Topics covered

• WELDING PROCESSES.
• WELDING CONSUMABLES
• WELDING EQUIPMENTS • WELDING EQUIPMENTS
• WELDING PROCEDURE
• WELDING DEFECTS ITS CAUSES
AND REMIDIES
• SAFETY
WELDING PROCESS WELDING PROCESS
Types Of Welding
Welding
Gas Welding Arc Welding
Normal practiced process
Manual Metal Arc Welding MMAW
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GTAW
Gas Metal Arc Welding GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding GMAW
Flux Cored Arc Welding FCAW
Sub Merged Arc Welding SAW
WELDING PROCESS
• The present process of welding used to
manufacture various components generally are as
follows
• MMAW- Manual Metal Arc Welding Process • MMAW- Manual Metal Arc Welding Process
• GMAW- Gas Metal Arc Welding process
• GTAW - Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
• FCAW- Flux Cored Arc Welding
• SAW- Submerged Arc Welding
SMAW/MMAW
GTAW
GMAW(MIG/MAG)
FCAW
SAW
Advanced process
• Narrow Gap Welding
• Laser Beam Welding
• Electron Beam Welding
• Friction Stir Welding • Friction Stir Welding
• Plasma Welding
• Plasma Transfer Arc Technique (PTA)
• Robotic Welding
• Orbital Welding
Selection of Welding process
• Type of Base Material
• The Joint Design
• The place of welding • The place of welding
• Welding Position
• Type of consumables availability
• The skill availability of personnel
• The types of equipment availability
WELDING CONSUMABLES WELDING CONSUMABLES
&
WELDING EQUIPMENTS.
RECOMMEDATIONS
The selection of the correct welding consumables
depends on the following parameters
• Base materials composition
• The weld ability of the steel • The weld ability of the steel
• Selection of the welding consumables as per
ASME section-II- C
• Acceptance of AWS or any other standards
depends on the clients requirements.
WELDING CONSUMABLES
• The Welding consumables like the welding electrodes and
filler wires that are required and are recommended are as
follows
• E-6013 Welding Electrodes for Welding in MMAW
process for Carbon steel, Mild steel, For the general
purpose welding applications up to thickness 18 mm or
3/4
th
inch.
• For thickness over the above mentioned must be welded
with Low Hydrogen electrodes as per AWS E 7018 or
E7018-1 Type of welding consumables.
Welding consumables for various
steels.
• General Mild steel Up to 18mm
AWS 6013 class welding electrodes,
ER 70 SG Filler wires in case of GTAW & ER 70 SG Filler wires in case of GTAW &
ER 70 S-6 in case of GMAW process.
• General Mild steel Above 18mm
AWS 7018class ER 70 S2 & ER 70 S-6
Selection contd.
• For Radiography joints
The following grades consumables are
mandatory. mandatory.
• AWS E6013 & E7018 classified Electrodes
• ER 70 S2 TIG welding filler wires
• ER 70 S-6 MIG Welding continuous filler
wires.
Consumables- gases
• ER –70 S-6 Solid wire for welding the
GMAW (MAG) welding process
• ER 70-S-2 TIG filler applications incase of • ER 70-S-2 TIG filler applications incase of
carbon steel welding .
• The use of 100 % CO2 gas for MAG
welding and 100 % pure Argon gas for TIG
welding applications are the main criteria.
Alloy steels
AWS class of low alloy electrodes & wires
Consumables- LAS
• In the case of use of Low alloy steels where
C, Mo, Cr and other alloys are involved the C, Mo, Cr and other alloys are involved the
creep properties are important and hence the
matching composition of the weld metals
are mandatory
Consumables –S.S.
• Welding of Stainless steels like commonly
used steels such as 304, 304L, 308L, 309,
316. and other categories such as 310, 321, 316. and other categories such as 310, 321,
347, Duplex, Super Duplex Steels, the
respective grade of Electrodes and the Filler
wires to be used with proper shielding
gases.
Stainless steel
• 301,304,308 Class
AWS E 308 & 308 L grades Electrodes
and ER 308 L TIG/ MIG welding wires. and ER 308 L TIG/ MIG welding wires.
• 316 and 316 L
-AWS E- 316 & 316 L
-ER 316 L TIG and MIG fillers
SS Contd.
• For 309 Grade steels
AWS E 309 Electrodes
ER 309 L Wires ER 309 L Wires
• Dissimilar metals of SS and SS-MS
AWS 309L and 309 MoL
ER 309L & ER 309 MoL
SS Contd.
• Stabilized steels of 321, 347
Namely Niobium/Columbium, Ti and Ta stabilized
steels the use of
AWS E- 347 electrodes and wires of AWS E- 347 electrodes and wires of
ER 347 grade is recommended.
• For other grades like 310,312, 317 the respective
grades of consumables be used.
Other metals
• Cast Iron
• Non-Ferrous Alloy: • Non-Ferrous Alloy:
Aluminium, Copper, Nickel, Magnesium
etc.
Welding Position
Welding Positions For Groove welds:-
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Flat 1G PA
Horizontal 2G PC
Vertical Upwards Progression 3G PF
Vertical Downwards Progression 3G PG
Overhead 4G PE
Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5G PF
Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Upwards 6G HL045
Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Downwards 6G JL045
Welding Positions For Fillet welds:-
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Flat (Weld flat joint at 45 degrees) 1F PA
Horizontal 2F PB
Horizontal Rotated 2FR PB
Vertical Upwards Progression 3F PF
Vertical Downwards Progression 3F PG
Overhead 4F PD
Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5F PF
Proper Arc Length
• Long arc results in:
– Large globules melting
– Wavering arc
– Wide spatter and irregular bead
• Short arc results in: • Short arc results in:
– Electrode sticks
– Poor penetration
– Convex bead
– Slag inclusions
– Irregular bead
• Use short length for vertical welds
Speed of Travel
• Travel speed influences:
– Bead width
– Penetration
– General shape of the bead – General shape of the bead
• Use a uniform speed
• Both hands on the electrode holder
– Operator comfort
• Bead should be about twice the diameter of the
electrode wire
Read the Bead
WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT
TYPES OF EQUIPMENTS
Standard Type of welding Equipments
• Arc Welding Transformers
• D.C. Rectifiers • D.C. Rectifiers
• Thyristor controlled Welding Rectifiers
• Welding Invertors
• TIG Welding Equipments
• MIG/MAG Welding machines
• Sub Merged Arc Welding machines
MMA Power sources
Transformer
Rectifier
Welding generator
category of MIG Welding
• Pulsed MIG Welding Machines,
• Inverter based MIG Welding Machines
• Synergic Pulsed MIG Welding Machines • Synergic Pulsed MIG Welding Machines
• Surface Tension Transfer Machines (STT)
Cont…
Under TIG Welding category we can have
• DC Pulsed welding machines
• AC/ DC TIG welding machines • AC/ DC TIG welding machines
• AC Square wave pulsing machines
Advanced Welding Machines:
Electron Beam Welding machines
Narrow Gap welding machines Narrow Gap welding machines
Laser cutting and welding
Plasma Welding
Selection of the correct equipment
• Selection of the right type of equipment is
important to get the desired welding properties.
• The selection decides the feasibility of the use of
the process. the process.
• The selection should be based on the availability
of the equipment,
• The acceptance of the process
• The convenience of the operation.
Welding Defects
TYPE OF DEFECTS
• Lack of fusion
• Lack of Penetration
• Undercut • Undercut
• Crack
• Porosity
• Slag inclusion
Lack of Penetration
Lac of Fusion
Undercut
Porosity
Crack
ITS CAUSES AND REMIDIES
• Re-drying of Consumables/ Proper Storage
• Base metal Cleaning.
• Flow rate of Shielding GAS • Flow rate of Shielding GAS
• Welding Parameter.
• Use of correct welding consumables.
ºOuality in welding eventually
contributes to the need of
Present" time Present" time
ºGET ¡T R¡GHT 1st T¡ME"
THANK YOU THANK YOU

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