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~UST-IN--TI~ (JI~) PRODOCY~$OM

PROCESS U N R E L I A E I L I ~ Y

Menberu Lulu
University of South Florida

ABSTRACT.
T h e effects of process unreliab{,l,~ty on the p e r f o r m a n c e of a simulation m o d e ~ of a Just-in-Time Production and M a n u f a c t u r i n g System (J!TMPS) is investigated.
In a m u l t i - c o m p o n e n t - f a b r i c a t i o n and product-assembly environment,
a relatively lowe~ ]~e~e~ of fabrication process unreliability results in a pronou~ced level of lowered s y ~ e ~ utilization.
Work-in-Process inventory-induced
gains in p~o.d~tion rates in ~he: J I ~ P S a~re ~ t a s
si~mi~_~a~ a~ ma~ee~~.is-io~ed~ i~ ~r~dit/uD~al p r o d ~ c t i ~ s y s t e m s that e s ~ e m ~ - ~ e ~ r a ~ e ~ d e r
"~as~

INTRODUCTION
The o~erational objective of the Just-in-Time M ~ a c ~ [ i ~
System

[3~T~P~] ! ~s to pr~d~c~ the k ~ d

Pr~l~ction

of units n~ee~ed, at the ti~e needed

Hu:st-in-Time (JIT)], and in the quantities needed.


d%ep~

a~

This production system is

Kooted' i~ Western concepts of quality improvement t e c h n i q u e ~ ~ r a ~ n

Denning - USA)

and in systems-based

prod~ction--cellular manufacturing

(Group TechnoIogy)
(most notably:

[i.e.

and

rat~o.al~zation of batch

Kaling - Sweden, Mirofanov -

U S S ~ and, O~itz - Germany).


~he ~ITMPS employs the "PuIl System" of p r o d ~ c t i o m contr~I that ~as i~%egzated

~mporta~

functions of the production control system with that of the

manufacturing system.

Quality control,

inventory control and s h o r t - % ~ r ~ produc-

tion control have traditionally been staff functio,s.


new line functions.

The p n e d ~ t ~

F~K the J[TMP$,

these are

worker's ~ob is enlarged to include respon-

s~bil%ty for ~roduct quality assurance.

The line foreman's ~ob ~s emIar~ed to

include inve~tor~ cmntrol and short-term production p l ~ n i n g

a~

c~erol.

The

JITMPS management approach and the cellular structure of ~ts manufacturing systems haue generated new forms of worker organization,

such as "Quality Circles"

that h a v e led tD~ inm~vations in product design, machine d e s i g n e ~


provements

[5].

AnnualSimulation Symposinm/~
2'3T

q~sality im-

238

LULU
In the "Pull System" of production control,

the final assembly goes to the

preceding process to obtain the necessary parts, at the necessary time,


specific product assembly.
to replace)

This signals the preceding process to produce

the parts withdrawn by the following process.

these parts,

for a
(i.e.,

For the production of

the preceding process obtains the necessary parts from the process

further preceding

it.

The Kanban system is a manual

(nonautomated)

implementa-

tion of the "pul ! system" of production control.


A Kanban is a card usually put in a rectangular vinyl sack and attached to a
part container
Kanban"

(cart).

The two primary kinds of Kanbans are the "Conveyance

that is utilized by a succeeding process to withdraw parts from a preced-

ing process, and the "Production Kanban" that is utilized to order production of
the portion withdrawn by the succeeding process.
detailed explanation of the Kanban system.

See references

[3,5,7]

for

Using Kanbans between all the

processes links the activities of the final process to the remaining preceding
processes.

This chain-linking

Kimura and Terada

is the m e c h a n i s m for synchronizing JIT production.

[2] utilized simulation to show that demand

the final production stage does not induce amplification


tory levels in preceding production stages.

fluctuation at

in production and inven-

The level of fluctuation

the preceding n-i production stages equals that of the last stage.

in each of

Kim

[i]

analyzed an operating policy for JIT production called Periodic Pull System
(PPS).

The essence of PPS is to review the status of material

production stages at regular


material

intervals.

Consequently,

flow at all

only the exact amount of

that has been consumed at a succeeding stage since the last review time

is allowed to be Withdrawn.
processing of information

PPS reduces production lead time by replacing manual

(Kanbans) with computer

information processing.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
In a Kanban-linked JITMPS, when a breakdown occurs at a preceding cell
(process),
cell

the conveyance of work parts to the input stock point of a succeeding

is delayed due to lack of work parts.

is starved and production halts.

As a consequence,

Furthermore,

eventually halt due to subsequent starving.

the succeeding cell

all the d o w n s t r e a m processes

Similarly,

a breakdown at a succeed-

ing stage delays movement of conveyance Kanbans to the output stock point of a
preceding cell.
ing cell.

This,

in turn, delays production Kanban movement

The net result is that the preceding cell

in the preced-

is prevented from further

Annual Simulation Symposium

JUST-IN-TIME

production

due to blocking

conveyance

Kanban movements

responding

absence

processes

production

higher

stages

production

Instead

[6].

of adding

deliberately

irregularity.
managers

continually

perfecting

is that WIP

inventory

This paper

utilization

buffer

their

stocks

correct

guo;

problems

stage)

absence

induce a cor-

buffer

in higher

the causes

or rather,

WIP

thesis

of

JIT production
of production
irregularity,
to settle

becomes

the

into a

one of

for such an approach

which can cause production


the impact of process

on the JITMPS model

is caused by

inventory.

allowed

the pattern

The

between

the maintenance

of a recent

are never

stocks

that

of irregularity,

process.

cycle

of

all the upstream

guarantees

results

The workers

and average product

Hence,

irregularity

approach

on investigating

(production

will

force to the consequences

the production
hides

processes

239

production.

at points

the work

of the status

focuses

The eventual

production

it nevertheless

inventory.

pattern

single process

While

Each time workers

comfortable

cell.

have a policy of inserting

against

expose

remove more

UNRELIABILITY

Kanban movements.

managers

rates,

PROCESS

the upstream

from further

to protect

unreliability

managers

between

of production

production

AND

by the succeeding

will be prevented

Western

process

PRODUCTION

irregularity.
unreliability

performance.

of a

System

time are used

as measures

of system

JITMPS model

(see Figure

i) constitutes

performance.

SIMULATION

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Structure
The structure
microcosm
assembly

of the hypothetical

of a manufacturing
cell.

and one Output

Within
Stock

ing to be processed
are waiting
control

cell.

Point

to be conveyed

process.

inventories

(OSP).

for the assembly

assembly cell has a one-to-one


that the assembly

Kanbans

(CKs)

stages

that

link all

correspondence

are directly

part

Production

control
cell

cells

Stock

and an

Point

(ISP)

that are wait-

inventories
Kanbans

that

(PKs)

from an ISP to its cor-

and

facilitate

the m o v e m e n t

to the ISP of a succeeding

the cells of the JITMPS.

processes

is isomorphic;

Input

inventories

inventories

than one machine.


cell

part

cell.

of part

of the fabrication

more

is one

The OSP holds processed

from the OSP of a preceding

representation

of two fabriction

there

The ISP holds

the movement

Conveyance

process may constitute


framework

cell

to the succeeding

The CKs act as conveyors

The model

It consists

fabrication

in the cell.

and facilitate

responding
of part

each

system.

is homomorphic;

On the other hand,


i.e.,

with the hypothetical

Annual Simulation Symposium

each

the modeling

the three-stage

linked.

i.e.,

(Si,

$2, $3)

JITMPS.

Note

240

LULU

RMSP

ISPI

OSPI

~fiP2'

FABRICATION CELL

OSP2

FABRICATION CELL
...............................

PRODUCTION, SCHEDULE
:'............................................i

,~.....

A~'A

-L-

PRODUCT
'
Ii

I
ISP

.I

ASSE~BLY CELL

-I

{....................................................

sl, $2, $3
~-~-~4h.
~ : ~
__ . ~
~
ItMSP
ISP
OS9

The

system

component
2.

A product

and four
%
at S3.

CONVEYANCE KANBANS
PRODUCTION KANBANS
WORKPIECE FLOW
SUBASSEMBLY FLOW
RAW MATERIAL STOCK POINT
I~IPUT ZTQCK POINT
OUTP.U~STOCK ~OINT

produces

types,

identified

Component

Figure i.

Schematic of the Simulation Model

product

that

one

is a s s e m b l e d

of

ASSEMBLY ST/LC~ES

as

A,

from

Type

one

C.

and
of

is

is a s s e m b l e d

C,

that

are

Component

added

at

three

fabricated

Type

SI~ ~

from

A,

is

different

in C e l l

i and

two

of

Component

added

at

$2,

and

Cell

Type
C

:B,

is a d d e d

Operation
As

is

the

facility

that

schedule

is

unctiom

for

For
tions

When

is

with

the

at

is

S3,

entire

assembly
be

"pull

scheduled

received

an

must

case

the

the

production

last

assembly

Kanhas

system

control,
state

ca{xies

the

(S3).
out

only

Once

the

prod~uction

a production

production

control

system.

operation

to c o m m e n c e

at

any

stage,

the

following

two

condi-

met.

I)

A finished

subassembly

2)

Parts

must

be

added

on

these

system"

two

must

available,

a preceding

in a s s e m b l y

to a s u b a s s e m b l y

conditions

be at

from

are met,

assembly

requirement

a precedi,g

assembly

stage.

quantity~

ready

to

be

stage.

operation

commences

at

a succeedLng

stage.
Since
tially,

aa

a product
assembly

a fabrication

rate

unit t i m e .

The

fabriction

times

units

of

requires
rate

of

one

of

one

unit

corresponding

Component

for
C.

one
In

the

unit
this

three

unit
of

A,

assembly
of

part

of

product

two

units

cycle

Component

study,

types

A,

that

per

are

fabricated

unit

time

mnst
units

of

B,

and

four

time

is

set

to b e

two

units

Work-in-Process

the

correspond
of

C,

per

sum

of

the

of Component

(WIP)

inventory

Annual Simulation Symposium

sequen-

B~

&o

ar~/] ~ a u r

is m e a s u r e d

JUST-IN-TIME

i~ A s s e m b l y
unit

Units

of p r ~ . u c t ;

(AU) .

PRODUCTION

One

a Kanban-linked

JITMPS

of p r o d u c t

will

not f u n c t i o n

of p r o d u c t

at each

each

inventory

Failure
(Figure

model,

part
WIP

inventory

of a m i n i m u m

corresponding

level.

statement

level W I P
to a s i n g l e

The K a n b a n

system

This minimum

U I T M P S ~structure.

inventories

is p u l l e d

To b e o p e r a t i o n a l ,

at e a c h s t o c k p o i n t .

component

stock point

inventory

inventory.

inventories

the f o l l o w i n g

with

model,

of A,

Hence,

inven-

with

is a p p r o p r i a t e .

corresponding

is a ~ z e r o - i n v e n t o r y Dr m i n i m u m

stock

zero
Types

two u n i t s

point.

"Zero

to one

(I)

inventory

inventory

corresponds to

A, B and C, w i t h

of B and

four

inventory"

units

probability

i) are set

is 36 m i n u t e s

parameters

to zero.

of C,

of part

with

of

inven-

respectively,

at

"lotless

(one p r o d u c t

~he
cycle

Process

2, f a i l u r e

c:ell d o w n t i m e
time).

1 and a s s e m b l y ~ t a g e s

(Td)

of a c o m p o n e n t .
per

assembly

Td

= 36 min.

per

failure,

WIP

inventory

failures

and WIP

conEigur~tio~

representing

inventory

was run

2 render

were

15,

yielded

an a v e r a g e

constitutes

a two-factor

failure

fa:~lure o c c u r s

unit

15,

30)

AU

mode'l ~toch~s~kc~.

combinations

~n~

of levels

replicated ~

of 7 2 <Observations.

factorial

each

~A t ~ t a l

design.

Thus

Each m o d e l

t~ime~..

~adh

the e x p e r i m e n t a l

The ~WIP i n v e n t o r y

Annual Simulation Sympos/mm

factor

of

of process

in the simulat~ion e x p e r i m e n t .

500Z simulated, m i n u t e s

replication

10,

the J I T M P S

specific

used

dbat ~ r o c e s

(p) of ~.i,

0.3)

:= (0, 5, 10,

of P r o c e s s

configurations

0.2,

with

S2 and

Specifically,

= 36 min.

(0.1,

Si,

probabilities

associated

It is a s s u m e d

P r o c e s s :cycle t i m e

reliability

a capacity

is s y n o n y m o u s

for P r o c e s s

For

o n l y once .duling the f a b r i c a t i o n

Random

the al~location

of M o d e l ~a~ramete~s

and 0 . 3 are cons~i~ered~..

27 m o d e l

upstream

[5].

Specification

0.2

line,

inventory

for c o m p o n e n t

of one unit

production"

~3

(i)

system.

three c a r t s

each

control,

by d o w n s t r e a m

the m i n i m u m

JITMPS

In the h y p o t h e t i c a l

tories

'for one

of p r o d u c t .

of the K a n b a n - L i ~ k e d

te the h y p o t h e t i c a l

production

requirements

a sys~tem-wide a l l o c a t i o n

product

without WIP

A Kanhan-linked
unit

processes

constitute

is an e l e m e n t

.one unit

of p r o d u c t i o n

requires

In a s i n g l e

unit

regard

system

the m a n u f a c t u r i n g

tory level

to p a r t

241

i.e.,

In the K a n b a n

inventory.

PROOE~iUNREL~A~ILIT~

(i) AU c o r r e p o n d s

1 AU E iA + 2B + ~C~E

through

AND

design

is at s e v e n

242

LULU

levels

(0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25,

levels

(0.9,

0.8,

0.7)

per 36-minute

1 utilization

(pl),

b)

Cell

3 utilization

(p3),

c)

Product

cycle

EXPERIMENTAL

EFFECT OF WIP

INVENTORY

1 reveals

When

inventory

For WIP
unchanged

tests)

on the analysis
Model

showed

used are:

adequacy

of variance
checks

that the residuals

(fixed ef-

(normal p r o b a b i l i t y

are normally dis-

variance.

LEVEL ON AVERAGE

that,

of WIP

the WIP

Performance measures

AND ANALYSES

ing function

remains

are based

zero and common

RESULTS

is at three

(Tc).

- two-way classification).

with mean

minutes.

time

analyses

and h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y

Table

cycle.

Cell

fects model

tributed

and the reliability factor

a)

The statistical

plots

30 AOs)

for a given

inventory.
level

inventory

is lowered

the curve

of WIP

problems

that are effectively

15 AU

The jumps

can be equated
hidden

(20,

25,

Table

(see Figure

from 72.65

30),

2).

to 78.95

the value of T

in T c that are associated

to the exposing

by WIP

T c is a nonincreas-

for R = 0.8

to 15 AU, T c jumps

levels beyond

lowering

TIME

level of reliability,

Consider

at 72.65 minutes.

inventory

PRODUCT CYCLE

of process

with

reliability

inventory.

Product Cycle Time in Minutes


Work-In-Process
Reliability

stochastic
justified

30

36

36

36

60.94

57.14

57.14

57.14

57.14

57.14 57.14

84.70

78.95

78.95

72.65

72.65

72.65 72.65

I[05.59 I00.~i

93.46

93.46

87.48

87.48 87.48

R = 0.9
R = 0.8

in T c from 36 minutes

of the component
processes

25

36

from 1.0 to 0.8 may surprise


amination

20

15

36

36

increase

i0

Inventory

36

R = 1.0

R = 0.7

The large

the reader.

requirement

that result

the corresponding

large

to 84.70 minutes

However,

for assembly

from failure
increase

as discussed

as R is lowered
below,

in conjunction

probability

in product

with

an exthe

of 0.2 for Process

cycle

time,

Annual Simulation Symposium

the

T c.

2,

JUST-IN-TIME

PRODUCTION

AND PROCESS

UNRELIABILITY

105.59

I00.01

93.46
I R = 0.7

87.48

85.56
84.70

%
78.95
E

Rffi0.8

72.65

60.94 -.
R = 0.9
57.14

Ideal T

R=

1.0

36.0
O. 0---[0

WIP Inventory in A s s e m b l y Units


Figure

2 .

Effect of Process Reliability and WIP Inventory


on Product Cycle Time

Annual Simulation Symposium


,/

243

244

LULU

To a s s e m b l e
fabricate

seven. (7,)~ eom~pD~nents': -

and 4 units
during

one-.uni~t of "product

of C o m p o n e n t

component

C,

eveny, 366 m~ute~s~,, t h e ~preced-i~ng c e l l s

1 un~.t off Chmpor~ent ~A., 2 ~units of~ Cbmpen'ent

in:.exac~l~y 36 minutes..

fab~rica~i~n;, ~the a c ~ u a ~

components

tion

cyc'le ~t~mes

process

w o u l d .result

x process~ failures
components

and

the

fabricat'ion

(7-x)

process

can be cacula~ed,

Table
of

lerrg~hening

Basedi on t h e

off a component~,

~fai'lures

and

correspo'nding

of a c t u a l

assumption

-fabrica-

of o n e

:fabribs~ti~)n o f
distribut.ibn,

the- sev.en~
i.e.,

fa~ilu~es)

a:s:s_ocia.t~d: .wi~t~~ t h e , o c c u r r e n c e s '

act~a-l" f~br!i~e~tion

Table
Eail.uKe D i s t r i b u t i o n

is len~the%ne~ ,13,y.

t h e :pr.o'b~ab~:li1~y o f . e a a c t l y

~ne'nfailures d u r i n g

2_ gi~ve, s ~ne ,theoz.,et-kca.,l: ~'is~n$~u.~ci~on

pzocess

2_ 9aiil,s o n c e

cy~clie~ t i m e

(~m~.d~l:e~]),b Z rising .binomial

P ,(off e.xaCtly~ x m a c h i n e

f_ai,lu~..u~during '~.ro-d,uc.cri~n,o ~ - t h e s e

in a co~Tre.sponding

by 76..,..I~12, e tc%. minutTes~.,

failu.r~e~dhring

.If R r o c e s ~

f~l~i~a~tion

36 m/ilnu~s~ (~T[d))., Two,, ~t~ree,, etc..., ~process


seven

must

cycle

times

in

Cell

2.

and Corresponding

-4

!5

-6

P'(N = x)
I

__

36 1

TF

The

resul~ting avemage
E [ T F]

Note
and
0).,

the

256 I, 292

= 88.84.

the c l o s e n e s s : of t h e

88.84-minu,d~

84!.30~mi~nute .empi~rilcal produc.~_ c y c l e

average

theoretical

fabr:i~ation

,t;/Tme (:see T a b l e

seeming~l,~ , ~n~Idina~ce

_Z,~ ~R =

cycle

time

0.8, W I P

i~.n,crease, thi-s ~er~:~.a~ti.on .(of

fahr;ication ,cycle ~t:ime .fox ~Pzseess [~)~ i:l~ik~s~t.r~a~es~a, ~e~y~ ~i~mportant K a n b a n


function.

failure

free,

can

Cell

dictated
Two

by

(fabrication
under

the

.s~st.~m i m p o s e s

cell)

and

theoretical

Cell
cycle

(assembly

,time o ~

ce'll)~, b e i n s

3~ m i n u t e s

.-a~c~e~e~ ~i~Ime-.Of:~ . 7 1 f l b ,mi~r~u,t~s. s y s t e m

t h e .slowes~t J~ITMP.S c e l l .

aspects

JITMPS

operate

However,. t h e K a n D a n

the

II'~ ~ 148',! 18~ ~ 2 2 0

fabriica%i~owcye%/e-.t~ime, l.s.:.

Besi~]es_ verii~yi!~ ~ h e

system

76

o~ the p r a c t i c a T

limit

of WIP-ir~%aced

T c reducti;ons

are:

Annual Simulation Symposium

in

per
w~de,

AU.
as

3UST-IN-TIME
1.

For a given
beyond
in T

2.

!eve1 of reliability,

a certain

level does

R, i n c r e a s i n g

not result

245

UNRELIABILITY
the W I P

inventory

in c o r r e s p o n d i n g

decreases

For two different


corresponding

These observed

levels

average

jecting more WIP

tion control.

AND P R O C E S S

PRODUCTION

product

inventory

cycle

RELIABILITY

The utilization

factors

induced by various

inventory.

Figure

3 is

the g a p b e t w e e n

times

be c l o s e d

cannot

by in-

a r e d u e to " p u l l s y s t e m "

is f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d

AND WIP

in T a b l e

utilization

reliability,

i n t o the s y s t e m .

system characteristics

This phenomenon

EFFECTS OF PROCESS

of process

INVENTORY
3 reflect

l e v e l s of p r o c e s s

corresponding

produc-

in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n .

ON S Y S T E M U T I L I Z A T I O N
actual

differences

reliability

i.

p l o t of the d a t a

in cell

(Process
Table

3.

2) and W I P

Table 3
Cell Utilization Factors

10

15

20

25

30

Cell 1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

I.Q

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

i.0

1.0

Cell 1

.60

.60

.60

.60

.60

.60

.60

.60

.62

.62

.62

.62

.62

.62

Cell 1

.42

.42

.42

.42

.42

.42

.42

Cell 3

.42

.45

.45

.47

.50

.50

.50

Cell

.34

.34

.34

34

.34

34

.34

Cell

.34

.35

.38

40

.42

WIP Inventory +

R=

1.0
Cell

R=0.9
Cell

R=0.8

R=

The

following

I.

Cell

JITMPS model behavior

utilization

A 10% d e c r e a s e

decreases

in R c a u s e s

Utilization

.40

.40

are r e v e a l e d :

rapidly

as the r e l i a b i l i t y

a 40% d e c r e a s e

R = I.@ and R = 0.9 a n d ~ A ~


2.

'

0.7

level d e c r e a s e s .

in u t i l i z a t i o n

-- r e f e r

to

(Table 3).

of C e l l

I is i n d e p e n d e n t

factors

for C e l l

of the W I F

inventory

level

in the

system.
3.

Utilization
increases.

A 23.5%

increasing

WIP

increase

inventory

3 improve

somewhat

in u t i l i z a t i o n

by 600%

(0 to 30)

as W I P

{34 to 42)
-- r e f e r

(Table 3).

Annual Simulation Symposisma


~ e ~ & ~

oi~:

inventory
is o b t a i n e d

to R = 0.7,

by

Cell

246

LULU

R=I.0

1.0

Cell 3
KEY:
Cell I

o
Iq
-4
-,~

R=0.9

R_ = 0_.9_

0;60

0.50
0.47
0.45

R = 0.8~

R=0.8

----_

0.42
0.40

R=0.71

0.38
[

0.34

R=

0.7

0.0

Figure

3.

1"0

15

20

2'5

30

Effect of WIP Inventory and Process Reliability


on Cell(s) Utilization

Annual Simulation Symposium

J U S T - I N - T I M E P R O D U C T I O N AND P R O C E S S U N R E L I A B I L I T Y

247

Item 1 is a general verification of the effect of decreased process


reliability on system downtime.

As process reliability decreases,

total cell

downtime increases, thus causing lower cell utilization.


Item 2, however,

illustrates a corollary of the central essence of "pull

system" production control.

Process 2 failure and downtime

(Td) delay conveyance

Kanban movement to the output stock point of Cell 1 (OSPi).


responding production Kanban movement to Cell 1 is delayed,
1 from further production.

Cell

1 utilization factors

sitive to WIP inventory increases.

In turn, the corthus, preventing Cell

(see Figure 2) are insen-

Therefore, given a succeeding cell that is

subject to random failures, the production rate in a preceding cell depends on


production Kanban availability, not on input WIP inventory availability.
Item 3 points out that WIP inventory has a different effect on the utilization of Cell 3.

Upon arrival of a conveyance Kanban at the output stock point of

Cell 2 (OSP2), components are moved to the input stock point of the assembly cell
(ISPA). Simultaneously, a corresponding production Kanban is dispatched
Process 2.

to

If Process 2 is down, subsequent production Kanbans are queued at the

input stock point of Cell 2(ISP2).

Thus, as long as components are available at

ISPA, the assembly cell production continues.


pendent decreases

in product cycle time

Therefore,

the observed WIP de-

(Section 3.1, Figure I) are due to

increases in the production rate of the assembly cell.


observation of WIP inventory and process reliability,

Based on that empirical


the following

inference is

presented.
Given a process subject to random failures, WIP inventory does not effect
production rate increases in preceding cells.
does effect production rate increases

On the other hand, WIP inventory

in succeeding cells.

A 0.2 unreliability value for Process 2 (see Figure 2, R = 0.8, WIP = 0 AU)
results in a 0.42 system utilization.

This implies a 0.42 probability of produc-

ing an assembled product within the specified 36-minute cycle time.


process unreliability
However,

unreliability
operation

(Process 2) resulted in a 0.58 system unreliability.

the gap in process and system unreliability will

T d increases

(decreases).

increase

(decrease)

This large difference between system and process

is attributable to the component requirements of the assembly

in a multicomponent

fabrication and subsequent product assembly

environment.

Annual Simulation Symposium.


L

Hence, a 0.2

as

248

LULU
Also,

clusively

the research

findings

reported

show that ~IP inventory

improvements.

This

leaves

(preventive maintenance)
in assuring

higher

and analyzed

has minimal

the m i n i m i z a t i o n

and process

in this chapter

impact on system

of the likelihood

downtime

as decisive

con-

utilization
of process

failures

andsignificant

factors

system utilization.

CONCLUSION
If an individual
inventory
process

effect

process

increases

unreliability,

that essentially
system
process
tion

operate

processes,

in the system's

the d o w n s t r e a m

lower

level

level of lowered
production

for a given

beyond

which

rates

(decreases

as may be envisioned
production

in upstream

if these processes

in WIP
level

increases

in production

of
in WIP

rates.
in product

cycle

in traditional

control.

processes

On the other hand,

production

fabrication

of fabrication

system

MPS

The Kanban

preceding

it does not prevent

are not starved.

produc-

Observed

rate are due to the role of WIP

of WIP

and product

process

utilization.

rate are minimized

the injection

exists

increases

inventory

in

processes.

In a m u l t i c o m p o n e n t
tively

failure,

However,

increases

system"

production

is idled by failure.

in downstream

increases

under "push

prevents

rates.

in production

ar not as significant

automatically
that

gains

to random

threshold

in corresponding

WIP inventory-induced
in the JITMPS

in production

a practical

inventory do not result

time)

is subject

assembly

unreliability

The principal

process downtime

environment,

results

factors

in a pronounced

enhancing

and preventive

inventory.

Annual Simulation Symposium

a rela-

the JITMPS

maintenance,

not

JUST-IN-TIME P R O D U C T I O N AND PROCESS U N R E L I A B I L I T Y

249

REFERENCES
I.

Kim, T. M., "Just-In-Time Manufacturing System:

A Periodic Pull System,"

International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 23, No.3, March 1985, pp.
553-562.
2.

Kimora, O., and Terada, H., "Design and Analysis of Pull System,"
International Journal of Production Research, Vol.

19, No. 3 (March 1981),

pp. 241-253.
3.

Monden, Y., "Adoptive Kanban System Helps Toyota Maintain Just-in-Time


Production," Industrial En@ineerin@, Vol.

4.

Pegden, C. D., Introduction to SIMAN, Systems Modeling Corporation,


College,

5.

13, No. 5 (Hay 1981), pp. 29-46.


State

PA, 1982.

Schonberger, R. J., Japanese Manufacturing Techniques.

The Free Press,N. Y.,

1982.
6.

Schonberger, R. J., "Integration of Cellular Manufacturing and Just-in-Time


Production, N Industrial En@ineering, Vol.

7.

15, No. ii (Nov. 1983), pp. 66-71.

Sugimori, Y., "Toyota Production System and Kanban System," Proceedings of


the Fourth International Conference on Production Research, August 1977, pp.
185-196.

Annual Simulation Symposium