthday? ♦ How many months until your birthday? ♦ In which month is your friend's birthday? ♦ How many months until your friend's birthday? ♦ Which month comes after December? ♦ Which month comes two months before May? ♦ What happens in November? THRASS SPELLING . 2. 4. 6. ◆ Write the day. ◆ Say Nameand andwrite writeover over ◆ Name thechosen grey letters. 3. 1. Monday Monday Tuesday Tuesday Wednesday Wednesday Thursday Thursday Friday Friday Saturday Saturday Sunday Sunday ® ® THRASS THRASS THRASS SPELLING 37 5. ◆ Say the month and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 11. 5. 3. word). YEAR SHEET ◆ Say the month. Before using this sheet. 2. WEEK SHEET The Week Sheet lists the seven days of the week. 4. Saythe theday dayand and ◆ Say nameallallthe theletters letters name (untilyou youcan cando doititwith withyour your (until handororaapiece pieceofofcard card hand coveringthe theword). 7. ◆ Check. day. 1. ◆ Check. encourage the learner to discuss such questions as: ◆ Write the month. encourage the learner to discuss such questions as: ♦ How many days in the week are there? ♦ Which day comes after Sunday? ♦ Which day is it today? Saythe theday. ◆ Name and write over the grey letters. 10. 6. Before using this sheet. 4. 8. the grapheme. THRASS® THRASS® The Year Sheet lists the 12 months of the year. 12.

Locate the three phoneme-boxes on the THRASSCHART.thrass.com. is represented by the digraph 't' 'h' and the second phoneme ( r ).au tray ear eer * xx X X IT IS AN ILLEGAL ACT TO PHOTOCOPY OR RE-CREATE THIS CHART ©1998 DENYSE RITCHIE & ALAN DAVIES ISBN 978 1 876424 01 5 a a-e ai ay * ear w w W W coffee dolphin coffee dolphin shark station shark station ss * * quilt quilt vv V V nn nn nn kn kn ** treasure treasure w w wh wh uu ** uu U U ff ff ff ph ph ** net net m m mm mm mb mb ** horse horse tt T T fish fish ladder ladder d d dd dd ** THRASS® PICTURECHART a * ss SS mouse hammer lamb mouse hammer lamb dress dress ve * vv ve * qq Q Q dog dog watch watch ss ss ss se se cc ce ce ** sleeve sleeve pp P P ch ch tch tch ** bell bell sun sun nn N N chair chair ll llll ** wrist wrist voice voice th * th * ll LL ** bridge bridge cherry cherry kk K K school school rr wr wr * rr rr * feather feather th * th * hh H H ck ch ch qq cc kk ck giant giant hippo hippo thumb thumb gg G G ge dge dge * jj gg ge * pp * pp pp * r ff FF cat cat rabbit rabbit bb * bb bb * hand hand ee EE fur * toy oi oy * t house r glove bus ow ou * u o by ure * areornot oo ew oo u * a au always aw oor * * * The phonemes in ueblends represented graphs. 't' 'h' / 'r' in throw.7.THE THRASS INSTITUTE (Australasia & Canada) www. it is called a blend. a trigraph and a digraph. tt tt tt ** sneeze sneeze zz zz t ng ng nn **** chef chef fizz fizz zz fossil lion * ure a e fly glue i frog lure s jj JJ kk KK u ss se se ** shirt fern boat note pony * worm saw cow door coin snow o oa o-e ow * sauce ball key er ir or ur nose swan tree Code: T-102 e ea ee ey y circus o a * fork beach e ea * o or me bread bed doctor measure zebra garden i-e igh y * screw banana ar a * ar light kite i y * square hair air are * teacher collar gate gate sh sh ti ti ch ch ** ** yawn yawn zz ZZ gg gg gg **** knee knee dinner dinner yy Y Y 2012 .g. This blend is made up of two phonemes. e. is represented by the graph 'r'. Note: A blend can be found anywhere in a word.au • enquiries@thrass.g. Take the blend ( th ) ( r ) found at the beginning of the word throw.au • enquiries@thrass. a digraph and a graph. aa A A bb B B bird bird r cc C C dd D D ff FF cat cat rabbit rabbit hand hand hh ** gg G G kitten kitten hh H H ii II ll LL school queen queen school duck duck jam jam giant giant cage cage bridge bridge ge dge dge * jj gg ge * rain rain pp * pp pp * cherry cherry wrist wrist feather feather th * th * th * th * voice voice nn N N oo O O pp PP dress dress city city ice ice sleeve sleeve water water wheel wheel treasure treasure ant baby ear tape snail deer teacher collar er ear eer * THRASS® tin i tray pyramid y * tiger i kite shark station station shark zz egg egg king king ink ink tap tap letter letter ng nn ** ng ** chef chef fizz fizz tt * tt tt * sneeze sneeze zz zz ze ze zz ZZ gate gate sh titi ch ch * * sh ** zip zip yy Y Y gg ** gg gg ** knee knee dinner dinner xx X X ss laser laser cheese cheese se * se * IT IS AN ILLEGAL ACT TO PHOTOCOPY OR RE-CREATE THIS CHART ©1998 DENYSE RITCHIE & ALAN DAVIES ISBN 978 1 876424 01 5 2012 . e.com. e. 'd' 'g' 'e' / 'd' in bridged. e. 'c' 'r' in crowd. BLEND SHEETS BLENDS When we say two or more consonant phonemes consecutively. each represented by a graph.g. 't' 'c' 'h' / 'e' 'd' in watched or a trigraph and a graph.thrass. A blend may be represented by either two graphs.com.com. is made up of three phonemes. 's' 't' 'r' in street. Locate the two phoneme-boxes. aa A A s bb B B cc C C bird bird d d D D jam jam hh ** panda panda kitten kitten ii II duck duck cage cage rain rain jj JJ queen queen leg leg m m M M oo O O water water rr R R city city ice ice wheel wheel ant snail tape baby deer er pyramid tin i tiger zip zip yy * * moon bull book car egg egg king king ink ink tap tap letter letter ze ze laser laser cheese cheese The blend at the beginning of the word street. ( th ). ( s ) ( t ) ( r ).g. three graphs.THE THRASS INSTITUTE (Australasia & Canada) www. e.TEACHING NOTES oi oy * 5 .g.au hair a a-e ai ay * w w W W coffee dolphin dolphin coffee yy ** THRASS® PICTURECHART a * vv V V nn kn kn * nn nn * yawn yawn w wh wh uu * w * uu U U ff ph ph * ff ff * net net ss ** quilt quilt tt TT fish fish ladder ladder m mm mm mb mb * m * horse horse ss SS dd * dd dd * ss se se cc ce ce * ss ss * ve ** vv ve rr R R mouse hammer hammer lamb lamb mouse bell bell ll llll ** sun sun qq Q Q dog dog watch watch ch tch tch * ch * leg leg rr wr wr * rr rr * thumb thumb m m M M chair chair ck ch ch qq * cc kk ck * bb * bb bb * panda hippo hippo panda th ee EE square car air are * banana bed doctor measure zebra garden fossil lion ar o * or light i-e igh y * ure fly a e frog i swan o a * bread e ea * ar a * u me beach tree key e ea ee ey y circus fern shirt boat note snow o oa o-e ow * coin th r pony * worm er ir or ur nose Code: T-102 fur * toy THRASS SPELLING . The first. On the THRASSCHART locate the three phoneme-boxes for the blend ( s ) ( t ) ( r ). within the same syllable set.

name all the letters and write them. ♦ Learners record the number of phonemes in the blend. d d d d d r r r r THRASS® ink ip o ne um r s s s s s n n n n n ow ee ze ip ai l n k drink th i n k th a n k pink THRASS SPELLING . PHONEME-BOXES b bb * l ll * Say the blend. The Say. blaze blend blind block blow THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS ® THRASS THRASS® 40 Learners should be encouraged to read and spell graphs. How many phonemes in the blend 'bl'? Circle the grey blend in each of these words. ♦ Learners write over the graphemes that represent the blend in each phoneme-box. Check. Learners overwrite the graphs or digraphs in the appropriate phoneme-boxes helping them to connect the abstract phonemes in the blend with specific physical positions above the Vowel Line. blow 4. Then they say the word. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). ♦ Learners tick the Check box when they can spell the word. WHY TEACH BLENDS? Learning blends builds a knowledge of the strong orthographic patterns seen when writing consonant phonemes.TEACHING NOTES 6 . then name and overwrite it. block 3. digraphs and trigraphs in words other than the THRASSWORDS as demonstrated in the words used for the Blend Sheets.BLENDS SHEETS bl b bb l ll is a blend ♦ Learners say the blend and then locate the phonemes on the THRASSCHART. Say the blend. Name and Overwrite Sheets (Consonant Phonemes) in the READING SECTION may also be used to teach blends. ♦ Learners identify and circle the key letter blend in each word. Write the word. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. ♦ Learners say the blend. Name and write over the grey blend. These patterns are consistently useful for decoding and encoding English words. 2. blaze blend blind 1.

They are both highly visual and tactile. the greater their graphemic awareness.e. * . i. Phonetics is the building block of reading and spelling. GCA is a THRASS term applied to any spelling choice for a particular phoneme that is not shown in the appropriate phoneme box on the THRASSCHART. THRASS® t b * THRASS SPELLING .TEACHING NOTES 7 . b th dge VOWEL TILES These tiles show each of the vowel graphs. Where you can’t use an already printed tile to show a GCA. o ew ear ALPHABET TILES Alphabet Tiles These tiles show the lower-case letters of the alphabet and their capital equivalents on the one tile.USING THE THRASS MAGNETIC GRAPHEMES These tiles are for the explicit teaching of phonetics. the 44 phonemes (speech sounds of spoken English) and the graphemes (spelling choices) of written English. In English there are 24 consonant phonemes and 20 vowel phonemes. Examples of usage below. digraphs and trigraphs contained in the 120 words on the THRASSCHART. See the examples below. CONSONANT TILES These tiles show each of the consonant graphs. digraphs and trigraphs contained in the 120 words on the THRASSCHART. b i r d a B I R D A l *e DIPHONE x X GCA TILES GCA (Grapheme Catch-All) Tiles GCA tiles have an asterisk ( * ) printed on them. The more spelling choices that a learner can associate with a particular phoneme. Place the GCA tile ( * ) at the top to indicate a GCA. write the GCA on one of the blank tiles.

c *ou * * . DIPHONE TRIPHONE o n ce x O X f NPS ew r ay BLANK TILES If you don’t have any already printed tiles for using to show GCAs. Diphones and triphones are a subset of NPS. . When one letter represents three phonemes. use your blank tiles to write those parts of words that are GCAs. In the case of the word cough there are two GCAs however the grapheme ou is one of the graphemes contained in our set of already printed letters. See the examples below. such as the letter 'x' in the word box or the letter 'o' in the words one and once. graphemes that don’t appear on the THRASSCHART.e. THRASS® th * t THRASS SPELLING . the graphemes gh. Here the phoneme [ ] is not represented. i. such as in the words few [ ] and pure [ ]. eigh and ere are examples of GCAs. so for convenience use that tile. In the examples below. When one letter represents two phonemes.NPS TILES Non Phonographic Spelling (NPS) NPS refers to parts of words that do not follow the phonographic principle of a letter or letters (graphs. we call it a diphone. as does the letter 'X' in the word X-ray. so therefore you need to indicate this by placing a GCA tile ( * ) above that spelling choice in words such as the examples below. trigraphs.TEACHING NOTES 8 . NPS commonly occurs in words where the phoneme [ ] precedes the phonemes [ ] or [ ]. we call it a triphone. Mr and we’re are also NPSs. that is. digraphs. Contractions such as Mrs. quadgraphs) representing one phoneme. Place the tile in the correct position. any spelling choice for a particular phoneme that is not shown in the appropriate phoneme box on the THRASSCHART.

Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). bird rabbit cat kitten duck Circle all the graphs. 3. duck 5. kitten 4. bird rabbit cat 1. Write over the key grapheme in each word. bird THRASS® rabbit cat kitten duck THRASS SPELLING 9 .b bb c k ck ch q PHONEME-BOXES b bb * c k ck ch q * Say the phoneme. Check. Name and write over the key grapheme. Write the word. Say the phoneme. 2. digraphs and trigraphs in each word.

Say the phoneme. school THRASS® queen chair watch dog THRASS SPELLING 10 .c k ck ch q ch tch d dd PHONEME-BOXES c k ck ch q * ch tch * d dd * Say the phoneme. school queen chair watch dog Circle all the graphs. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. Name and write over the key grapheme. dog 5. Check. chair watch 4. Write the word. Write over the key grapheme in each word. 2. school queen 1. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 3.

2. gate 5. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). digraphs and trigraphs in each word. 3.d dd f ff ph g gg PHONEME-BOXES d dd * f ff ph * g gg * Say the phoneme. Write over the key grapheme in each word. ladder fish coffee dolphin gate Circle all the graphs. ladder THRASS® fish coffee dolphin gate THRASS SPELLING 11 . Check. Say the phoneme. Name and write over the key grapheme. Write the word. dolphin 4. ladder fish coffee 1.

cage 5. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). egg hand jam 1. giant 4. egg hand jam giant cage Circle all the graphs. egg THRASS® hand jam giant cage THRASS SPELLING 12 . Say the phoneme. Write the word. Check. Name and write over the key grapheme. Write over the key grapheme in each word. 3. 2. digraphs and trigraphs in each word.g gg h j g ge dge PHONEME-BOXES g gg * h j g ge dge * * Say the phoneme.

Name and write over the key grapheme. Write over the key grapheme in each word. bridge leg bell 1. 3. Check. 2. bridge THRASS® leg bell mouse hammer THRASS SPELLING 13 . Write the word. 5. bridge leg bell mouse hammer Circle all the graphs. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word).j g ge dge l ll m mm mb PHONEME-BOXES j g ge dge * l ll * m mm mb * Say the phoneme. mouse hammer 4. Say the phoneme. digraphs and trigraphs in each word.

Say the phoneme. Name and write over the key grapheme. knee king 4. lamb net dinner knee king Circle all the graphs. lamb THRASS® net dinner knee king THRASS SPELLING 14 . Write the word. 5. Write over the key grapheme in each word. Check. 2. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). digraphs and trigraphs in each word. lamb net dinner 1.m mm mb n nn kn ng n PHONEME-BOXES m mm mb * n nn kn * ng n * Say the phoneme. 3.

Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 3. Say the phoneme. 5. ink panda hippo rain cherry Circle all the graphs. ink THRASS® panda hippo rain cherry THRASS SPELLING 15 .ng n p pp r rr wr PHONEME-BOXES ng n * p pp * r rr wr * Say the phoneme. 2. Name and write over the key grapheme. Check. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. ink panda hippo 1. Write over the key grapheme in each word. rain cherry 4. Write the word.

wrist sun dress 1. 5. Say the phoneme.r rr wr s ss se c ce PHONEME-BOXES r rr wr * s ss se c ce * Say the phoneme. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. horse city 4. Check. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Write the word. wrist sun dress horse city Circle all the graphs. 3. Name and write over the key grapheme. wrist THRASS® sun dress horse city THRASS SPELLING 16 . 2. Write over the key grapheme in each word.

2. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Name and write over the key grapheme. Write over the key grapheme in each word. Say the phoneme. Write the word.s ss se c ce s sh ti ch PHONEME-BOXES s * s ss se c ce * sh ti ch * Say the phoneme. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. chef 5. ice treasure shark station chef Circle all the graphs. ice THRASS® treasure shark station chef THRASS SPELLING 17 . station 4. ice treasure shark 1. Check. 3.

t tt th th v ve PHONEME-BOXES t tt * th * th * v ve * Say the phoneme. Write the word. 2. tap letter thumb 1. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Check. tap THRASS® letter thumb feather voice THRASS SPELLING 18 . Name and write over the key grapheme. 3. feather 4. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. voice 5. Write over the key grapheme in each word. tap letter thumb feather voice Circle all the graphs. Say the phoneme.

Say the phoneme. quilt 4.v ve w wh u y PHONEME-BOXES v ve * w wh u * y * Say the phoneme. Name and write over the key grapheme. sleeve water wheel 1. 3. Write over the key grapheme in each word. Check. yawn 5. Write the word. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. 2. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). sleeve water wheel quilt yawn Circle all the graphs. sleeve THRASS® water wheel quilt yawn THRASS SPELLING 19 .

Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). digraphs and trigraphs in each word. Name and write over the key grapheme. laser cheese 4. zip fizz sneeze 1. Write the word. 3. Write over the key grapheme in each word. 2. 5. zip THRASS® fizz sneeze laser cheese THRASS SPELLING 20 . Check. Say the phoneme. zip fizz sneeze laser cheese Circle all the graphs.z zz ze s se PHONEME-BOX PHONEME-BOXES z zz ze s se * Say the phoneme.

Check. 3.e ai ay PHONEME-BOXES a * a a .a a a . Write the word. 2. 5.e ai ay * Say the phoneme. ant baby tape 1. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Name and write over the key grapheme. Say the phoneme. Write over the key grapheme in each word. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. ant baby tape snail tray Circle all the graphs. snail tray 4. ant THRASS® baby tape snail tray THRASS SPELLING 21 .

Check. banana 4. Name and write over the key grapheme. Say the phoneme. hair square car 1. 3. Write the word. 2. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. Write over the key grapheme in each word.air are ar a e ea PHONEME-BOXES air are * ar a * e ea * Say the phoneme. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). hair square car banana bed Circle all the graphs. bed 5. hair THRASS® square car banana bed THRASS SPELLING 22 .

Write the word. bread me beach 1. bread THRASS® me beach tree key THRASS SPELLING 23 . key 5. Say the phoneme. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. Check. bread me beach tree key Circle all the graphs. 2. Write over the key grapheme in each word. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 3. Name and write over the key grapheme.e ea e ea ee ey y PHONEME-BOXES e ea * e ea ee ey y * Say the phoneme. tree 4.

pony THRASS® ear deer teacher collar THRASS SPELLING 24 . Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). pony ear deer teacher collar Circle all the graphs. Write over the key grapheme in each word. 2.e ea ee ey y er ar or ure a e i o u ear eer PHONEME-BOXES PHONEME-BOXES e ea ee ey y * ear eer * er ar or ure a e i o u * Say the phoneme. teacher collar 4. 5. pony ear deer 1. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. Write the word. Say the phoneme. Name and write over the key grapheme. 3. Check.

doctor measure zebra garden fossil Circle all the graphs. Name and write over the key grapheme. 2. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. Write over the key grapheme in each word. Check.er ar or ure a e i o u PHONEME-BOXES PHONEME-BOX er ar or ure a e i o u * Say the phoneme. Write the word. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). doctor measure zebra garden fossil 1. 5. Say the phoneme. doctor measure zebra garden fossil THRASS® THRASS SPELLING 25 . 3. 4.

3. Write the word. lion circus fern 1. lion THRASS® circus fern shirt worm THRASS SPELLING 26 . 5. Say the phoneme.er ar or ure a e i o u er ir or ur PHONEME-BOXES PHONEME-BOXES er ar or ure a e i o u * er ir or ur * Say the phoneme. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). shirt worm 4. Write over the key grapheme in each word. lion circus fern shirt worm Circle all the graphs. Name and write over the key grapheme. 2. Check. digraphs and trigraphs in each word.

er ir or ur PHONEME-BOXES er ir or ur * i y i i .e igh y * i y * Say the phoneme. kite 5. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Write over the key grapheme in each word. fur THRASS® tin pyramid tiger kite THRASS SPELLING 27 .e igh y i i . Name and write over the key grapheme. fur tin pyramid tiger kite Circle all the graphs. Write the word. fur 1. Check. 3. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. 2. tiger 4. tin pyramid Say the phoneme.

e igh y o oa o . Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Check. light fly frog 1. Name and write over the key grapheme.e ow * Say the phoneme.e ow PHONEME-BOXES i i . 5. 2. light THRASS® fly frog swan nose THRASS SPELLING 28 . digraphs and trigraphs in each word.o a i i . Say the phoneme. Write over the key grapheme in each word. swan nose 4.e igh y * o a * o oa o . light fly frog swan nose Circle all the graphs. Write the word. 3.

e ow * oi oy * Say the phoneme. Say the phoneme. Check. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. boat THRASS® note snow coin toy THRASS SPELLING 29 . Name and write over the key grapheme. Write the word.o oa o . 3. coin 4. 2. boat note snow 1.e ow oi oy PHONEME-BOXES o oa o . toy 5. Write over the key grapheme in each word. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). boat note snow coin toy Circle all the graphs.

PHONEME-BOXES oo u * oo u oo ew ue oo ew ue * Say the phoneme. Say the phoneme. Name and write over the key grapheme. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. 2. Write the word. 5. book bull moon screw glue Circle all the graphs. screw glue 4. Check. book THRASS® bull moon screw glue THRASS SPELLING 30 . Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 3. book bull moon 1. Write over the key grapheme in each word.

fork ball Say the phoneme.PHONEME-BOXES lure * or a au aw oor * ure or a au aw oor Say the phoneme. 3. lure THRASS® fork ball sauce saw THRASS SPELLING 31 . Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). digraphs and trigraphs in each word. lure 1. lure fork ball sauce saw Circle all the graphs. sauce saw 4. Check. 2. Write over the key grapheme in each word. 5. Write the word. Name and write over the key grapheme.

door THRASS® cow house bus glove THRASS SPELLING 32 . door cow house bus glove Circle all the graphs. 5. 3. Write over the key grapheme in each word. 2. bus glove 4. Name and write over the key grapheme. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). digraphs and trigraphs in each word. Say the phoneme. Check.PHONEME-BOXES or a au aw oor * or a au aw oor ow ou * ow ou u o u o* Say the phoneme. Write the word. door cow house 1.

◆ Name and write over all the letters. a and he I in is Circle all the graphs.◆ Say the word. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. ◆ Check. ◆ Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). a THRASS® and he I in is THRASS SPELLING 33 . ◆ Write the word.

◆ Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). it of that the to was Circle all the graphs. ◆ Name and write over all the letters. ◆ Write the word.◆ Say the word. ◆ Check. digraphs and trigraphs in each word. it THRASS® of that the to was THRASS SPELLING 34 .

or some. ◆ Check. of the letters. ◆ Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 2. ◆ Write the word. 8. 3. 1. THRASS® THRASS SPELLING 35 . 10.◆ Say the word. 5. 9. ◆ Name and write over all. 6. 7. 4.

◆ Check. 3. 5. ◆ Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). or some. of the letters. ◆ Say the word. ◆ Name and write over all. 2. THRASS® THRASS SPELLING 36 . 1.My name is Copy five names (of people or places) into the spaces and then learn how to spell them. ◆ Write the word. 4.

1. 7. 2. 3. ◆ Check. 7. ® ® THRASS THRASS THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 37 37 . day. ◆ Say Saythe theday dayand and nameallallthe theletters letters name (untilyou youcan cando doititwith withyour your (until handororaapiece pieceofofcard card hand coveringthe theword). 6. ◆ ◆ Name Nameand andwrite writeover over ◆ the thechosen grey letters. 5. 3. 4. 2.◆ Say Saythe theday. grapheme. covering ◆ Write Write the the day. 5. 6. 4. Monday Monday Tuesday Tuesday Wednesday Wednesday Thursday Thursday Friday Friday Saturday Saturday Sunday Sunday 1. Check. day. word).

10. 11. THRASS® ◆ Write the month. 5. 9. ◆ Name and write over the chosen letters. ◆ Check. 1. 8. 3.◆ Say the month. January February March April May June July August September October November December THRASS SPELLING 38 . 7. 6. ◆ Say the month and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 2. 12. 4.

THE THRASS INSTITUTE (Australasia & Canada) www.au hair a a-e ai ay * w xx vv w W XX VV W coffee dolphin dolphin coffee net net yawn yawn w wh wh uu * w * uu U U ph ** ff ffff ph ss ** quilt quilt tt TT fish fish ladder ladder THRASS® PICTURECHART a * ss SS m mm mm mb mb ** m water wheel wheel water ve ** vv ve rr RR dd ** dd dd ss se se cc ce ce ** ss ss wr ** rr rrrr wr thumb thumb pp PP mouse hammer hammer lamb lamb mouse bell bell ll llll ** wrist wrist cherry cherry oo O O ch tch tch ** ch leg leg ge dge dge ** jj gg ge hh ** m nn m M N N M chair watch watch chair ck ch ch qq ** cc kk ck bb ** bb bb panda hippo hippo panda th ee EE square car air are * banana bed doctor measure zebra garden fossil lion ar o * or light i-e igh y * ure fly a e frog i swan o a * bread e ea * ar a * u me beach tree key e ea ee ey y circus fern shirt nose boat note snow o oa o-e ow * coin r pony * worm er ir or ur th fur * toy oi oy * THRASS SPELLING 39 . heard at the beginning of the word street. On the THRASSCHART locate the three phoneme-boxes for the blend ( str ). Take the blend ( thr ). each represented by graphs. s aa A A bb BB cc C C bird bird dd D D ff FF cat cat rabbit rabbit jam jam hh ** gg G G kitten kitten hh H H ii II jj JJ kk KK ll LL school queen queen school duck duck giant giant panda hippo hippo panda rain rain pp * pp pp * wrist wrist cherry cherry sun sun feather feather th * th * th * th * voice voice pp PP qq Q Q dog dog sleeve sleeve city city horse horse water wheel wheel water ant snail tape baby ice ice deer pyramid tin i tiger zip zip moon bull book car tap tap letter letter t tt * tt tt * sneeze sneeze zz zz ze ze lion * a e fly glue i frog s lure u The blend at the beginning of the word street ( str ). are represented by the graphs ‘s’.com. ( thr ) is made up of two phonemes.au hair teacher collar w w W W IT IS AN ILLEGAL ACT TO PHOTOCOPY OR RE-CREATE THIS CHART ©1998 DENYSE RITCHIE & ALAN DAVIES ISBN 978 1 876424 01 5 tray ear eer * vv V V kn * nn kn nn nn * ss ** quilt quilt uu U U ff ph ph * ff ff * net net treasure treasure w wh wh uu * w * a a-e ai ay * ear tt TT fish fish ladder ladder THRASS® PICTURECHART a * ss SS m mm mm mb mb * m * dress dress ve ** vv ve rr RR dd * dd dd * ss se se cc ce ce * ss ss * rr wr wr * rr rr * thumb thumb oo O O mouse hammer hammer lamb lamb mouse bell bell ll llll ** ge dge dge * jj gg ge * nn N N ch tch tch ** ch leg leg cage bridge bridge cage m m M M chair watch watch chair ck ch ch qq * cc kk ck * bb * bb bb * hand hand r ee EE toy oi oy * t house r glove bus ow ou * * fur * u o * The phonemes in blends are not always represented by graphs. the three consonant phonemes in the blend ( str ).thrass. For example.THE THRASS INSTITUTE (Australasia & Canada) www.com. or blend for short. The first.com. Locate the two phoneme-boxes.au • enquiries@thrass. Locate the three phoneme-boxes on the THRASSCHART.thrass.com. is made up of three phonemes.BLENDS SHEETS When we say two or more consonant phonemes consecutively (within the same syllable set). ( th ). is represented by the digraph 't' 'h' and the second phoneme is represented by the graph 'r'. A blend can be represented by graphs or a combination of digraphs and graphs. aa AA bb BB bird bird r cc CC dd DD ff FF cat cat rabbit rabbit hand hand gg GG kitten kitten hh HH ii II jj JJ kk KK ll LL duck school school queen queen duck jam jam giant giant cage bridge bridge cage rain rain pp ** pp pp sun sun feather feather th ** th th ** th voice voice dress dress qq Q Q dog dog sleeve sleeve horse horse city city ice ice ant baby ear tape snail deer teacher collar er ear eer * THRASS® tin i tray pyramid y * tiger i kite gate gate shark station station shark zip zip fizz fizz zz zz zz ink ink ng nn **** ng chef chef tap tap sh titi ch ch **** sh yy ** egg egg king king kn ** nn kn nn nn treasure treasure zz ZZ gg **** gg gg knee knee dinner dinner yy YY sneeze sneeze ze ze letter letter tt ** tt tt cheese laser cheese laser ss se ** se IT IS AN ILLEGAL ACT TO PHOTOCOPY OR RE-CREATE THIS CHART ©1998 DENYSE RITCHIE & ALAN DAVIES ISBN 978 1 876424 01 5 2012 . ‘t’ and ‘r’. cheese cheese laser laser ss se * se * fork shirt fern boat note pony * worm saw cow door or a au aw oor coin snow o oa o-e ow * sauce ball key er ir or ur nose swan tree e ea ee ey y circus o a * ure * beach e ea * fossil ure me bread bed o or i-e igh y * screw banana ar a * doctor measure zebra garden oo ew ue * oo u * ink ink ng nn ** ng ** chef chef fizz fizz zz egg egg king king sh titi ch ch * * sh ** yy ** zz ZZ gg ** gg gg ** knee knee shark station station shark yy YY gate gate coffee dolphin dolphin coffee dinner dinner yawn yawn ar light kite i y * square air are * er xx X X 2012 .au • enquiries@thrass. it is called a consonant blend.

blaze blend blind block blow ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 40 . blaze blend blind 1. Write the word. How many phonemes in the blend 'bl'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Name and write over the blend.bl b bb l ll is a blend PHONEME-BOXES b bb * l ll * Say the blend. 2. block 3. blow 4. Say the blend. Check. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word).

brain bread brick 1. Say the blend. How many phonemes in the blend 'br'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. brown 3. Name and write over the blend. Check. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). brain bread brick brown brush ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 41 . brush 4. Write the word.br b bb r rr wr is a blend PHONEME-BOXES b bb * r rr wr * Say the blend. 2.

claw cliff climb cloud clown ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 42 . cloud clown 3. 4. How many phonemes in the blend 'cl'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Check. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend.cl c k ck ch q l ll is a blend PHONEME-BOXES c k ck ch q * l ll * Say the blend. Name and write over the blend. 2. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Say the blend. Write the word. claw cliff climb 1.

Write the word. crab crane crisp crown crumb ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 43 . Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend.cr c k ck ch q r rr wr is a blend PHONEME-BOXES c k ck ch q * r rr wr * Say the blend. How many phonemes in the blend 'cr'? Circle the blend in each of these words. 4. crown crumb 3. Say the blend. 2. Check. Name and write over the blend. crab crane crisp 1.

Name and write over the blend. Check. 2. How many phonemes in the blend 'dr'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Write the word. draw dream drink 1. drum 4. draw dream drink drive drum ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 44 . Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). drive 3. Say the blend.dr d dd r rr wr is a blend PHONEME-BOXES d dd * r rr wr * Say the blend.

How many phonemes in the blend 'fl'? Circle the blend in each of these words. float 3. 2. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Check. Write the word.fl f ff ph l ll is a blend PHONEME-BOXES f ff ph * l ll * Say the blend. flag flame flea float floor ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 45 . Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. flag flame flea 1. Say the blend. Name and write over the blend. floor 4.

Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 2. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Check.fr f ff ph r rr wr is a blend PHONEME-BOXES f ff ph * r rr wr * Say the blend. froth 4. How many phonemes in the blend 'fr'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Write the word. frost 3. Say the blend. Name and write over the blend. freeze fridge fringe 1. freeze fridge fringe frost froth ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 46 .

Name and write over the blend. globe 3. Check. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Say the blend. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). glass glider glitter 1. glass glider glitter globe glue ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 47 . How many phonemes in the blend 'gl'? Circle the blend in each of these words. glue 4. 2. Write the word.gl g gg l ll is a blend PHONEME-BOXES g gg * l ll * Say the blend.

Say the blend. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Write the word. How many phonemes in the blend 'gr'? Circle the blend in each of these words. grip 4. grain grape grass green grip ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 48 . Check. Name and write over the blend. green 3. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). grain grape grass 1.gr g gg r rr wr is a blend PHONEME-BOXES g gg * r rr wr * Say the blend. 2.

pl

l ll
p pp

is a blend
PHONEME-BOXES

p pp *

l ll *

Say the blend. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend.
How many phonemes in the blend 'pl'?

Circle the blend in each of these words.

plant

plate

pleat

1. Say the blend. Name and write over
the blend.
2. Say the word and name all the
letters (until you can do it with
your hand or a piece of card
covering the word).

plug

plum

3. Write the word.

4. Check.

plant
plate
pleat
plug
plum
®
THRASS
THRASS®

THRASS SPELLING
SPELLING
THRASS

49

pr

p pp

r rr wr

is a blend
PHONEME-BOXES

p pp *

r rr wr *

Say the blend. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend.
How many phonemes in the blend 'pr'?

Circle the blend in each of these words.

pram

prawn

press

1. Say the blend. Name and write over
the blend.
2. Say the word and name all the
letters (until you can do it with
your hand or a piece of card
covering the word).

prince

3. Write the word.

prize

4. Check.

pram
prawn
press
prince
prize
®
THRASS
THRASS®

THRASS SPELLING
SPELLING
THRASS

50

sk

c k ck ch q
s ss se c ce

is a blend
PHONEME-BOXES

s ss se c ce *

c k ck ch q *

Say the blend. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend.
How many phonemes in the blend 'sk'?

Circle the blend in each of these words.

skate

skip

skull

1. Say the blend. Name and write over
the blend.
2. Say the word and name all the
letters (until you can do it with
your hand or a piece of card
covering the word).

desk

tusk

3. Write the word.

4. Check.

skate
skip
skull
desk
tusk
®
THRASS
THRASS®

THRASS SPELLING
SPELLING
THRASS

51

sl

l ll
s ss se c ce

is a blend
PHONEME-BOXES

s ss se c ce *

l ll *

Say the blend. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend.
How many phonemes in the blend 'sl'?

Circle the blend in each of these words.

sleep

slice

slide

1. Say the blend. Name and write over
the blend.
2. Say the word and name all the
letters (until you can do it with
your hand or a piece of card
covering the word).

slow

3. Write the word.

slug

4. Check.

sleep
slice
slide
slow
slug
®
THRASS
THRASS®

THRASS SPELLING
SPELLING
THRASS

52

Write the word. 4. Name and write over the blend. small smash smell 1. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. How many phonemes in the blend 'sm'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Check. smile smoke 3. 2. small smash smell smile smoke ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 53 .sm m mm mb s ss se c ce is a blend PHONEME-BOXES s ss se c ce * m mm mb * Say the blend. Say the blend.

4. Name and write over the blend.sn n nn kn s ss se c ce is a blend PHONEME-BOXES s ss se c ce * n nn kn * Say the blend. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Write the word. Check. Say the blend. 2. snack snail snake snatch snooze ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 54 . How many phonemes in the blend 'sn'? Circle the blend in each of these words. snooze 3. snack snail snake snatch 1.

Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). spade spear spoon sport 1. spot 3. Name and write over the blend. How many phonemes in the blend 'sp'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Write the word. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend.sp p pp s ss se c ce is a blend PHONEME-BOXES s ss se c ce * p pp * Say the blend. spade spear spoon sport spot ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 55 . 2. Say the blend. Check. 4.

star step stir 1. Say the blend. 2. star step stir nest toast ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 56 . 4. How many phonemes in the blend 'st'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Name and write over the blend. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Check.st s ss se c ce t tt is a blend PHONEME-BOXES s ss se c ce * t tt * Say the blend. Write the word. nest toast 3. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word).

str r rr wr t tt s ss se c ce is a blend PHONEME-BOXES s ss se c ce * t tt * r rr wr * Say the blend. strong 4. Write the word. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 3. Check. 2. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. straw stream street string 1. Say the blend. Name and write over the blend. How many phonemes in the blend 'str'? Circle the blend in each of these words. straw stream street string strong ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 57 .

swallow swamp swim swing switch 1. Say the blend. Check. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). swallow swamp swim swing switch ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 58 . 4. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. How many phonemes in the blend 'sw'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Write the word.sw s ss se c ce w wh u is a blend PHONEME-BOXES s ss se c ce * w wh u * Say the blend. 3. 2. Name and write over the blend.

Check. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. trot trunk 3. 2. train trip troop trot trunk ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 59 . Write the word. Name and write over the blend.tr r rr wr t tt is a blend PHONEME-BOXES t tt * r rr wr * Say the blend. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). 4. Say the blend. train trip troop 1. How many phonemes in the blend 'tr'? Circle the blend in each of these words.

tw t tt w wh u is a blend PHONEME-BOXES t tt * w wh u * Say the blend. 2. Say the blend. Check. twilight 3. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Write the word. How many phonemes in the blend 'tw'? Circle the blend in each of these words. twist 4. twig twin twine 1. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Name and write over the blend. twig twin twine twilight twist ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 60 .

Write the word. Name and write over the blend.--r p pp r rr wr s ss se c ce sh ti ch th is a blend PHONEME-BOXES s ss se c ce * p pp * r rr wr * Say in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. ch *Write r over rr the wr graphs * Say the blend. Circle the blend in each of these words. 3. spring shrub thread throat throne ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 61 . Check. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Say the blend. spring shrub thread throat throne 1. 4. 2. Write over the graphs th * r rr wr * in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. sh the ti blend.

2. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Name and write over the blend. bold cold fold 1. 4. gold sold 3. Check. bold cold fold gold sold ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 62 . Write the word.ld d dd l ll is a blend PHONEME-BOXES l ll * d dd * Say the blend. Say the blend. How many phonemes in the blend 'ld'? Circle the blend in each of these words.

hand pond sand sound stand ® THRASS THRASS® THRASS SPELLING SPELLING THRASS 63 . sound 3.nd d dd n nn kn is a blend PHONEME-BOXES n nn kn * d dd * Say the blend. How many phonemes in the blend 'nd'? Circle the blend in each of these words. Say the word and name all the letters (until you can do it with your hand or a piece of card covering the word). Say the blend. Write the word. Name and write over the blend. Check. stand 4. hand pond sand 1. Write over the graphs in the phoneme-boxes to make the blend. 2.

The MASUTA model was developed by Denyse Ritchie. co-author of THRASS in 2008 and provides a complete model for ‘How To Teach Spelling’. .APPENDIX This appendix section contains a copy of the ‘THRASS MASUTA Spelling Model’ and a ‘Spelling Grid’ selected from Book 1 of our THRASS Spelling Book: Level 1 (Product Code T: 69).

MASUTA gives the teacher control over the teaching of spelling.” THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 THRASS ® TEACHING HANDWRITING READING AND SPELLING SKILLS .HOW TO TEACH SPELLING © 2008 The MASUTA© sequence for teaching spelling. “To successfully apply the spelling of a word to memory the word must be meaningful to the learner.

Is your school not getting the expected results in spelling on a state or national basis? THE EXPLICIT TEACHING OF SPELLING Many children can wrongly be regarded as ‘good spellers’ because they are able to achieve 20/20 in a class spelling test. The spelling of a word must be practised in context to develop applied comprehension. is detrimental to the writing. The MASUTA spelling sequence ensures that learners are taught the skills and understandings of ‘HOW TO SPELL’ words as opposed to the many ineffectual methods including the ‘look-cover-check’ model of rote learning spelling. To become a good speller. They have a bank of words they can spell by rote but don’t know how to actually spell them. in approximately. 2 THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 . as they pass through the grades. This cannot be done if the spelling teaching relies on a set of unrelated words which do not provide for the applied process of spelling. A SCHOOL BASED SPELLING PROGRAM Spelling should be a standardised whole-school program. The MASUTA spelling sequence ensures that both teaching and learning time is productive and valuable for further learning. in context. to check that progress is being made and December to show yearly growth and provide a benchmark for the next learning year. It should be centred around a consistent spelling sequence that can be implemented from the start of the learning process and applied at each level of learning. Unfortunately. colour a grapheme or link words with the same pattern. The MASUTA spelling sequence ensures that spelling becomes the foundation of comprehending all learning that the learner encounters throughout the day. The problem is they actually don’t know ‘how to spell’. Standardised testing should be done twice a year. Purchasing expensive spelling workbooks which give the learner an unrelated list of words to learn weekly by rote is ineffective and detrimental to the learning process. Many learners become ‘form-fillers’ and cannot spell a word because they do not have sufficient knowledge of all the phonemes and graphemes that make up a word or how they ‘link’ to the big picture. Thus. fill-in sheets’ which only require the learner to write. spelling and the reading comprehension process. SPELLING WORKBOOKS AND WORKSHEETS FAIL LEARNERS Giving learners an abstract spelling list of words that have no meaning or link to everyday work is an ineffectual use of both the teacher’s and learner’s time. This type of work does not transcend into reading comprehension and thus the time spent working in these spelling workbooks is detrimental to both the learning process and to the school’s or parent’s budget. their actual spelling looks as though it is going backwards. many of these ‘good spellers’ get these same words wrong in their everyday spelling. They do not have the strategies needed to successfully apply this information in everyday work or to encode newly encountered words. Spelling progress should not be reliant on weekly testing of words. the words chosen to be learnt must be meaningful and useful to the learner if they are going to be applied to memory. Not exploring words for meaning. writing words as a whole or working with words within context (constructing and writing a complete sentence). phonetic structure. Spelling should be monitored for application in every day work. ‘fill-in’ a missing grapheme. on one hand they are regarded as ‘good spellers’ because of results gained from weekly testing but looking at their spelling in everyday application and when tested using a standardised spelling test. They do not provide the explicit strategies and skills needed to successfully encode newly encountered words. The MASUTA spelling sequence develops competent and adventurous spellers. It needs to be easily monitored using standardised tests to check progress at each level. Many of these books provide ‘page turner. May/June.

Children MUST BE TAUGHT to clearly distinguish phonemes in words.the first phoneme in each word is different. Each phoneme change. A child must be able to differentiate when to use a particular spelling of a phoneme. they will be more confident to independently check the accuracy of their own spelling. that each phoneme must be represented by a grapheme. teachers cannot successfully teach the phonetics necessary for spelling. In the Synthesis level of the MASUTA Spelling Sequence. IMPORTANT Without this working knowledge. frees up cognitive space allowing for more resources to be used to integrate information when reading and writing. mat. the graphemes that represent each individual phoneme and the orthography of English. ‘fshng’ instead of ‘f i sh i ng’. That is. two in common but the middle phoneme is different . it is not just the correct answer that is important. Knowledge of phonics helps in both the encoding and decoding of words. The first two phonemes are common but the last phoneme is different . If the child is taught to read back and synthesise the phonemes represented in their spelling. For example. MOST IMPORTANTLY.each phoneme change. Understanding phonics patterns. These phonics patterns then have to be applied to memory for correct use within context. In the words map. gives the learner greater confidence. mat. writing and grammar. mad and match. many children will write ‘hse’ instead of ‘h ou se’. PHONICS MUST BE EXPLICITLY TAUGHT Phonics is a learned skill therefore phonics must be explicitly taught. The spelling of these words relies heavily on both meaning and knowledge of phonics patterns and can only be done within context. graphemes for phonemes. changes the meaning of the word. the teacher must have a solid understanding and sound subject knowledge of the phonetics of English for them to successfully teach their learners. They are not synthesising and representing all the phonemes. sat and sit there are three phonemes. ‘jumt’ instead of ‘j u m p ed’. changes the meaning of the word. changes the meaning of the word. learners will enter school with little or no knowledge of phonetics and it is the job of the teacher to teach them how to hear individual phonemes in words. see or sea. for each phoneme in a word. THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 3 .the last two phonemes in each word are the same . Having a good visual memory of phonic and orthographic patterns. bean or been. be or bee. phoneme deletion and manipulation exercises provide teaching strategies to develop this skill. gives the learner greater confidence when experimenting with spelling and enables them without contradiction. Phonemes are the smallest units of sound we use to differentiate the meaning of words. seat. chat. With this knowledge they are more able to check that each phoneme is represented when writing a word. Understanding phonics patterns.each phoneme change. choice and the ability to confidently analyse and use environmental print when experimenting independently with spelling in the writing process. to more quickly and accurately apply the correct grapheme (spelling choice). each of the following words has three phonemes: cat. that and pat .PHONICS AND SPELLING Phonics is the understanding of how the units of speech. there are three phonemes in each word. how to synthesise phonemes to make words. As in maths. In the words set. BEING TAUGHT to distinguish and synthesise phonemes in words helps the learner when spelling words and when checking the spelling of a word. that is. man. For example. phonemes (speech sounds we produce) are represented in the written form. For example. the working memory and understanding of how to achieve the correct answer is vital to the cognitive process for future learning.

The THRASS Raps & Sequences CD. It helps the learner with word meaning.LEARNING INTELLIGENCES FOR MEMORY Each of us learns in an individual way. The THRASS Jigsaw provides a tactile manipulation of the THRASSCHART. The more the learner is encouraged to write the more competent they become at writing. 2. The THRASS handwriting activities teach and practise the physical skill of writing letters. Many of us use combinations of learning styles. words and sentences. Using phonic and spelling worksheets and workbooks where learners are asked to fill in either only parts of words (unrelated graphemes). 3. The THRASSCHARTS provide a physical reference to teach letters. spelling and sentence structure Dictation is essential to the spelling process. 3 x 4 will always make 12. The THRASS-IT computer program provides tactile activities to acquire phonetic knowledge in context. but how we acquire that information will depend on our learning intelligence. The THRASS Rap and Tap DVD and THRASS IT computer program provide the visual activities to acquire phonetic knowledge. count and order phonemes in words. The more of the learner’s senses we use to carry out a teaching task the more chance we have in working to each learner’s learning ‘style’. Rap and Tap DVD and THRASS IT computer program provide the auditory activities to acquire phonetic knowledge within context. It is an important reference for early learning and ensures that the teacher is catering for all learning styles. COUNTING PHONEMES Use your fingers to identify and count phonemes in words. Phoneme-Grapheme Cards and Hotwords Cards provide a visual reference when teaching phonics in context. missing words in a sentence instead of writing a sentence as a whole or colouring a group of related words/graphemes. The more the learner is able to practise writing the spelling of words the more competent they become at spelling. is an ineffectual use of both the teacher’s and learner’s time. The THRASSWORDS boardgame and Jigsaw provide reinforcement and revision. Auditory: Speaking. memory skills and handwriting skills. graphemes and words. The Magnetic Grapheme tiles. This we refer to as ‘our phoneme fingers’. LEARNING INTELLIGENCES used when teaching with THRASS 1. listening and hearing. Dictation should be a daily task and used as a revision activity for previously learnt words. It gives a physical reference to each phoneme in a word. Handwriting Handwriting is the key to spelling. Handwriting is a skill and as with any skill it must be practised. It is essential to listening skills. The THRASSCHARTS provide a physical reference to write over grapheme choices. Dictation. The more the learner is able to practise the structure of a sentence the more competent they become at sentence construction. ordering skills. 4 THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 . graphemes and words. phonemes. The THRASSCHARTS provide a visual reference to teach letters. that is why it is important to plan lessons to cater for these differences. It is not about teaching different information but what intelligences we use to acquire particular information. phonemes. In maths. Fingers are used to physically identify. The Magnetic Grapheme tiles are used to physically show the number of phonemes in a word and the grapheme choices. Until a learner can automatically identify letters by name and write letters the learning process for spelling will be inhibited. The Magnetic Grapheme tiles can be written on with a dry marker. Tactile: Feeling and writing. graphemes. It is important to remember that when using the term ‘learning styles’ it is not to be confused with learning content. instead of writing whole words etc. spelling and sentence structure. Visual: Seeing and identifying.

Explore alternate meanings. Link words with the same rhymes from memory. Identify graphemes in spelling words from memory. Identify the graphemes that represent each phoneme. Explore phonetic understanding and synthesis using phoneme deletion/manipulation activities. For example. Analysis Identify and segment the individual phonemes in the word. For example. be or bee. link words with the same grapheme/s. Applying Apply skills and strategies to correctly spell words in everyday writing and dictation activities.MASUTA© is a teaching sequence used to successfully teach spelling and word comprehension. Testing Test List Words to assess that the learner is able to: 1. By analogy. Spell graphemes/words from memory using letter names. Using learned skills and strategies to encode unfamiliar words. f r o g. MASUTA gives the teacher control over teaching spelling. Using memory Identify and synthesise phonemes in spelling words from memory. THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 5 . 5. Standardised Testing to be undertaken twice a year to accurately monitor progress. see or sea. Link words with like grapheme patterns from memory. there. 3. Isolate and write particular graphemes related to the word. Link words with like phoneme patterns from memory. s t r ee t without the first ‘t’ would be s r ee t. Identify and synthesise the phonemes in the word. Spell the word correctly using letter names. Articulate the meaning. Explore homophones of the word. bean or been. 4. Articulate the word. their. Meaning Orally articulate the word. Explore the meaning. Synthesis Say/synthesise the phonemes in the word in the correct sequence (synthetic phonics). without the ‘r’ would be ‘f o g’. Identify graphemes/ syllable sets that may need particular attention. Articulate the word in a sentence to show meaning. 2.

keys moon*. noses eye. bridges ear*. moons night*. ears nose*. nights house*. 6 said* was* to*. houses bridge*. do* find* what* why* which* that* how* many* because* come* some* came* now* so* when* has* draw my* one* two* three* four* five* six* seven* eight * nine * ten* circle* triangle* square* rectangle* read write key* moon* night* giant* treasure* took* sleep* creep house* mouse* light * book* bridge* over* next* station* door* key*. eyes THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 .BUILDING YOUR SPELLING LISTS THRASS: WORKING FROM THE KNOWN TO THE UNKNOWN * denotes THRASSWORDS and THRASS Hotwords Term 1 SAMPLE THEMES HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS Hotwords MATHS Numbers to 10 Shapes LITERACY Books The Mouse In My House GRAMMAR plurals adding ‘s’ and adding a second syllable with the phoneme change for ‘es’.

EASTER THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 7 . foot* hand* wrist* arm* shoulder taste smell feel hear crater air asteroid* police fireman nurse red* blue* yellow* green* SPECIAL EVENT WORDS e.HEALTH My Body me* body* head* hair* eyes* ears* nose* teeth* mouth* tongue* SCIENCE Space moon* star* sun* rocket* planet* comet* fly* SOCIAL STUDIES People COLOURS chemist school* teacher* doctor* vet butcher baker pilot truck* driver leg*.g. knee*. Term 1.

Learners reply: ‘h’ ‘e’ ‘a’ ‘d’ h ea d h ea d 8 THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 . (h) as in hand. helps the learner discover other uses of the word ‘head’ e. Repeat a number of times Step 3 Teacher: What letters do we use to write (h) in hand? Note: When doing these activities you are not just What letters do we use to write (ea) in bread? working with one isolated phoneme/grapheme.A SAMPLE MASUTA TEACHING SEQUENCE Analysis Synthesis Spelling Meaning Applying Using Memory WEEK 1. altogether. (h) (ea) (d) Learners reply: (h) (ea) (d) Repeat a number of times Use the Step 2 MAGNETIC GRAPHEMES to Teacher: Let’s match it to our THRASSWORDS. Now let’s match head to our THRASSWORDS together. (d) as in dog. Listen show the individual graphemes.O.e. – Theme .People High Frequency words Mathematics Literacy Grammar Plurals Meaning Testing head* mouth* tongue* taste* crater air asteroid* fly* what* why* which* that* how* square* rectangle* blue* moon* night* giant* treasure* Teacher to write the word on the board. ahead etc.g top of body.E. head Analysis Teacher to write the graphemes Analyse the word on the board. Explore the meaning of the word. Headmaster. All the What letters do we use to write (d) in dog? phoneme/grapheme links for a word are being dealt So how do we spell head? with in the same lesson. (ea) as in bread. head of the table.S. (d) as in dog. Step 1 Teacher: The phonemes we can hear in head are (h) (ea) (d) Use your ‘phoneme fingers’.My Body Science – Theme . Learners reply: (h) as in hand. masthead. Teacher: Who knows what a head is? Where on our body is our head? Is it on the top or bottom of our body? What are some of the things on our head? Distinguishing where the head is .g. (ea) as in bread. List 1 Lists compiled from: Health – Theme .Space S.

For example in a Health/Phys Ed.Synthesis Synthesise the phonemes in the word Step 1 Teacher: Use your ‘phoneme fingers’ to indicate the number of phonemes in head in the correct order. auditory and visual skills. The ability to use this knowledge in everyday writing. it is not just the correct answer that is important but the working memory and understanding to achieve the correct Applying Dictation . Why is our head important? What is inside our head? What are some of the things on our head? What are they used for? How should we protect our head? Where is our brain? What does it do? Write some notes about our why our head is important’. To test for meaning and understanding play guessing games such as ‘What Am I?’. The working memory and understanding of how to achieve the correct answer is vital to the cognitive process for future learning. groups or teams. Lists should be tested to assess that the learner is able to: 1. THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 9 . Put the word in a sentence to show meaning. Teacher: ‘We learnt the word head in spelling today. Memory activities should cater for individual work and the collaborative interaction of social learning. 5. Spell the word correctly using letter names. Develop collaborative learning by playing fun games in pairs. Meaning and grapheme understanding is vital to developing good spelling skills which will be sustainable and allow for further development of spelling writing and comprehension skills. ( h ) ( ea ) ( d ) Step 2 Phoneme/grapheme depletion/manipulation Teacher: What would we say if we left off the ‘h’ in head? Teacher: What would we say if we left off the ‘ea’ in head? Teacher: What would we say if we swapped the ‘h’ and the ‘d’ in head? Note: Phoneme deletion/manipulation activities help the teacher to assess if the learner is hearing all the phonemes correctly in a word and is able to correctly order phonemes for spelling and speech. ‘What do I do?’. ‘Where would you find me?’. It is not only the spelling of a word that is important. Note: As in maths. Articulate the word. it is not just the correct answer that is important. 3. Use a board and markers for team games to test analysis and synthesis. lesson . 2. As in maths. 4.applying the spelling word head. The THRASS Resource Kit contains a number of sheets that have been designed for this purpose. The THRASS Magnetic Graphemes are also designed to be used daily to develop memory skills. ‘How am I used?’ Testing Testing should be carried out at the end of each week.Assessing that the learner can write the word in context. h ea d ea d h d d ea h Using memory Memory activities must incorporate tactile. Isolate and write particular graphemes related to a word. Be able synthesise the phonemes in the word.

NAME AND OVERWRITE SHEET THRASS READING a a a-e ai ay air are ar a e ea  e ea ee ey y ear eer er ar or ure a e i o u er ir or ur i y i i-e igh y o a o oa o-e ow oi oy 52 oo u oo ew ue ure or a au aw oor ow ou u o * Can you find a GCA for each of the 44 phonemes? Add the GCA to the phoneme-box and write an example word. Example: h ea d . b bb y c k ck ch q z zz ze s se ch tch a d dd  a a-e  ai ay f ff ph air are g gg ar a h  e ea j g ge dge e ea ee ey y l ll ear eer m mm mb er ar or ure a e i o u n nn kn er ir or ur  ngue ng n i y p pp i i-e igh y r rr wr o a s ss  o oa o-e ow se c ce s oi oy sh ti ch oo u t tt  te oo ew ue th ure th or a au aw oor v ve ow ou w wh u u o THRASS® 10 Sheet 2 Record all graphemes taught on this sheet.three phonemes . Examples: h ea d t o ngue t a s te  THRASS READING 54 THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 . d dd f ff ph g gg b bb c k ck ch q ch tch  h j g ge dge l ll m mm mb n nn kn ng n  THRASS ® Sheet 1 Record the phonemes of English and THRASS graphemes taught on this sheet.RECORDING PHONEME/GRAPHEME TEACHING Use either or both of the sheets below from the Reading Section of your THRASS Resource File to record phoneme/grapheme teaching. NAME AND OVERWRITE SHEET s sh ti ch y t tt z zz ze s se COMBINED SAY.three graphemes p pp r rr wr s ss se c ce th th v ve w wh u COMBINED SAY.

if they do not understand the process they cannot use this knowledge to spell unfamiliar words. pony and Kelly.thrass. THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 11 . Research has shown that students with a more comprehensive vocabulary and a greater understanding of the meanings of words. cent. The sound ( f ) is not just represented by the letter ‘f’ but can be represented by the letters ‘ph’. so that they are able to use the phonic information to decode (read) and encode (spell) words. links to other words with similar structure and the grammatical use of the word . It can represent the sound ( s ) as in the words city. It is important that your child learns the THRASSCHART.htm. A LETTER TO PARENTS Dear Parent Spelling and literacy as a whole are a priority in this school. Talking with your children about the meaning of words from the relevant classroom themes. or the sound in the words my. if we are teaching the word fish we focus on all the sounds not just one. Your role as a parent is important in this process.com. Philip and Phoebe. Having this knowledge will allow your child to develop skills in reading. Scientific research has shown phonics is a crucial strategy in the understanding of ‘how to spell’. Our school will be using THRASS as the basis for phonics teaching and the MASUTA Spelling Sequence to develop your child’s spelling skills and strategies. For example. hands on phonics teaching. Cindy etc. the more competent and adventurous speller they will become. Sophie. You will also be building vocabulary for future learning. the working memory and understanding of how to achieve the correct answer is vital to the cognitive process (deep understanding) for future learning. as in photo. Writing words in context to show meaning is a vital part of your child’s spelling program. As in maths. Our school is committed to explicit. That is. We look at phonics patterns within a whole-word approach. writing and reading comprehension enabling them to reach their full potential in literacy learning.au/parentletter.WORKING WITH PARENTS TO CONSOLIDATE LEARNING Many schools are concerned that parents want to have a definitive spelling list for their child. Knowing the 44 sounds of English and the various spelling choices that represent these sounds enables the learner to understand orthography (the spelling system of our language) and not be confused by restricted phonic patterns. will more successfully apply words to memory for spelling and are more competent in comprehension and writing. Even if a child is a able to ‘spell a word’. understand the meaning. The words will be relevant to their everyday learning. tyre. The letter ‘y’ does not just represent the sound heard at the beginning of yawn. Below is a ‘letter to parents’ explaining the methodology and philosophy of using the MASUTA sequence for learning spelling. www. Skills and strategies for learning ‘how to spell’ are a very important part of the spelling process. using dictionaries and looking at the grammatical changes in words is far more important than ‘rote’ learning a word for testing at the end of the week. Spelling must be practised. If a child cannot successfully spell words then they are less likely to succeed at formal learning. This letter is downloadable from the THRASS AUSTRALIA website. This document can be reproduced in part or whole as an explanation of how to teach spelling. spelling. but more commonly represents the sound heard at the end of words like city. The spelling lists that your children will be working on at this school will be compiled by the classroom teacher and will contain words from all subjects focusing on relevant themes. The more the learner can see the word in context. not just an abstract list of words from a commercially produced spelling book. fly and by. it is not just the correct answer that is important. in English the letter ‘c’ does not just represent the sound ( c ) as heard at the beginning of words like cat.plurals and tenses. make phonic links and practise writing words in a fun and meaningful way. the phonetic structure of the word. The teacher will be focusing on word meaning.

M.. McAurthur. Elkins... UK. T. J.. 27-34. Hogben. C. J (1999). K. For your school’s interest THRASS has hundreds of ‘whole-class’ work samples from Prep.. Canberra: Department of Education. Coltheart. M.House. Browney.S. June). & Greaves. P. The phoneme awareness span: A neglected dimension of phonemic awareness. de Lemos. J.... Riverlanf. ACT: Australian Government Department of Education.. Teaching reading literature review: A review of evidence-based research literature on approaches to the teaching of literacy.. K... Munroe. Coltheart.. D.. 3(2). B. K. S. D (2004)..VELS (Victorian Essential learning Standards) PREP WRITING SAMPLE EXPECTATIONS FOR TERM 4 PREP WRITING SAMPLES FOR TERM 4. 5/6. Munroe. Nichols. Rohl.. Iacono. K. Cupples. Munroe. primary students with learning difficulties: Literacy and numeracy. H... J. Smith-Lock. CASTLES.... L. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities.. London. Heath. L. L. S. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities. Science and Training. particularly those that are effective in assisting students with reading difficulties. M (2004. P. Reading and learning difficulties: Approaches to teaching and Assessment. &Van Krayenoord. 7/8 The samples shown reflect the expectations THRASS has of learners who have been taught using THRASS and the MASUTA spelling sequence. (2000).. J. REFERENCES Anderson. Chan. G. The phonemic-orthographic nexus. Wheldall. P.. What’s happening with pre-service preparation of teachers for literacy and numeracy teaching in Australia? Paper presented at the Sixth British Dyslexia Association (BDA) international conference. Rowe.. Milton. R. K. G. Australian Developmental and Educational Psychologist. J (1999). Joy.J. 1 & 2.. Phonological and phonemic awareness: Their impact on learning to read prose and to spell. S. Training and Youth Affairs. 70-89. Westwood. J. & Prior. Leitio.. Australian Government Minister for Education. W. (2001). Science and Training.. 14 June 2004. VIC: ACER Press THE THRASS INSTITUTE 2012 . Reading instruction in Australian schools: An ‘open’ letter to Dr Brendan Nelson.. Hempenstall. L. V. Fletcher. Louden. 4(3). M FieldingBarnsley. J (1998). A report of the Committee for the National Inquiry into teaching Literacy... Camberwell. Canberra. Greaves. 17(1). Bretheron. R. Brunsdon. Newell. Rohl..W. using THRASS and the MASUTA spelling model. (2005). 6/7. March). Byrne.. M. A. V. (Chair). Pammer. 15-21. Mapping the territory. Nickels. Stuart..M.

COPY THE WORD © THRASS 2006 WRITE THE WORD BREAK THE WORD INTO PHONEMES AND WRITE THE GRAPHEMES DIFFICULT GRAPHEME THRASS Spelling Book: Level 1 .