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The results is that this covering letter is somewhat longer than usual soley so

that I can display the fullness of my interest. I end by discussing the tools I am
currenty abe to use. While by no means typically includes, I hope you will
appreciate the inclusion of these as can help establish my passion
Posit preference in integeneraional mobility I,e, the whole reference price,
discuss in the context of the Tony Atkinson study ( It is a culturally created

mental model. A segregated and unequal society will constantly prime it.

What happens to the brain when we feel excluded? This has been studied by
Neuroscientist Naomi Eisenberger gives us an insight into what is happening in
the brain when we feel excluded. Its based on a game of catch. After a while the
volunteer gets cut out of the game. She found that being left out of the game
activated the pain matrix. To the brain, so rejection is so meaningful that it hurts.
For every in group there are outsiders.

Interclassroom activities networks even in highschool. Who do you sit next to,
given a free choice. Who do you pair off with. The blue eyes brown eyes
experiment. The teacher, Jane Elliot, switched which group was on top, allowing
students to abstract the larger lesson that systems of rules can be arbitrary.
When someone you trust and parentise (think how often kids call a female
teacher mum).
Does rejection hurt? An FMRI study of social exclusion

Does low self-esteem enhance

social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and
anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism.
Those with low self esteem brought on by setting are less
grity, feel the rejection more.
Can we be working against grit?

They might hate studying as social pain lingers. Does low

self-esteem enhance social pain?

Social groups/friendship groups with streams sets 39
minutes, the children halved their times.

Eisenberger, PhD, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Kipling Williams, PhD, at Purdue University, and
colleagues found that social rejection activates many of the same brain regions involved in physical pain
(Science, 2003).
Those findings led DeWall, Eisenberger and colleagues to wonder: If social rejection aches like physical pain,
can it be treated like physical pain? To find out, they assigned volunteers to take over-the-counter acetaminophen
(Tylenol) or a placebo daily for three weeks. Compared with the placebo group, volunteers who took the drug
recounted fewer episodes of hurt feelings in daily self-reports. Those reports were backed by an fMRI study,
which found that people who had taken acetaminophen daily for three weeks had less activity in the pain-related
brain regions when rejected in Cyberball, in contrast to those taking a placebo (Psychological Science, 2010).

eing on the receiving end of a social snub causes a cascade of emotional and cognitive consequences,
researchers have found. Social rejection increases anger, anxiety, depression, jealousy and sadness. It reduces
performance on difficult intellectual tasks, and can also contribute to aggression and poor impulse control, as
DeWall explains in a recent review (Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2011). Physically, too, rejection
takes a toll. People who routinely feel excluded have poorer sleep quality, and their immune systems dont
function as well as those of people with strong social connections, he says.
This has imp[lications for social networks. People often respond to rejection by seeking inclusion elsewhere. If
your sense of belonging and self-esteem have been thwarted, youll try to reconnect, says Williams. Excluded
people actually become more sensitive to potential signs of connection, and they tailor their behavior accordingly.
They will pay more attention to social cues, be more likable, more likely to conform to other people and more
likely to comply with other peoples requests, he says. SEEKING NEGATIVE RELATIONSHIPS.
It may take time to heal from a bad break-up or being fired, but most people eventually get over the pain and hurt
feelings of rejection. When people are chronically rejected or excluded, however, the results may be severe.
Depression, substance abuse and suicide are not uncommon responses. Long-term ostracism seems to be very
devastating, Williams says. People finally give up.THE LONG TERM CONSAQUENCES OF SETTING; TELL A

Insights from neuroscience with the far more applied or policy focussed tools of economics.

R1 Why Social Pain Can Live on: Different Neural Mechanisms Are Associated with Reliving Social and
Physical Pain

Using a 010 scale, participants reported no significant differences in their ratings of

initial pain to the

social pain event (mean = 7.78, SD = 1.66) vs. physical pain event (mean = 7.94, SD =
2.65; t
(17) = -.29, p = .77), suggesting that there were no differences in how much pain they
felt at the
time the original physical or social pain event occurred. However, participants rated
significantly more pain when reliving social pain memories (mean = 4.53, SD = 1.96)
to when reliving physical pain memories (mean = 3.33, SD = 1.79; t(17) = 2.9, p = .01).

Highlight at the very beginng.

Social scientist in the area of equality intergenerational mobility vresearch with specific
subfocus on education. (looking at the imagie of an unhappy child, a syringe puncturing
the a childs hand, then frame it with name (L band student)

Robust multivariate evidence is only just emerging, and with respect to younger age
groups only Does being placed in a high, middle or bottom stream impact on

KS1 attainment at age seven? If so which children are disadvantaged or
advantaged by their placement?
_ What are the risk and protective factors related to attainment at KS1?

Being in the top set remains significant

Using the data from the MCS has enabled this research to demonstrate with a
large sample of children from a range of different school environments that
those placed in middle or bottom streams do less well in KS1 reading and overall
KS1 performance, and children in bottom streams do less well in KS1 mathematics
than similar children in mixed ability classes and that those in the top streams do

levels of social segregation (Green, Preston, & Janmaat, 2006; OECD,

2001) and reduced intergenerational mobility (Brunello & Checci, 2006; Maurin &
McNally, 2007). Overall, the evidence indicates that streaming, particularly where
it begins at a very early age, is likely to be counterproductive in reducing the

The empathy question. Looking at an unhappy child (this would have to be a class
neurtral image.

Boneva & Rauh (2016)

of direct relevevance to Boneva and Bonea & Rauh.

How much of intergenerational elasticity coefficents can be explained by

lower reservation price of indviduals as a direct result of a comparatively
lower (as measured by expense) standard of living. Are they happier with
Social Pain and the Brain: How Insights from Neuroimaging
Advance the Study of Social Rejection 2014
Relativly new research into the cognative and behavioural consaquences
of social pain.

This links to other new schools. First, social pain has higher recall than
physical pain. With this memory still able to cause pain. Will reminders of
it every time you set foot in the classroom act as a constant source of
unhappiness. Moreover, work by Glaven has shown how in terms of
rewards, the expeirnece is greater among adolcesndnets, although she
suggests more needs to be done with young people. In this regard, are we
setting a system up where people adolescent rpedispositon to feel great
achievement spurs them on to great hights leaving others in a zero sum
game to have a negative emotive response to things that benefit them

Take steps to assuage the feeling of impotence stop attending school in

a spiritual sense.

Here you can talk about the injection/photograph test

Similar to Alan et al., seeing divisions as somewhat arbitrary could serve

as protective function to those if they are convinced that their ability is
not defined by their (wrong) set

People with low self-esteem suffer more greatly

In this work I would actually improve upon cyberball

Hoff and Stiglitz (2016), Striving for balance in economics

Great quote

The mental model of rank awareness

Very good quote: It is a culturally created mental model. A segregated

and unequal society will constantly prime it. Aggressive grammar

streaming. Those on the centre, toward the left and the right.

Link this quote to the BBC QT video.

Again, good introductory stuf

Confidence multipliers

In the lab, could get people to draw themselves (

To include
The two Rauh and Boneva articles
Stiglitz and Hof
Meyler (social pain persisting)
Parsens and Hallem on the impact of streaming