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# Integration

by parts
mc-TY-parts-2009-1
A special rule, integration by parts, is available for integrating products of two functions. This
unit derives and illustrates this rule with a number of examples.
In order to master the techniques explained here it is vital that you undertake plenty of practice
exercises so that they become second nature.
After reading this text, and/or viewing the video tutorial on this topic, you should be able to:
state the formula for integration by parts
integrate products of functions using integration by parts

Contents
1. Introduction

## 2. Derivation of the formula for integration by parts

Z
Z
du
dv
u dx = u v v dx
dx
dx
3. Using the formula for integration by parts

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2
5

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1. Introduction
Functions often arise as products of other functions, and we may be required to integrate these
products. For example, we may be asked to determine
Z
x cos x dx .
Here, the integrand is the product of the functions x and cos x. A rule exists for integrating
products of functions and in the following section we will derive it.

## 2. Derivation of the formula for integration by parts

We already know how to differentiate a product: if
y = uv
then

dy
d(uv)
dv
du
=
=u
+v
.
dx
dx
dx
dx

u

d(uv)
du
dv
=
v
.
dx
dx
dx

## Now integrate both sides:

Z

dv
u dx =
dx

d(uv)
dx
dx

du
dx .
dx

The first term on the right simplifies since we are simply integrating what has been differentiated.
Z
Z
dv
du
u dx = u v v dx .
dx
dx
This is the formula known as integration by parts.

Key Point
Integration by parts
Z

dv
u dx = u v
dx

du
dx
dx

The formula replaces one integral (that on the left) with another (that on the right); the intention
is that the one on the right is a simpler integral to evaluate, as we shall see in the following
examples.
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## 3. Using the formula for integration by parts

Example
Z
Find
x cos x dx.
Solution
Here, we are trying to integrate the product of the functions x and cos x. To use the integration
dv
and the other be u. Notice from the formula that
by parts formula we let one of the terms be
dx
du
whichever term we let equal u we need to differentiate it in order to find
. So in this case, if
dx
du
= 1, simply a constant. Notice that
we let u equal x, when we differentiate it we will find
dx
the formula replaces one integral, the one on the left, by another, the one on the right. Careful
choice of u will produce an integral which is less complicated than the original.
Choose
dv
u=x
and
= cos x .
dx
With this choice, by differentiating we obtain
du
= 1.
dx
Also from

dv
= cos x, by integrating we find
dx
Z
v = cos x dx = sin x .

(At this stage do not concern yourself with the constant of integration). Then use the formula
Z
Z

dv
u dx = u v
dx

x cos x dx = x sin x

du
dx :
dx

(sin x) 1 dx

= x sin x + cos x + c
where c is the constant of integration.

In the next Example we will see that it is sometimes necessary to apply the formula for integration
by parts more than once.
Example
Z
Find
x2 e3x dx.
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Solution

dv
.
We have to make a choice and let one of the functions in the product equal u and one equal
dx
As a general rule we let u be the function which will become simpler when we differentiate it. In
this case it makes sense to let
u = x2

dv
= e3x .
dx

and

Then
du
= 2x
dx

and

v=

1
e3x dx = e3x .
3

## Then, using the formula for integration by parts,

Z

Z
1 3x 2
1 3x
e x
e 2x dx
x e dx =
3
3
Z
2 3x
1 2 3x
xe
xe dx .
=
3
3
2 3x

The resulting integral is still a product. It is a product of the functions 32 x and e3x . We can use
the formula again. This time we choose
2
u= x
3

and

dv
= e3x .
dx

Then
du
2
=
dx
3

and

v=

1
e3x dx = e3x .
3

So
Z

Z
2 3x
1 2 3x
xe
xe dx
x e dx =
3
3


Z
1 2 3x
2 1 3x
1 3x 2
=
xe
x e
e dx
3
3 3
3
3
1 2 3x 2 3x
2 3x
=
x e xe + e + c
3
9
27
2 3x

where c is the constant of integration. So we have done integration by parts twice to arrive at

dv
.
Remember that to apply the formula you have to be able to integrate the function you call
dx
This can cause problems consider the next Example.
Example
Find

x ln |x| dx.

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Solution
Remember the formula:

dv
u dx = u v
dx

du
dx .
dx

du
= 1. However
It would be natural to choose u = x so that when we differentiate it we get
dx
dv
this choice would mean choosing
= ln |x| and we would need to be able to integrate this.
dx
This integral is not a known standard form. So, in this Example we will choose

from which

du
1
=
dx
x

dv
=x
dx

and

u = ln |x|
and

v=

x2
x dx =
.
2

Z

Z 2
x 1
x2
ln |x|
dx
x ln |x| dx =
2
2 x
Z
x2
x
=
ln |x|
dx
2
2
x2
x2
=
ln |x|
+c
2
4

## where c is the constant of integration.

Example
Z
Find
ln |x|dx.
Solution
We can use the formula for integration by parts to find this integral if we note that we can write
ln |x| as 1 ln |x|, a product. We choose
dv
=1
dx
so that
v=

and

u = ln |x|
du
1
= .
dx
x

and

1 dx = x

Then,
Z

1 ln |x|dx = x ln |x|

1
x dx
x

= x ln |x|

1 dx

= x ln |x| x + c
where c is a constant of integration.
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Example
Z
Find
ex sin x dx.
Solution
dv
it may not appear that integration by parts is going
Whichever terms we choose for u and
dx
to produce a simpler integral. Nevertheless, let us make a choice:
dv
= sin x
dx
so that
v=

u = ex

and

sin x dx = cos x

and

du
= ex .
dx

cos x ex dx

ex cos xdx .

Then,
Z

e sin x dx = e cos x
x

= cos x e +
We now integrate by parts again choosing
dv
= cos x
dx
so that
v=

u = ex

and

and

cos x dx = sin x

du
= ex .
dx

So
Z


sin x e dx

## e sin x dx = cos x e + e sin x

Z
x
x
= e cos x + e sin x ex sin xdx .

## Notice that the integral we have

Z ended up with is exactly the same as the one we started with.
Let us call this I. That is I = ex sin x dx.

So

I = ex sin x ex cos x I

from which

2I = ex sin x ex cos x

and

I=
So

1 x
(e sin x ex cos x) .
2

ex sin x dx =

1 x
(e sin x ex cos x) + c
2

## where c is the constant of integration.

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Exercises
1. Evaluate the following
Z
(a)
x sin x dx (b)
Z
(e)
2x2 ex dx
(f)
Z
(i)
ex cos x dx (j)

integrals:
Z
Z
Z
x
x cos 4x dx (c)
xe dx
(d)
x2 cos x dx
Z
Z
Z
2
1
x ln |x| dx (g)
tan x dx (h)
sin1 x dx
Z
sin3 x dx
(Hint: write sin3 x as sin2 x sin x.)

## 2. Calculate the value of each of the following:

Z
Z 1
Z
2 x
1
(a)
x cos 2 x dx (b)
x e dx (c)
0

(e)

2
3

x ln |x| dx (d)

/4

x2 sin 2x dx

x tan1 x dx

1.
(a)

1
x sin 4x
4

1
16

x cos x + sin x + C

(b)

(c)

xex ex + C

(e)

(f)

1 3
x
3

(j)

## 31 (cos x sin2 x + 2 cos x) + C

(g) x tan1 x 21 ln |1 + x2 | + C
(i)

1 x
e (cos x
2

+ sin x) + C

cos 4x + C

ln |x| 91 x3 + C

(h) x sin1 x + 1 x2 + C

2.
(a) 2 4

(b) e 2 (c)

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4 ln 2

15
16

(d)

8 4

(e)

4 2

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