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Fundamental rights and duties in Indian Constitution

Fundamental rights:
Fundamental rights are those rights which are essential for the well being of a person. Part III of
the Indian Constitution contains the list of Fundamental Rights; that guarantees civil liberties to
all the citizens of India to live in peace and harmony without the fear of being suppressed by
others. The Indian Judiciary has the discretion to punish those violating these fundamental rights
under the provisions of the Indian Penal Code. No person can be deprived these rights pertaining
to basic liberty in the form of human freedoms. It is the judiciary that safeguards these rights of
the citizens. In some exceptional cases, i.e. during emergencies the State can impose restrictions
on the enjoyment of these fundamental rights.
The Constitution provides for the enjoyment of 6 Fundamental rights. They are:
Right to Equality (under Article 14 Article 18 )
Right to Freedom (under Article 19 Article 22 )
Right against exploitation ( under Article 23 Article 24 )
Right to Freedom of Religion (under Article 25 Article 28 )
Cultural and Educational rights (under Article 29 Article 30 )
Right to Constitutional remedies (Article 32 )
Fundamental duties:
Fundamental Duties are the ones that are recognized as moral obligations the citizens are
expected to perform. Article 51A under Part IV A of the Constitution of India speaks of the
Fundamental duties. One cannot enforce these fundamental duties legally. It was through the
42nd Amendment that these duties were introduced in the Constitution.
There are 10 Fundamental duties that the citizens are expected to discharge. They are:

The citizens of India are expected to be abide by the Constitution and respect all its
ideals. Likewise, the citizens are expected to respect the National Flag and the National
The noble ideals that inspired our freedom struggle have to be cherished and followed.
The sovereignty, unity and integrity of India needs to be upheld and protected.
Citizens should be ready to defend and render national service towards India.
The spirits of common brotherhood and harmony have to be promoted by all the citizens
wherein they need to transcend all forms of diversities pertaining to religion, language and
region. All the practices that are derogatory to the dignity of women have to be renounced.
India has a rich, varied and composite culture and one needs to preserve it.
Natural environment including the forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife are expected to be
preserved by the citizens.
People of India are expected to develop within themselves humanism, scientific
temperament, and spirits of inquiry and reform.
Public property is expected to be safeguarded and violence needs to be avoided.
People are expected to strive for the excellence of all the individuals and collective
activities to help in the development of the country.

CLEAN-India, for a Green India

ndia has a population of over one billion, of which almost 300 million live in around 600 towns and

cities. Unfortunately, as a result of stressed environmental conditions, most of these towns and cities are
unable to cope with the rapid pace of urbanisation. Water pollution, unavailability of drinking water,
inadequate sanitation, open dumping of waste, and loss of forest cover are some of the related problems.
These have serious consequences on the health of the people and are also an economic burden to the
country. Similarly, water-borne disease like diarrhoea, jaundice and cholera are taking a heavy toll on both
human health and economic productivity.
This situation demands immediate intervention in the management of rapidly growing urban
environmental problems. The quality of the environment needs to be monitored regularly and, more
importantly, scientific work needs to extend beyond the laboratory and become more community
centered. While the regulatory agencies continue to play their role. Programmes that are community
based are required. These will help the community understand local issues and take necessary initiatives
to improve their local environmental conditions and come up with new locale-specific initatives to improve
their sorrounding environmental conditions.
CLEAN-India (Community Led Environment Action Network) programme was launched by Development
Alternatives (DA) with the vision of developing a cleaner environment for our urban centres. This nationwide programme focuses on environmental assessment, awareness, advocacy and action on school
children who are the future citizens. The underlined realisation is that each one of us is responsible for
the current state of are environment and we cannot wait for someone else to solve it.
CLEAN-India Mission
The CLEAN-India programme aims to mobilise community responsibility for environmental assessment
and improvement in all major towns and cities of India through schools and NGOs linked with
governments, business, academic and other institutions.
CLEAN-India Network
CLEAN-India programme partners with more than 30 like-minded NGOs, 400 schools and over one
million students who coordinate the activities across 78 urban centres of India. They participate in various
environmental activities and programmes for a cleaner greener India.