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Your task is to answer the following questions:

3b Question 1a
What are fibre optics and give a short description of how they work?
A diagram may be useful.
Fiber-optic lines are strands of pure glass as thin as a
human hair that carries digital information over long
distances.

5d Question 1b
Describe how an understanding of total internal reflection has helped
scientists to develop endoscope and phones.
It has helped since the endoscopes help light travel since light
travels in straight lines so the bendy tube has special properties
enabling the light to travel reflecting of the sides of the tube and
through, as an example, someones body.
Question 2
Two uses for fibre optics is communication and endoscopes
For each use answer these questions
4b Question 2a USE: Endoscope
Describe what it is replacing.
Endoscopes are replacing invasive operations- operations when you
break the skin.

3c Question 2b
4c Show how this new technique is an improvement over existing
6b techniques.
6d

With fibre optics you can look inside people without cutting them
open. Patients benefit from fibre optic investigations more then
invasive surgery because in invasive surgery you break the skin and
patients prefer not to and it makes sure you dont get infections in
your cut.

4a Question 2c
5c Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this use for fibre
6d optics

There has been many improvements that there have been in medicine
due to the use of fibre optics well as any draw backs e.g. investment of
new technologies. The use of fibre optics has improved survival rate of
operations, but sometimes the use of an endoscope can cause its own
complications.

5a Question 2d
What might the people using this technique think about it? Give
reasons to back up your ideas. Why good or bad?

Healthcare staff likes endoscopes, e.g. they are quick to use, but some
patients may be worried, e.g. having to swallow an endoscope. We know
this since patients have commented and made quotes before and after
surgery but when you bring into consideration cutting open their bodies
they quickly release that endoscope is the better option.

6a Question 2e
6b Has the technique made an impact on life in other countries?

It makes the operation a lot easier and quicker since it is not an invasive
operation meaning not have to break the skin. This means less risk of
getting the cuts infected. And in poorer countries this counts as it is
easier to get infections since lack of hygiene and most people can not
afford everything to be clean as some people are homeless and are
surrounded by filth, dirt and disease 24/ 7. As in habitats like shanti
towns there is particularly closer living. Making infections and diseases
spread at twice the rate. Endoscopes have enabled the percentage of
infected cuts to lower by a huge amount.

Question 2
Two uses for fibre optics is communication and endoscopes
For each use answer these questions
4b Question 2a USE: communication
Describe what it is replacing

Copper wires.

3c Question 2b
4c Show how this new technique is an improvement over existing
6b techniques.
6d Using light to carry speech when we use a telephone has improved
the quality of what we hear. Installation of fibre optic cables affects the
people living in those countries, e.g. clearer phone calls, faster data
transfer allowing faster trading; and the companies that make the
cables, e.g. making more profit.

4a Question 2c
5c Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this use for fibre
6d optics

Fibre optics has made a significant impact in more developed


countries since Low per-channel cost and Lower installation cost.
Because of the relative newness of the technology, fibre optic
components are expensive. Fibre optic transmitters and receivers are
still expensive compared to electrical interfaces. The lack of
standardization in the industry has also limited the acceptance of fibre
optics. Many industries are more comfortable with the use of electrical
systems and are reluctant to switch to fibre optics. However, industry
researchers are eliminating these disadvantages.
5a Question 2d
What might the people using this technique think about it? Give
reasons to back up your ideas. Why good or bad?

Clearer phone calls, faster data transfer allowing faster trading; and
the companies that make the cables, e.g. making more profit. These
are good factors enabling us too higher standards of living in poorer
and wealthier countries.

6a Question 2e
6b Has the technique made an impact on life in other countries?

Fibre optics have made a significant impact in more developed


countries since:

It has Environmental Protection.


It is resistant to radiation and corrosion
It is resistant to temperature variations
It has improved ruggedness and flexibility
It has less restrictive in harsh environments
It has low per-channel cost
And it has lower installation cost.

And all these factors help poorer countries, it also installation of fibre
optic cables affects the people living in those countries, e.g. clearer
phone calls, faster data transfer allowing faster trading; and the
companies that make the cables, e.g. making more profit.
Task 23 Bending light 2 Level ladder
3 AF2
Understanding the applications and implications of science
To reach this level I could have:
a described some uses of fibre optics.
b stated that information can be carried from place to place using light reflections.
c explained that using light to carry speech when we use a telephone has improved
the quality of what we hear.
4 AF2
Understanding the applications and implications of science
To reach this level I could have:
a described some of the improvements that there have been in medicine due to the
development of fibre optics as well as any drawbacks, e.g. investment in new
technologies.
b explained that fibre optics are replacing copper wires.
c described the use of fibre optics to look inside people without cutting them open.
5 AF2
Understanding the applications and implications of science
To reach this level I could have:
a explained why healthcare staff like endoscopes, e.g. they are quick to use, but
some patients may be worried, e.g. having to swallow an endoscope.
b described how the development of endoscopes has affected doctors, e.g.
retraining, less surgical time needed; and patients, e.g. faster recovery, better to use in
parts of the world where infection is difficult to control.
c explained why the use of fibre optics has improved survival rate of operations, but
sometimes the use of an endoscope can cause its own complications.
d described how an understanding of total internal reflection helped scientists to
develop endoscopes.
6 AF2
Understanding the applications and implications of science
To reach this level I could have:
a described how fibre optics have made a significant impact in more developed
countries.
b explained how the installation of fibre optic cables affects the people living in those
countries, e.g. clearer phone calls, faster data transfer allowing faster trading; and the
companies that make the cables, e.g. making more profit.
c explained how the development of fibre optics has lead to developments in glass
making.
d described the benefits to patients of fibre optic investigations compared to invasive
surgery
Task 23 Bending light