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Introtopopulationmatrixmodels

Reviewofmatrixalgebra

Ageclassifiedmatrixmodel:Lesliematrix

Eigenvalueandeigenvectors

SensitivityandElasticity

Stageclassifiedmatrixmodel

POPULATIONMATRIXMODELS

Whymatrixmodels?

Exponential/logisticmodelstreated

individualsinapopulationasallidenticaland

uniform nottrue!

Populationprocesses(e.g.,survival,growth

andreproduction)arenotuniformacrossall

individuals

Onewayofincludingindividualvariabilityis

throughstructuring(e.g.,age,size)

Wanttolooknotonlyatsize,butalso

shape/structureofthepopulation

Applications

Definitions

variables, functions, etc.)

Entry or Element of the matrix one of the symbols

it contains

E.g., a32 element in row 3, column 2 of matrix A

n)

Column vector m x 1 matrix

Row vector 1 x n matrix

Scalar ordinary number (1 x 1)

18 Oct 2016

Operations: Transpose

4 x1 3 x2 2 x3 0

2 x1 2 x2 5 x3 6

x1 x2 3 x3 1

Transpose of A AT

Switching rows and columns

1 4

T

1 2 3

4 5 6 2 5

3 6

2 x1 0

4 3

2 2 5 x 6

2

1 1 3 x3 1

Operations: Addition

Operations: Multiplication

a

b

a b

a

b

22

21 22 21 21 a22 b22

21

A+B=B+A

Scalar multiplication

a b 2a 2b

2

2c 2d

c

d

18 Oct 2016

Operations: Multiplication

and add them together

b1

a1 a2 a3 b2 a1b1 a2b2 a3b3

b3

# of elements in a row of first matrix has to be the

same as the # of elements in column in second

matrix

A

1x3

A

2x2

B

2x2

a

b

a b a b

a

b

22 21

22

21 11 22 21 a21b12 a22b22

21

B

3x1

AB BA

inner coordinates

agree

dimension of

product

TheLeslieMatrix(ageclassifiedmatrix)

Ages 0 1 :

Ages 2 :

Ages 2 3 :

Age class 1

Age class 2

Age class 3

Given by the numbers of individuals in each age

class.

Individuals in age classes 2 and 3 at time t + 1 are

Survivors of the previous age class at time t

n2 (t 1) P1n1 (t )

n3 (t 1) P2 n2 (t )

for one time interval (the projection interval)

Fi = per capita fertility of age class i

n1 (t 1) F1n1 (t ) F2 n2 (t ) F3 n3 (t )

n1

F1

n (t 1) P

2

1

n3

0

F2

0

P2

F3 n1

0 n2 (t )

0 n3

n(t+1) = An(t)

vector n describes the state of the population

matrix A population projection matrix

(Leslie matrix)

First row fertilities (Fi )

Sub-diagonal survival probabilities (Pi )

18 Oct 2016

Projection

Hughes 1984

Projection

n(1) = A n(0)

time

n(2) = A n(1)

n(3) = A n(2)

n(4) = A n(3)

n(5) = A n(4)

n(6) = A n(5)

Inageclassifiedmatrix,assumethat

variabilityinsurvivalandfecunditylieininter

individualagedifferences

n(t) = At n(0)

Projectpopulationfromtimettotimet+1;

unitoftime=projectioninterval=ageclass

width=important

IfA isconstant=assumeconstant

probabilities

18 Oct 2016

Analyzingthematrixmodel:

EigenvectorsandEigenvalues

Oncestableage/stagedistributionhasbeenattained,theonlyeffectof

multiplyingtheprojectionmatrixbythecolumnvector,N,istoincreasethe

populationsizebythegeometricgrowthfactor(R)

Theeigenvector isavectorsuchthatwhenyoumultiplyitbyamatrixmerely

lengthensorshrinksit(changesonlythemagnitude notdirection)

And,thefactorbywhichitislengthenedorshrunkistheeigenvalue (

scalarvalue);alsocalledthedeterminantofthematrix

AnXbyXmatrixcanhaveuptoXdifferenteigenvectorswithcorresponding

eigenvalues

Mostimportantistheonewiththebiggesteigenvalue(strongestinfluence)

Givenaconstantprojectionmatrix,any

initialagedistributionvectorwillconvergeto

thesamegrowthrateandstableage

distribution theproportionsremain

consistent(notnumbers)

Whenapopulationreachesthestableage

distribution,itgrowsexponentially

EigenvectorsandEigenvalues:

Biologicallyspeaking

Rightdominanteigenvector

stableage/stagedistribution,(w1)

1w1 Aw1

Leftdominanteigenvector

1 v1 v1A

reproductivevalues,(v1)

(contributionofeachstagetothe

populationgrowth)

Dominant(largest)eigenvalue,1

correspondingtotherightdominant

eigenvector geometricgrowth

factor,R;populationgrowthrate

N (t 1) 1N (t )

Matlab: mat1project

18 Oct 2016

Whattheeigenvaluecantellyou

>1:exponentialgrowth

<1:exponentialdecay

To determine how the effect of changes in the transitions/processes affect the

population dynamics, particularly the magnitude of the dominant eigenvalue

(growth rate)

respect to absolute change in a matrix element

1< <0:dampedoscillationswithperiod=2

Sij

< 1:divergingoscillationswithperiod=2

Complex :oscillations

Dampingratio:largesteigenvalue/second

1

aij

ranges for variables (e.g., survival: 0 1, fecundities can be

large)... So use standardized sensitivity -> Elasticity

largestvalue howfastthepopulationis

approachingthestablestagedistribution

respect to relative change in a matrix element

Elasticity analysis estimates the effect of a proportional change

in the vital rates on population growth. In essence, elasticities

are proportional sensitivities, scaled so that they are

dimensionless. This allows you to directly compare survival and

reproductive matrix elements.

1

Eij

1

aij

aij

aij 1 aij

Sij

1 aij 1

matlab:

mat2valvecspitt (senstuff)

18 Oct 2016

Stageclassifiedmatrix

Problemswithusingageclassifiedmatrix:

Longlivedorganisms

Organismsthatcannotbeaged

Assumethatvariabilityinsurvivorshipand

fecundityisduesolelytothecategorization

used

Probabilityof

growing/shrinking

toothersizeclass

subdiagonals

Probabilityof

stayinginsame

sizeclass

diagonal

Firstrow

fecundities

based on individual size rather than age:

a general model with a reef coral

example. The American Naturalist.

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