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Cornell Notes

Topic/Objective: Biochemistry

Name: Israel Castanon

Class/Period: Biology
Date: 11/5/16

Essential Question: How does the structure of macromolecules affect their utilization in the body?


1)What is a chemical

A chemical reaction is the process of completely changing the composite of a

Reactant (input)

Product (Output)

Ex. Iron + Oxygen = Rust

2) What are enzymes
and what is their
function in our bodies?

3)Compare and contrast

the difference between
exothermic and
endothermic reactions.

Enzymes are proteins made by ribosomes that are used to speed up chemical
reactions in our bodies
- Substrate fits into an active site and creates an enzyme substrate complex.
Then, reactants are brought together to form products.
- Lowers activation energy
Exothermic Reaction
Heat decreases
Decrease in energy
Energy is being released
Heat, light, sound
Ex. Fire

Endothermic Reaction
Heat increases
Increase in energy
Energy is being absorbed
Ex. Ice melting

Endothermic reactions require more activation energy because it shows an increase

in heat which means more energy is needed to help the reaction occur.




4)Explain how there are

chemical reactions every
day. Use at least 5 vocab
words and provide 3

Chemical reactions occur in life every day whether we know it or not. Here are a
couple examples that we see every day.

Ice melting in a cup shows an endothermic reaction because heat is being

increased for the ice to melt.
A fire being started on a stove shows an exothermic reaction because heat
and light is being released.
Evaporating water is an endothermic reaction because a lot of activation
energy is required to create an increase in heat.

Inhibitors are something that stops the enzyme from working.

3) What are inhibitors
and what are the two

Allosteric (non-competitive)
- Bonds to another part of the enzyme
- Slower rate of reaction
- Doesnt fight with original reactant
- Fights for an active site
- B copies A to take As place
- Quicker rate of reaction
- Steals original substrates place
Factors that affect the speed of a reaction:
- Temperature
- pH level
- enzyme concentration
- substrate concentration
- Product concentration

Chemical reactions occur in life every day. The two types of chemical reactions are endothermic
and exothermic. Exothermic reactions require less energy because the heat is decreasing.
Endothermic reactions require more energy because heat is being absorbed, which also means
the amount of activation energy is increasing. The amount of energy needed for a reaction to
occur is the Activation energy. Enzymes work to help with chemical reactions, but sometimes an

inhibitor stops the enzyme from working. The two types of inhibitors are allosteric and
competitive. Allosteric inhibitors bonds to another part of the enzyme; whereas, competitive
fights for the active site. Enzyme activity can also be impacted by 5 different factors.
Temperature, pH levels, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and product
concentration impact the speed of the reaction. To sum it up, human bodies undergo chemical
reactions every day, and without the help of enzymes, it wouldnt happen.