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net

Higher

Mathematics

Integration

Contents

Integration

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Indefinite Integrals

Preparing to Integrate

Differential Equations

Definite Integrals

Geometric Interpretation of Integration

Areas between Curves

Integrating along the y-axis

Integrating sinx and cosx

A Special Integral

Integrating sin(ax + b) and cos(ax + b)

1

RC

RC

A

RC

A

A

RC

RC

RC

RC

CfE Edition

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copies or derivative works attribute the work to Higher Still Notes.

For more details about the copyright on these notes, please see

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/scotland/

1

4

5

7

8

13

18

19

20

23

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Integration

1

Indefinite Integrals

RC

will see that integration is a useful tool for evaluating areas and solving a

special type of equation.

We have already seen how to differentiate polynomials, so we will now look

at how to undo this process. The basic technique is:

x n +1

+c

n +1

n

dx

x =

Stated simply: raise the power (n) by one (giving n + 1 ), divide by the new

power ( n + 1 ), and add the constant of integration (c ) .

EXAMPLES

1. Find x 2 dx .

x3

+ c = 13 x 3 + c .

3

2

x dx =

2. Find x 3 dx .

1

x 2

dx = + c = 2 + c .

2

2x

5

3. Find x 4 dx .

5

4

x dx =

x4

9

4 x 4 + c.

+

c

=

9

9

for integration.

are integrating with respect to x.

the original expression, since this would have been zeroed by differentiation.

hsn.uk.net

Page 1

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Since integration and differentiation are reverse processes, if we differentiate

our answer we should get back to what we started with.

For example, if we differentiate our answer to Example 1 above, we do get

back to the expression we started with.

1 x3 + c

3

differentiate

x2

integrate

The above technique can be extended to:

ax n +1

dx a x =

dx

+c

ax =

n +1

n

n 1, a is a constant.

Stated simply: raise the power (n) by one (giving n + 1 ), divide by the new

power ( n + 1 ), and add on c.

EXAMPLES

4. Find 6 x 3 dx .

6x 4

dx

+c

6x =

4

= 32 x 4 + c .

3

5. Find 4 x

32

dx .

1

4x 2

x

dx

4

=

+c

12

32

=

8 x 2 + c

8

=

+ c.

x

Note

It can be easy to confuse integration and differentiation, so remember:

dx

x=

hsn.uk.net

1 x2 + c

2

k dx=

Page 2

kx + c .

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Other variables

Just as with differentiation, we can integrate with respect to any variable.

EXAMPLES

6. Find 2 p 5 dp .

2 p 4

+c

dp

2 p =

4

1

=

4 + c.

2p

Note

dp tells us to integrate

with respect to p.

7. Find

p dx .

p dx

Note

Since we are integrating

with respect to x, we

treat p as a constant.

= px + c .

( f ( x ) + g ( x ) ) dx = f ( x ) dx + g ( x ) dx .

Stated simply: integrate each term separately.

EXAMPLES

1

3 x 2 2 x 2 dx .

8. Find

3x 2 x

1

2

3x 3 2 x 2

3 +c

dx =

3

2

3

4x 2

=x

+c

3

=

x 3 34 x 3 + c .

3

5

9. Find

4 x 8 + 3 x + 7 dx .

4x

58

+ 3 x + 7 dx =

3x 2

3 + 2 + 7x + c

8

4x 8

=83 4 x 8 + 23 x 2 + 7 x + c

3

8

= 32

+ 32 x 2 + 7 x + c .

x

3

hsn.uk.net

Page 3

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Preparing to Integrate

RC

multiplied out, and there are no fractions with an x term in the denominator

(bottom line), for example:

1

= x 3

3

x

1

1

=x 2

x

3

= 3x 2

2

x

1

= 14 x 5

5

4x

5

5 x 23 .

=

2

4

43 x

EXAMPLES

dx

for x 0 .

x2

1. Find

dx

1

2 is just a short way of writing 2 dx , so:

x

x

dx 1

=

dx

2 =

x2

x

dx

x 1

=

+c

1

1

=

+ c.

x

dx

2. Find

for x > 0 .

dx 1

=

1 dx

=

x x2

12

dx

x2

1

2

+c

= 2 x + c.

7

3. Find

2p

dp where p 0 .

7

dp = 72 p 2 dp

2

2p

1

7 p +c

=

2 1

7

=

+ c.

2p

hsn.uk.net

Page 4

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

3 x 5x

4. Find

dx .

4

3 x 5x

3 x 5 5 x dx

=

dx

4

4

3x 6

5x 2

+c

46 42

3 x6 5 x2 + c

= 24

8

=

= 18 x 6 58 x 2 + c .

Differential Equations

dy

= x2 .

involving derivatives, e.g.

dx

1 x3 + c

3

expression for the original function; in this

case=

y 13 x 3 + c is a solution.

differentiate

x2

integrate

dy

dx

dx

y =

or

f ( x ) = f ( x ) dx .

This will result in a general solution since we can choose the value of c.

y

of curves, each with a different value for c.

The graph to the left illustrates some of the

curves=

y 13 x 3 + c with different values of c.

If we have additional information about the function (such as a point its graph

passes through), we can find the value of c and obtain a particular solution.

hsn.uk.net

Page 5

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

EXAMPLES

dy

If = x 2 5 , express y in terms of x.

dx

dy

y =

dx

dx

= ( x 2 5 ) dx

= 13 x 3 5 x + c .

y = 13 x 3 5 x + c

=

4 13 ( 3 )3 5 ( 3 ) + c

4 = 9 15 + c

c =2

So y = 13 x 3 5 x + 2 .

2. The function f , defined on a suitable domain, is such that

1

f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 + 23 .

x

Given that f (1) = 4 , find a formula for f ( x ) in terms of x.

f ( x ) = f ( x ) dx

1

= x 2 + 2 + 23 dx

x

(x

+ x 2 + 23 dx

= 13 x 3 x 1 + 23 x + c

1

= 13 x 3 + 23 x + c .

x

1

f ( x )= 13 x 3 + 32 x + c

x

=

4 13 (1)3 11 + 23 (1) + c

4 = 13 1 + 23 + c

c = 4.

1

So f ( x )= 13 x 3 + 32 x + 4 .

x

hsn.uk.net

Page 6

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Definite Integrals

RC

b

) dx [ F ( =

x )]a

a f ( x=

b

F (b ) F ( a )

Stated simply:

Work out the integral as normal, leaving out the constant of integration.

Evaluate the integral for x = b (the upper limit value).

Evaluate the integral for x = a (the lower limit value).

Subtract the lower limit value from the upper limit value.

value, this is called a definite integral.

EXAMPLES

1. Find

1 5x

dx .

3

5x 3

5

x

dx

=

1

3

1

3

5 ( 3 )3 5 (1)3

=

3

3

=5 32 53

= 45 53 = 43 13 .

2. Find

0 ( x

2

+ 3 x 2 ) dx .

x 4 3x 3

0 ( x + 3 x ) dx =

4 + 3

0

2

x4

= + x3

4

0

24

04

3

= + 2 + 03

4

4

= 16

+80

4

= 4 + 8 = 12.

hsn.uk.net

Page 7

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

4

3. Find 3 dx .

1 x

4

4

4

dx = 1 4 x 3 dx

3

1 x

4 x 2

=

2 1

4

2

= 2

x 1

2

2

= 2

4 ( 1)2

2 +2=

= 16

1 78 .

Consider

2

4 x 13 x 3

0 ( 4 x ) dx =

= 8 83 0

= 5 13 .

On the graph of y= 4 x 2 :

y

y= 4 x 2

The shaded area is given by

2

0 ( 4 x ) dx .

2

2

2 x

In general, the area enclosed by the graph y = f ( x ) and the x-axis, between

x = a and x = b , is given by

b

a f ( x ) dx .

hsn.uk.net

Page 8

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

EXAMPLE

1. The graph of =

y x 2 4 x is shown below. Calculate the shaded area.

y

=

y x 2 4x

4 5 x

O

5

x 3 4x 2

4 ( x 4 x ) dx =

3 2

4

5

53

43

2

= 2 ( 5 )2 2 ( 4 )

3

3

64

= 125

3 50 3 + 32

= 61

3 18

= 2 13 .

Care needs to be taken if part or all of the area lies below the x-axis. For

example if we look at the graph of =

y x2 4 :

y

The shaded area is given by

=

y x 2 4x

4

4

x 3 4x 2

2

1 ( x 4 x ) dx =

3 2

1

O

43

2

= 2 ( 4 ) 13 2

3

1

= 64

3 32 3 + 2

63 30 =

=

9.

21 30 =

3

In this case, the negative indicates that the area is below the x-axis, as can be

seen from the diagram. The area is therefore 9 square units.

hsn.uk.net

Page 9

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Consider the graph from the example above, with a different shaded area:

y

=

y x 2 4x

Area 1

Using the method from above, we might try to

calculate the shaded area as follows:

4 5 x

5

5

x 3 4x 2

2

Area 2

1 ( x 4 x ) dx =

3 2

O

1

53

= 2 ( 5 )2 13 2

3

1

= 125

3 50 3 + 2

124 48 =

=

6 32 .

3

Clearly this shaded area is not 6 23 square units since we already found it to

be 11 13 square units. This problem arises because Area 1 is above the x-axis,

while Area 2 is below.

1 ( x

4

4 x ) dx

and

4 ( x

5

4 x ) dx .

We then found the total shaded area by adding the two areas together.

We must take care to do this whenever the area is split up in this way.

hsn.uk.net

Page 10

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

EXAMPLES

y

y =3 2 x x 2

2

O 1

1

2x 2 x 3

3 ( 3 2 x x ) dx = 3 x 2 3 3

1

= 3 x x 2 13 x 3

(3 1 13 ) ( 9 9 + 9 )

2

=

=

13 ( 3 )3

= 3 1 13 + 9

= 10 23

substitute in new limits to work out the area from x = 1 to x = 2 :

2

2

2

3

1 ( 3 2 x x ) dx = 3 x x 13 x 1

2

(3 ( 2 ) ( 2 ) 13 ( 2 ) ) (3 (1) (1)

( 6 4 83 ) (3 1 13 )

2

=

=

= 2 83 2 + 13

13 (1)3

Remember

=

2 13 . So the area is 2 13 square units. The negative sign just

13 square units .

hsn.uk.net

Page 11

lies below the axis.

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

y

y = x 2 + 2 x 24

5

2

x 2 + 2 x 24 =

0

0

( x 4)( x + 6) =

x = 4 or x = 6.

So the root is x = 4

To calculate the area from x = 2 to x = 4 :

4

x 3 2x 2

2 ( x + 2 x 24 ) dx = 3 + 2 24 x 2

4

= 13 x 3 + x 2 24 x

4

2

( 13 ( 4 ) + ( 4 ) 24 ( 4 )) ( 13 ( 2 )

( 643 + 16 96 ) ( 38 + 4 48)

3

=

=

+ ( 2 )2 24 ( 2 )

= 56

3 36

=

17 13

So the area is 17 13 square units.

To calculate the area from x = 4 to x = 5 :

5

2

3

2

4 ( x + 2 x 24 ) dx = 13 x + x 24 x 4

5

=

=

( 1253 + 25 120) ( 643 + 16 96 )

3

24 ( 4 )

= 61

3 15

= 5 13

22 23 square units.

hsn.uk.net

Page 12

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

b

a

square units.

y

y = f (x)

The area is

O

y = g (x) b

( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) dx square units.

a

When dealing with areas between curves, areas above and below the x-axis do

not need to be calculated separately.

However, care must be taken with more complicated curves, as these may give

rise to more than one closed area. These areas must be evaluated separately.

For example:

y

y = g (x)

c

O a

x

y = f (x)

a

to each area.

b

a ( g ( x ) f ( x ) ) dx + b ( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) dx .

hsn.uk.net

Page 13

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

EXAMPLES

y= 6 3 x 2 and y =3 2 x 2 .

y

y= 6 3 x 2

y =3 2 x 2

6 3 x 2 =3 2 x 2

6 + 3 3x 2 + 2 x 2 =

0

9 x2 =

0

( 3 + x )( 3 x ) =

0

x=

3 or x =

3.

Set up the integral and simplify:

3

= ( ( 6 3 x ) ( 3 2 x ) ) dx

= ( 6 3 x + 3 + 2 x ) dx

= ( 9 x ) dx .

3

3

3

3

3

3

x3

3 ( 9 x ) dx =

9 x 3

3

3

( 3 )3

( 3 )3

= 9 (3)

9 ( 3 ) 3

3

( 27 273 ) ( 27 + 273 )

= 27 9 + 27 9

= 36.

hsn.uk.net

Page 14

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

g ( x=

) 4 x + 4 . The graphs of y = f ( x ) and y = g ( x ) are shown

below.

y

y = f (x)

y = g (x)

1 O

Since the shaded area is in two parts, we apply

Area from x = 1 to x = 2 :

a

( upper lower ) dx

= ( x 7 x + 8 x + 16 ( 4 x + 4 ) ) dx

= ( x 7 x + 4 x + 12 ) dx

1

1

2

Note

The curve is at the top

of this area.

x 4 7x 3 4x 2

=

+

+ 12 x

3

2

4

1

4

3

2 4 7 23

( 1) 7 ( 1)

2

2

=

+ 2 2 + 12 2

+ 2 ( 1) + 12 ( 1)

3

3

4

4

( 4 563 + 8 + 24 ) ( 14 73 + 2 12 )

= 99

4

= 24 34 .

So the area is 24 34 square units.

hsn.uk.net

Page 15

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Area from x = 2 to x = 6 :

6

( upper lower ) dx

= ( 4 x 4 ( x 7 x + 8 x + 16 ) ) dx

= ( x + 7 x 4 x 12 ) dx

2

2

6

Note

The straight line is at the

top of this area.

x 4 7x 3 4x 2

=

4 + 3 2 12 x

2

4

3

2

6

2 4 7 23 4 2 2

76 46

= +

12 6 +

12 2

3

2

3

2

4

4

= ( 324 + 504 72 72 ) 4 + 56

3 8 24

= 160

3

= 53 13 .

1 square units.

So the total shaded area is 24 34 + 53 13 =

78 12

hsn.uk.net

Page 16

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

y

y = x 2 4x + 5

y =2

x

O

The cross-section is part of the parabola with equation y = x 2 4 x + 5 .

To work out the points of intersection, equate the curve and the line:

2

x 2 4x + 5 =

0

x 2 4x + 3 =

( x 1)( x 3=

) 0 so =

x 1 or =

x 3.

Set up the integral and integrate:

2

1 ( upper lower ) dx = 1 ( 2 ( x 4 x + 5) ) dx

3

( x

3

+ 4 x 3 ) dx

3

x 3 4x 2

=

3 + 2 3x

( 3 )3

(1)3

2

+ 2 (3) 3 (3)

+ 2 (1)2 3 (1)

=

3

3

= ( 9 + 18 9 ) 13 + 2 3

= 0 + 13 2 + 3

= 34

= 1 13 .

=

Volume cross-sectional area length

= 34 2

= 83= 2 32 .

hsn.uk.net

Page 17

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

RC

For some problems, it may be easier to find a shaded area by integrating with

respect to y rather than x.

EXAMPLE

y

y = 19 x 2

y = 16

y=4

x

We have y = 19 x 2

9 y = x2

x

x = 9y

x = 3 y .

x =3 y

right is given by:

16

16

3 y dy = 3 y 2 dy

y=4

y = 16

16

3 y 2

= 3

2 4

3

16

3

= 2 y

4

3

= 2 16 2 4

= 2 64 2 8

= 112.

Since this is half of the required area, the total shaded area is 224 square units.

hsn.uk.net

Page 18

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

RC

We know the derivatives of sin x and cos x , so it follows that the integrals are:

dx

cos x=

cos x + c .

sin x dx =

sin x + c ,

EXAMPLES

(5sin x + 2cos x ) dx .

5cos x + 2sin x + c .

(5sin x + 2cos x ) dx =

1. Find

2. Find

( 4cos x + 2sin x ) dx .

0

4cos x + 2sin x dx =

0

( )

( )

= 4 1 2 1 [ 2 ]

Note

2

2

It is good practice to

= 4 2 +2

rationalise the

) (

2

2

= 2 2 +2

2

2

denominator.

2 + 2.

0

1 sin x dx = 1 cos x 4

2

2

0

0

=

12 cos ( 4 ) + 12 cos ( 0 )

= 1 ( 0.654 + 1)

2

hsn.uk.net

Page 19

Remember

We must use radians

when integrating of

differentiating

trigonometric functions.

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

A Special Integral

RC

n

n

( ax + b )

n +1

( ax + b )

=

dx

a ( n + 1)

+c ,

where a 0 and n 1 .

Stated simply: raise the power (n ) by one, divide by the new power and also

divide by the derivative of the bracket ( a ( n + 1)) , add c.

EXAMPLES

1. Find

( x + 4)

( x + 4)

dx =

dx .

( x + 4 )8

+c

8 1

8

( x + 4)

=

+ c.

8

2. Find ( 2 x + 3 )2 dx .

( 2x + 3)

dx=

( 2 x + 3 )3

+c

32

3

(2x + 3)

=

+ c.

6

1

dx where x 95 .

3

5x + 9

3. Find

1

1

=

dx

1 dx

3

5x + 9

+

x

5

9

)3

(

(5x + 9 ) 3 dx

1

=

=

(5x + 9 ) 3

2 5

3

5x + 9

10

3

+c

+c

2

3 3 5x + 9 + c .

= 10

hsn.uk.net

Page 20

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

4. Evaluate

Integration

3 x + 4 dx where x 34 .

3

3 x + 4 dx = ( 3 x + 4 ) 2 dx

0

(3x + 4 )2

= 3

2 3 0

3

2

=

2

=

2 13

2 4

9

9

= 29

( 3 x + 4 )

9

0

3

( 3 ( 3 ) + 4 ) 2

9

3

13 8

(3 (0) + 4 )

Note

Changing powers back

to roots here makes it

easier to evaluate the

two brackets.

Remember

To evaluate 43 , it is

easier to work out 4

first.

Warning

Make sure you dont confuse differentiation and integration this could lose

you a lot of marks in the exam.

Remember the following rules for differentiation and integrating expressions

n

of the form ( ax + b ) :

d ax + b )n = an ( ax + b ) n 1 ,

dx (

n

( ax + b )

=

dx

( ax + b )n+1

a ( n + 1)

+c .

hsn.uk.net

Page 21

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Recall that integration is the process of undoing differentiation. So if we

differentiate f ( x ) to get g ( x ) then we know that g ( x =

) dx f ( x ) + c .

EXAMPLES

5

with respect to x.

( 3 x 1)4

1

dx .

5

( 3 x 1)

5. (a) Differentiate y =

y

(a)=

5

4

=

5 ( 3 x 1)

4

( 3 x 1)

dy

5

= 5 3 ( 4 )( 3 x 1)

dx

60

=

5.

3

x

1

)

(

60

5

dx =

+ c . So:

5

( 3 x 1)4

( 3 x 1)

1

5

5 dx = 4 + c

( 3 x 1)

( 3 x 1)

60

Note

We could also have used

the special integral to

obtain this answer.

1

5

1

=

+

dx

c

5

60 3 x 1 4

(

)

( 3 x 1)

1

=

4 + c1

12 ( 3 x 1)

6. (a) Differentiate y =

(x

1

3

1)

x2

(b) Hence, find

x3 1

(a) =

y

=

5

( x 3 1)

(x

1)

with respect to x.

dx .

5

6

dy

=

5 ( x 3 1) 3 x 2

dx

15 x 2

=

6 .

3

( x 1)

hsn.uk.net

Page 22

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

15 x 2

3

(b) From part (a) we know

x 1

15

x2

x3 1

x2

x3 1

1

dx =3

5 + c . So:

( x 1)

1

dx = 5 + c

( x 3 1)

Note

In this case, the special

integral cannot be used.

5 +c

( x 1)

1

=

5 + c2

3

15 ( x 1)

1

1

dx =

15

3

RC

the integrals are:

1 sin ( ax + b ) + c ,

a

dx

cos ( ax + b )=

1a cos ( ax + b ) + c .

sin ( ax + b ) dx =

These are given in the exam.

EXAMPLES

1. Find sin ( 4 x + 1) dx .

14 cos ( 4 x + 1) + c .

sin ( 4 x + 1) dx =

2. Find cos 32 x + 5 dx .

) dx

cos ( 2 x + 5=

3

2

3 sin 2 x + 5 + c .

0

dx 12 sin ( 2 x 5 )

cos ( 2 x 5) =

0

0

= 12 sin ( 3 ) 12 sin ( 5 ) .

1 ( 0.141 0.959 )

=

2

= 0.55 (to 2 d.p.).

hsn.uk.net

Page 23

Remember

We must use radians

when integrating or

differentiating

trigonometric functions.

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

of y sin 3 x + 6 , the x-axis, and

the lines x = 0 and x = 6 .

=

y sin 3 x + 6

sin 3 x +

6

1 cos 3 x + 6

dx =

6 0

3

(( ) )

= 13 cos 3 6 + 6 13 cos 3 ( 0 ) + 6

= 13 cos ( 90 + 30 ) + 13 cos ( 30 )

( )

= 13 ( 12 ) + 13 23

= 16 + 63

1+ 3

.

6

1+ 3

square units.

So the area is

6

=

5. Find 2cos ( 12 x 3 ) dx .

) dx

2cos ( 12 x 3=

=

(

)

4sin ( 12 x 3 ) + c

2 sin 1 x 3 + c

1

2

2

5cos ( 2 x ) + sin ( x

hsn.uk.net

3 )=

dx 52 sin ( 2 x ) cos ( x 3 ) + c

Page 24

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

1

with respect to x.

cos x

tan x

(b) Hence find

dx .

cos x

1

1

d ( cos x )1 = 1( cos x )2 sin x

(a)

= ( cos x ) , and dx

cos x

sin x

.

=

cos 2 x

7. (a) Differentiate

sin x

tan x

sin x

cos x

(b) = =

.

cos x cos x cos 2 x

sin x

1

From part (a) we know

dx

+c .

2=

cos x

cos x

tan x

1

Therefore

=

dx

+c.

cos x

cos x

hsn.uk.net

Page 25

CfE Edition

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