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SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program

The SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program is funded principally through a
grant from the SPE Foundation.
The society gratefully acknowledges the companies that support this
program by allowing their professionals to participate as lecturers.
Special thanks to the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and
Petroleum Engineers (AIME) for its contribution to the program.

Society of Petroleum Engineers
Distinguished Lecturer Program
www.spe.org/dl

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Cement and Cementing:
An Old Technique With a Future?
Bernard Piot
Schlumberger

Society of Petroleum Engineers
Distinguished Lecturer Program
www.spe.org/dl

1

Outline • • • • Cement Cementing: a necessary evil? Alternative isolation techniques Today’s well challenges – Cement versatility • Well architecture tool for the future 3 Cement Material and Regulations 4 2 .

h h Time.Portland Cement 1004.500 60 60 V isc osit e (Bc) Consistency.000 40 1500 40 1.000 Compressiv e Strength T ype B (psi) – Strong – Impermeable Thickening time test (neat class class G) G) Strength development test (neat 100 4000 2500 2.000 • Inexpensive • Available everywhere 3500 3. • Hydraulic binder • Suspension (paste or slurry) for placement • Controllable setting • Solid 2000 2.500 1000 1.500 8080 3000 3. 45 45 1:30 60 75 2:00 1:30 60 2:0075 5 History of Oilfield Cement • Before our era – Clay. lime Ca(OH)2 + CO2  CaCO3 • API created 20 Mar 1919 • 1940: ASTM Types 1 to 5 • 1948: API Code 32 released • Roman times – Pozzolanic cements • 1824: Portland cement – Selected raw materials • 1903: Portland cement in oil wells • 1917: “Oilfield” cements – Became API RP10B in 52 • • • • 1952: 6 classes of cement 1953: API Std 10A API Spec 10A in 72 ISO 10426 since 2000 6 3 . Bc psi Compressive strength.000 20 20 500500 000:000 0 0 0:000 150:30 150:30 30 30 1:00 Time (HH) Tim e1:00 (HH:MM) Time.

~ 10% Class C • Rest of the world (international service companies) – >95% class G (often imported) – Class A or C. H – Quality control. C – Classes G. F Pressurized consistometer Cementing companies Abandoned early 80s • Class J cement – Replaced by G/H + Silica • Slag cement – ~80s Brine resistance – ~90s Mud compatibility • Others 7 Use of Cement • USA – ~ 80% class H and G – ~ 10% class A. B. reproducibility – More universal • Retarded cements – – – – – Deeper wells Classes D. E. or local common cement: preferentially Type V (ASTM). or CEM-I 42.5 (EN 197-1) • Logistics allowing • If good and even quality • If adequate quality control 8 4 .5 or 52.Cement Types • Construction cements • Plain Portland cement – Common cement – API classes A.

foam cement ISO 10426-5 (ANSI/API RP 10B-5) – shrinkage/expansion ISO 10426-6 (ANSI/API RP 10B-6) – static gel strength • Other work groups: – Evaluation (logs). Deepwater… 9 Cementing: A Necessary Evil? Evolution of Equipment and Technology. and an Outline of Their Shortcomings 10 5 .testing ISO 10426-3 (ANSI/API RP 10B-3) – deepwater wells ISO 10426-4 (ANSI/API RP 10B-4) . High Temperature.From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – – – – – – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A) .specification ISO 10426-2 (ANSI/API RP 10B-2) .

Technology Older Than a Century • First well cementing ~ 1903 – Perkins Oil Well Cementing Co. – Shovel/cement mixer • First use of an eductor – Jet mixer invented 1921 – “High pressure” mixing – In use till the 1970s • Still used by some • Gravity cement feed 11 Primary Cementing Objectives • Casing anchor (axial support) • Protection against corrosion and erosion • Support of borehole walls Hole Casing Cement Gas zone • Zonal isolation Oil zone 12 6 . Calif..

Unsuccessful Zonal Isolation NPV Interzonal fluid flow Risk to HSE ACP/SCP Remedial work Early water prodn Loss of prodn Loss of well 13 Cementing Process at Surface Cement Bulk Blend Dry Additives Dosing and Mixing Slurry Additives Water Well Pumping Homogenizing/ Control 14 7 .

0 + CEMENT SG .1.Handling Dry Cement • From cutting sacks to pneumatic handling – Storage – Transport – Blending • Typical problems – – – – Contamination Humidity (air) Deliverability Homogeneity • Fully automated blender 15 Control of Mixing SG .3.9 Density Control 16 8 .2 = SLURRY SG ~ 1.

extender.8 0.2 Pump Time time Pump  W/C ratio.4 0. weighting agent Gelation Gelation 0  Anti-settling agent  Fluid loss agent Free Fluid fluid Free Dehydration Dehydration  Retarder/accelerator Stability Stability 17 Cementing Additives Key Milestones • • • • • Lignosulphonates and cellulosics Sugars and superplasticizing agents (~ 1960s) Polyamine/imine ( ~1970s) SB Latex ( ~ 1980s) Co/ter-polymers AMPS (~ 1980s) – Temperature stability • Biopolymers (~ 1990s) – Not based on Xanthan gum • Environmentally friendly additives (end 1990s) – OSPAR (OSlo-PARis) convention 1998 18 9 .Cement Quality = Slurry Performance Density Density 1 EarlyStrength strength Early 0.6 Viscosity Viscosity  Dispersant / viscosifier 0.

horizontal & extended reach • More critical wells – Deepwater. high-pressure high-temperature • Importance for Zonal Isolation – Very difficult modeling – Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools not applicable • Eccentricity effects – Modeling ~ end 80s – Turbulent/Effective Laminar Flow – Rheology/Density contrast • Erodability / PDGM concept – Polymer muds • Numerical 2D Modeling (2002) • Lubrication analytical model (2003) 20 10 .Cementing Process Downhole • Failures identified 30-40s • Field practices – Turbulent displacement • High Reynolds ~50s • 10 min contact ~60s – SloFlo / Plug Flow ~70s • Fluid with yield stress • Displacement studies – Yield stress fluids ~end 60s – Mobility ratio/differential velocity ~70s – “Pump as fast as you can” – All semi-empirical • Very mixed results – Even in vertical wells V=0 DIRECTION OF FLOW V max V=0 19 Mud Removal Modeling • More complex wells – Deviated.

Cement Evaluation Logs • Sonic logs • Flexural Attenuation (2006) – CBL ~60s – Compensated CBL ~80s – Segmented Compensated – 1 + 3 sensors • Ultrasonic logs – 8 sensors ~80s – 1 rotating sensor ~90s • Limitation of cement logs – – – – Strength or Impedance ~80s Microannulus/Isolation??? Microdebonding ~mid-90 s Casing interface exclusively – Full cemented annulus width – 3rd interface – Differentiate lightweight cements from liquids – Confirm hydraulic isolation – Visualize casing in borehole 21 Alternative Isolation Techniques Other Fluids and Mechanical Means 22 11 .

Organic Resins • Very limited applications – – – – – – – Cost Shelf-life Sensitivity Health. mud…) Placement … 23 Mechanical Systems • Complementary to cement – Casing drilling. and environment Compatibility (water. expandable casing (EC) – Swellable elastomer layer • Exclusive of cement – EC/Casing with (oil or water) swellable packer – Another form of completion • May still require cement for most other casings 24 12 . safety.

stimulation Workovers and repairs Plugging and abandonment • Exploration and new developments – Isolation under higher pressure and temperature – Very narrow pore/frac pressures margin – In deeper water and at colder temperatures 26 13 .Today’s Well Challenges and Versatility of Cement 25 New Reservoir Isolation Challenges • Aging and depleting fields – – – – Completions at lower pressures Steam injection.

low permeability – Set cement • Very low strength.0 CEMENT SG .0 ?? What if density 1. high permeability.0? Solid Fraction Monitoring 28 14 .3.2 = Slurry Density .1. very long setting times 27 Slurry Quality Control? + SG .Need for Ultra-Low Density • Conventional Cement Slurries • High performance/high solid cements – Directly linked to W/C ratio – Slurry – Adapted from concrete industry – Same water/solid ratio at all densities • Very low rheology • Stability • From 900 to 2800 kg/m3 – Similar rheology – High strength.1.

T • Understanding failures casing Cement A – P or T increases – Drilling.Well Architecture and Logistics • Lighter isolation-quality cements – Depleted reservoirs – Single-stage cementing – Production liner instead of casing • Light cements that set faster at low temperatures – Deepwater conductors. surface casings… 29 Is Isolation Durable? Cement is strong. milling. repairs – P or T decreases rock cement • Modeling capability – Parameter sensitivity P. but fragile rock cement P.T rock cement casing casing Cement B 30 15 .

Isolation Made Durable • Controlled flexibility and expansion – Isolation maintained during P. T changes – From construction to abandonment 31 A Tool in Well Architecture Summary 32 16 .

8 0.2 Durability 0 Flexibility Permeability Shrinkage Bonding – Not only slurry performance – Set material properties – Short/long-term well requirements • Modeling tools – Fit-for-purpose.4 0. cost-effective system 34 17 .Cement in the Past • A necessary evil? • Commodity? 33 Cementing Today • Solutions portfolio Early strength 1 Toughness 0.6 Final strength 0.

Cementing Tomorrow: A Technology for the Future  Evolving cement industryhas evolved considerably • Oilwell cementing – Still considerable academic • Oilwell cementing will continue to quickly adapt research New cements from cement manufacturers – CO2–emissions – Important engineering – New tools from cementing service industry development • Physically active. chemically re-active or inert materials  Oilfield cementing • Processindustry design/simulation means – More tools in the toolbox – A true well engineering technology • Materials. simulators – •Adapt tomorrow’s well An tointeresting future requirements – A true well engineering technology 35 Thank you for your attention 36 18 .