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Szczecin

2008

Towards an Attractive, Sustainable and Fair Future
The up-and-coming generation’s voice on climate change

A vision from the Baltic University Programme students’ conference on climate change in Szczecin, November 2008. Jakob Grandin

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Towards an Attractive, Sustainable and Fair Future

Szczecin

2008

Copyright © 2008 by Jakob Grandin, the Baltic University Programme Secretariat and the conference participants Published by the Baltic University Programme in Uppsala, December 2008.

Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development
Towards an Attractive, Sustainable and Fair Future

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Foreword
Students are key persons for the transition and development of our region in a sustainable manner. The Baltic University Programme has now for 10 years held an annual spring Students Conference. Approximately 60–80 students from the 14 countries in the BUP network have been given a platform to meet and cooperate on issues connected to sustainable development. The conference themes have varied to some extent but the goal has been to increase the students’ knowledge, create a common understanding of sustainable development in the Baltic Sea region as well as to promote contacts, international understanding and democracy development. This is not the first time that we have climate change as the theme, as it was in focus already in April 2007. For the first time ever, the BUP decided to arrange two Students Conferences the same year. This decision was based on the feeling that the network would greatly benefit from such an activity and due to the fact that the issue of climate change is a major challenge for societies worldwide and is threatening livelihoods, food security and biodiversity. The negotiations are ongoing regarding the replacement of the Kyoto agreement. One milestone meeting took place in Poznan, Poland 1–12 December this year and the new framework will be finalized in Copenhagen in December 2009. Students are our future, as they will be implementing these changes and also will be affected by the decisions that are taken today. Students are therefore are key persons for the transition and development of our region in a sustainable manner. An important and decisive factor in this decision was that the Maritime University of Szczecin offered to support and host this conference, which we warmly thank them for. Climate change is to a large extent dependant on that we take responsibility for and a commitment to implement measures and changes in our lifestyle to drastically reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases in order to avoid catastrophic climate change. This is necessary to create a sustainable future for our planet. Therefore it is of great importance to involve the students of the Baltic Sea region in the battle against climate change. I was impressed by the commitment and interest shown by the students that participated in this Student Conference and look forward to future cooperation with them and to see the results of their commitment. We plan to have a series of Student Conferences on the theme Climate change that will lead up to the Copenhagen negotiations in 2009. Christine Jakobsson Director The Baltic University Programme

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Acknowledgements
This report is the voice of the students from the Baltic Sea Region and we thank the Baltic University Programme for their long-standing trust and belief in students taking an active role in their education as well as citizens. But we couldn’t have done it alone. First of all, our thanks go to, the Maritime University of Szczecin for generously hosting us during our conference. We were also lucky to have with us a great team of experts from different countries and disciplines, that contributed to our process throughout the conference. Our warmest thanks to Dr. Andrzej Siemaszko from the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences; to Prof. Bernd Delakowitz from the University of Zittau in Germany; to Ieva Bruneniece from the Ministry of the Environment of the Republic of Latvia; and to Staffan Tillander, Climate Ambassador at the Swedish Ministry of Environment, who unfortunately couldn’t be with us during the conference due to technical problems on our side but contributed generously during the planning process. We also thank Sara Andersson and the Centre for Environment and Development Studies at CSD Uppsala, Uppsala University and Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences for co-arranging this conference and generously contributing with their experience in education for sustainable development, participatory workshops and project management. We wish to thank Christine Jakobsson and Maria Winkler at the secretariat of the Baltic University Programme, for their experience, optimism and belief in this project. Christine Jakobsson and Sara Andersson contributed with insightful comments on the draft of this report. Jakob Grandin Students’ representative to the board of the Baltic University Programme and course coordinator at Cemus, CSD Uppsala This report is the voice of the students from the Baltic Sea Region and we thank the Baltic University Programme for their long-standing trust and belief in students taking an active role in their education as well as citizens

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Contents
Foreword Acknowledgements Executive summary Introduction - Setting the context Building blocks for the future Education Innovation and investments Cities Lifestyle Citizenship References 2 3 6 8 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

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Szczecin

2008

Yes, we can!

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Executive summary
What we do today about climate change, strained ecosystems and global poverty will shape the very foundations of life on this planet for generations to come. We can still reach a future that is attractive, sustainable and fair, but our window of opportunity is closing fast. This report stresses the defining importance of climate change, and urges our leaders come up with a prompt and scientifically based action plan to mitigate climate change and create conditions for an attractive and fair development that ensures human wellbeing for future generations.
Past and current development models have generated human welfare at the expense of natural systems. This needs to change if we want to sustain human progress.

The threat of climate change has brought global attention to the fact that human activities are altering our environment in catastrophic and irreversible ways. Still, emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise at an accelerating rate and global emissions are worse than even the worst-case scenarios. Moreover, recent science suggests that the current political target of a 450 ppm greenhouse gas concentration is unrealistic if to avoid triggering self-reinforcing feedback processes that will lead to runaway warming of the planet. A target of 350 ppm is regarded as more realistic if we want to maintain acceptable living conditions. Climate change is not only a future risk and problem. People around the world are already suffering the impacts from climate change and the poor, who have contributed the least to climate change, are hit the hardest. Climate change is also a generational issue. The young generation of today, and the generations to come, will pay the highest costs if we fail to respond properly. Equally alarming is the state of our planet’s life-supporting ecosystems and we are pushing many of these systems

beyond their limits. Two thirds of global life-support systems are being used above their capacity and 60% of ecosystem services globally have been degraded. While humanity as a whole drastically needs to lower its consumption of natural resources, billions of people live in severe poverty and desperately need to increase their resource consumption. For the past 150 years, coal, oil and natural gas has powered our development. To move towards sustainability we need deep and structural changes in how our societies create wealth. Past and current development models have generated human welfare at the expense of natural systems. This needs to change if we want to sustain human progress.

Towards an attractive, sustainable and fair future
It is possible to turn the trends of strained ecosystems, global warming and poverty and to move towards a future that is attractive, sustainable and fair. It calls for an interrelated effort where progress is made on all fronts at once. Many

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of the pieces for building this future are already here, while others need to be stimulated by proactive and targeted efforts of research, education and market signals. Key areas that can contribute to a sustainable future are education, innovation and investments, cities and urban planning, lifestyle and the role of citizenship. The transition to a sustainable future will not happen spontaneously. The meetings in Poznan and Copenhagen will set the framework for how humanity will meet the challenge of climate change. As members of the up-and-coming generation of the Baltic Sea Region we see many opportunities for action and recommend the following: Come to prompt agreement on an action plan to decrease emissions that reflects the latest science and ensures an equitable global development While leaders have taken the first step of acknowledging the problem, they now desperately need to move on to concrete actions in the post-Kyoto process to set a political framework that delivers decreased greenhouse gas emissions. This framework needs to be scientifically based, which currently mean going back to a greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere of 350   ppm (rather than 450   ppm) in order to avoid runaway global warming. It also needs to be fair in the sense that it gives room for poor countries to increase their resource use in order to fight poverty. Rich countries have contributed the most to climate change and also need to take the leading role in fighting it. This means significant reductions of emissions at home as well as substantial offsets abroad. A good and clear framework will stimulate innovation, create jobs and make the way for an attractive future for everyone.

Implement sustainable development in education at all levels Education at all levels, from pre-school to universities need to work with education for sustainable development, providing the necessary framework, tools and models that are needed to understand and work with the defining challenges of our time. This puts emphasis on critical thinking, systems analysis and transdisciplinary cooperation. Direct investment flows to promote innovation in sustainable technologies Markets will likely not react quickly enough to stimulate the wave of innovation that is needed. Investors and governments need to take a proactive approach to guide development towards the low-carbon solutions that will power our future and away from carbon intensive industries. Investment flows and economic instruments such as taxes and subsidies play important roles in this. Build cities for a bright green future We live on an urban planet and how we plan our cities will shape our future. Cities need effective public transportation systems, proper waste recycling and increased energy efficiency of buildings. Involve people as citizens and empower consumers Leaders have a lot to gain by involving citizens in the decision making process. Instruments such as taxes as well as proper labeling of products empower consumers to make informed choices.

As members of the upand-coming generation of the Baltic Sea Region we see many opportunities for action towards an attractive, sustainable and fair future.

About the conference | In November 2008, concerned students from the whole Baltic Sea Region met to take on the defining challenges of our time. The conference was hosted and cofinanced by the Maritime Academy of Szczecin, cofinanced by the Swedish Institute and was the first in a series of conferences arranged by the Baltic University Programme – in collaboration with Cemus at CSD Uppsala, Uppsala University – that are leading up to the climate negotiations in Copenhagen in 2009.

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Introduction | Setting the context
What we do today about climate change, strained ecosystems and global poverty will shape the very foundations of life on this planet for generations to come. We can still reach a future that is attractive, sustainable and fair, but our window of opportunity is closing fast. We have no more than ten years, probably much less time than that, to change our direction, decrease emissions of carbon dioxide, lower our impact on life-supporting ecosystems and move towards a sustainable future. Every month counts.
We can still reach a future that is attractive, sustainable and fair, but our window of opportunity is closing fast.

For the past 150 years, fossil fuels have powered our development and generated our welfare. To move towards sustainability we need deep and structural changes in how our societies generate welfare. Our road towards an attractive, sustainable and fair future starts with a vision. Many of the pieces for building this future are already all around us, while others need to be stimulated by proactive and targeted efforts of research, education and market signals. This is the voice of the up-and-coming generation of the Baltic Sea Region. The message is clear: we demand strong and concerted action on the challenges of climate change, strained ecosystems and global poverty from our leaders – and we’re there to help. The threat of climate change has brought global attention to the fact that human activities are altering our environment in catastrophic and irreversible ways. Equally alarming is the state of our planet’s life-supporting ecosystems: resources are being depleted and species are going extinct all around us. This happens at a time when billions of people are in severe poverty and desperately

need to increase their resource consumption. This chapter starts by addressing the three interconnected issues of climate change, strained ecosystems and global poverty, which are the defining challenges of our generation. Our response to these challenges will greatly shape our future possibilities of generating wellbeing. The chapter then looks into the Baltic Sea Region and the special role it plays in meeting these challenges.

Climate change is a moral and generational issue
To think that climate change is only to be seen as a future risk or problem is simply wrong. People around the world are already suffering the impacts from climate change – prolonged heat waves, unpredictable weather conditions and melting glaciers are affecting food security and livelihoods for millions of people. The poor, who have contributed the least to climate change, are hit the hardest.

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Climate change is also very much a generational issue. The young generation of today, as well as generations to come, will have to pay the highest costs of climate change, depleted natural resources and collapsing ecosystems. The decisions that world leaders take today are of great importance for those already affected by environmental degradation but they will also shape our conditions for creating an attractive future for ourselves and for our children. The meetings in Poznan and Copenhagen will set the framework for how humanity will meet the challenge of climate change. If the international community fails to cooperate and come to an agreement, it is the young generation that will have to pay for their mistakes and short-term trade offs. This report therefore stresses the defining importance of climate change, and urge our leaders come up with a prompt and scientifically based action plan to both mitigate climate change and create conditions for attractive development and human wellbeing in the future. This can be done. We – the students of the Baltic Sea Region – have many creative ideas and are prepared to participate in the

process when society uses all available means to steer towards a sustainable, attractive and fair future.

Climate change: the need to move from voicing concern to immediate action
Anthropogenic climate change, mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels for energy, threatens to irreversibly change conditions for life on this planet. There has been a lot of scientific as well as political progress on this issue during the last few years. The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as the review by Sir Nicolas Stern on the economics of climate change has put climate change on the global agenda. Governments worldwide are now accepting the reality and severity of the problem. In 2007, Al Gore and the IPCC were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to build up and spread knowledge about climate change. However, this high global awareness has not led to decreased emissions of greenhouse gases. On the contrary, emissions continue to rise at an accelerating

If the international community fails to cooperate and come to an agreement, it is the young generation that will have to pay for their mistakes and short-term trade offs.

About the conference
In November 2008, concerned students from 12 countries and 32 universities in the Baltic Sea Region met to take on the defining challenges of our time. The conference was cofinanced and hosted by the Maritime Academy of Szczecin, cofinanced by the Swedish Institute, and was the first in a series of conferences arranged by the Baltic University Programme – in collaboration with Cemus at CSD Uppsala, Uppsala University – that are leading up to the climate negotiations in Copenhagen in 2009. The ongoing international climate negotiations take place in Poznan and Copenhagen in the Baltic Sea Region. This gives the citizens of the region a special responsibility

to make sure that global leaders come to a prompt and scientifically based agreement which makes possible an attractive development for future generations. The discussions and workshops in Szczecin were aimed towards looking at possibilities and formulating concrete proposals and action plans, as well as forming international project groups that keep the processes going after the conference ended. Information about the Maritime Academy of Szczecin, the Swedish Institute, the Baltic University Programme and Cemus can be found at their respective websites: www.wsm.szczecin.pl; www.si.se; www.balticuniv.uu.se; www.cemus.uu.se.

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In order to maintain acceptable living conditions, we need to aim for a target of 350 ppm or less.

rate and year after year global greenhouse gas emissions are worse than even the worst-case scenarios of the IPCC.1 Governments have taken the first step: acknowledging the problem. Now they desperately need to move on to concrete actions to set a political framework that delivers decreased emissions. Voicing concern is not enough, and we are reminded of the words of Martin Luther King Jr: “Over the bleached bones and jumbled residues of numerous civilizations are written the pathetic words: Too late.”2 Our whole society is saturated in fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are everywhere. In the food we eat and in the electricity that powers our computers and lights our apartments. Fossil fuels are powering our transportation system, underlying our personal mobility as well as transports of goods. Fossil fuels keep us warm through the oil, coal and natural gas that heat our houses. In fact, the welfare that has been generated the last 150 years since the Industrial Revolution has been largely based on the exploitation of the cheap and easily accessible fossil energy sources of coal, oil and natural gas.3

Phasing out fossil fuels requires far reaching structural changes in how our societies generate welfare. Solutions that can support a high level of human wellbeing while at the same time emitting little or none CO2 exist, but we have to start using them. The fact that fossil fuels are a limited resource that is rapidly approaching its peak production rate makes this inevitable, but in order to prevent runaway global warming we need to take proactive action to radically decrease our use of these energy sources within the next decade. Moreover, recent science suggests that the current political target of a 450 ppm greenhouse gas concentration is unrealistic if we wish to avoid triggering self-reinforcing feedback processes that will lead to runaway warming of the planet. The UN Human Development Report admits that the 450 ppm target would only mean a 50/50 chance of avoiding runaway climate change. According to the latest science, a target of 350 ppm is more realistic if we want to maintain acceptable living conditions. “If humanity wishes to preserve a planet similar to that on which civilization developed and to which life on Earth is

Baltic Sea Region Poznan

Szczecin
Kyoto Bali

2008

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Copenhagen

1997

2007 2009

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adapted, paleoclimate evidence and ongoing climate change suggest that CO2 will need to be reduced from its current 385 ppm to at most 350 ppm, but likely less than that,” suggests a recent study by NASA scientist James Hansen and others. This means that emissions of carbon dioxide need to be reduced by 90% globally by 2050, not 50% as suggested by the IPCC.4 To meet this goal we need to secure large reductions of emissions in rich countries while at the same time doing massive transfers of climate neutral technologies to developing countries so that they can lift their people out of poverty without using fossil fuels. Greenhouse Development Rights, developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and the Heinrich Böll Stiftung, is one proposed framework on how to share the emissions of greenhouse gases. It shows that, given political will and proactive leadership, it is possible to combine large reductions of greenhouse gas emissions with room for increased resource consumption for the poorest countries.5 It is still possible to avoid catastrophic climate change – the building blocks of an attractive, sustainable and fair future are all around us and others will be available in a few years time given the proper funding – but reaching it calls for strong and coordinated leadership and a new roadmap for the transition to sustainable development.

luting our air and eroding our soils. A recent international study, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, which engaged more than thousand scientists, investigated the health of some of the most important life supporting systems on this planet. The gloomy result was that two thirds of these systems – from tropical forests to agricultural soils, fisheries, wetlands and fresh water resources – are being used above their capacity. Many systems are being damaged and 60% of ecosystem services globally have been degraded.6 The extinction rate is 100 to 1000 times the normal background rate and on average we are losing a distinct plant or animal species every 20 minutes.7 At the same time as non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels are being used at an accelerating rate, the extraction rate of many of the Earth’s renewable resources is too high and is pushing ecosystems beyond their limits. To stop destroying life supporting ecosystem services and to sustain conditions for attractive human lives in the future, we need to decrease our impact on these systems. We live in overshoot. When a system is in overshoot there are only two possible outomes, either a controlled return to a stable system or – collapse. Solutions to climate change must enable the transition back to a stable system.8

When a system is in overshoot there are only two possible outcomes, either a controlled return to a stable system or – collapse.

Poverty: Declaring a Global Development Emergency
Adding to the complexity of these environmental challenges, which are in large part due to over-extraction of natural resources and overuse of natural sinks, are the large groups of people living in poverty. While humanity as a whole drastically needs to lower its con-

Ecosystems being pushed beyond their limits
Just as alarming as the issue of climate change is the increasing human pressure on ecosystems. We are depleting our fish stocks, running out of fresh water, pol-

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Past and current development models have often generated human welfare at the expense of natural systems. This needs to change if we want to sustain human progress.

sumption of natural resources in order to maintain climate stability and life-supporting ecosystems, large groups of people desperately need access to development and to increase their material consumption in order rise from poverty. In fact, progress on the Millennium Development Goals – a set of goals declared by the UN to eradicate for example extreme poverty, hunger and preventable diseases – is so slow that world leaders declared a “development emergency” in January 2008. The World Bank estimates that one in four (1.4 billion) people live in extreme poverty, that there are serious shortfalls in fighting hunger and malnutrition, that half the world lacks basic sanitation and that more than 190.000 children under five die from disease every week. Malaria, a preventable disease, kills one child every 30 seconds.9 The close connections between human development and environmental sustainability have lately been stressed in reports from the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. The World Bank's Global Monitoring Report on the Millennium Development Goals states: “Climate change and loss and degradation of natural resources have the potential to severely reverse hard-earned development gains of the past and constrain prospects for the future.”10 Tackling these serious challenges, and creating conditions for poor people to lift themselves from poverty, means acknowledging that human welfare is dependent on climate stability and healthy ecosystems. Past and current development models have often generated human welfare at the expense of natural systems. This needs to change if we want to sustain human progress. We need to find ways of increasing human wellbeing

that at the same time make natural systems flourish.

The Baltic Sea Region
To change these interconnected trends – of climate change, strained ecosystems and global poverty – and to move on to an attractive future that is sustainable and available for everyone is the challenge of our generation. The Baltic Sea Region has a special role to play in this global process. Firstly, both of the two main summits in the international process towards a post-Kyoto climate regime will take place in the Baltic Sea Region: in Poznan in December 2008 and in Copenhagen in December 2009. The summit in Copenhagen also takes place when Sweden chairs the EU. The results (or lack of results) from these two summits will have a profound impact on the very foundations for life for generations to come. The citizens of the Baltic Sea Region have a special responsibility to make sure that global leaders gathering in Poznan and Copenhagen come up with a framework that ensures a stable climate and makes possible attractive lives for current and coming generations. The countries of the Baltic Sea Region can also draw on a long and successful history of cooperation for a better environment. In the region, institutions and organizations such as the Helsinki Commission, Baltic 21, the Council of Baltic Sea States and, of course, the Baltic University Programme, have decades of experience in cooperation for sustainable development. The countries of the Baltic Sea Region should use this unique base of experience of international cooperation – positive as well as less fruitful experiences – to make sure that the

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current negotiations on global climate policy are efficient and successful. The Baltic Sea unites a diverse group of countries, that all have their own unique challenges when progressing to lowcarbon economies. Three of the ten largest cumulative emitters of CO2 in the world are countries in the Baltic Sea Region, and much of the energy infrastructure depends on fossil fuels. Russia’s economy is heavily based on exports of fossil fuels. Poland has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, and almost all of its electricity is produced from this resource. In Sweden, generating welfare is connected to high levels of energy use and resource consumption. Much of the resource footprint is from imports of consumer goods from other countries, such as China, and when these are taken into account Sweden's CO2 emissions are in the order of 10 tonnes per capita.11 The countries of the Baltic Sea Region may seem locked into an unsustainable development path and the region, as the rest of the world, certainly faces many challenges when doing the necessary reductions of CO2 emissions and natural resource use. There are, however, many brilliant initiatives that, given proper stimulation and the necessary institutional framework, would enable the countries of the Baltic Sea Region to move towards a development where progress on ecological issues goes hand in hand with increased wellbeing and prosperity.

Notes
1. Sprat & Sutton, Climate Code Red (Melbourne, 2008). 2. King, Where do we go from here: chaos or community (Beacon Press, 1968) 3. Heinberg, Peak Everything - Waking Up to the Century of Declines (Gabriola Island, 2007) 4. Hansen, et. al., “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?”, Open Atmospheric Science Journal (vol. 2, 2008), p. 217. 5. For an introduction to Greenhouse Development Rights, see for example Baer, Athanasiou & Kartha, The Right to Development in a Climate Constrained World The Greenhouse Development Rights Framework (Berlin, 2007). 6. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis (Washington, DC., 2005), p. 1–12. 7. ScienceDaily, “Extinction Rate Across The Globe Reaches Historical Proportions” (10/ 1, 2002). Retrieved 14/12 2008 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/ 01/020109074801.htm 8. Meadows, Randers & Meadows, Limits to Growth – the 30 year update (London, 2005), p. 3. 9. World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2008: MDGs and the Environment (Washington DC., 2008), p. 2. 10. Ibid., p. 1. See also UNDP, Human Development Report 2007/2008 - Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world (New York, 2007). 11. Naturvårdsverket (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency), “Konsumtionens klimatpåverkan”, Rapport 5903 (Stockholm, 2008), p. 12.

The countries of the Baltic Sea Region need to use their unique base of experience in international cooperation to make sure that the current negotiations on global climate policy are efficient and successful.

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Building blocks for the future
It is possible to turn these trends - of strained ecosystems, global warming and poverty - and to move towards a future that is attractive, sustainable and fair, but it calls for an interrelated effort where progress must be made on all fronts at once. Many of the building blocks of this future are available already – they are all around us if we just look for them. Other pieces need to be further developed, requiring targeted efforts of research, education and market signals.

It is possible to turn these trends - strained ecosystems, global warming and poverty and to move towards a future that is attractive, sustainable and fair

The transition to a sustainable future will not happen spontaneously. Markets will likely not react quickly enough to stimulate the wave of innovation that is needed, so governments need to take a proactive approach to guide development in the proper direction via investments and market mechanisms.1 The journey towards this future starts with a vision. At the conference in Szczecin, we took the first steps towards such a vision by discussing welfare and

wellbeing, identifying key areas that can contribute towards a sustainable future and coming up with concrete proposals of components that would lead toward that future. We worked with the areas of education, innovation and investments, citizenship, cities and lifestyle. To paraphrase Albert Einstein, we cannot solve our problems with the same kind of ideas that created them, and the conference participants were encouraged to open up and to “think outside the box”. The proposals that came out from this process are just the beginning. They span over different scales and time frames, and from structural change to targeted solutions. Some seem more realistic than others. Some can be implemented today, while others need some more time. Many of the pieces of this vision may seem “unvisionary” at first. Few of the ideas presented here are completely new. While some may see this as boring and lame, for us this is a source of hope. It means that we don’t have to count on solutions that don’t yet exist. Of course we should never stop envisioning completely new solutions, but what’s exciting

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in this vision is the systemized collection of mostly existing solutions that we can start using right away. Important parts in this vision are: • Education at all levels, from preschool to universities need to work with education for sustainable development, providing the necessary framework, tools and models that are needed to understand and work with the defining challenges of our time. Education also needs to work with values. We also need to target already active professionals. • More locally produced goods, especially food, that decreases the need for long transports. • Working out ways to share things and therefore meeting human needs while consuming less resources. • Labeling of goods that allows consumers to make as informed choices as possible. • The importance of media and the defining impact it has on our values and lifestyles was underlines several • •

times We need to work with media at all levels, from entertainment programmes to news dispatches and documentaries. Increased use of public transportation. Planning cities to be greener, including green zones, proper waste recycling, effective public transportation and food production localized within or close to cities. Increasing the use of energy efficient buildings by both renovating old buildings and making new buildings efficient from the start. Use of taxes, targeted subsidies and other economic control instruments to stimulate innovation and investments in green technologies

When a system is in overshoot there are only two possible solutions, either a controlled return to a stable system or – collapse.

Notes
1. UNDP, Human Development Report 2007/ 2008 - Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world (New York, 2007), p. 12.

A framework for analyzing solutions
Solutions for creating an attractive, sustainable and fair future for everyone abound on many levels, from changes in values and lifestyle patterns to new technologies that enable us to meet human needs using less energy and resources. When analyzing the potential of these solutions for delivering sustainable development, we need to look at the risks, costs, time-frame and scale of the solutions, as well as their efficiency, reach and who controls them. The probability and magnitude of the risks associated with a solution affects whether we choose to adopt a solution at all. Looking at their efficiency and cost effectiveness brings up questions on whether the need could be met in a cheaper or more effici-

ent way (ie. by using less money, time, resources and energy). As our window of opportunity is rapidly closing, the time-frame of the solution is essential. A solution that we can start implementing today is more viable than one that we hope to have available in fifteen years time. The scale of the solution affects not only the risks associated to it, but also their availability. Large-scale solutions, which require substantial initial investments, are not as likely as small-scale solutions to be available to people in poor countries. The reach of the solution is also important to keep in mind. Will the solution take us the whole way to a sustainable society, will it take us part of the way, or will it only buy us time while we develop something more far-reaching?

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Education
Education plays an important role in the work towards sustainable development and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is an emerging field, which seeks to empower people to assume responsibility for creating sustainability.

Education for sustainable development brings us to questions about the contents of education, its form and organization.

There are a number of skills that that are central for ESD. Envisioning, the ability to imagine a better future, helps people to decide where they want to go and how to get there. Critical thinking and reflection, the ability to question our current belief systems and perspectives, helps people examine economic, environmental, social and cultural structures in the context of sustainable development. Systems thinking – which involves looking at the whole system rather than

Risks?

Costs?

Efficiency? Who benefits?

its parts and highlighting relationships between the different phenomena – makes it possible to analyze complex systems and find links and synergies when looking for solutions to a problem. Transdisciplinarity allows us to see our cutting edge disciplinary knowledge in a broader context. Building partnerships promotes dialogues and teaches people how to work together. Participation in decision-making helps empower people in their roles as pupils, students and citizens. Education for sustainable development brings us to questions about the contents of education (what we learn), its form (how we learn) and organization (how our education is organized and who controls it).

Enough to get us there?

Solutions
Scale?

Local education
For a sustainable future we need to work with life-long learning. This means that we must educate those who already have graduated. Our idea is to have special courses/meetings for people who want to learn about these subjects. The courses

Who controls? Time frame?

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should be held at held at evening time at local places. It should be easy to go there (good connections), they should be free of charge, and attractive (for example, a popular movie connected to the subject could be shown, coffee and cookies could be served, someone could play music and so on). One possible actor that could arrange these courses are local governments. As because climate change affects for example farmers, they would be interested in learning more about this subject and how they can contribute. The courses should therefore be pointed to different groups in society, for example farmers, householders and consumers.

teachers have up-to-date information. Pedagogical and ESD courses should also be available for teacher students during their studies, so they can be more skilled in teaching processes.

Courses should be pointed to different groups in society, for example farmers, householders and consumers.

Using tv-programmes to educate children
Children’s TV-shows could be used to educate children more than today. This idea should be attractive for the children because they like to learn by having fun. Education should start from an early age. Also it is important that there are different programmes according to age. This way of education is quite costly, but the media companies have money and power in today’s world. Children are the new generation and should benefit because they will have more knowledge to work with solutions in the future.

Education for teachers
All school levels should be involved in the education for a sustainable development process: elementary schools, high schools, and universities. Teachers need to get access to continuous education and training on issues relating to sustainable development. This will lead to good ESD in all schools. This can be done in many ways. Cooperation between teachers and companies should be established. Start a cooperation between teachers and companies or experts from companies to schools, so teachers can get to know more about practical processes, new technologies and economical perspectives on production. Establish offices specializing in collecting information and news about sustainable development that can be communicated to teachers, so that

Education for companies
When working with education for sustainable development, already active professionals need to be targeted. This education could be arranged in many ways. One idea would be to form a committee in companies and elect a teacher for the committee. This committee would meet once or twice a month and the participating companies will make a presentation on sustainable development. Here is also a market for good sustainable development consultants to assist in the companies’ work for sustainable development.

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Innovation and investments
There needs to be a common understanding of the fact that the infrastructure (physical as well as social) we choose to invest in now will be around for a long time – it will continue to affect our societies for decades to come. The fundamental role that innovations and investments play in conceptualizing and building an attractive, sustainable and fair future is increasingly getting attention in the global debate.

There needs to be a common understanding of the fact that the infrastructure we invest in now will be around for a long time.

The Human Development Report 2008 notes that “[c]urrent investment patterns are putting in place a carbon intensive energy infrastructure, with coal playing a dominant role” and notes that the USD20 trillion that is projected to be spent until 2030 to meet global energy demand could either “lock the world on to an unsustainable trajectory” or “help to decarbonize economic growth”.1 There needs to be a common understanding of the fact that the infrastructure (physical as well as social) we choose to invest in now will be around for a long time – it will continue to affect our societies for decades to come. In a climate change context this is especially true, since investments in energy systems tends to be long term and of a large scale. The recent and ongoing global financial crisis is also a reminder that societies, whether they aspire to be ecologically sustainable or not, are in need of a stable financial system. Climate change imposes yet another challenge on the financial system, because climate change in a financial framework means increased financial risk and uncertainty. Some of the

investments that today are considered to be stable and “risk free”, may not be in a longer time-frame. For example, how will climate change and the end of availability of cheap oil affect returns on investments in the energy sector? Central questions in the discussion about innovations, investments and sustainable development are: What innovations do we need to bring about sustainable resource use? What are the investments that need to be made today, to ensure a bright attractive future? How can the financial system become a driver of sustainability?

Environmental tax
Polluting companies and producers should pay an environmental tax. This tax would stimulate investments and innovation in sustainable technologies. It does not only have to be in the form of money, but could also consist of real actions such as offsets.

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Change the structure of power plants
Large investments are needed in order to phase out old, ineffective and fossil fuel based power plants. This one time investment would be expensive, but there would be many gains, not the least to the local environment and employment.

Building and housing
Invest in building houses with recycled materials, which are well insulated and take care of most of the energy that is being used. For example, the heat from our bodies, the heat from boiling water and from taking a shower could be used for heating the building. Also the water should be reused. For example the water pipes should be built in a way so that the water we use when showering and taking a bath can be used when flushing toilets, instead of using new, clean water. Underground cellars can be used to supply the cold storage of food. This will save energy because we won’t need to refrigerate all the food.

People would be living on an island under glass, like in a greenhouse. First they live under the same conditions as we do now and later on the conditions will be similar to a warmer world with less available natural resources. They will be running out of electricity and petrol. As the temperature rises, the weather becomes unstable. The participants can get some advice on how to survive from scientists, for example courses on how to build a windmill. The name we suggest is ”2050”.

Large investments are needed in order to phase out old, ineffective and fossil fuel based power plants.

New source of energy - dance floor, sport energy
Life is movement. Everybody moves. We can get energy from for example dance floors and gyms. To realize this idea, we need to rebuild floors in order to collect the energy from them. We estimate that this energy source is comparatively cheap compared to other energy sources.

Notes
1. UNDP, Human Development Report 2007/ 2008 - Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world (New York, 2007), p. 8.

Reality show
To increase awareness about climate change we propose a reality TV-show.

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Cities
Worldchanging, a book and an online magazine focusing on solutions for attractive and sustainable futures, has the following to say about cities: “We live on an urban planet. For the first time in history, a majority of us live in cities. How we grow those cities, how we build neighborhoods, how we provide housing, how we choose to get around, how well we incorporate nature into the places we live - these are the challenges that will largely determine our future.”1

What are the main characteristics of an attractive, sustainable and fair city and what are the necessary human needs that city planners need to consider?

Looking at cities in the context of climate change, poverty and strained ecosystems brings up questions about urban resource flows, segregation and spatial planning. What are the main characteristics of an attractive, sustainable and fair city and what are the necessary human needs that city planners need to consider?

duction, and this would also create employment opportunities.

Waste recycling
Cities need proper waste recycling. This includes separation of waste and recycling. Multi-use containers made of natural materials should be promoted. We also need a logistic system of waste transportation for industry, which facilitates recycling. It is also important to separate sewage from other waste flows, so not to contaminate it. The nutrients in sewage should be used as a resource in plant production.

Local food production
In order to get food production closer to cities we propose urban food production needs to be stimulated. We suggest farms in suburbs, growing vegetables on window beds instead of flowers and that each school has its own garden to produce groceries. Efficient use of existing gardens, roofs and infrastructure should also be encouraged and farms should be put into city construction plans. There should also be small shops in each district. School children, retired people and students could get involved in food pro-

Green zones
Sustainable cities are impossible without green zones. We propose that cities should be “integrated” into nature as much as possible. In new cities, districts should be separated with green zones (parks or forests). In old cities, green zones could be made on roofs, between

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roads and more trees and grass in public areas like squares.

Public transport
Cities need an eco-friendly means of transport that is affordable and available for everyone. Use of bicycles, for example with bicycle ports (like in Copenhagen), should be facilitated. Services such as delivery services for heavy goods, car renting systems and good public transport systems should eliminate the need for private cars. In the cases when people need access to a car on a regular basis, car-sharing systems should be introduced.

Technology in housing
Sustainable cities call for creative use of technology, building materials and planning when building houses. Passive buildings need little or no energy for heating. Buildings could be built from local materials, for example bricks made from soil, and located so that use of daylight is maximized. Each building should have a source of renewable energy, for example a geothermal system or solar panels. Cities can also be planned so that they have many small centers (with post offices, schools, sports centers, etc.), reducing the need for transports within the city. Districts can be divided by green areas so that the city get a smaller and friendlier feeling.

Sustainable cities call for creative use of technology, building materials and planning when building houses.

Notes
1. Steffen (ed.), Worldchanging - a user’s guide for the 21st century (New York, 2006), p. 255.

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Lifestyle
Reducing the human impact on Earth can essentially be made in three ways: by changing lifestyles, improving the efficiency of technologies or by changing the size of the population. While questions of population size and technological efficiency certainly are important when it comes to overall sustainability, huge differences in per capita natural resource use suggest that lifestyle probably plays a larger role. Looking at lifestyle in this context brings us back to the basic question of what we mean by a good life and how we can live fulfilling lives in a resource efficient way.1
How can we use our lifestyle as a strategy to reach a sustainable future?

We ask ourselves questions such as the following: What does it mean to live a good life on a planet with limited resources, where many of us drastically need to lower our resource consumption? How can we use our lifestyle as a strategy to reach a sustainable future?

organize and control these sharing systems themselves, which offers a great opportunity for people to learn to cooperate and communicate better. This could lead to greater understanding among mankind and to a world with less conflict. These solutions exist already. It’s just a matter of starting to use them on a large scale.

Share ’n’ care
Our vision is a future of sharing, where people share their belongings and time with each other. Thereby we will be able to cut down our use of energy and materials, and put less pressure on the environment and ecosystems. Examples of shared resources are cars by using car pools and Internet communities, washing and cooking with your friends and neighbors, and for example renting tools instead of buying as well as sharing work and helping your neighbors with tasks. We need to share more to avoid overconsumption. This will increase efficiency and decrease costs for society; it will also benefit the direct environment by less pollution. The shareholders can

Promote locally produced food
Using locally produced food will cut CO2 emissions caused by transports. By using more local food you will also be less influenced by other countries’ affairs. It increases regional capability and security. Many regions are growing only one or a few different crops, so it may take some time for some regions to adapt and become more self-sufficient. Local producers could benefit, and also consumers that would get access to food that is generally healthier, fresher and of higher quality.

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Schools in forests
Schools could use forests and nature more extensively during spring, summer and autumn and significant parts of learning processes could be located outside.

Sufficient indicators to let consumers make informed choices
The role of the consumer is important in working with lifestyle and sustainable development. Consumers need dependable and comparable information about a products environmental and social impact in order to make informed choices. Therefore, product labeling which summarizes a product’s environmental impact, for example CO2-emissions, is important. This could be done using for example the MIPS approach. Economic signals, such as taxing environmentally inferiour products, should also be used.

Consumers need dependable and comparable information about a products environmental and social impact in order to make informed choices.

Use international broadcasting and other media to promote sustainable development
An international broadcasting company that focuses on TV-programmes and advertisements on climate change and sustainability issues should be set up. This company would make the contents available to national TV-channels. Some of the peak time in private and state channels should be devoted to sustainability issues. Popular media should also be engaged and popular celebrities should be seen living sustainable lives. There should also be a TV-programme with concrete actions that can be taken now to increase both our wellbeing and environmental sustainability.

Notes
1. Jackson, “The Challenge of Sustainable Lifestyles”, in Starke (ed.) State of the World 2008 – Innovations for a Sustainable Economy (New York and London, 2008), p. 45

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Citizenship
In the upcoming book Citizen renaissance Jules Pick and Robert Phillips write: “Climate Change is a threat of a global apocalypse of mankind’s own making. But it is only the canary in the coal mine and one of many symptoms of an underlying set of problems, the cause of which is our ecologically blind way of life. (…) At the same time, Climate Change has awoken the suppressed conscience of the people. We have finally recognized that – as individuals, in families and in communities – we now have the ability ourselves as citizens, consumers and voters to effect genuine change.”
‘Solutions’ are no longer merely political abstracts. The future of our planet is in our hands – and we can do something about it. It goes on to recognize that “‘[s]olutions’ are no longer merely political abstracts. The future of our planet is in our hands – and we can do something about it.”1 The challenges connected to climate change and sustainable development brings up questions about our roles as citizens. What does the link between citizenship and climate change look like? How can citizens affect climate change and how does climate change affect our societies? What are the challenges and opportunities? cars. This means that even the price must be competitive. The second part would be better conditions for riding bicycles. Cities should be planned with separate bicycle routes and decent parking spaces for bikes in the centre.

Make people use the rights they have
It is not enough to have rights - we should use them. We need to put pressure on the government using our rights provided by the institution of citizenship. In every state there exists constitutional legislation or a constitution include chapters concerning human and citizen rights (for example the right to a clean and safe environment). If a state doesn’t know about some violations, citizens should bear in mind that the law protects them. We can influence politics; governments have an opportunity to determine environmental policy of the country.

Promote sustainable transportation
Public attention should be drawn to the transportation problem in cities, and a more efficient transportation system should be put in place. The first part of this system would be a good public transportation system based on buses, trains, metros and river transports. Important is also to make it attractive and competitive with private

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Using the rights we have includes: • Initiating adoption of appropriate laws. • Public control of the implementation of these laws through NGO:s and government authorities. • Governmental support of scientists.

• good examples of how sustainability can be implemented in our own lives

If people are more directly involved in, for example, energy production, they will rethink their needs.

Extreme ways
We believe that people will not understand the problem and comply to certain solutions without feeling the actual pain. If people are more directly involved in, for example, energy production, they will rethink their needs. The big issue is to make people understand that limitations to their own economic freedom will in the longer run benefit themselves, as well as future generations. By influencing the government, citizens could themselves introduce such measures.

A global marketing campaign to increase environmental awareness
Our goal is to make dealing with global environmental issues including climate change trendy. We therefore propose a marketing campaign that is planned to last for one year. It does not have any serious risks or costs. A marketing company organizes it and governments should support it. Our campaign consists of: • anti-climate change anthem • eco-reality show • celebrities spreading the word • global concerts

Notes
1. Pick & Phillips, “Citizen Renaissance”, online resource, retrieved 14/12 2008 from, http://www.citizenrenaissance.com/the-boo k/introduction/definitions/

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References

Baer, Athanasiou & Kartha, The Right to Development in a Climate Constrained World - The Greenhouse Development Rights Framework (Berlin, 2007). Hansen, et. al., “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?”, Open Atmospheric Science Journal (vol. 2, 2008), p. 217. Heinberg, Peak Everything - Waking Up to the Century of Declines (Gabriola Island, 2007) Jackson, “The Challenge of Sustainable Lifestyles”, in Starke (ed.) State of the World 2008 – Innovations for a Sustainable Economy (New York and London, 2008) King, Where do we go from here: chaos or community (Beacon Press, 1968) Meadows, Randers & Meadows, Limits to Growth – the 30 year update (London, 2005) Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis (Washington, DC., 2005)

Naturvårdsverket (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency), “Konsumtionens klimatpåverkan”, Rapport 5903 (Stockholm, 2008), p. 12. Pick & Phillips, “Citizen Renaissance”, online resource, available at www.citizenrenaissance.com ScienceDaily, “Extinction Rate Across The Globe Reaches Historical Proportions” (10/1, 2002). Retrieved 14/12 2008 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 02/01/020109074801.htm Sprat & Sutton, Climate Code Red (Melbourne, 2008) Steffen (ed.), Worldchanging - a user’s guide for the 21st century (New York, 2006) UNDP, Human Development Report 2007/2008 - Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world (New York, 2007) World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2008: MDGs and the Environment (Washington DC., 2008)

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Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development

2008

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