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In the present paper, the experimental results of flow induced vibrations

Flow Induced Vibration of the Large-Sized Sodium Valve for MONJU by

on the several types of large-sized sodium valves are presented.

QQ

The valves

studied were; (1) a 22-inch wedge gate type isolation valve, (2) a 22-inch

K. Sato, Japan.

butterfly type isolation valve, and (3) a 16-inch butterfly type control valve.

ABSTRACT

During the series of tests, the phenomena of violent self-excited vibration

Measurements have been made on the hydraulic characteristics of the


large-sized sodium valves in the hydraulic simulation test loop with water as
fluid.

The following three prototype sodium valves were tested;

(1) 22-inch

and water hammer occurred on the 22-inch butterfly valve, and these were
studied as much as possible in the limited time.
Limited by the time assigned to the tests,

each tests could not be continued for

wedge gate type isolation valve, (2) 22-inch butterfly type isolation valve,

a satisfactorily long period of time, and the data obtained from the measurements

and (3) 16-inch butterfly type control valve.

were restricted to practical problems.

In the test, accelerations of flow induced vibrations were measured as a

2.

function of flow velocity and disk position.

The hydraulic simulation tests were performed in an open circuit pipe

The excitation mechanism of the vibrations is not fully interpreted in


these tests due to the complexity of the phenomena, but the experimental
results suggest that it closely depends on randam pressure fluctuations near
the valve disk and flow separation at the contracted cross section between the
valve seat and the disk.

Test Loop

The intensity of flow induced vibrations suddenly

increases at a certain critical condition, which depends on the type of valve


and is proportional to fluid velocity.

line with a straight piping valve test section of about 15 m length.


The straight piping in the test section was varied according to the size of
test valve.

The schematic arrangement of the HYDRAULIC SIMULATION

TEST LOOP is shown in Fig. 1 .


The water flow was provided by a 16-inch centrifugal pump with a 105 m
head and 4000 ton/h flow capacity.
It was possible to vary the flow direction by use of a change-over switching
valve included in the system.

1.

Introduction
A number of valves are installed in the pipe lines of a Power Reactor

System for control of fluid velocity and emergency closure of the outlet.

3.

Within the framework of the experimental program for the development of the

3.1

fast breeder reactor MONJU, hydraulic simulation tests for several mockup sodium valves have been undertaken.

These valves may be subject to

various modes of vibrations differing in their physical nature and onset


conditions.

The phenomena of valve

vibration in sodium service occur only

when a valve is throttled, particularly in the low flow ranges.

This vibration

has been encountered on several sodium loop test facilities.


In the case of large-sized valves, there is very little meaningful and

Mock-Up Sodium Valve and Test Results


22-inch Wedge Gate Isolation Valve' '
The two 22-inch wedge gate type sodium valves used were manufactured

by OKANO Ltd. and TOA Ltd. in Japan.

The specifications of these valves

are very similar.


Fig.

2 and Fig.3 show the OKANO - Type and TOA - Type manufactured

valves respectively.

The isolation valve was installed at the inlet and

outlet sides of an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX).


When the failure of an IHX occures, continuous leakage flow from the secondary

objective data on this subject.

loop to the primary loop occures due to its service pressure difference.

The attempts to give the critical operation conditions of vibration occurrance

To prevent the contamination of the non-radioactive secondary sodium, this

were carried out on several mock-up sodium valves for MONJU in the

valve must close completely.

The function

of this valve is isolation of the

HYDRAULIC SIMULATION TEST LOOP at O-Arai Engeneering Center.

secondary loop to prevent the abovement/oned continuous leakage flow.

These valves were manufactured for trials to obtain basic information for the

The operation time from full open to complete close of this valve is about

manufacturing technique and to investigate the hydraulic behaviours, the

30 sec, and the split wedge is used for tight shut off service. Valve stem

thermal shock resistance in the sodium loop, and for other basic tests.

sealing can be obtained by freezing sodium in an annulus around the valve stem.

en i

Observations of acoustic noise occurring during the valve closing were


carried out to estimate the safety operation region of the valve, see F i g . 4 .

normal flow, the cup spring does not cause increase of flexibilty of the
operator.

The marks in the figure represent the points of the initial onset of acoustic

For this reason, it is concluded that the flexible device installed in

noise and the oblique lines show the extent of the noisy operation area.

the operator has an undesirable feature in connection with valve

The initial onset of acoustic noise approximately correspond to the sudden

vibration.

increase of vibration acceleration.

In addition, during the test of the 22-inch butterfly valve, severe

In addition the measurements of the acceleration of vibration as a function


of the fluid velocity at the contracted cross section between the valve seat
and the disk were performed.

The results are shown in Fig. 5.

As may

be appreciated from Fig. 5, the acceleration of vibration suddenly increases

vibration and water hammer occurred in the case of the reverse flow
direction when the initial flow rate was more than 3000 m^/h.
A brief description of test conditions is as follows.
After the measurement of pressure loss at the 30 degree open
position, in which flow rate is about 2000 m /h and pressure loss is

at about 10m/sec and the logarithmic increase of the acceleration is

about 3 kg/cm , when we closed the valve to the 25 degree open

proportional to the fluid velocity.

position, the valve closed automatically by itself a further 7 - 8

These facts suggest that the flow separation occuring at the edge of the

and then violent vibration with banging noises suddenly occurred.

valve disk may be causing elastic vibration of the valve stem.

This time the valve was operated manually.


3.2

(4)
22-inch Butterfly Isolation Valvev '

stopped by opening the bypass valve.

The new butterfly type isolation valve was designed and manufactured
by OKANO Ltd. , see F i g . 6 .

One great advantage of this type of valve is ht

For this reason, its operation time (about 10 sec) is shorter than the previously
This rather short operation time is desirable and necessary to prevent the
In the case of

In addition, the tight shut off service

(not complete) is provided by the specially designed key, which pushed the disk

These vibrations should, perhaps, be classified as self-excited vibrations

Fig. 7 and 8 represent the increase of vibration acceleration during the

As it was considered that the above described

cup spring may be concerned in self-excited vibration occurring on the


removed and a steel sleeve was installed in it place, was carried out.
As we expected, in this test severe vibration did not occur.
Another problem which occurred on the valve was water hammer.

Fig. 7 shows the normal flow direction and Fig. 8 shows the reverse flow
The vibration characteristics of the valve obviously
Vibration induced by reverse flow is considerably
In the case of reverse

Fig. 10 shows the typical record of water hammer recorded on an


electro-magnetic oscilograph.

valve closing at the center position of the valve body.

larger than that of the normal flow direction.

force.

Water hammer occurred during the motor drive closing procedure.

to the seat when the valve is closed.

differ with flow direction.

recorded during the vibration.

valve, a test of the same conditions, in which the cup spring was

an accident, Na-Water reaction products formed in the Steam Genelator (SG)

direction, respectively.

occurence of such phenomenon, the experimental data could not be

induced by fluid

described valve (section 3.1).

are probably present in this sodium.

The phenomenon was

As we did not consider the

The observed vibration had a rather low frequency, about 1 - 2 Hz.

the compactness of both the valve and valve operator.

reverse sodium flow into the reactor vessel building.

degrees,

flow,

the cup spring, which is used for preventing excessive torque acting on the
stem when the valve is closed (see Fig. 9, the limit switch is installed at the
opposited side of the cup spring), is compressed by fluid force, and the
resulting flexibilty of the operator may increase greatly.
On the contrary, as fluid force acts in the other direction in the case of

The variations of up-stream and down-

stream side pressures and stem torque were shown simaltaneously.


The pressures were measured by strain gauge

pressure transducers

and the stem torque was measured by a strain gauge put on the surface
of the stem.

In the figure, a sudden increase of down-stream side

pressure was recorded before the occurrence of water hammer ,


and at the moment the stem torque declimes to ZERO , and
up-stream side pressure is nearly equal to down-stream side pressure.
It could be oconsidered that the valve disk should move in an opening
direction at the moment

due to release of pressure difference

100

between up-stream and down-stream of the valve, and the compressed

data of the boundary condition in the program.

cup spring also push the disk to

experimental and calculated results of water hammer occurring on the

opening direction.

And then, as the

pressure difference suddenly increased again, the valve closed

valve.

quickly to a certain degree (about 1 2 - 1 5 degrees) and large water

results from 0 sec to 7 sec of operation time.

Fig. 12 shows both the

The calculated results completely agreed with the experimental


At near the 7.5 sec, the

hammer occurred (]2) in the pipe line.

calculated results were some what larger due to the irregular motion of

The sudden increase of up-stream side pressure (T) is classified as

the valve disk caused by pressure fluctuation.

the

of water hammer can be almost simulated by the numerical solution, in

phenomena of column separation.

photographed
University.

The same phenomenon was

which occurring time of water hammer is a little faster than the experimen-

by Dr. Suita in Mechanical Engineering of Ibaraki


Fig. 11 shows the visualization of cavitation due to water

hammer in a pipe line

The maximum pressure

tal

photographed by Dr. Suita.

results.

From the results of the visualization in a pipe line photo-

graphed by Dr. Suita and the numerical solution, it is concluded that

(A) shows the photographing part of the apparatus which is made of

the cause of water hammer is column separation

transparent acrylic resin.

side of a pipe line and the flexibility of the cup spring installed in the

Inner diameter of the pipe line is 0.05 m.

Water flows from right side to left side.

operator of the valve boosted the phenomena.


After the hydraulic test, the overhaul inspection was carried out

The phenomena are recorded photographically by a motor drive camera


at the rate of four frames per second.

in the down-stream

(B) shows the pressure variation

in

Okano Ltd.

In the inspection, the deformation of the key way and

of down-stream side pressure after the closing of the butterfly valve.

bend of the stem were found.

(C) shows an example of typical succesive photographs.

feather key and the deformation of the key way.

The initial

Fig. 13 shows the photographs of the

velocity is 0.74 m/sec, and the time of valve closure is about 0.1 second.

The deformation of the key way occurred in the direction of fluid

The time intervals between two photographs are about 0.23 second.

force.

Photograph (a) indicates the state 0.04 second before valve closure.

As shown in Fig. 14, the bend was found to be in the direction of reverse

The generation of cavitation due to throttling the valve is observed.

flow, and also four flaws were found on the stem at about 1 5 - 20

The second photograph shows the state 0.19 second after the valve

open position.

closure.

In this photograph, we can observe

situated at the upper part of the channel.

a large horizontal cavity

Fig. 14 shows the bend of the stem schematically.

The cause of these deformations and flaws are considered to

In the third photograph, the

be due to self-excited vibration and water hammer.

The tight shut off

large horizontal cavity extends to the down stream side.

service of the valve is enough for our design target valve before the

In the lower part of the section, vigorous boiling at the water temperature

hydraulic test, but the leak flow after the test enormously increased

is seen.

due to the bend of the stem.

When the pressure waves return from the down stream end, the large
cavity suddenly diminishes as shown in the last photograph, and at that
moment the large pressure rise occurred.
few times and weakens.

The phenomena repeats a

As the initial flow velocity decreases, or the

3.3

16-inch Butterfly Type Flow

Control

The 16-inch butterfly type valve was produced as an experiment


by TOA Ltd, and was installed at the secondary sodium inlet or outlet

time of valve closure becomes longer, the phenomena weakens.

side of the Steam Generator for flow control of liquid sodium, see

It can be considered that the same phenomena may occure in our test of

Fig. 15.

the 22-inch butterfly valve.

sirable feature of an unbalanced flow pattern which could lead to valve

A numerical calculation has been carried

out for water hammer analysis of the valve.

The program is based on

For flow control of liquids, the butterfly valve has the unde-

vibration when the disk is partly open.

the characteristics method for solution of the partial differential

It is considered, however, that its compactness is very desirable,

equations of motion and continuity.

especially in larger sizes, for system design application.

Column separation logic is included for situations in which pressures

Thus, the test on the TOA experimental valve was carried out to obtain

fall to saturation.

flow and vibration characteristics of the butterfly valve.

The motion of the valve disk is given as the input

101

The automatic feedback flow control system is provided to the valve and

Fig. 21 shows the typical observation of vibration waveform recorded

the operation time from full open to complete close of the valve is about

on an electro-magnetic oscilograph.

1 minute.

acceleration, and down-stream side pressure fluctuation is presented


in the figure.

The measurements of drag coefficients as a function of the valve

It is

The vibration displacement

considered that the waveform of displacement (about

opening were performed to estimate the flow control application and

30 - 40 Hz) may indicate the natural frequency of pipe

the reliability of the design extrapolation to larger sizes. The results

supported by a U - band.

are shown in Fig. 16.

In the figure, the drag coefficients of the other

line which is

The waveform of acceleration (about 700 - 800 Hz) almost coincided

above described valves are shown together with the 1 6-inch butterfly

with the down-stream side pressure fluctuation, and the increase of

valve.

pressure fluctuation was observed only on down-stream side.

The figures indicate that both the butterfly valves have worse

throttling characteristics and the drag coefficients somewhat differ

Thus, the exciting source of flow induced vibration of the valve is

with flow directions due to the flexibility of the mechanism of the valve

considered to be flow separation occurring on the edge of the disk.

operator and the effect of the complex configuration of the flow passage.

4.

Closing Remarks

The drag coefficients of the butterfly valves are rather greater compared
with the design target valve due to the complexity of the shape of the

The results of hydraulic simulation tests for several mock-up largesized sodium vlaves are reported.

flow passage.
In addition, the extent of the available flow control region of the
butterfly valve is limited to the 30 degree open position as sudden increase

General remarks obtained from the tests

are as follows.
(1)

The 22-inch gate valve almost satisfies our design target, and

of vibration occurred at that position, in which the drag coefficient was

tight shut off service is complete.

also increasing.

increased at 10 m/sec, which is the fluid velocity of the contracted


cross section, and the logarithmic increase of vibration accelera-

To investigate the extent of the available flow control region,

tion is proportional to about the 3th power of fluid velocity.

measruements of vibration acceleration induced by fluid flow were


performed.

The vibration suddenly

(3)

The cause of self-excited vibration occurring on the 22-inch

The measured vibration accelerations as a function of flow rate and the

butterfly valve is considered to be due to the large flexibility of

valve opening position are shown in Fig. 17 and 18. Fig. 17 shows

the cup spring installed in the valve operator.

normal flow direction and Fig. 18 shows reverse flow direction

interest in the mechanism of the valve operator.

respectively.

It can be appreciated from Fig. 17 and 18 that the

vibration acceleration depends on both flow rate and the valve opening
position.

(3)

G [m/sec^l , fluid velocity

v m/sec$J , pressure loss

P [kg/m^J

line before water


the phenomena.

velocity through the contracted cross section between the disk and the
seat.

in both normal and reverse flow.

time of 10 sec may be considered to be too fast.

Pressure Loss]

Vibration accelerations suddenly increase at the about [V' X

The necessary closure time is now under reconsideration.

p] = 3 X 10

The correlation is almost the same

Column separation in the pipe lines of a

Reactor Plant is a very important problem, and thus the closure

Fig. 19 and 20 show the logarithmic correlation between vibration


X

which occurred in the downstream side pipe


hammer, and the rather large pressure loss

of reverse flow direction and the flexibility of cup spring may boost

Modified Flow Velocity is defined as mean fluid

acceleration and [Modified Flow Velocity

The cause of water hammer is considered to be the

column separation,

and the disk position, a new parameter Modified Flow Velocity V 1 ,


[m/secj is introduced.

The phenomena of water hammer also occurred on the 22-inch


butterfly valve.

To estimate the correlation between vibration acceleration

We must take much

(4)

The extent of available flow control region of the 16-inch butterfly

concerning flow direction.

valve was estimated in consideration of vibration acceleration ,fluid

We can easily determine the extent of the available flow control rigion

velocity and pressure loss.

from the calculation of \y<

in the 50 MW Steam Generator Test Facility at O-Arai Engineering

p]

in Fig. 19 and 20.

Center.

The valve is now undergoing tests

102

(7)

REFERENCE
1
2
(3)

IS
(6)

PNC, SN941 73-35, 1973.


PNC, SN941 73-36, 1973.
PNC, SN941 75-98, 1975.
PNC, SN941 76-62, 1976.
M. Suita et al, "Visualization of Cavitation due to Water Hammer
in a Pipe Line", Symposium on Flow Visualization to be held at
Tokyo on Nov. 1977.
V.L. Streeter, F . B . Wylie, "Hydraulic Transients, McGraw-Hill,
1967.

A . S . Abelev, L . L . Dolnikov, "Experimental Investigations of


Vertical-Lift Gate", IUTAM/lAHR Symposium Karlsruhe, 1972.
(8) J . P . T h . KalKwijk et a l , "Cavitation in Horizontal Pipe Lines
due to Water Hammer", ASCE, vol. 97, 1971.
(9) L.E. Phillips et al, "Conceptual Design of Large Sodium Valves",
ACNP-65579, 1966.
(10) S. IKeo et al, Trans, of JSME (in Japanese), vol. 41 No. 342
P 588, 1975.
(11) T. Tanahashi et al, Trans, of JSME (in Japanese), vol. 35 No. 279
P 2217, 1969.

Air Receiver
Raptur Disk

r-xH

1
fed

Electromagnetic
Flow-Meter

Orificed
Flow-Meter

Change-Over
Switching Valve

"I

IComponent'

1 Auto-Cleaned
1
Filters I

[Test

IDX3

| Section

Cooling
Tower

T\
Scaling-Tank
Flow-Meter

Vacuum Pump

Main Pump

Utility Pump

Draining Pump
Reservoir

Pump for
Cooling Tower

Drainage

Fig. 1 Schematic Arrengement of the HYDRAULIC SIMULATION TEST LOOP

103

104

(mm)
Marking

Fig. 2 22-inch Wedge Gate Isolation


Valve
(Manufuctured by OKANO Ltd.)

(mm)

Fig. 3 22-inch Wedge Gate Isolation Valve


(Manufactured by TOA Ltd.)

vaiv wpciiiny \/o)

Fig. 4

(b)TOAType

Fluid Velocity (m/sec)

Fig. 5
Vibration Accelerations
Observed Results of
as a Function ofFluid
Initial Occurrence of
Velocity at the Contracted
Acaustic Noise vs. Valve Opening Cross Section

Fig. 6 22-inch Butterfly Isolation Valve


(Manufactured by OKANO Ltd.)

106
Initial Flow Rate (m3 /h)
o--1000
A 2000
o
3000
4000

Initial Flow Rate (m3/h)


o1000
A
2000
a
3000
_ O 4000

5
c
o

(Open)

Valve Opening (DEG)

Fig. 7 Vibration Accelerations of 22-inch Butterfly


Valve as a Function of Initial Flow Rate and the
Valve Opening (Normal Flow Direction)

60

90
(Open)

Valve Opening (DEG)

Fig. 8 Vibration Accelerations of 22-inch Butterfly


Valve as a Function of Intiat Flow Rate and the
Valve Opening (Reverse Flow Direction)

Cup Spring

Worm Gear

WWW

107

i-oi-i
=->!-=

VU-iAAT

Spur Gear
"Worm Gear

Sheet

Disk

(A) Photographing Part.

f 3
-*-
W_ J
|_ *" J
-4
I" -f
17^3
i-o4

1: transparent acrylic resin,


2: iodine lamp,
3: butterfly valve,
4: pressure transducer,
5: camera,
6: oil hydraulic system,
7: amplifier
8: recorder,

Body

Motor

Fig. 9 Schematic Diagram of the Valve


Operator
Flow Direction
Reverse
Initial Flow Rate 2855 m3/n

CD

CD
3

0-

100

Up-Stream
Side Pressure

(B) Record of the Pressure


Variation.
1: shutter sign,
2: valve closing curve,
3: pressure variation curve,

The Cavitation Due to Rapid


Valve Closure.

Down-Stream
Side Pressure

L
7.4

7.5

Fig. 11
7.6

7.7

7.8

Operation Time (sec)

Fig. 10 Record of the Pressure Variation and Stem Torque

=-!-=

Visualization of Cavitation due to Water


Hammer in a Pipe Line
(Potographed by Suita*)
* Professor of Mechanical Engineering,
Ibaraki University.

108

Max 235mCalculation

200

Initial Flow Rate 2855 m /h


Flow Direction Reverse

Experiment

|Oj

CO

100

CO

-M-U-

Z)

(a) Contact Point with Feather Key and Disk

=--=

p..

Deformation;^

Operation Time (sec)

Rg. 12 Calcutated Result of Water Hammer by the


Characteristics Method
)Flaw Occured on the Stem

(Stem) L-'

Normal Flow Direction

Flaw A, D

--=

(b) Deformation of the Key Way

vs;

Swing Arm

Flaw B, C|
Normal Flow Direction

Fig. 14 Illustrations of Bend of the Stem

Fig. 13 Photographs showing Deformation of the


Stem

109
i

..-Motor

16in. Butterfly (Reverse Flow)


16in. Butterfly
22in. Butterfly (Reverse Flow)
22in. Butterfly
Wedge Gate (OKANO)
Wedge Gate (TOA)

10-1
0

20

40

60

80

100

Valve Position (%, Wedge Gate)


1

30

60

90

Valve Position (Degree, Butterfly)

Fig. 15 16-inch Butterfly Flow Control


Valve (Manufactured by TOA Ltd.)

Fig. 16 Drag Coefficients of Large-Sized Sodium


Valves for "MONJU"

2-

3
c
g

Flow Direction Normal

+->

30
c 40
50
o 60
70
80
o 90

a>

2
J5

g
re

CD
O
O
<

Valve Opening

o 20

Normal Flow Direction

J5

CO

%o

V*

(0

co
a

.g

(0

o
'

o*
e
*

o
o

110

0.1

.t

500

1000

1500

2000

Fig. 17

10

0.1

Flow Rate (m /h)

V'X

Vibration Accelerations of 16-inch Flow Control


Valve as a Function of Flow Rate and the Valve
Opening (Normal Flow Direction)

Fig. 19 Correlation between Vibration Acceleration


and [Modified Flow Velocity] X [Pressure Loss]
(Normal Flow Direction)
o 10 Valve Opening

Valve
/
Opening

Flow Direction-Reverse

+-*

g
ID
O

o 20
30
c 40
50
e 60
70
80
90

Reverse Flow Direction

1-

CD
O

o
<

e aK

% *
a

0.1--

500

1000

1500

2000
3

Flow Rate (m /h)

Fig. 18 Vibration Accelerations of 16-inch Flow


Control Valve as a Function of Flow Rate and the
Valve Opening (Reverse Flow Direction)

0.1

e
10

X10 4

V'x JP
Fig. 20 Correlation between Vibration Acceleration
and [Modified Flow Velocity] X [Pressure Loss]
(Reverse Flow Direction)

effects adequately.

Displacement

In these circumstances the need for additional

research work is established and the objectives of the research programme

A/VA

111

emerge.
The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the
current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

Acceleration

0.1 sec
Valve Opening30'
Flow Rate915 m3/h
Down-Stream Side
Flow DirectionNormal
Pressure Fluctuation

2.

Background
As an operator of heat exchangers the availability of the plant

for the life time of a station is a factor of considerable importance.


If the availability can be reduced significantly by failures, then the
extent of the consideration of the mechanisms that may cause such failures
should be related to the scope for repairs or replacement of the heat
exchanger.

0.01 sec

Nuclear heat exchangers are often large compact items of plant

with very limited scope for repairs and their replacement is usually a

Down-Stream Side
Pressure Fluctuation

lengthy and costly operation.

research work aimed at improving the design procedures for nuclear heat
exchangers is justified.

Fig. 21 Vibration Waveform Recorded on an


Electro-Magnetic Oscilograph

Consequently, it is considered that

However, it should be appreciated that many of

the heat exchangers, associated with operational gas cooled reactors,


have given satisfactory service;

failures of nuclear heat exchangers are

relatively rare and only a proportion of these failures can be attributed


to flow-induced vibrations.

Heat Exchanger Vibration by D. J. W. Richards, United Kingdom.


1.

3.

Early work on flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers


The early work on flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers

Introduction

often tacitly assumed that the excitation experienced by a stationary tube


The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant
in the generation and transmission of electricity.

The amount of attention

given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is


usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant.
Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant
which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life,
there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure.
On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate

could be used to determine the vibration levels of tubes given the


structural dynamics of the tube and its support system.

Clearly, this

assumption neglects the aeroelastic effects relating the enhancement of


the excitation by the tube motion.

Consequently, the initial

investigations of the fluid dynamics of heat exchanger vibration attempted


to allow for the aeroelastic effects.

The essence of the approach follows

from a consideration of the equation of motion of a single degree of


freedom system, namely:-

deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the


designer.

When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations,

X + 2?

the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance.


Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and

where X

the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms.

In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may

(0

identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their

s
o

X +

pd 2 V 2
2Md

F(t)

...d)

= cross-flow displacement
= ratio of structural damping to the critical structural damping
= undamped natural frequency
= generalised mass per unit length

o
o
w

8: