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Higher

Mathematics

Integration
Contents
Integration
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Indefinite Integrals
Preparing to Integrate
Differential Equations
Definite Integrals
Geometric Interpretation of Integration
Areas between Curves
Integrating along the y-axis
Integrating sinx and cosx
A Special Integral
Integrating sin(ax + b) and cos(ax + b)

1
RC
RC
A
RC
A
A
RC
RC
RC
RC

CfE Edition
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Higher Mathematics

Integration

Integration
1

Indefinite Integrals

RC

In integration, our aim is to undo the process of differentiation. Later we

will see that integration is a useful tool for evaluating areas and solving a
special type of equation.
We have already seen how to differentiate polynomials, so we will now look
at how to undo this process. The basic technique is:
x n +1
+c
n +1

n
dx
x =

n 1, c is the constant of integration.

Stated simply: raise the power (n) by one (giving n + 1 ), divide by the new
power ( n + 1 ), and add the constant of integration (c ) .
EXAMPLES

1. Find x 2 dx .
x3
+ c = 13 x 3 + c .
3

2
x dx =

2. Find x 3 dx .

1
x 2
dx = + c = 2 + c .
2
2x
5

3. Find x 4 dx .
5
4

x dx =

x4

9
4 x 4 + c.
+
c
=
9
9

for integration.

The must be used with dx in the examples above, to indicate that we

are integrating with respect to x.

The constant of integration is included to represent any constant term in

the original expression, since this would have been zeroed by differentiation.

Integrals with a constant of integration are called indefinite integrals.

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Page 1

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Since integration and differentiation are reverse processes, if we differentiate
our answer we should get back to what we started with.
For example, if we differentiate our answer to Example 1 above, we do get
back to the expression we started with.
1 x3 + c
3

differentiate

x2

integrate

Integrating terms with coefficients

The above technique can be extended to:
ax n +1
dx a x =
dx
+c
ax =
n +1
n

n 1, a is a constant.

Stated simply: raise the power (n) by one (giving n + 1 ), divide by the new
power ( n + 1 ), and add on c.
EXAMPLES

4. Find 6 x 3 dx .
6x 4
dx
+c
6x =
4
= 32 x 4 + c .
3

5. Find 4 x

32

dx .
1

4x 2
x
dx
4
=
+c

12
32

=
8 x 2 + c
8
=

+ c.
x

Note
It can be easy to confuse integration and differentiation, so remember:

dx
x=

hsn.uk.net

1 x2 + c
2

k dx=

Page 2

kx + c .

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Other variables
Just as with differentiation, we can integrate with respect to any variable.
EXAMPLES

6. Find 2 p 5 dp .

2 p 4
+c
dp
2 p =
4
1
=
4 + c.
2p

Note
dp tells us to integrate
with respect to p.

7. Find

p dx .

p dx

Note
Since we are integrating
with respect to x, we
treat p as a constant.

= px + c .

The following rule is used to integrate an expression with several terms:

( f ( x ) + g ( x ) ) dx = f ( x ) dx + g ( x ) dx .
Stated simply: integrate each term separately.
EXAMPLES

1
3 x 2 2 x 2 dx .
8. Find

3x 2 x

1
2

3x 3 2 x 2
3 +c
dx =
3
2
3

4x 2
=x
+c
3
=
x 3 34 x 3 + c .
3

5
9. Find
4 x 8 + 3 x + 7 dx .

4x

58

+ 3 x + 7 dx =

3x 2
3 + 2 + 7x + c
8

4x 8

=83 4 x 8 + 23 x 2 + 7 x + c
3
8
= 32
+ 32 x 2 + 7 x + c .
x
3

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Preparing to Integrate

RC

As with differentiation, it is important that before integrating, all brackets are

multiplied out, and there are no fractions with an x term in the denominator
(bottom line), for example:
1
= x 3
3
x

1
1
=x 2
x

3
= 3x 2
2
x

1
= 14 x 5
5
4x

5
5 x 23 .
=
2
4
43 x

EXAMPLES

dx
for x 0 .
x2

1. Find

dx
1
2 is just a short way of writing 2 dx , so:
x
x
dx 1
=
dx
2 =
x2
x

dx

x 1
=
+c
1
1
=
+ c.
x

dx

2. Find

for x > 0 .

dx 1
=
1 dx
=

x x2

12

dx

x2
1
2

+c

= 2 x + c.
7

3. Find

2p

dp where p 0 .

7
dp = 72 p 2 dp

2
2p
1

7 p +c
=
2 1

7
=

+ c.
2p

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

3 x 5x
4. Find
dx .
4

3 x 5x
3 x 5 5 x dx
=
dx

4
4

3x 6
5x 2

+c
46 42
3 x6 5 x2 + c
= 24
8
=

= 18 x 6 58 x 2 + c .

Differential Equations

A differential equation is an equation

dy
= x2 .
involving derivatives, e.g.
dx

1 x3 + c
3

A solution of a differential equation is an

expression for the original function; in this
case=
y 13 x 3 + c is a solution.

differentiate

x2

integrate

In general, we obtain solutions using integration:

dy
dx
dx

y =

or

f ( x ) = f ( x ) dx .

This will result in a general solution since we can choose the value of c.
y

The general solution corresponds to a family

of curves, each with a different value for c.
The graph to the left illustrates some of the
curves=
y 13 x 3 + c with different values of c.

If we have additional information about the function (such as a point its graph
passes through), we can find the value of c and obtain a particular solution.

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

EXAMPLES

1. The graph of y = f ( x ) passes through the point ( 3, 4 ) .

dy
If = x 2 5 , express y in terms of x.
dx
dy
y =
dx
dx
= ( x 2 5 ) dx
= 13 x 3 5 x + c .

We know that when x = 3 , y = 4 so we can find c:

y = 13 x 3 5 x + c
=
4 13 ( 3 )3 5 ( 3 ) + c
4 = 9 15 + c
c =2

So y = 13 x 3 5 x + 2 .
2. The function f , defined on a suitable domain, is such that
1
f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 + 23 .
x
Given that f (1) = 4 , find a formula for f ( x ) in terms of x.
f ( x ) = f ( x ) dx
1

= x 2 + 2 + 23 dx
x

(x

+ x 2 + 23 dx

= 13 x 3 x 1 + 23 x + c

1
= 13 x 3 + 23 x + c .
x

We know that f (1) = 4 , so we can find c:

1
f ( x )= 13 x 3 + 32 x + c
x
=
4 13 (1)3 11 + 23 (1) + c
4 = 13 1 + 23 + c
c = 4.

1
So f ( x )= 13 x 3 + 32 x + 4 .
x

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Definite Integrals

RC

b
) dx [ F ( =
x )]a
a f ( x=
b

F (b ) F ( a )

where a and b are called the limits of the integral.

Stated simply:
Work out the integral as normal, leaving out the constant of integration.
Evaluate the integral for x = b (the upper limit value).
Evaluate the integral for x = a (the lower limit value).
Subtract the lower limit value from the upper limit value.

Since there is no constant of integration and we are calculating a numerical

value, this is called a definite integral.
EXAMPLES

1. Find

1 5x

dx .
3

5x 3
5
x
dx
=
1
3

1
3

5 ( 3 )3 5 (1)3
=
3
3

=5 32 53
= 45 53 = 43 13 .

2. Find

0 ( x
2

+ 3 x 2 ) dx .

x 4 3x 3
0 ( x + 3 x ) dx =
4 + 3

0
2

x4

= + x3
4
0

24
04

3
= + 2 + 03
4
4

= 16
+80
4

= 4 + 8 = 12.

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

4
3. Find 3 dx .
1 x
4

4
4
dx = 1 4 x 3 dx

3
1 x

4 x 2
=

2 1
4

2
= 2
x 1

2
2
= 2

4 ( 1)2
2 +2=
= 16
1 78 .

We will now consider the meaning of integration in the context of areas.

Consider

2
4 x 13 x 3
0 ( 4 x ) dx =

= 8 83 0
= 5 13 .
On the graph of y= 4 x 2 :
y
y= 4 x 2
The shaded area is given by

2
0 ( 4 x ) dx .
2

Therefore the shaded area is 5 13 square units.

2

2 x

In general, the area enclosed by the graph y = f ( x ) and the x-axis, between
x = a and x = b , is given by
b

a f ( x ) dx .

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

EXAMPLE

1. The graph of =
y x 2 4 x is shown below. Calculate the shaded area.
y
=
y x 2 4x

4 5 x

O
5

x 3 4x 2
4 ( x 4 x ) dx =
3 2

4
5

53
43
2
= 2 ( 5 )2 2 ( 4 )
3
3

64
= 125
3 50 3 + 32

= 61
3 18
= 2 13 .

Areas below the x-axis

Care needs to be taken if part or all of the area lies below the x-axis. For
example if we look at the graph of =
y x2 4 :
y
The shaded area is given by
=
y x 2 4x
4
4
x 3 4x 2
2
1 ( x 4 x ) dx =
3 2

1
O

43
2
= 2 ( 4 ) 13 2
3

1
= 64
3 32 3 + 2
63 30 =
=
9.
21 30 =
3

In this case, the negative indicates that the area is below the x-axis, as can be
seen from the diagram. The area is therefore 9 square units.

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Areas above and below the x-axis

Consider the graph from the example above, with a different shaded area:
y

=
y x 2 4x

Area 1 + Area 2 = 2 13 + 9 = 11 13 square units.

Area 1
Using the method from above, we might try to
calculate the shaded area as follows:
4 5 x
5
5
x 3 4x 2
2
Area 2
1 ( x 4 x ) dx =
3 2

O
1

53

= 2 ( 5 )2 13 2
3

1
= 125
3 50 3 + 2
124 48 =
=
6 32 .
3

Clearly this shaded area is not 6 23 square units since we already found it to
be 11 13 square units. This problem arises because Area 1 is above the x-axis,
while Area 2 is below.

To find the true area, we needed to evaluate two integrals:

1 ( x
4

4 x ) dx

and

4 ( x
5

4 x ) dx .

We then found the total shaded area by adding the two areas together.
We must take care to do this whenever the area is split up in this way.

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

EXAMPLES

y

y =3 2 x x 2
2

O 1

To calculate the area from x = 3 to x = 1 :

1

2x 2 x 3

3 ( 3 2 x x ) dx = 3 x 2 3 3
1

= 3 x x 2 13 x 3

(3 (1) (1) 13 (1) ) (3 ( 3 ) ( 3 )

(3 1 13 ) ( 9 9 + 9 )
2

=
=

13 ( 3 )3

= 3 1 13 + 9
= 10 23

We have already integrated the equation of the curve, so we can just

substitute in new limits to work out the area from x = 1 to x = 2 :
2

2
2
3
1 ( 3 2 x x ) dx = 3 x x 13 x 1
2

(3 ( 2 ) ( 2 ) 13 ( 2 ) ) (3 (1) (1)
( 6 4 83 ) (3 1 13 )
2

=
=

= 2 83 2 + 13

13 (1)3

Remember

=
2 13 . So the area is 2 13 square units. The negative sign just

So the total shaded area is 10 23 + 2 13 =

13 square units .

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indicates that the area

lies below the axis.

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

y
y = x 2 + 2 x 24

5
2

First, we need to calculate the root between x = 2 and x = 5 :

x 2 + 2 x 24 =
0
0
( x 4)( x + 6) =
x = 4 or x = 6.

So the root is x = 4
To calculate the area from x = 2 to x = 4 :
4

x 3 2x 2

2 ( x + 2 x 24 ) dx = 3 + 2 24 x 2
4

= 13 x 3 + x 2 24 x

4
2

( 13 ( 4 ) + ( 4 ) 24 ( 4 )) ( 13 ( 2 )
( 643 + 16 96 ) ( 38 + 4 48)
3

=
=

+ ( 2 )2 24 ( 2 )

= 56
3 36
=
17 13
So the area is 17 13 square units.
To calculate the area from x = 4 to x = 5 :
5

2
3
2
4 ( x + 2 x 24 ) dx = 13 x + x 24 x 4
5

=
=

( 13 (5) + (5) 24 (5) ) ( 13 ( 4 ) + ( 4 )

( 1253 + 25 120) ( 643 + 16 96 )
3

24 ( 4 )

= 61
3 15
= 5 13

So the total shaded area is 17 13 + 5 13 =

22 23 square units.

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

b

a

square units.

So for the shaded area shown below:

y
y = f (x)

The area is

O
y = g (x) b

( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) dx square units.
a

When dealing with areas between curves, areas above and below the x-axis do
not need to be calculated separately.
However, care must be taken with more complicated curves, as these may give
rise to more than one closed area. These areas must be evaluated separately.
For example:
y
y = g (x)
c

O a

x
y = f (x)

a

to each area.

So the shaded area is given by:

b

a ( g ( x ) f ( x ) ) dx + b ( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) dx .

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

EXAMPLES

1. Calculate the shaded area enclosed by the curves with equations

y= 6 3 x 2 and y =3 2 x 2 .
y
y= 6 3 x 2

y =3 2 x 2

To work out the points of intersection, equate the curves:

6 3 x 2 =3 2 x 2
6 + 3 3x 2 + 2 x 2 =
0
9 x2 =
0
( 3 + x )( 3 x ) =
0
x=
3 or x =
3.
Set up the integral and simplify:
3

( upper curve lower curve ) dx

= ( ( 6 3 x ) ( 3 2 x ) ) dx
= ( 6 3 x + 3 + 2 x ) dx
= ( 9 x ) dx .
3

3
3

3
3

Carry out integration:

3

x3

3 ( 9 x ) dx =
9 x 3

3
3

( 3 )3
( 3 )3
= 9 (3)
9 ( 3 ) 3
3

( 27 273 ) ( 27 + 273 )

= 27 9 + 27 9
= 36.

Therefore the shaded area is 36 square units.

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

2. Two functions are defined for x by f ( x ) = x 3 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16 and

g ( x=
) 4 x + 4 . The graphs of y = f ( x ) and y = g ( x ) are shown
below.
y
y = f (x)
y = g (x)

1 O

Since the shaded area is in two parts, we apply
Area from x = 1 to x = 2 :

( upper lower ) dx twice.

a

( upper lower ) dx
= ( x 7 x + 8 x + 16 ( 4 x + 4 ) ) dx
= ( x 7 x + 4 x + 12 ) dx
1

1
2

Note
The curve is at the top
of this area.

x 4 7x 3 4x 2

=
+
+ 12 x
3
2
4
1
4
3

2 4 7 23
( 1) 7 ( 1)
2
2
=
+ 2 2 + 12 2

+ 2 ( 1) + 12 ( 1)

3
3
4
4

( 4 563 + 8 + 24 ) ( 14 73 + 2 12 )

= 99
4

= 24 34 .
So the area is 24 34 square units.

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Area from x = 2 to x = 6 :
6

( upper lower ) dx
= ( 4 x 4 ( x 7 x + 8 x + 16 ) ) dx
= ( x + 7 x 4 x 12 ) dx
2

2
6

Note
The straight line is at the
top of this area.

x 4 7x 3 4x 2

=
4 + 3 2 12 x

2
4
3
2
6
2 4 7 23 4 2 2

76 46
= +

12 6 +

12 2
3
2
3
2
4
4

= ( 324 + 504 72 72 ) 4 + 56
3 8 24

= 160
3

= 53 13 .

So the area is 53 13 square units.

1 square units.
So the total shaded area is 24 34 + 53 13 =
78 12

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

3. A trough is 2 metres long. A cross-section of the trough is shown below.

y
y = x 2 4x + 5

y =2

x
O
The cross-section is part of the parabola with equation y = x 2 4 x + 5 .

Find the volume of the trough.

To work out the points of intersection, equate the curve and the line:
2
x 2 4x + 5 =
0
x 2 4x + 3 =
( x 1)( x 3=
) 0 so =
x 1 or =
x 3.
Set up the integral and integrate:

2
1 ( upper lower ) dx = 1 ( 2 ( x 4 x + 5) ) dx
3

( x
3

+ 4 x 3 ) dx
3

x 3 4x 2

=
3 + 2 3x

( 3 )3
(1)3

2
+ 2 (3) 3 (3)
+ 2 (1)2 3 (1)
=
3
3

= ( 9 + 18 9 ) 13 + 2 3

= 0 + 13 2 + 3
= 34
= 1 13 .

Therefore the shaded area is 1 13 square units.

=
Volume cross-sectional area length
= 34 2

= 83= 2 32 .

Therefore the volume of the trough is 2 23 cubic units.

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Integrating along the y-axis

RC

For some problems, it may be easier to find a shaded area by integrating with
respect to y rather than x.
EXAMPLE

y
y = 19 x 2

y = 16

y=4
x

Calculate the shaded area which lies between y = 4 and y = 16 .

We have y = 19 x 2

9 y = x2
x

x = 9y
x = 3 y .

x =3 y

The shaded area in the diagram to the

right is given by:

16

16

3 y dy = 3 y 2 dy

y=4

y = 16

16

3 y 2
= 3
2 4
3

16

3
= 2 y
4
3

= 2 16 2 4

= 2 64 2 8
= 112.

Since this is half of the required area, the total shaded area is 224 square units.

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Page 18

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Integrating sinx and cosx

RC

We know the derivatives of sin x and cos x , so it follows that the integrals are:

dx
cos x=

cos x + c .
sin x dx =

sin x + c ,

Again, these results only hold if x is measured in radians.

EXAMPLES

(5sin x + 2cos x ) dx .
5cos x + 2sin x + c .
(5sin x + 2cos x ) dx =

1. Find

2. Find

( 4cos x + 2sin x ) dx .
0

[ 4sin x 2cos x ]04

4cos x + 2sin x dx =
0

( )

( )

= 4sin 4 2cos 4 [ 4sin0 2cos0]

= 4 1 2 1 [ 2 ]
Note
2
2

It is good practice to
= 4 2 +2
rationalise the

) (

2
2
= 2 2 +2
2
2

denominator.

2 + 2.

3. Find the value of 12 sin x dx .

0

1 sin x dx = 1 cos x 4
2
2
0
0

=
12 cos ( 4 ) + 12 cos ( 0 )
= 1 ( 0.654 + 1)
2

= 0.827 (to 3 d.p.)

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Page 19

Remember
when integrating of
differentiating
trigonometric functions.

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

A Special Integral

RC
n

The method for integrating an expression of the form ( ax + b ) is:

n

( ax + b )

n +1

( ax + b )

=
dx

a ( n + 1)

+c ,

where a 0 and n 1 .

Stated simply: raise the power (n ) by one, divide by the new power and also
divide by the derivative of the bracket ( a ( n + 1)) , add c.
EXAMPLES

1. Find

( x + 4)

( x + 4)

dx =

dx .

( x + 4 )8

+c
8 1
8
( x + 4)
=
+ c.
8

2. Find ( 2 x + 3 )2 dx .

( 2x + 3)

dx=

( 2 x + 3 )3

+c
32
3
(2x + 3)
=
+ c.
6

1
dx where x 95 .
3
5x + 9

3. Find

1
1
=
dx

1 dx

3
5x + 9
+
x
5
9
)3
(

(5x + 9 ) 3 dx
1

=
=

(5x + 9 ) 3
2 5
3

5x + 9
10
3

+c

+c
2

3 3 5x + 9 + c .
= 10

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

4. Evaluate

Integration

3 x + 4 dx where x 34 .
3

3 x + 4 dx = ( 3 x + 4 ) 2 dx
0

(3x + 4 )2
= 3

2 3 0
3

2
=

2
=

2 13
2 4

9
9

= 29

( 3 x + 4 )
9

0
3
( 3 ( 3 ) + 4 ) 2

9

3

13 8

(3 (0) + 4 )

(or 8.638 to 3 d.p.).

Note
Changing powers back
to roots here makes it
easier to evaluate the
two brackets.
Remember
To evaluate 43 , it is
easier to work out 4
first.

Warning
Make sure you dont confuse differentiation and integration this could lose
you a lot of marks in the exam.
Remember the following rules for differentiation and integrating expressions
n

of the form ( ax + b ) :

d ax + b )n = an ( ax + b ) n 1 ,

dx (
n

( ax + b )

=
dx

( ax + b )n+1
a ( n + 1)

+c .

These rules will not be given in the exam.

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Page 21

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

Using Differentiation to Integrate

Recall that integration is the process of undoing differentiation. So if we
differentiate f ( x ) to get g ( x ) then we know that g ( x =
) dx f ( x ) + c .
EXAMPLES

5
with respect to x.
( 3 x 1)4
1

(b) Hence, or otherwise, find

dx .
5
( 3 x 1)

5. (a) Differentiate y =

y
(a)=

5
4
=
5 ( 3 x 1)
4
( 3 x 1)

dy
5
= 5 3 ( 4 )( 3 x 1)
dx
60
=
5.

3
x
1
)
(
60
5
dx =
+ c . So:
5
( 3 x 1)4
( 3 x 1)

(b) From part (a) we know

1
5
5 dx = 4 + c
( 3 x 1)
( 3 x 1)

60

Note
We could also have used
the special integral to

1
5
1
=

+
dx
c

5
60 3 x 1 4
(
)
( 3 x 1)

1
=

4 + c1
12 ( 3 x 1)

6. (a) Differentiate y =

(x

1
3

1)

x2
(b) Hence, find
x3 1

(a) =
y

=
5
( x 3 1)

(x

1)

where c1 is some constant.

with respect to x.

dx .
5

6
dy
=
5 ( x 3 1) 3 x 2
dx
15 x 2
=
6 .
3
( x 1)

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CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

15 x 2
3
(b) From part (a) we know

x 1

15

x2

x3 1

x2

x3 1

1
dx =3
5 + c . So:
( x 1)

1
dx = 5 + c
( x 3 1)

Note
In this case, the special
integral cannot be used.

5 +c

( x 1)

1
=

5 + c2
3
15 ( x 1)

1
1
dx =
15
3

RC

Since we know the derivatives of sin ( ax + b ) and cos ( ax + b ) , it follows that

the integrals are:
1 sin ( ax + b ) + c ,
a

dx
cos ( ax + b )=

1a cos ( ax + b ) + c .
sin ( ax + b ) dx =
These are given in the exam.
EXAMPLES

1. Find sin ( 4 x + 1) dx .
14 cos ( 4 x + 1) + c .
sin ( 4 x + 1) dx =

2. Find cos 32 x + 5 dx .

) dx
cos ( 2 x + 5=
3

2
3 sin 2 x + 5 + c .

3. Find the value of cos ( 2 x 5 ) dx .

0

dx 12 sin ( 2 x 5 )
cos ( 2 x 5) =
0
0

= 12 sin ( 3 ) 12 sin ( 5 ) .
1 ( 0.141 0.959 )
=
2
= 0.55 (to 2 d.p.).

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Remember
when integrating or
differentiating
trigonometric functions.

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

4. Find the area enclosed be the graph=

of y sin 3 x + 6 , the x-axis, and
the lines x = 0 and x = 6 .

=
y sin 3 x + 6

sin 3 x +
6

1 cos 3 x + 6
dx =
6 0
3

(( ) )

= 13 cos 3 6 + 6 13 cos 3 ( 0 ) + 6

= 13 cos ( 90 + 30 ) + 13 cos ( 30 )

( )

= 13 ( 12 ) + 13 23

= 16 + 63
1+ 3
.
6
1+ 3
square units.
So the area is
6
=

5. Find 2cos ( 12 x 3 ) dx .

) dx
2cos ( 12 x 3=
=

(
)
4sin ( 12 x 3 ) + c

2 sin 1 x 3 + c
1
2
2

6. Find 5cos ( 2 x ) + sin ( x 3 ) dx .

5cos ( 2 x ) + sin ( x

hsn.uk.net

3 )=
dx 52 sin ( 2 x ) cos ( x 3 ) + c

Page 24

CfE Edition

Higher Mathematics

Integration

1
with respect to x.
cos x
tan x
(b) Hence find
dx .

cos x
1
1
d ( cos x )1 = 1( cos x )2 sin x
(a)
= ( cos x ) , and dx
cos x
sin x
.
=
cos 2 x

7. (a) Differentiate

sin x
tan x
sin x
cos x
(b) = =
.
cos x cos x cos 2 x

sin x
1
From part (a) we know
dx
+c .
2=
cos x
cos x
tan x
1
Therefore
=
dx
+c.

cos x
cos x

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Page 25

CfE Edition