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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Language is a tool for communication or interaction of every human being in the form of
symbols sound issued through the vocal organs, as well as any utterance that issued it has a
meaning and every sense of the nature of the arbitrator issued in accordance with the agreements
in an environment masyarakat. Language as social phenomena good very complex social issue,
its culture, and situational. Thus, approaching the language of the linguistic view is not sufficient
because language study also takes into account social factors and situasionalny. The pragmatic
linguistics is the study of the meaning of the speech and its meaning can be adapted to the
situation, place, and time. 1
In this study, a pragmatic approach is used to assess the unit of analysis of the followspeech or speech acts. With it can be known what the function of the speech act uttered by the
speakers. Because every utterance spoken by the speaker has a specific meaning and purpose in
accordance with their respective goals.2 Speech act in the event of speech are two symptoms that
occur in a process which is a process komunikas. In human life can not be separated from the
events of speech, because the human speech can convey information to the opponent he says,
and can understand each other. And the speech or the speech act disparate types one grouping
based on the nature of the relationship which include locutions speech acts, illocutionary, and
perlokusi. Because the authors see in the video there are some conversations that need to be
assessed as locutions speech acts, illocutionary and perlokusi therefore researchers interested in
investigating speech acts featured in the video.
In this paper the authors restrict research, only to analyze the types of speech acts which
by their nature do locutions speech acts, illocutionary, and perlokusi. Discussion about the
conversation belonging to the locutions speech acts, illocutionary, and perlokusi on video. The
goal is that the discussion could be more specific and did not widen everywhere so that the
reader is not difficult to understand the discussion. The purpose of this paper is as an ingredient
to add to the knowledge of the speech act. Make it easier for the reader in understanding of
speech acts
CHAPTER II
1 Yule, George. 2014. Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar

Cummings, Louis. 2007. Pragmatik (Sebuah Prspektif Multidisipliner).Yogyakarta: Pustaka


Pelajar
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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A. Context
The concept of context theory pioneered by British anthropologist Malinowski Bronislow. He
argues that in order to understand the context of the speech to be aware of the situation. Based on
the analysis of the context of the situation can be resolved aspects of the language so meaningful
aspects of linguistic and nonlinguistic aspects can be correlated (Pateda, 1994).
Furthermore Pateda saying in essence the theory of context are (1) the meaning is not contained
in the elements off the tangible word. But integrated in the speech as a whole and (2) should not
be interpreted as meaning dualist (words and references) or trialis (word, reference and
interpretation) but is a function or task in a speech that is affected by the situation.
Stubbs (1993) suggests that elements of that context is the speaker, the listener, message,
background or circumstances, channel and code. However Freedle (1982) says that the context is
directly related to speech setting, participants, form language, topic, and the function of speech
acts.
Hymes (1964) suggests that an event must meet eight said summed components of the acronym
SPEAKING. These eight components are:
S: Setting, which is a place to talk and talk atmosphere
P: Participant, are the parties involved in substitutions
E: End is a goal petuturan
A: Act Sequeces, is a figure of speech or an event where someone speakers are using the
opportunity to speak
K: Key, referring to the tone, manner and variety of language used in conveying his opinion and
how his opinion.
I: Instrument, referring to the language used lines such as spoken language, written language,
and also refers to a speech code used such language, dialect, and others
N: Norm, a rule in interacting eg in relation to the rules tell, ordering, ask, apologize, preamble,
criticize, and the like
G: Genre, the types of activities

Some of the rules or norms of language that functions in a speech act is often contained within a
language event are: (a) speech acts tell is to say something to the opponent he says, (b) speech
acts command or imperative is an event or a sentence that asks opponent said to perform actions
in accordance with the intent of the speaker, (c) the speech act to ask is where the speaker wants
to get an update on the opponent said, (d) speech acts apologize a request speakers to the
opponents said to convey his regrets for having done something wrong or an event that is
perceived irreverent , (e) speech acts lip is customary courtesy or manners socially speakers to
the opponents said, (f) the speech act criticize is the speaker give criticism and feedback or
concerns, (g) the follow statement is the act of saying or menyelaskan, proclamation, and
notification, (h) speech acts assertion of an explanation or penentua or explain, (i) the speech act
approval of an agreement is a declaration of agreement and consensus, suitable, appropriate, (j)
speech act of repetition, turning again and go back to the original, again reveals what has been
said, (h) speech acts petition is asking something with respect to gets things done.
In addition, Brown (1987) suggests the characteristics of the context is relevant: addresser
(speaker) addressee (listener) topic (topic) setting (time, place and situation) channel (spoken
language or written language) code (choice of words) event (incidence )
Werth (in Yasin 1991) divides the upper context: situational context (extra linguistic) and
linguistic context. Situational context was translated into the cultural context and the immediate
context. The division was illustrated in the following diagram:

The immediate context consists of five elements (1) setting, cover the place, time and situation,
(2) participant, is that the parties involved, (3) the channel form of the language spoken or
written, (4) the subject, (5) function language.3

Suryadi, Edi. 2012. Aspek-aspek Pragmatik Tindak Tutur, Peranggapan, dan Implikatur.
[online]. Tersedia https://edisuryadimaranaicindo.wordpress.com/2012/03/01/aspek-aspekpragmatik-tindak-tutur-praanggapan-dan-implikatur-2/. (28 November)
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B. Theoretical Basis
Understanding speech acts
Speech act is something that we do in order to speak a language or a unit that functions in a
conversation.
Grouping the speech act
(1) Grouping by type
- Follow-representative is a follow-on speakers that function sets or menjeaskan something is
what it is.
- Follow-commissive is speech that serves to encourage the speaker to do something like acts of
promise, vow, and swear.
- Follow-directive that speech that serves to encourage listeners to do something like suggesting,
begging, and urgent.
- Follow-expressive that follow the feelings and attitudes, such as acts of apology, gratitude, and
praise.
- Follow-declarative speech functioning is stabilizing, care a speech act another.
(2) Grouping of speech acts based on the nature of its relationship
- Follow-said locutions that made the speaker speech acts related to say something, like deciding,
pray for, bless, and demanding.
- Follow illocutionary speech acts are performed speaker with regard to actions in relation to say
something.
- Follow perlokusi said that the speech act that resulted interlocutors act an act in saying
something.
(3) Grouping based on the nature of the use of speech acts
- Follow-speech courtesy (politeness). This speech acts can be found in the first conversation
between the new people get acquainted.
- Acts of speech and respect (deferense). Tribute speech acts are usually found in the
conversational situation both sides of different social status, eg students with teachers.
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- Follow-speech ignored (migitation). Ignored the speech acts can be found in two types of
situation speakers.
First, because no accidental people who suddenly change the subject unwittingly
Second, because of deliberate conversation is between two people who were arguing.
Follow-Speech Understanding Rohmadi According to Muhammad, (2004) speech act
theory was first proposed by Austin (1956), a professor at Harvard University. The theory
lectures itukemudian tangible results recorded by JOUrmson (1965) with the title How to do
Things with words? .Would But the theory is emerging steadily after Searle (1969) published
bukuyang entitled Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of language according to Searle
dalamsemua linguistic communication are speech acts. He believes that communication is not
just symbols, words or sentences, but it would be more appropriate if called product or result
darilambang, word or phrase that tangible behaviors speech acts (fire performance of speech
acts). Speech act is a pragmatic analysis, a branch of linguistics that examines language From the
aspect of actual usage. Leech (1983: 5-6) states that mempelajarimaksud pragmatics of speech
(that's what the speech is done); ask what someone meant by a speech acts; and associate
meaning with whom speak kepadasiapa, where, when, how. Speech act is an entity that is central
in the pragmatic and also the basis for the analysis of other topics in this field such
presuppositions, perikutan, conversational implicature, cooperative principle and politeness
principle. With regard to speech, Austin distinguishes three types of action:
1. Acts of said locutions, which acts to say something with words and sentences according to the
meaning in the dictionary, and according to the rules of syntax. Speech act is often referred to as
The Act of Saying Something
2. Follow illocutionary speech, which had the purpose of speech acts; to do with who speak to
whom, when, and where the speech act was carried out, etc.
3. Follow perlokusi said, namely pengujarannya speech acts intended to influence the hearer.4
Thus, I conclude that the speech act is a language used in interacting with the hearer.
Speech act is divided into three types; First, locutions are spoken speech acts speakers and has a
meaning generally be accompanied by intent or might not. Second, illocutionary speech acts are
accompanied by specific intent between speaker and hearer. Third, perlokusi is a speech act that
causes opponents said the act as a result of the speech.

Kurniawan.2008. Tindak Tutur. [online]. Tersedia


dihttp://awan80.blogspot.co.id/2008/07/tindak-tutur.html. [28 November 2015]
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CHAPTER III
GETTING AND ANALYSE

A. Research Methods

This research uses descriptive qualitative research with data sources in the form of a
video that lasted 3:53 minutes with the data in the form of locutions speech acts, illocutionary,
and perlokusi. Methods of data collection methods refer to (watch) and record. refer to the
method, that is by listening to the speech on video and analyze the types of speech acts classified
locutions of speech acts, illocutionary, and perlokusi used in conversation in the video.
Hereinafter tenik note is the technique used to record data. The author notes the follow speech
act in video into the recording data .Then authors use the technique library, library techniques is
the use of written sources to obtain data. Written sources include papers, books pertaining to
pragmatics, and articles in the internet. Library by the author in this study using a pragmatic
reference books from a variety of existing sources and techniques for the analysis of language. In
this study, researchers used the instrument in the form of tools that include stationery, books
about pragmatics, and laptops as media used in writing this journal Data were analyzed using
methods of identification.

B. Results and Discussion


Appendix Conversations
Cepot: Hungry, who knows no eggs for breakfast. From earlier ngasih eat chicken continued.
Cepot: Now part, pointing toward the egg
Semar: "Pot, Cepot"
Cepot: "Huh ..." (Yes)
Semar: What are you?
Cepot: " Again ... its ... nyari eggs Beh
Semar: Try picking coconuts you there. Your mother wants nyayur he says ...
Cepot: It should be how many pieces?
Semar: Two aja not a lot, for tomorrow again
Cepot: While respectfully
Cepot: Oh ... please ... please!
Semar: You're asked to quote two instead of three

Cepot: It was also two


Semar: Why the fall of three
Cepot: That glove beh
Semar: Future gloves gdubrak sound ...!
Cepot: Kan at the cave ...!
Semar: Oh pantesan, peeled and gentlemen ... if you've brought in ...!
Cepot: But TEU nanaon-rafts upstream rafting, swimming ketepian. "
Cepot: Gue should eat two plates of the same vegetable ya ...

1. Classified the data


NO

LOCUTION

MEANING

Well hungry ya who knows Cepot were hungry and intends to find the egg
no eggs for breakfast

Now part pointing toward


Cepot already had been feeding the chikeen
the egg

Analysis of speech acts locutions


As has been the author discussed upfront that locutions speech act is a significant speech in
general and its meaning in the dictionary5. After the author analyzes conversations Cepot
5

Lubis, Hamid Hasan. 2015. Analisis Wacana Pragmatik. Bandung: Angkasa

saparakanca coconut episode, the conversation would be some speech whose meaning can be
generally known. Here below is an excerpt:
Cepot: Wah hungry aya ya Sugan endog which sasarap. Tatadi maraban wae hayam euy "(Rev.
hungry ya who knows no eggs for breakfast. From earlier ngasih eat chicken continued)
Cepot: "Well ieu, part dewek ieumah" (Now part gue nih) (pointing toward the egg)
Based on the quote above it is clear that the speech act included in the speech act locutions
because of the meaning of utterances Cepot it can be generally known. As at the beginning of the
first sentence utterance "Well hungry ya who knows no eggs for breakfast" of the quotation can
be seen that Cepot were hungry and intends to find teur. Similarly, the subsequent sentence
which addressed Cepot was muttering to himself and be known in tuturannya explained that
Cepot already had been feeding aya.
If the second utterance meaning may be difficult to understand if the only form of dialogue
without seeing the video ends with or without explanation, contonya "Well ya my part". We
would be hard to interpret what is meant by Cepot about "my part". But after the end tuturannya
explanation given then it will be easier to understand what the speaker meant, for example "Now
part of me ya" (pointing toward the egg).

NO

ILOCUTION

MEANING

what are you doing?

Semar asked about the activities being carried out


by Cepot and Cepot replied that he was nyari
chicken eggs.

However,

Cepot clarify again what was happening to him.

Illocutionary speech act analysis


Next illocutionary speech acts, of course, we still remember that speech illocutionary speech acts
which are accompanied by a specific purpose related to whom, to whom, when, and where the
speech act was committed.
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In the video Cepot saparakanca coconut episode, there are some conversations that indicate
illocutionary speech acts, which is not said that is accompanied with a view to the opponents said
then opponents said the answer in response to the speech of the speaker. For example, as follows:
a.1 quote
Semar: "Pot, Cepot"
Cepot: "Huh ..." (Yes)
Semar: What are you
Cepot: Again ... its ... nyari eggs Beh
a.2 quote
Semar: You're asked to quote two instead of three
Cepot: It was also two
Semar: Why the fall of three
Cepot: That glove beh
Semar: Future gloves gdubrak sound ...!
Cepot: Kan at the cave ...!
Semar: Oh pantesan, peeled and gentlemen ... if you've brought in ...!
Based on the above quote we can know that in every speech that has a specific purpose. As the
quote (a.1) Semar call and response Cepot Cepot answer the call of Semar. Then Semar is asked
"what are you doing?" To Cepot it means Salver speech excerpts (a.1) Semar asked about the
activities being carried out by Cepot and Cepot replied that he was nyari chicken eggs.
In the excerpt (a.2) a little different with the quote (a.1), the quote (a.2) a little misunderstanding
there Semar against Cepot. However, Cepot clarify again what was happening to him.

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NO
1

PERLOCUTION

MEANING

Semar : Try picking coconuts you Cepot to pluck coconuts and as a direct Cepot
there. Your mother wants nyayur he responya climb coconut trees so it is clear
says ...
Cepot : It should be how many pieces?
Semar : Two aja not a lot, for
tomorrow again

Cepot :While respectfully

Analysis of speech acts perlokusi


Perlokusi speech act is a speech act uttered by a person and cause others to act because of the
speech. In other words perlokusi speech act is the speech act to influence others to do something.
After investigation it turned out in a conversation in ataspun there perlokusi speech acts, such as
the following:
b.1 quote
Semar: Try picking coconuts you there. Your mother wants nyayur he says ...
Cepot: It should be how many pieces?
Semar: Two aja not a lot, for tomorrow again
Cepot: While respectfully
b.2 quote
Cepot: Oh ... please ... please!
Semar: You're asked to quote two instead of three

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Based on the quote (b.1) above it is clear that there perlokusi speech acts which govern speech
Semar Cepot to pluck coconuts and as a direct Cepot responya climb coconut trees so it is clear
that it is the speech act perlokusi.
If the quote (b.1) is perlokusi different if the quote (b.2), the quote (b.2) should it perlokusi
speech acts but because Semar Cepot not respond when asked for help then according to the
author because it was so locutions quote (b.2) perlokusinya no way. So Cepot just asking for help
only, while Semar did not respond to requests from the Cepot. This was caused by Semar not
hear pleas from Cepot. Thus can the authors conclude that the speech act that should perlokusi
could be locutions if there is no response or action of the hearer.
.

2. Result of find research


NO

DISCRIBE

MEANING

LOCUTION

locutions speech act is a significant speech in


general and its meaning in the dictionary

ILOCUTION

PERLOCUTION

illocutionary speech acts which are accompanied


by a specific purpose related to whom, to whom,
when, and where the speech act was committed.
words perlokusi speech act is the speech act to
influence others to do something

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CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSSION

Grouping is not speech; by type, by the nature of the relationship, and based on the nature
of their use. Grouping the speech act is based on the nature of his relationship first divided into
three acts locutions brupa meaningful speech acts in general, namely both illocutionary speech
acts accompanied by the intent and the third perlokusi is a speech act that resulted opponents said
act. In conversation Cepot saparakanca above there locutions speech acts, illocutionary, and
perlocutionary.
Context is crucial in understanding and interpreting the discourse. Context something that
can not be overlooked when people try to get the real meaning of information is heard or read.
Determining context.

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REFERENSI

Cummings, Louis. 2007. Pragmatik (Sebuah Prspektif Multidisipliner).Yogyakarta: Pustaka


Pelajar
Kurniawan.2008. Tindak Tutur. [online]. Tersedia dihttp://awan80.blogspot.co.id/2008/07/tindaktutur.html. [28 November 2015]
Lubis, Hamid Hasan. 2015. Analisis Wacana Pragmatik. Bandung: Angkasa
Suryadi, Edi. 2012. Aspek-aspek Pragmatik Tindak Tutur, Peranggapan, dan Implikatur.[online].
Tersedia https://edisuryadimaranaicindo.wordpress.com/2012/03/01/aspek-aspek-pragmatiktindak-tutur-praanggapan-dan-implikatur-2/. (28 November)
Yule, George. 2014. Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar

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