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Gas Migration Control

Client Cementing Seminar

An asterisk is used throughout this presentation to denote a mark of


Schlumberger. Other company, product, and service names may be
trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of others.

Schlumberger Private

Schlumberger 2009

Revision History
Description

Prepared by

Reviewed by

1.0

Revise content and slide master

Tanvi Chikara

Shailesh Dighe

Sep 27, 2011

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Rev Date
.

Agenda
Gas Migration Process:

Why gas migration occur ?


Types of gas migration
Lab Testing
Gas migration severity matrix

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Gas Migration solutions

Gas Migration
Gas Migration is the invasion of formation fluids into the annulus, due
to a pressure imbalance at the formation face ( loss of Hydrostatic
pressure)
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Pf

>

Ph

When P Formation > P

Gas
Hydrostatic

will Migrate

Consequences of Gas Flow

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Poor zonal isolation


Lost production
Stimulation out of zone
Contamination of nearby formations
Overpressured shallow formations
Environmental Damage
Aquifers
Surface
Blow-out
Lost Production
Danger to personnel
Damaged or lost equipment

Catastrophic

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Gas Migration Theory


All three factors are required for Gas Migration to occur.

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Path to
Migrate
Gas
Migration

Space
for Entry

Pann < Pfm

When Gas Migration Occurs

Minutes
Immediate
Gas Migration

Post-placement
-

Hours
Short Term
Gas Migration

Post-setting
-

Days
Long Term
Gas Migration

Our focus has always been on short-term.


We need to consider long-term as well.

Months/Years

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Placement

Paths & Causes of Gas Migration


Channel
Failure to remove mud
Free fluid

Loss of seal between cement and casing or formation


Cake dehydration
Shrinkage
Downhole stresses

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Loss of hydrostatic pressure


Gelation
Shrinkage
Fluid loss

A Path for Gas - Channel


A channel can be cause by

Failure to effectively displace the drilling fluid

Excessive Free Fluid in Inclined Wells

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Poor mud removal

Temperature

Gas Invasion during Setting Cement

Phase1: Fully LiquidPhase2: Early Gelation


Phase3: Hydration Phase4: Set Cement
Cement particles touchPore space isolated

Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Pore Pressure
After this point Gas
can Invade, PDL

Cement Set No
Gas can Invade

Critical Hydration Period

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Four Phases in
the Setting
Process of a
Cement Slurry

Pre-Mature Gelation

Points of possible
Gas Invasion

Pore Pressure

Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Early Gelation

Time

Critical Hydration Period

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Phase1: Fully LiquidPhase2: Early Gelation


Phase3: Hydration Phase4: Set Cement
Cement particles touchPore space isolated

Fluid Loss

Dynamic
Increased rheology
Change in other slurry properties

Static
Loss of overbalance
Promote early gelation
Bridging
Accelerated hydration kinetics

Recommended fluid loss: < 50 mL/30 min

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Set Cement Fail Shrinkage

Debonding @ cement/rock interface


Shrinkage due to cement hydration process

58% Water
18% Water-filled
micro-porosity

100%
Slurry
42%
Cement

75%
Set Cement
(solid)

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1 3 % reduction
4 - 6 % void

A Path for Gas Set Cement Failure

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Set Cement may crack or debond;


Down hole stresses
Change in Temperature
Change in Pressure
Poor Interfacial Bonding (Microannulus)
High Shrinkage

Set Cement Fail Down hole Stresses

Tensile cracks due to Well bore stress changes :

Poor Interfacial Bonding (Microannulus)


Pressure variation
Temperature variation
Casing movement

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Temperature & Pressure


Mechanical (Perforation etc.)
Cement expansion

Successful Cementing of Gas Wells


GAS MIGRATION CONTROL A complex problem with a corresponding:
Hierarchy of solutions

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Important Rule: Prevention is better than


cure

Requirements to Prevent Flow


Prevent channels

Delay entry of gas

Impede propagation of the gas

Prevent microannuli

Preserve the integrity of the set cement

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No easy Paths for Gas


Good Mud Removal is a key factor in the Prevention of Gas
Migration
Centralization
Conditioning of mud to follow the
Density and viscosity hierarchy

Pipe movement during placement

Displacement regime and rate

Spacers/Pre-flushes

WELLCLEAN II* Engineering Solution


No easy Paths for Gas

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No Path for Gas during cement setting


Ideal Slurry Properties minimize the gas
migration during cement setting
During Placement

After Placement

Appropriate density for hydrostatic


pressure

Low Fluid Loss to avoid early


Gelation

Appropriate Rheology for good


mud/spacer removal

Short transition time from CSGS


to 500 lb/100ft2

Zero Free Fluid (Inclined Section)

Pore throat plugging materials

Fluid Loss less than 50 ml/30min

GASBLOK* - No Path for Gas

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No Path for Gas in Set Cement


Set Cement Requirements

Cement that can withstand cyclical stress variations

Good bonding to the casing and the formation, No shrinkage

FlexSTONE*/FUTUR*????

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very important when large temperature or pressure variations are


expected during the life of the well
very important when large variations in field stresses are expected
e.g. formation subsidence

Physical Means

Annular Pressure

Multistage Cementing

ECP / CFP

Casing seal ring

Increase mud density

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Reduced cement column length

ECP & CFP

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Inflation of ECP

Inflation of CFP

Solutions to Gas Flow


Compressible Cements

Thixotropic cements

Right angle set cements

Expansive cements

Microsilica Cements

Impermeable cements

Evaluate the Gas Migration Risk

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Compressible Slurries

Concept
Attempt to maintain cement pore pressure
above the formation gas pressure

Methods
In-situ Gas generation
Foamed cement

Gas Bubbles

Disadvantage
Safety hazard, stability which may cause
gas channeling itself, time dependent

Cement Matrix

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Thixotropic Slurries

Concept
Gel strength strongly binds particles before cement set, gas cannot break
structure and is prevented from forming macroscopic channels

Methods
Secondary Ettringite generating
Polymers crosslinked

Disadvantages
Limited to low pressure gas zones
Very poor fluid loss control

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Right Angle Set Cement

Concept
Slurry sets so rapidly, no time for gas to invade, shorten transition period

Methods

Disadvantage
Difficult to accomplish < 250oF (120oC)

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Accelerated hydration kinetics

Right Angle Set Cement


100

Bc Units

50

RAS
Slurry

Time

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Gelified
Slurry

Expansive Slurries

Concept
Volumetric expansion of the cement closes gas channels and improves
interfacial seals

Methods
Crystal growth
Gas generation

Disadvantage
Expansion occurs after gas migration started, controlled expansion is
required
Can result in unsoundness

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Microsilica cements

Concept

Methods
Reducing permeability to gas

Disadvantage
No very efficient under severe conditions

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The extremely small microsilica particles appear to pack between the


larger cement particles, and create a physical blockage, which can
prevent gas from mobilizing the pore water

Impermeable Slurries

Concept
Reduce the cements matrix permeability during the liquid-to-solid
transition time

Methods
Reducing slurry porosity
Reducing pore pressure drop (Fluid loss)

Disadvantage
Latexes are very sensitive to temperature
Proper stabilization of latexes particles

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Low Permeability
Make matrix of cement impermeable as a liquid and solid
Incorporate fine solids into slurry
Microsilica

Latex

Microgels
Particle size technology (CemCRETE)
Note: other excellent properties must be maintained!

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Slurry Optimization
Free fluid

Fluid loss control

Gelation control (Static Gel Strength Development)

Thickening time

Hydration kinetics

Slurry density (overbalance)

Special properties
Porosity
Shrinkage
Permeability to gas

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GASBLOK Design
D500
D600G
D700
200

BHCT

300

400

16.0

19.0

D500
D600G
D700
10.0

D701 stabilizer

13.0

Density

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100

Laboratory Testing - Recommended Lab test

As per API RP 10B specifications

No Path for
Gas

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Thickening Time
Compressive Strength
Fluid Loss
Rheology
Slurry Stability
Free Fluid & Sedimentation or Settling
Static Gel Strength Development
Gas Flow Test

Gel Strength Evolution: Vane Rheometer or SGSA


Measures true static gel strength
Uses body of Baroid fluid loss cell
strength
Turns at 0.01 rpm
Detects deflection in shear stress
Stops turning immediately after breaking gel strength

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Vane recognized as best configuration for measuring gel

Gel Strength Development

1000

500 lb/100 ft2

CWSS

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100
10000

CHP
10
0

50

100
Time in min

150

200

250

Gel strengh (lb/100sqft)

G el stren g h (lb /100sq ft)

10000

1000

500 lb/100 ft2

CWSS
100

CHP
10
0

50

100
Time in min

150

200

Static Gel Strength Analyzer (SGSA) By Chandler

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Non-destructive testing technology


Determines the gel strength
development of cement over time
UCA analysis capabilities can be
added to the Model
Acoustic waveform translated into a
change in energy to the static gel
strength measurement.

Vane Rheometer

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Static Gel Strength Development

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Tests for Gas Flow Control

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Three test devices


Fluid Migration Analyzer (Beirutes device)
Cement Hydration Analyzer (Schlumberger)

Lab Testing

CHA
FMA

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Lab Testing

CHA
FMA

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Slurry A - Failure
35

2.5

Temperature

30

P [bar] & T
[oC]
15

1.5
1

Slurry pressure

10

0.5

5
0
0.00

Gas rate
2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

Time [hrs]

14.00

16.00

18.00

0
20.00

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20

Gas rate
[sccm]

Confining
pressure
Gas
pressure

25

Slurry A - Success
39

2.5

P [bar] & T
[oC]

24

1.5

Gas
pressure

19
14
9

Slurry pressure
0.5

4
-1
0.00

Gas rate
5.00

10.00

15.00

Time [hrs]

20.00

0
25.00

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29

Gas rate
[sccm]

Confining
pressure
Temperature

34

Gas Migration Advisor


Risk of gas migration based on PDL
Medium

Other factors must be considered as well:


Mud removal, formation properties, etc.

Low

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High

Holistic Approach
Successful control of gas flow requires

Preparation of the hole

Proper slurry design, considering

Effective mud removal

Proper treatment design and execution

Timely testing and minimization of destructive stresses

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Short-term gas migration


Long-term pressure leakage