You are on page 1of 15

Model code of safe practice

Part 16

Tank cleaning safety code

3rd edition

EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE Third edition July 2008 Published by ENERGY INSTITUTE. LONDON The Energy Institute is a professional membership body incorporated by Royal Charter 2003 Registered charity number 1097899 .

environmentally responsible and efficient supply and use of energy in all its forms and applications.) Limited Talisman Energy (UK) Ltd Total E&P UK plc Total UK Limited Copyright © 2008 by the Energy Institute. or not taken. The EI promotes the safe. and the provision of IP technical publications to provide the international industry with information and guidance on key current and future issues. from upstream and downstream hydrocarbons and other primary fuels and renewables. The Energy Institute shall not be liable to any person for any loss or damage which may arise from the use of any of the information contained in any of its publications. Registered charity number 1097899. to power generation. As a Royal Charter organisation. London: The Energy Institute is a professional membership body incorporated by Royal Charter 2003.org . UK. Commerce Way. the EI offers professional recognition and sustains personal career development through the accreditation and delivery of training courses. please visit http://www. Offering learning and networking opportunities to support career development. www.org. e: pubs@energyinst. Exploration and Production Ltd Statoil (U. government.org. For further information. contact the EI Publications Team. Whitehall Industrial Estate. the EI provides a home to all those working in energy. ISBN 978 0 85293 436 4 Published by the Energy Institute The information contained in this publication is provided as guidance only and while every reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents.com Electronic access to EI and IP publications is available via our website. demand side management and energy efficiency. Colchester CO2 8HP.K. It also runs a highly valued technical work programme. it provides an independent focal point for the energy community and a powerful voice to engage business and industry. The EI’s Technical Work Programme provides industry with cost-effective.K. comprising original independent research and investigations. or transmitted or translated into a machine language without the written permission of the publisher. England All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced by any means. ON UK ExxonMobil International Ltd Kuwait Petroleum International Ltd Maersk Oil North Sea UK Limited Murco Petroleum Ltd Nexen Saudi Aramco Shell UK Oil Products Limited Shell U. the Energy Institute cannot accept any responsibility for any action taken. Documents can be purchased online as downloadable pdfs or on an annual subscription for single users and companies. For more information.energyinstpubs.energyinst. on the basis of this information.uk The EI gratefully acknowledges the financial contributions towards the scientific and technical programme from the following companies BG Group BHP Billiton Limited BP Exploration Operating Co Ltd BP Oil UK Ltd Centrica plc Chevron ConocoPhillips Ltd ENI E. In fulfilling this purpose the EI addresses the depth and breadth of energy and the energy system. Tel: +44 (0) 1206 796 351 e: sales@portland-services. and a scientific and technical reservoir of knowledge for industry. transmission and distribution to sustainable development. funded by the EI’s Technical Partners. This publication has been produced as a result of work carried out within the Technical Team of the Energy Institute (EI).The Energy Institute (EI) is the leading chartered professional membership body supporting individuals and organisations across the energy industry.uk. Further copies can be obtained from Portland Customer Services. value-adding knowledge on key current and future issues affecting those operating in the energy sector. academia and the public internationally. conferences and publications and networking opportunities. both in the UK and internationally. With a combined membership of over 13 500 individuals and 300 companies in 100 countries.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Inspection of fixed roof tanks with internal floating covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2. . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. .11 Risk assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. 8 2. . . . . . . . .2 Products . . . . . . . 1. . . . .7 Hazardous area classification . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. . scope and application . . . . . . . .6. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Client responsibility . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Storage tank contents . . . . . . . . . xv Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . .2 Contractor selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Storage tank inspection . . . . . .3 Medical aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . 18 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Access and signage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . 10 2. . . . . . . 5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Supervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Permit-to-work system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE CONTENTS Page Foreword . . . . .1 Flammable products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . health and environmental protection . . . .3 Application . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 iii 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Preparatory work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Work programme . . xviii 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Site inspection . . . . . . . . . .3 Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . .3 Smoking . . . . . . . . . .4 Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. . . . . . . . .2 Workforce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. . .2 Contractor organisation and personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2. . . . . . .1 Changes of condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. . . . . . .2 Hazardous substances . . . . . 17 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pre-cleaning inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .8 Local weather conditions . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Overview . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Before the contract . .9 Health and safety file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 Roof inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Key technical changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Waste water disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE Contents Cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .2 Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Testing for radioactive contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Personal protective equipment . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Eductors .15 Emergency action plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Contamination of vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Continuous combustible gas indicators . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Testing for microbiological populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . .13 Customs approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 3. .1 Gas testing for oxygen . . . . . . . .5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Environmental protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 23 23 23 23 24 25 25 25 26 Equipment and services . . . . . . . . .5 Test equipment . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 3. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . .1 Welfare facilities . . . . . . 3. . . 3. .7. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Water . . . .2 Powered equipment . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 3.13 Grit and shot blasting . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipment powered by other types of engine . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Mechanical squeegees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Miscellaneous equipment . .4 Services . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Testing for hazardous substances . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . .1 Legislation and regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Equipment powered by internal combustion engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Gas testing for flammable gases . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Scaffolding and ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .6 Air blowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Breathing air .10 Vacuum equipment . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sludge management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 High and ultra high pressure water jetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Sludge pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 36 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 45 46 46 46 iv . . .1 Personal protective equipment for body protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . 3 Page 2. . .3 Documentation . . . . . . . . .12. . . .3 Wind indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .2.12. . . . . . .7. .2. . . . . . .5. . . . . . plant and equipment . . . . . . . . .2 Respiratory protective equipment . . .6. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .2 Hand tools .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Windsail . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lighting . . . . . . . . .7 Ejectors . . 3. . .12. . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical supply and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 3. . . . .8 Hoses . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .1. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Emptying and line clearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10 Gas testing . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .4 Inert gas displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .1 Initial cleaning from outside the storage tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Steam cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Drainage systems . . . . .5 Gas-freeing – floating roof storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2 Isolation of equipment and services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .2 Displacement by artificial air ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .16 Equipment made of light alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4 Taking storage tanks out of service . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Gas testing for flammable gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 5. . .17 Emergency equipment . .3 Gas-freeing methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1..2 Piping systems . . . .1. 5. .1 Overview of control measures . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 Gas-freeing – fixed roof tanks . . . . . . . .2 Emissions to air . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Gas-freeing horizontal cylindrical storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Testing for LSA radioactive contamination . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . 47 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Gas-freeing – fixed roof storage tanks with internal floating covers . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . .2 Gas testing for hazardous substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .2. . . . . . .3 Gas testing for oxygen . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 54 54 54 55 56 57 57 57 59 60 60 61 62 63 64 64 65 65 66 67 67 6 Cleaning procedures 6. . . . .10. . . . . .5 Electrical isolation . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE Contents Cont. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .3 Thermal pressure relief system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .1 General .5 Warm water re-circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Gas-freeing – special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cleaning through open access points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Water displacement . . . . . 4. . . . . . .1. . 48 3. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Fire protection . 68 68 68 69 70 70 v .6 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Tank cleaning work area control measures during gas-freeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .2 Crude oil and high viscosity oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hydrocarbon re-circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 3. .2. .1 Displacement by natural air ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . .1.2 Floating roof tanks . . . . . . .2.. . . . 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 52 53 53 53 5 Gas-freeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .1. . . . . .2. . 4. . . . . . . . . .5 Steaming out . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Control of pyrophoric material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hot work standard . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sour light and middle distillates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .3 Warning notices . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hazards . . . . 6.2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Head protection . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . Declaration of cleanliness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . .3 Inspection standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Internal painting standard . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Aromatic products . . . . .1 General . . .4 Scale and sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .3 Sweet light and middle distillates . . . . . . .5. 7. . . . . . . . . . . Internal cleaning . . . . . . . hazards and control measures of specific product groups . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Change of product standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Flammable gases . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . .4. . . . . .2 Escape procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7 Page vi .3 Sludge deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .5. . . . . . 7. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .5. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .5 Roof support leg cleaning (floating roofs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .5 Cleaning procedures . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . 70 70 72 72 74 74 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 80 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 Cleaning issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Liquid removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Personnel tank entry checklist . .2 Hazards . . . . . . .6 Declassification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Preparation for personnel tank entry . . . . . . 6. . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sludge and solid residue removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning standards . . .3. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE Contents Cont. . . . . . . Working in the storage tank – general . . . . . . . . . . . 85 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 87 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 6. . . . . .6 Horizontal cylindrical storage tanks . 6. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 7. 7. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Microbial decontamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Crude oils . . 6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 Confined space entry permit . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hazards . .5 Decontamination standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Leaded petrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pre-inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .2. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Storage tank internal hazards . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Deposits . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Sludge deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Storage tank deposits . . . . . . .7 Operational . . . .6 Mechanical . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . 7. . . .3 Electrical .1 Bitumen storage tanks . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Instrumentation . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Page 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Residual fuel oils . . . . .4 Cutback bitumens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Bitumens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Lubricating oils . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hazards . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . 7. .5 Thermal insulation and internal fittings . . . . . . . . . .10 Wax and waxy oils . .10. . . . . . . .4 Thermal insulation and internal fittings . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use of diluents for cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Internal fittings . . . . . .5 Fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . .12. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cutback bitumens and bitumen emulsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Sludge deposits . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 89 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 Recommissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hazards . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE Contents Cont. .8 Retaining storage tanks out of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Slops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .9. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Gas testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . .4 Thermal insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Ballast water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 7. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hazards . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 General . 7. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .3 Storage tank internals . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hazards . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 98 vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . .

3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sources of ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Allergenic hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.2. . . .1 Introduction . . .9 Hazard identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flammable gases . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . .EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE Contents Cont. . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Performing authority responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 114 114 115 116 118 118 118 119 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 123 124 124 125 126 126 127 127 127 127 128 128 128 129 Annex D Permit-to-work checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .7. . . 112 Annex C Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . .4 Microbial by-product hazardous substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lead alkyl compounds . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Fire and explosion . . . . .6 Miscellaneous chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . .2 Before PTW issue . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . C. . . . .3 Hazardous substances . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Supervised areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page Annexes: Annex A Glossaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Infection hazard . . . . . . . 133 133 133 134 134 135 135 viii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 During work in progress . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Oxygen enrichment . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Information on PTWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 99 A. . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . .5 Hazards from microbiological test kits . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Work conditions . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Following PTW issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . .3 Control levels . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . D. . . . . .7 Radiation hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hydrogen sulfide . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Glossary of abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Annex B EI classification of petroleum products . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Controlled areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . C. . . . . . . .6 Physical hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Oxygen deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Environmental conditions . . . . . . . 99 A. . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . .3. . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . .8 Microbiological hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . .4 Record keeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Glossary of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Dusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 138 138 138 139 Annex F Gas detection using combustible gas indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . F. . . .12 D. . . . . . . . . .13 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Fail-to-danger – catalyst poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .4 Samples taken from above flammable liquids or solid deposits . . . . . . .2 Range limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross-referencing of PTWs . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Scope of method statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Formation of gas clouds . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas test certificates . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . .7 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . F.3 Contaminants . . . . . . . . . On completion of work . . . . . F.1 The need for oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. .8. . . . . . . . . .11 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wet and other contaminated atmospheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . .12 Detection of other gases . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . E.8. . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 140 140 141 141 141 141 141 142 142 142 142 142 142 143 143 143 143 143 144 144 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 146 146 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Certification for use in flammable atmospheres .2 Protective covers .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Personnel tank entry criteria . . . . . .8 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Samples taken from above flammable liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Sampling lines . . . . . F. . . . . . . .2 Samples taken from above solid deposits . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . F. . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . .9 Authorised gas testers .10 D. . . . . . . . .5. . . . F. . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . Hand-over of PTWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Instrument certification . . . . . . . . . Auditing of PTW system . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 False readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Particulate. . . . . . . . . . 135 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 Annex E Typical contents of work programme . . . . .14 Page Suspending a PTW . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Interpretation of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Water and other liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE Contents Cont. .2 Continuing monitoring using continuous gas detection alarms . . . . . . . . . .3 Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Water . . . . . . . . . . . F. Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Particulates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Method statement . . . . . . .11 Personnel tank entry criteria and continuing monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . .1 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Withdrawal or cancellation of PTWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . minimum response checks and maintenance .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 D. . . . .2 Minimum response checks . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) air blower and (c) windsail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: EI classification of petroleum products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Tables: Table 2. . . . . . . . . . . 20 Table 3. . . . . . . . . . 71 Table B. . . . .1: Examples of ventilation arrangements for gas-freeing fixed roof tanks using (a) air. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2: Access to horizontal cylindrical storage tanks . . . . . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . .4 Using chemical detector tubes . 151 151 151 151 152 Annex J References and bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Figure C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 150 150 150 Annex I Vacuum tankers . .EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE Contents Cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: Radiation hazards: designation of supervised and controlled areas . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . 125 x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: Personal protective equipment requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Equipment requiring bonding . . . . . . G. .3 Bonding methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: Flammable gas conditions for personnel tank entry and work in petroleum product storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction .1 Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page Annex G Gas detection using chemical detector tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Models available . . . . . . . . . . . H. . 147 147 148 148 148 Annex H Earthing and bonding . . . . . . . . .3 Personnel authorised to use chemical detector tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: Example of risk assessment . . . . . . . . 112 Table C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Control measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: Summary of hazards and control measures . . . . . .3 Hazards . . . . . . . I. . . . . .or steam-operated eductor. . . . . . . H. . .. . 129 Figures: Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . .2 Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Table 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xi . Such risk assessments should identify control measures necessary to ensure that tank cleaning operations are safely controlled and carried out. and safety advisors. in particular on risk assessing flammable atmospheres and hazardous area classification in support of the requirements in the UK of the Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR). It has been prepared on the basis that most tank cleaning operations are outsourced by clients to specialist contractors. maintenance managers. The plan should be based on safety. including organisational arrangements and equipment specifications. plant. operational hazards. repair. Major changes have been made to: — — — — Provide additional guidance on environmental protection. and should be read by client installation managers. inspection. however. electrical hazards. Whereas for contractors. and consequences such as illness. cleaning of storage tanks containing petroleum products is an inherently dirty and unpleasant operation with many hazards that could result in harm to people. modification or demolition. control and execution of tank cleaning operations: it identifies typical hazards and pertinent control measures to reduce risks. project engineers. maintenance contractors. buildings and equipment) damage and environmental impact. Such information should be helpful to contractors when developing their own cleaning procedures. if implemented should ensure adequate protection of people. the Model Code provides information that should help them understand the contractor’s operations and sets out necessary client organisational and work control arrangements that should protect people.g. assets and the environment if the work is not properly planned.EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE FOREWORD An Energy Institute (EI) Model Code of Safe Practice is not intended necessarily to represent the most stringent requirements for managing a particular issue. health and environmental risk assessments that take full account of current legislative and regulatory requirements. Occasions arise when storage tanks containing petroleum products need to be cleaned to facilitate a change of product. Instead. controlled and executed. This Model Code gives guidance on safety. and related guidance. The third edition of this Model Code was commissioned by the EI Distribution and Marketing Safety Committee: it replaces the second edition published 1996. The main hazard is fire and explosion arising from the inherent flammability of the products stored and potential sources of ignition. For the former. and sets out good practice. maintenance. Provide additional guidance on fire and explosion hazards. Recognise that most tank cleaning operations are outsourced to specialist contractors. assets and the environment. assets and the environment. Therefore. nor does it represent a minimum standard. Those responsible for tank cleaning should realise that every project is different and they should study the pertinent circumstances and plan each project accordingly. it sets out principles and guidance on good practice rather than a set of rigid rules which. injury and fatality to people. the non-routine activity of tank cleaning increases the potential for exposure to health hazards. health and environmental protection risk assessment and management for tank cleaning operations. in the opinion of a cross-section of technical representatives and based on practical experience. the Model Code stresses the need for proper planning. the Model Code is intended for use by both clients and tank cleaning contractors. etc. asset (e. Yet. Provide guidance on client responsibilities before and during tank cleaning projects (including contractor selection) in support of the UK requirements of The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (CDM).

or not taken. Provide guidance on the content of a declaration of cleanliness. Provide guidance on retaining storage tanks out of service ('mothballing'). as required in the UK by The Confined Spaces Regulations. cannot accept any responsibility for any action taken. This Model Code may be further reviewed and revised from time to time. including respiratory protection equipment (RPE). including information that should be included on a confined space entry permit.EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Provide additional guidance on health risk assessment for hazardous substances. on the basis of this information. Provide guidance on general principles in equipment selection. including for mechanical and electrical equipment used in hazardous areas. water jetting equipment and steam cleaning equipment. Clarify hazards to personnel working in storage tanks and provide guidance on pertinent control measures. Provide guidance on the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). Provide guidance on the isolation of instrumentation and fire protection. Provide guidance on the specification and control measures for using vacuum tankers. Provide guidance on the use of hydrocarbon re-circulation and warm water re-circulation for initial tank cleaning from outside the storage tank. Provide guidance on the hazards and control measures for use of grit and shot blasting equipment. Clarify the types of work that may be carried out through open access points and provide guidance on pertinent control measures. the need to meet in the UK the requirements of the Equipment and Protective Systems for use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (EPSR). Provide guidance on the recommissioning of instrumentation and fire protection. Clarify the consequences of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure at various concentrations. Provide additional guidance on confined space access. Provide guidance on sludge waste management in support of the requirements in the UK of The Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations and Special Waste Amendment (Scotland) Regulations.org. as required in the UK by The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations and The Control of Lead at Work Regulations. Provide guidance on static electricity hazards in switch loading and pertinent control measures to reduce risks. It would be of considerable assistance if users would send comments or suggestions for improvement to: The Technical Department Energy Institute 61 New Cavendish Street LONDON W1G 7AR e: technical@energyinst. the Energy Institute and the technical representatives listed in the Acknowledgements. models and applications of chemical detector tubes for gas detection. The information contained in this publication is provided as guidance only and while every reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents. Provide guidance on the principles.uk xii . The Energy Institute shall not be liable to any person for any loss or damage which may arise from the use of any of the information contained in any of its publications.

health and environmental protection in tank cleaning operations. record keeping. Annex B provides the EI classification of petroleum products. Section 5 provides guidance on the methods. powered. Annex D provides detailed guidance on PTW systems. including hazards and control measures. Some guidance is provided on retaining storage tanks out of service. It describes how the Model Code should be applied given that most tank cleaning operations are outsourced by clients to specialist contractors. it provides guidance on personnel tank entry flammable gas conditions for various work types. Section 2 sets out preparatory work that should be carried out before commencing a tank cleaning project. radiation hazards and microbiological hazards. and provides guidance on gas detection. Annex A provides glossaries of terms and abbreviations. test and protective equipment. hazards and control measures for gas-freeing of various types of storage tanks. Section 3 provides guidance on the selection. Section 4 provides guidance on taking storage tanks out of service. It includes guidance on contracting and organisational arrangements. permissions. it provides guidance on control of such work. Whilst emphasising the need to carry out as much cleaning as is practicable from outside the storage tank. such as fire and explosion. which are key to control of work. products and safety. control of work (including risk assessment and permit-to-work (PTW) systems). communications and emergency preparedness. ranging from crude oils through to refined products and residues. Section 8 sets out necessary checks to ensure that the storage tank is ready to be recommissioned safely by the reversal of isolations of various equipment and services. which should be used when assessing their fire-related hazards. It includes a summary table. hazards and control measures pertinent to the cleaning of tanks used for storing specific product groups. water and electrical services. health hazards from hazardous substances. specification and control measures for equipment and services used during a tank cleaning project. input data (including from pre-cleaning inspections). personnel requirements. physical hazards. Section 7 sets out cleaning issues. It sets out xiii . Section 6 provides guidance on hazards and control measures for tank cleaning operations. and breathing air. In addition. including emptying and line clearing of products and isolation of various equipment and services. Annex C sets out various hazards and pertinent control measures typically encountered in tank cleaning operations.EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE OVERVIEW Section 1 defines the scope and exclusions of the Model Code in terms of storage tanks. as supported by checklists. in particular.

regulations and standards – and a bibliography for additional pertinent publications not referenced. the requirements of method statements. xiv . in particular. Annex E provides guidance on the typical contents of a work programme. Annex J provides details of publications referenced – including UK legislation.EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE – PART 16: TANK CLEANING SAFETY CODE the responsibilities of various parties and processes for managing PTWs. equipment types and applications. Annex I provides guidance on the specification and control measures for using vacuum tankers. in particular. Annex G provides guidance on gas detection using chemical detector tubes. principles. Annex F provides guidance on gas detection using combustible gas indicators. principles. Annex H provides guidance on the methodology for maintaining pertinent equipment at earth potential. in particular. limitations and applications.

Related Interests