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We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5.This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has prepared four tasks for us.We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest.This project can be done in groups or individually, and I gladly choose to do this individually.Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work,we are to gain valuable experiences and able to : • Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems • Experience classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills • Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems. • Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking,reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected • Experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning. • Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing,and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely • Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and confidence • Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace • Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics

• Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment • Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively • Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative • Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics

T for giving me the permission to do my this Additional Mathematics Project Work. a special thanks to all my friends for their help and cooperation in searching for information and completing this project work.thank you to Allah for giving the will to me to complete this Additional Mathematics project. . Hj.P.Secondly. Omar Bin Bakar A. I also like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher.P. I would like to thank the principle of Sekolah Menengah Raja Dr. Nazrin Shah. Lastly. Mr. Besides that. I would like to thank my parents for their support and encouragement.M. Sir Rafhan for the guide and giving useful and important information for me to complete this project work.P.APPRECIATION Alhamdullilah.

summary. and analysis of data. which was invented by Legendre and Gauss. The development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method. The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of probability and statistical inference. In the 19th century. Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation. following Laplace. statistics increasingly used probability theory. physical scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. particularly in the analysis of games of chance (gambling). however. Today statistics is widely employed in government. which are used in statistical practice. particularly the method of least squares. probability and statistics have been in continual development. In the 19th century. the meaning of "statistics" broadened. In the early 19th century. then including the discipline concerned with the collection. The relation between statistics and probability theory developed rather late. Early probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by Laplace.A BRIEF HISTORY OF STATISTICS By the 18th century. social scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental psychology and sociology. the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection of demographic and economic data by states. By 1800. and all the sciences. . whose initial results were found in the17th and 18th centuries. astronomy used probability models and statistical theories. and have allowed statisticians to develop "computer-intensive" methods. business.

Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science. statistics has overlap with information science and computer science. Unlike mathematics. statistical theory has close association with the philosophy of science. . with its emphasis on learning from data and making best predictions. Being concerned with the scientific method and inductive logic. With its concerns with data. statistics had its origins in public administration and maintains a special concern with demography and economics. like computer science or operations research. statistics has great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics.

medicine. Many universities maintain separate mathematics and statistics departments. education. public health concerns (epidemiology.STATISTICS TODAY During the 20th century. Individuals and organizations use statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social sciences. biostatistics. etc. business. and other areas. Statistics is also taught in departments as diverse as psychology. and public health.) necessitated substantial advances in statistical practices.). . and economic and social purposes (unemployment rate. albeit allied. etc. Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics but rather as a distinct.econometry. industrial quality control. Today the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins. field. the creation of precise instruments for agricultural research.

detergent and stationery.e. You are required to carry out a survey on four different items based on the following categories i.The survey should be done in three different shops.PART 1 The prices of goods sold in shops vary from one shop to another.Design a collage to illustrate the chosen items Answer: FOODS : . QUESTION a) Collect pictures. food.newspaper cuttings or photos on items that you have chosen.Shoppers tend to buy goods which are not only reasonably priced but also give value for their money.



20 16.PEN 4.20 8.10 57.60 1.50 29.ERASER TOTAL PRICE GRAND TOTAL . Answer: PRICE(RM) KOOP KOOP SARJANA IUI 4.30 1.60 3.50 28.50 53.50 5.80 3.00 4.EGGS (GRADE A) 1 DOZEN TOTAL PRICE DETERGENT 1.50 1.LIQUID DISHWASHER (1000ml) 3.30 9.70 5.CLOTHES DETERGENT (3KG) 4.89 1.TOILET CLEANER (500ml) TOTAL PRICE STATIONERY 1.BUTTER (250g) 4.90 17.00 14.00 4.30 4.SELF-RAISING FLOUR (1000 g) 2.50 CATEGORY FOOD ITEM KIOSK PUM 3.50 5.SOAP (3 BARS) 2.59 3.50 15.30 5.PENCIL (2B) 1 DOZEN 3.00 2.00 3.90 16.20 4.70 sure to use consistent measurements for each item selected so that comparison can be done easily and accurately.20 1.90 5.SUGAR (1000g) 3.10 7.00 1.50 31.80 4.(b) Record the items and their prices systematically as in Table 1.29 18.90 4.SHARPENER 2.40 1.Since items maybe differently packed.50 5.00 5.30 1.00 1.00 1.60 3.70 2.60 50.80 1.

Answer: .(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the use of ICT is encouraged) to compare and contrast the price of the items chosen.

1)FOODS KOOP SARJANA 6 5 4 3 2 SELF-RAISING FLOUR (1000 g) SUGAR (1000g) BUTTER (250g) EGGS (GRADE A) 1 DOZEN 1 0 KOOP IUI 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 SELF-RAISING FLOUR (1000 g) SUGAR (1000g) BUTTER (250g) EGGS (GRADE A) 1 DOZEN KIOSK PUM 5 4 SELF-RAISING FLOUR (1000 g) SUGAR (1000g) BUTTER (250g) 2 EGGS (GRADE A) 1 DOZEN 1 0 3 .



t have any obvious price difference. Answer: Based on the graphical representation that I have constructed in Part 1(c). 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 GRAND TOTAL KOOP SARJANA KOOP IUI KIOSK PUM Graph 1(d) . while the lowest price items come frm the KIOSK PUM. detergent also shows a large price difference between its items.In the food category.The graph also show that most of the items that are high priced comes from the KOOP SARJANA. it is shown that there are large and small differences among the pries of items in each category between the shops.discuss and draw conclusions.On the other hand. the smallest price difference are of those sugar. while the highest is the price of eggs.the graph 1(d) will show the conclusion of the difference among the shops based upon the shops grand total.Besides food.Among them is the price of liquid dishwasher and clothes detergent.(d) Based on the graphical representation that you have constructed in Part 1(c).Comments on your findings. stationery items doesn. interpret.

47 Standard Deviation = √(∑x²)/N – (x̃)² = √18. suggest and discuss possible reasons for the price difference.Also.9²+17²+16.5² 3 = 0.97 The large price difference of clothes detergent among the shops maybe because of the standard of the shop. the items sold intend to be much more expensive than a regular shop or supermarket.9+17+16.A better quality means a higher price. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of that particular item. Hence. the price difference of the items may also due to the quality of the item present.A high standard shop or supermarket. .5 3 = 17. Answer: Liquid Dishwasher Mean = 18.(e) Identify an item that has a large price difference among the shops.

during the carnival. Answer: The Giant Supermarket.State and discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you suggested.30 2. your class made and sold butter cakes.90 0.30 1.PART 2 Every year SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the school.36 4. This year the school plans to install air conditioners in the school library.your class has decided to carry out the same project for this year’s carnival. Because of the popularity of the butter cakes.This is because the total price of the ingredients from this shop is the lowest from the three shops. (b) Complete Table 2 with the prices of the items found in the Shop/supermarket that you have chosen Answer: INGREDIENT QUANTITY PER CAKE 250g 200g 250g 5 eggs (300g) PRICE IN THE YEAR 2009(RM) 0. QUESTION (a ) Suggest a shop from Part 1 which you would go to purchase the ingredients for the butter cakes.90 0. Last year.25 PRICE IN THE YEAR 2010(RM) 0.10 Self-Raising Flour Sugar Butter Eggs (Grade A) Table 2 .35 3.

25 PRICE IN THE YEAR 2010(RM) 0.36 x 100 = 102.1 I = 1.86 0.30 168 Self-Raising Flour Sugar Butter Eggs (Grade A) 250g 200g 250g 5 eggs (300g) 1.Eggs (Grade A) 2.90 0.35 3.30 2.86 130.Butter I = 4.35 3.Sugar I = 0.3 4.30 1.90 0.36 4.9 x 100 = 100 0.3 x 100 = 130.Self-Raising Flour I = 0.10 PRICE INDEX FOR THE YEAR2010 BASED ON THE YEAR 2009(I) 100 102.9 2.(i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in Table 2 for the year 2010 based on the year 2009 Answer : INGREDIENT QUANTITY PER CAKE PRICE IN THE YEAR 2009(RM) 0.30 3.25 x 100 = 168 .

Answer: To calculate the composite index.(ii) Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010 based on the year 2009.86)+ 4 (130. 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔 ℎ 𝑡 INGREDIENT Self-Raising Flour Sugar Butter Eggs (Grade A) WEIGHTAGE (W) 250 200 250 1000 = 1000 = 1000 = 1 4 1 5 1 4 330 1000 = 10 3 Composite Index = 4 (100)+ 5 (102.54 1 1 1 3 .Discuss how you obtained your answers.30)+ 10(168) 1 = 128.weightage is needed 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔 ℎ 𝑡 (W).

30 Thus.54 x 15 𝜘 = 1928.the suitable price for the butter cake for the year 2010 is RM19.RM 15.00 each.00 On 2010. Answer: On 2009.Give reasons for your answer.the butter cake was sold at RM15.Suggest a suitable selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010. .(iii) In the year 2009.The increase in price is also suitable because of the rise in the price of the ingredients. price = 𝜘 15 x 100 = 128.54% 𝜘 x 100 = 128.1 100 𝜘 = 19.30.

17 x 20.6 That means our school library needs 25 unit of air conditioner . Answer: By using a measuring tape.Explain how you arrive at your answer.20m³ 1 unit of air conditioner is for 27m³ For 664.6 x 9. determine the number of air conditioners with the appropriate capacity required for your library.the dimension for the library is: Height Width Length = 3.20m³ = 664. Answer: For common usage.12 =664. It is suitable for a room size 1000ft³ which is around 27m³ of volume.Hence.20 27 = 24. (ii) Work in group to estimate the volume of your school Library.(c) (i) Find out from reliable source how to determine suitable Capacity of air conditioner to be installed based on the volume/size of a room.17m = 20. air conditioner is rated according to horse power (1HP).6m = 9. which is approximately 700W to 1000W of electrical power.12m Volume of the room = 3.

36 + 4.30 = 19.64 Number of cakes to buy 1 unit of air conditioner = 60.30 – 7.13 = 60 cakes .66 = RM 11.3 + 2.(iii) the If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for School library.9 + 0.66 = RM19.1 = RM 7.64 = 700 11. how many butter cakes must you sell in order to buy the air conditioner Answer: 1 unit of 1HP air conditioner Cost for a cake Selling price Profit =RM700 = 0.

QUESTION (a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above Answer: EXPENDITURE FOOD GAMES TRANSPORTATION DECORATIONS PRIZES TENTS MISCELLANEOUS AMOUNT IN 2009 (RM) 1200.00 200. you are required to prepare an estimated budget to organize this year’s carnival.PART 3 As a committee member for the carnival. whereas the cost of miscellaneous items has increase by 30%. prizes and decorations remains the same. The committee has to take into the consideration the increase in expenditure from the previous year due to inflation.00 .00 300. The cost of games.00 500.00 Table 3 AMOUNT IN 2010 (RM) 1380.00 520.00 400.00 600.00 800.00 600.00 500.00 200. transportation and tents has increased by 15%.00 920. The price of food.00 345.

00 500.00 800.00 400.625 The total price for the year 2010 increase by 11. W FOOD GAMES TRANSPORTATIO N DECORATIONS PRIZES TENTS MISCELLANEOUS 115 100 115 100 100 115 130 12 5 3 2 6 8 4 Composite Index Ĩ = = ∑𝐼𝑖𝑊𝑖 ∑𝑊 115 12 +100 5 +115 3 +100 2 +100 6 +115 8 +130(4) 12+5+3+2+6+8+4 4465 40 = = 111.This is because some price in the year 2009 increased in the year 2010.I I = 𝑃0 X 100% 𝑃1 WEIGHTAG E.00 920.(b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival in the year 2010 based on the year 2009.00 345. Answer: EXPENDITURE AMOUN T IN 2009 (RM) 1200.00 PRICE INDEX .00 AMOUN T IN 2010 (RM) 1380.00 600.00 200.00 200.00 300.00 600.00 500.625%.00 520. Comment on your answer. .

625 Composite index for the year 2010 to the year 2011 = 111.60 2009 .625 Ĩ2011 X 100 = Ĩ2010 X Ĩ2011 2009 2009 2009 1 Ĩ2011 = 111. Determine the composite index of the budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009.625 X 100 2009 Ĩ2011 = 124. Answer: Composite index for the year 2009 to the year 2010 = 111.625 X111.(c) The change in the composite index for the estimate budget for the carnival from the year 2009 to the year 2010 is the same as the change from the year 2010 to the year 2011.

FURTHER EXPLORATION Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations. Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two different types of index number of your choice. . stock market index. for example air pollution index. gold index and property index. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index numbers in daily life.

and each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. particulates. Causes of Poor Air Quality The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air emissions by fresh air. and is different in different countries. or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Limitations of the AQI Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI.AIR POLLUTION INDEX Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals. an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. or other lack of winds lets air pollution remain in a local area. . To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. Air quality index values are divided into ranges. As the AQI increases. particulate matter. carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate air quality indices for these pollutants. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Many countries monitor ground-level ozone. The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant. An agency might also encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high. The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution Index (API) or Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) is a number used by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. sulphur dioxide. Stagnant air. often caused by an anticyclone or temperature inversion.

Indices by location South Korea The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the Comprehensice Air-quality Index (CAI) to describe the ambient air quality based on health risk of air pollution. Unlike the American AQI. Malaysia The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution Index. which are divided into six categories. nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) are reported in PM10 particulate matter is reported in g/m³. and all ports in the affected area closed. the highest is the CAI value. The higher the CAI value.Of values of the five air pollutants. . this means that non-essential government services are suspended. Usually. the index number can exceed 500. ozone. The index aims to help the public easily understand air quality level and protect the health of people from air pollution. There may also be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the reporting area excluding the food sector. Above 500. carbon monoxide. . a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area..e.The CAI has values of 0 through 500. Four of the index's pollutant components (i. the greater the level of air pollution. .

. A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. Dow Jones Industrial Average. The most regularly quoted market indices are national indices composed of the stocks of large companies listed on a nation's largest stock exchanges.S. a result of the large number of tech. andS&P 500. including all U.STOCK MARKET INDEX A comparison of tree major U. reflects investor sentiment on the state of its economy.S. and the British FTSE 100. Russell Investment Group added to the family of indices by launching the Russell Global Index. The concept may be extended well beyond an exchange. Notice the large dot com spike on the NASDAQ. such as the American S&P 500. represents the stocks of nearly every publicly traded company in the United States. A 'world' or 'global' stock market index includes (typically large) companies without regard for where they are domiciled or traded. The Dow Jones Total Stock Market Index. companies on that index. stock indices: the NASDAQ Composite. All three have the same height at March 2007. to measure the performance of portfolios such as mutual funds. Types of indices Stock market indices may be classed in many ways. A national index represents the performance of the stock market of a given nation²and by proxy. Many indices are cited by news or financial services firms and are used as benchmarks. as its name implies. Two examples are MSCI World and S&P Global 100. the Japanese Nikkei 225. stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange (but not ADRs) and most traded on the NASDAQ and American Stock Exchange.

float-adjusted price. for example. For example. As another example. have multiple versions. consists of 36 American firms in the biotechnology industry. or even more specialized criteria one index published by Linux Weekly News tracks stocks of companies that sell products and services based on the Linux operating environment. The Morgan Stanley Biotech Index. full capitalization price. the Wilshire 4500 and Wilshire 5000 indices have five versions each: full capitalization total return. which accounts for dividend reinvestment. such as the S&P 500. [1] These versions can differ based on how the index components are weighted and on how dividends are accounted for. Index versions Some indices. and equal weight versions is in how index components are weighted. The difference between the full capitalization. which accounts for dividend reinvestment after the deduction of a withholding tax. a certain type of management. and net total return. float-adjusted. and equal weight.More specialised indices exist tracking the performance of specific sectors of the market. . float-adjusted total return. total return. there are three versions of the S&P 500 index: price return. which only considers the price of the components. Other indices may track companies of a certain size.

. The stock market index is important because a country’s economical state sometimes depend on it.the air pollution index is use by the government to measure the quality of air index and to detect any pollutants in our country’s air. This type of index is used to determine the outcome of a stock market and also the conclusion of a stock market.USES AND IMPORTANCE OF AIR POLLUTION INDEX AND STOCK MARKET INDEX As everyone can see. it is mainly for the business entrepreneurs.Besides that.This warning is given based upon readings and unterpretations of the air early warning can be given to us if the air pollution is too high for us to get out of our homes.This is to ensure the air is clean and safe for us ti inhale. As for the stock market index.

I saw that the usage of statistics is important in daily life.Especially in conducting an air-pollution survey.statistics is a daily life nessecities. .drawing graphs and some problem solving.we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of statistics.surveys can’t be conducted.the stock market can’t be interpret and many more.CONCLUSION After doing research.It is not just widely used in markets but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like the air or the water.Without it.In conclusion.answering questions.So.

.......... From the day I was able to holding pencil. Additional Mathematics.... Sacrificing my Video Games. And. From the day I heard your name. Sacrifing my Anime..... Sacrificing my Manga.... I really love you. Countless of nights... You are my real friend... I LOVE U ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS.. But after countless of hours.. Sacrificing my Internet.. Sacrificing my Computer Games.... After sacrificing my precious time just for you.... Countless of days.there are several things that I can say...REFLECTION Adter spending countless hours.... Sacrificing my Facebook. You are my soulmate.. You my partner.. I always thought that you will be my greatest obstacle and rival in excelling in my life... I realized something really important in you... . From the day I born..days and night to finish this project and also sacrificing my time video games and mangas in this mid year holiday.... From the day I start learning.

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