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Reported By :

Ali Mohammed Alkebsi

46/2007

Contents

123456789-

Abstract

Introduction and Objectives

Method and Equipment

Theory

Procedure steps

Results and calculations

Discussion

Conclusion

References

..... 3

..... 4

..... 5

..... 7

..... 14

..... 15

..... 17

..... 25

..... 26

Abstract

estimations of the time required to discharge a certain amount is of great

importance to a mechanical engineer. It sheds the light on how much money is

going to be paid, how much power is needed, and how much time is required.

During this report a method that could be followed for such purposes is

introduced with a proper theory describing the process mathematically. At the

end a discussion of why errors might be present and their sources is presented

in different ways (graphs, tables, and formulas).

A tank containing water with an orifice on its vertical side and with its surface in

contact with the surrounding atmosphere will at some time be empty or the

water level will reach the bottom of the orifice because the water will seep or

discharge out. The shape and area of the orifice will decide how long it will take

the tank to be emptied. Also the shape and area of the tank as well as the

location of the orifice. Another factor is both the material of the tank and of the

fluid as they affect the viscosity along with the effects of temperature. The

objective of this experiment is to find three theoretical coefficients that relates

the factors mentioned above to our needs. These objectives (coefficients) are:

To find the coefficient of velocity for a small orifice.

To find the coefficient of discharge for a small orifice.

To find the coefficient of contraction for a .................

Method:

4

By implementing Bernoullis equation to a tank - with constant head having an orifice of known diameter and tracing the jetting water

trajectory; locating two points along the path.

Then collecting an amount of the jetting fluid water by a volumetric tube

during a period of time set by a stopwatch, thus attaining the flow rate.

Next we consider the case of zero inflow in which the head changes with

time, applying the conservation of mass law to deduce a formula

connecting the time, (timed by a stopwatch) a certain amount of fluid

(collected by a tube) takes to spurt out of the tank or to decrease the level

in the tank from an initial level

ho

to a final level

h2

Equipment:

The F1-10 Hydraulic Bench, and the F1-17a Orifice Discharge.

A volumetric tube and a stopwatch are needed to find the flow rate.

The F1-17a Orifice Discharge device consists mainly of a cylindrical

tank with a small orifice near the bottom of the tank. There is an

adjustable overflow pipe near the top of the tank through which the level

of water in the tank can be perfectly maintained. There are two inlet

hoses one connected to the overflow pipe and the other to the tank,

through which the tank is filled and supplied with water. The tank is

mounted on a frame F1-10 along with a recording system that is used

to measure the jet of water produced from the orifice when in use. The

recording system consists of a clipboard and adjustable pointers. The

pointers can be adjusted in height to correspond with the arc of the

water jet. Paper can be mounted against the clipboard and the position

of the tips of the pointers can be recorded on the paper.

Theory

under ideal conditions that is:

neglecting the effects of: air drag, and rotation of fluid particles, which is equal

to the gravity acceleration given as:

y =g

y =+ c 1

y =g

t

y=g + c 1 t+ c 2

2

y =0

t = 0,

At

c 1=0

c 2=0

and

y=0,

we get:

. Thus

y=g

t

2

with initial

x=v o tcos=v o t

y=g

t2

2

=0

for the

x-direction

for the

y-

direction

( x 2 , y 2)

y=

g x

2 vo

get:

( )

-----------------Eqn(1)

If a tank is partially filled with water at a level h, measured from the surface to

the axis of the vertical orifice with the surface in contact with the atmosphere,

that is a surface subjected to atmospheric pressure, then the fluid will be

discharged from the orifice with a velocity that can be related to both the head

h, of the water and to the gravity g, using the Bernoullis formula as follows:

v 21

p1 v 22

p

+z1 +

= +z2 + 2

2g

g 2g

g

-----------------Eqn(2.a)

v 1=0

v 21

2g

0.

z 1z 2=h

p1= p2

.

as both the points are under atmospheric pressure.

v 22

0+h=

2g

which yields:

v 2= 2 gh

d

d

B syst )=

(

dt

dt

( )

dV +( A)out ( A)

cv

where:

=

dB

dm

is the intensive value or the amount of B per unit mass in any small

If, we apply the Reynolds transport theorem to the first law of thermodynamics

the dummy variable B taken as the energy E and after many manipulations

and assumptions neglecting many terms, we would finally arrive to a formula

that looks so much like Bernoullis equation and after we add a factor

8

called

can be calculated from the following formula:

=

1

u 3

dA

A

avg

( )

The formula at which we would arrive is

1

v 21

p1

v 22

p2

+ z 1+

= 2

+ z 2+

2g

g

2g

g

-----------------Eqn(2.b)

H= 2

v 22

p

+ z2 + 2

2g

g

p2=0

h=z2 z1=H

Which is also called Corioli coefficient is equal to one for the small area

There is no friction loss between the axis section and the section at the vena

contract therefore only minor loss may occur due to conversion of potential

energy of liquid in the vessel into kinetic. Thus

v 22

h =

2g

like:

v 22

H= (1+ )

2g

Solving for v 2

v 2=

we get:

1

2 gH

1+

Let us denote

cv=

1

1+

v actual =c v (v 2)of Eqn1

v actual

-----------------Eqn(3)

y=

2

g

x

x2

=

2

2 c v 2 gh

4 cv h

cv=

x

2 yh

-----------------Eqn(4)

If we have the location of two points along the parabola described in Eqn(4) and

like that in the figure we can find c v from the following expression:

cv=

x 2x 1

2 h ( y 2 y 1 )

Unfortunately we did not measure the height of the first point during the

experiment processing. Rather, what was measured is the difference in the

heights of the points that is y , thus

because it is

somewhat at the same height of the orifices axis, and the formula will look like

this:

cv=

x

2 yh

cv

simplification means this value will be overlooked during the calculations but,

at the end of this report a predicted limiting value for this deviation will be

presented in the error analysis in the discussion section.

10

Attention to be drawn to the fact, that velocity does not depend on the

dimensions of the orifice.

cv

only.

Flow rate may be expressed as:

Q= A c v

Cross section of the flow at vena contracts

Ac

A c =cc A

Where

cc

Q=cc A c v 2 gh

If we put c c c v =c d

cd=

Q

A 2 gh

cc=

cd

cv

we will get:

cc

cv

and

cd

depend on

the inertial forces and viscous forces present at the section or the point of

interest, in earthly words they are dependent on the Reynolds number.

Relationship of these coefficients with Re for small round orifice, in vertical wall

of the reservoir far from bottom and other walls is shown on this figure.

11

If there was no inflow to the tank the level surface of the fluid discharging from

an orifice will descent with time. Appling conservation of mass to a control

volume yields:

m

i m

o= m

cv

But

d mo

=v A c

dt

with

m

i=0

m

o=m

cv

mcv=h A tank

12

c d A orifice 2 gh=

Thus

d

( h A tank )

dt

d

=0

dt

we will get:

A2tank

( )

dt=

2

o

h h2

t= o

c d g /2

cd

dh

c d 2 gh

A 2tank

( )

h h2

= o

t g/2

A tank =

=constant

A 2o

solving for c d

A 2tank

( )

A 2o

V gathered

h

13

then

Procedure Steps

For constant head

2- Move the overflow handle to sustain a constant head.

3- Record the constant head h from the scale.

4- Spot and record the difference in height and horizontal locations of two

points along the trajectory of the jet using the adjustable pointers.

5- Move the scaled tube to collect the streaming jet starting the stopwatch at

the same time for a certain period say 30s.

6- Record the volume of the water collected during that time.

7- Repeat steps 2 to 6 for four other different heads h.

8- Note any present factor that could affect the results other than those

mentioned.

1. After initiating the flow and adjusting, raising the overflow handle to

maximum, fill the tank to the overflow level and turn off the inlet (using

the knob on the bench).

2. Start the stopwatch when the water level reaches a convenient initial head

ho

.

3. Stop it when the water level reaches a convenient final head h2 .

4. Record the time taken along with the chosen convenient values of

h2

ho

and

.

5. Repeat the steps 1 to 4 many times with other heads.

6. During one of the measurements collect the water discharged with the

volumetric tube to obtain the area of the tank.

For constant head

14

h mm

371

351

330

310

290

cv=

mm

250

250

250

250

250

mm

56

63

67

73

77

x

2 yh

Q=

V ml

370

405

385

365

355

V

t

cv

Q cm3

12.4161

1

13.3399

2

12.6811

6

0.8672195

2

0.8405937

95

0.8406508

22

0.8309363

08

0.8364994

34

d=3m

m

3 10 m

cd =

Q 106

A 2 gh 103

cc=

cd

cv

12.0901

11.7045

8

2

A= d =

4

t sec

29.8

30.36

30.36

30.19

30.33

7.06858E-06

m2

cd

cc

0.6510534

02

0.7191472

19

0.7050502

97

0.6935328

11

0.6941847

0.75073

7

0.85552

3

0.83869

6

0.83464

0.82986

15

22

16

h1

mm

400

360

320

400

400

380

360

340

320

h2

mm

360

320

280

300

280

360

340

320

300

Do =

3mm

Ao =

7.06858E-06

m2

A tank

=

34.5

cm 2

t sec

9.33

10.72

h

11.03

28.5

0.04

32.02

5.2

5.47

5.66

5.901

Vml

138

Cd

0.766

61

0.705

425

0.729

966

0.655

201

0.710

998

0.696

791

0.681

068

0.677

866

0.670

837

17

Discussion

h mm

1. Coefficient of velocity.

Apparently

cv

371

fig( ). A larger h produces higher v thus bigger Re.

The last point seems to be out of its predicted

range.

351

330

310

290

cv

0.867219

52

0.840593

795

0.840650

822

0.830936

308

0.836499

434

Cv

vs

0.88

0.87

0.86

0.85

coefficient of velocity

0.84

0.83

0.82

0.81

280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380

head

18

cv

Error analysis of

u x , u y ,uh

assumed

x , y ,h

uc =

v

2

2

cv

cv

cv

. u x +

. u y +

.u

x

y

h h

) (

)(

if we divide by c v we get:

uc

=

cv

v

cv

cv

cv

x

y

h

.u x +

. u y +

.u h

cv

cv

cv

cv

x

1

=

cv

x

)(

)( )

cv

y

1

=

cv

2 y

cv

h 1

=

cv

2h

Thus

uc

=

cv

v

u x 2 u y 2 u h

+

+

x

2 y

2h

)( )( )

It is apparent that the smaller the head h, the higher is the error

resulted, which is the reason of the absurd reading at h=290mm.

Also it is important to mention that the smaller the head h, the higher

error in reading

y2= y ). Thus again low h greatly amplifies the error propagated to the

results.

Our simplification in the theory section of (y 1=0, y2= y ) could be

reasoned with if we take

u x

(x1,y1) to the section of the vena contract or more easily, to the orifice.

19

cv

as

calculated below:

u x =4.7 cm

u y =0.05 cm

uh=0.05 cm

c vavg=0.84485

y avg =6.475 cm

x avg=25 cm

havg =34.05 cm

Thus

uc

=0.188

cv

v

and thus

uc =0.16

v

simplifications made in the theory section.

For four points of calculations the deviation of the mean is:

u^ c =

v

uc

=0.08

c v =c vavg+ u^ c =0.925

v

20

will be:

2. Coefficient of discharge.

Apparently

cd

the effect is reversed that is

cd

increase with

).

h mm

371

351

330

310

290

cd

0.651053402

0.719147219

0.705050297

0.693532811

0.694184722

One point seeming odd is the last point in the which the results are

absurd. It will be discussed in the error analysis following.

cd

vs

0.74

0.72

0.7

0.68

coefficient of discharge

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.6

270

290

310

330

head

21

350

370

390

cd

Error analysis of

u x , u y ,uh

assumed

t , V ,h

uc =

d

2

2

cd

cd

cd

. ut +

.u y +

.u

t

V

h h

)(

)(

if we divide by c d we get:

uc

=

cd

d

2

2

cd

cd

cd

t

V

h

. ut +

. uV +

.u h

cd

cd

cd

)( )( )

cd

V 1

=

cd

V

cd

t 1

=

cd

t

cd

h 1

=

cd

2h

Thus

uc

=

cd

d

( ) (

ut 2 u V 2 uh

+

+

t

V

2h

)( )

Thus it is again apparent that the lower the head the more the error is

amplified.

Thus after neglecting the final point as it greatly deviates from the

other values the error is calculated as follows:

Human mind response in about 0.7s thus ut will be assumed to equal

0.7 2 s=1 s

ut =1 s

22

uV =5 2 ml=7.07 ml , which came from 5ml for scale uncertainty and 5ml

uh=0.05 cm

c davg =0.6922

, as mentioned before

,

V avg=381.25 ml

t avg=30.1775 s

uc

=0.038thus uc =0.026

cd

d

c dmean

c dmean =0.6922 0.026

23

3. Coefficient of contraction.

The resulting graph is really unpredictable as it is not

like that predicted in the theory section

h mm

371

same principles as those theorized in the theory section

which is:

351

330

310

c c when h when

290

due to propagation in error.

cc

0.75073

7

0.85552

3

0.83869

6

0.83464

0.82986

9

and only errors in t , x , y ,V

increases the value of c v

because it

Thus true c c is definitely smaller than the one acquired by our experiment.

c cave =0.88

Cc

vs

0.88

0.86

0.84

0.82

0.8

coefficient of contraction

0.78

0.76

0.74

0.72

0.7

0.68

280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380

head

24

4.

Cd

seems to

h2

0.4

0.36

0.04

0.36

0.32

0.04

0.32

0.28

0.04

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.4

0.28

0.12

0.38

0.36

0.02

0.36

0.34

0.02

0.34

0.32

0.02

0.32

0.3

0.02

theorized pattern.

It shows some

head as apparent

h1

Cd

0.766

61

0.705

425

0.729

966

0.655

201

0.710

998

0.696

791

0.681

068

0.677

866

0.670

837

for the last four values

as h thus C d tends

0.78

0.76

0.74

0.72

0.7

0.68

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.6

0.58

1

C d ,ave

=

0.6994

18

25

26

Conclusion

C d ,C v , and C c greatly depend on the inertial and viscous forces, in other words

depend on the section of the orifice or nozzle or the pipe under consideration or

Re, Reynolds number.

C d ,C v , and C c

set as = 0.05;

Cv

= 0.97;

Cc

= 0.64 and

Cd

= 0.62.

c v =0.925

c d =0.6922

c d =0.69942

c c =0.82

Some of these value ( c v , c d ) are somewhat close to the expected values and

some others ( c c ) are unacceptable.

Errors are greatly human errors from the calibration to the readings recording.

Another great source of error is that we only used two pointers two locate only

two points along the trajectory, if only more points were located, our results

could have been more confident than those usually used.

27

References

McGraw-Hill

2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

28

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