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Buckling reliability of steel shells utilising the Eurocode 3

methodology

Sebastian Thns
BAM Berlin, Division Buildings and Structures
ETH Zrich, Chair of Risk and Safety

Content
Limit state and uncertainty model for steel shells

Numerical analyses based design (EN 1993-1-6)

Uncertainty model
Adaptive response surface methodology

Adaptive response surface algorithm

Application results

Reliability of a support structure of a wind turbine

Summary and conclusions

g B = ov rRpl 1

Linear buckling analysis (LBA) and

materially non-linear analysis (MNA)

ov = rRpl / rRcr

Limit state function for shell buckling is

based on load factors
Overall relative slenderness contains the
ratio of plastic reference resistance to ideal
buckling resistance

ov 0

ov = 1

ov 0

0 < ov < p ov = 1
p 0

ov = 2
p ov
ov

Depending on the overall relative

slenderness, the fully plastic and the partly
plastic slenderness, the buckling reduction
factor is determined

Dev.

Random variables of the limit state function

Thickness deviation f t

1.2

0.7

Yield Strength f y

LN

370

24.23

Two random variables modelled with a

statistical distribution based on the JCSS
Probabilistic Model Code

Component capacity C

Response Surface

Stress ratio M /

Response Surface

Response Surface

Response Surface

No correlation for the individual

components
Thickness deviation is based on in situ
measurement data
Responses from stochastic numerical
analysis modelled with response surfaces

Response surface methodology

Experimental design

Numerical analysis

Response surface calculation

Reliability calculation

Design point search

Response surface

Methodological overview

calculations is the precision and the

prediction variance in the design point.
Reliability calculation with Monte Carlo,
FORM etc.

Regression analysis
y = X +

1 x11 x1(r 1)
1 x
x 2(r 1)
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X=

1
x
x
n1
n (r 1)

E ( y X, XS ) = XSb
Cov ( y X, XS ) = ( XS N 1XST + I )

1
T
( y - Xb ) ( y - Xb )

=np
=

p = rank( X)

The experimental design matrix X contains

the response model and the experimental
design.

Uncertainties in regression analysis

Fundamental variability of the response
model
Uncertainty of the variance and of the
regression coefficients due to the finite
sample size
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l1

Central Composite Design (CCD)

Number of centre points n 0
Axial points 2k
Factorial points F

l2

vS = n x(m)T ( XT X ) x(m) = const. r ( x ) = const. Rotatable design

1

= F1/4
1

F ( (F + 2k + n 0 ) F 2

Qeff

1
(m)T 1 (m)
Min
n x N x dx

dx R
R

=
Q ( * )

Orthogonal design

Q-efficiency
7

VI =

n
v S dx
dx U r
Ur

Variance dispersion graph

Integrated prediction scaled variance for
all points with the same distance to origin
Minimum and maximum variance
dispersion graph are coincident with the
variance dispersion graph if the design is
rotatable
Can be understood as a visualisation of Qefficiency

Adaptive response surface algorithm

Experimental design

Numerical analysis

Response surface calculation

Global domain search

Design point search

Design augmentation
Response surface

Regression analysis

Reliability calculation
Reliability calculation with Monte Carlo,
FORM etc.

u2

Global domain search

with a width of 2.0 in u-space
Guess of design point
u1

u2
w CDP

u1

Centre of new CCD at centre of gravity of

all component design points
Convergence criteria
If all new component design points
are situated within w CDP = 0, 25 k
If component design are converged
without the condition fulfilled the width
of the CCD can be adjusted
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Adpative response surface algorithm

Design augmentation

u2

CCD is augmented with component

design points
Q-efficiency is improved
u1

CCD becomes nearly rotatable

Criteria: less than 1% deviation of
maximum and minimum integrated
variance to integrated variance

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Adaptive response surface algorithm

1

= arg min u T u
2

g ( u ( x)) = 0

g ( u 0 ) g ( u 0 ) u 0
T

g ( u 0 ) g ( u 0 )
T

Optimisation problem for non-linear limit

state function
Design point calculation
Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm

u 0 + v = g(u 0 )

pf =

1 m fX ( x)
Ig ( x )

n k =1 h Y ( x )

hY (x) =

Reliability calculation
Importance sampling with a multivariate
Normal sampling density function

1
1

exp (x x* )CXX (x x* )
n/2
2
2

det
C

( )
XX

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Application to a wind turbine support structure

Support structure of Multibrid M5000
prototype

Tower segment I

Structural model
Shell element basis
Contact formulation for tripod-foundation
connection

Tower segment II

Tower segment III

Upper brace
Lower brace
Pile guide

Reinforced concrete
Linear
springs

force

and

moment

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Distr.

Mean

Stand.
Dev.

Foundation stiffness factor f g

LN

1.0

Modulus of elasticity E

LN

210000 6300

LN

1.0

Wind load factor f w

WB

0.4891 0.2256

0.6

0.1

Uncertainty model
parameterised
Probabilistic models according to JCSS
Probabilistic Model Code
Derivation with sensitivity analysis

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SegmentIII

Results

Buckling

..

Component8

4,07x107

Component9

6,61x107

Component
10

6,59x10

Component
11

Only a few components contribute to

probability of system failure
Low probability of component failure

<10

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Summary and Conclusions

Adaptive response surface algorithm

Approach for multiple components introduced

Augmentation for improved efficiency of design
Ready for application to complex examples

Reliability of support structure of a wind turbine is high

Confirmation that hand calculation based codes are conservative

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