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UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS

INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS HUMANAS E LETRAS


DEPARTAMENTO DE LNGUAS E LITERATURAS ESTRANGEIRAS

Ingls Instrumental
Cognates
What are cognates?
Cognatas so palavras de uma lngua estrangeira que, alm de parecidas na forma, so tambm parecidas no
significado com palavras do portugus. A lngua inglesa possui vrias palavras desse tipo, geralmente derivadas do
latim ou do grego. Ao ler um texto em ingls, procure sempre us-las como apoio.
Para facilitar a sua aprendizagem, vamos dividir as palavras cognatas em duas categorias:
Idnticas: radio, piano, hospital, hotel, sofa, nuclear, social, total, particular, chance, camera, inventor, etc.;
Parecidas: gasoline, banks, inflation, intelligent, population, revolution, commercial, attention, different, products,
secretary, billion, dramatic, deposits, distribution, automatic, television, public, events, models, electricity,
responsible, explain, activity, impossible, lamp, company, etc.
Como voc pode ver, h uma infinidade de palavras da lngua inglesa cujos significados esto ao nosso alcance
imediato. Por meio da semelhana, as palavras idnticas ou parecidas nos remetem a vocbulos e significados
encontrados na nossa lngua. Isso ocorre tambm em relao a outros idiomas.
Observe os dois fragmentos de textos escritos em diferentes idiomas e responda ao que se pede.
Cambridge
Cambridge SkylineCompact and cosmopolitan, this famous university city is
noted for its ancient colleges and historic churches. Enjoy a walking tour of the
medieval streets, college courts, gardens and bridges. Or get lost in the shops on
the bustling High Street. Discover theatres, galleries, museums, pubs, clubs,
restaurants and lovely parks to relax. (SMITH, 2008, p. 20).
Best of Paris 2008
Paris est une histoire damour, la ville des lumires, capital de la mode, la fontaine des
tendances, la demeure des bohmiens et des romantiques. Paris doit son charme et sa
clbrit toutes ls merveilles architecturales dont elle regorge: la Tour Eiffel, lArc
de Triomphe, Notre-Dame, le Muse du Louvre Lune des meilleures et des plus
agrables faons de dcouvrir Paris, est de se laisser promener dans ses rues lors dune
visite bord des Cars Rouges. Fonte: Best... (2008).

1.Voc seria capaz de dizer em qual lngua cada um est escrito?


2. Identifique as 5 palavras cognatas encontradas nos textos

Cambridge

Best of Paris 2008

3. Qual o assunto principal de cada texto?


Material compilado e elaborado pela professora Laila Azevedo (2015/2)

Activity 1
Distance education takes place when a teacher and students are separated
by physical distance, and technology (i.e., voice, video and data), often in concert
with face-to-face communication, is used to bridge the instructional gap.
From: Engineering Outreach
College of Engineering University of Idaho
A partir das palavras cognatas do texto (em negrito) podemos ter uma idia geral do que se trata; vamos enumerar as
palavras conhecidas (pelo menos as que so semelhantes ao Portugus):
distance education =

voice, video, data =


students =
face-to-face communication =
separeted =
used =
physical distance =
instructional = instrucional
technology =
Qual a idia principal do texto:
Activity 2
Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca, is the dominant language or in some instances
even the required international language of communications, science, information technology, business, aviation,
entertainment, radio and diplomacy. Its spread beyond the British Isles began with the growth of the British Empire,
and by the late 19th century its reach was truly global. Following the British colonization of North America, it became
the dominant language in the United States and in Canada. The growing economic and cultural influence of the US
and its status as a global superpower since World War II have significantly accelerated the languages spread across
the planet.
Fonte: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language
Responda as questes sobre o texto anterior:
1. Qual o assunto do texto?
2. Cite trs reas de atuao mencionadas no texto em que o conhecimento da lngua inglesa essencial
3. Copie do texto o seguinte trecho:
O crescimento econmico e a influncia cultural dos Estados Unidos e seu status como superpotncia global desde a
Segunda Guerra Mundial aceleraram significativamente a disseminao da lngua pelo planeta.
4. Copie quatro palavras cognatas das quatro primeiras linhas do texto.
Activity 3
Leia o dilogo abaixo e responda as questes de 1 a 6:
Interview
MARK: Hello! Can I ask you some questions for a interview?
JENNIFER: Yes, I can answer some questions.
MARK: Thank you for taking the time. Now first question: What do you do?
JENNIFER: I work in a library. I am librarian.
MARK: Are you married?
JENNIFER: Yes, I am.
MARK: What does your husband do?
JENNIFER: He works as a policeman.
MARK: Do you usually have dinner together?
JENNIFER: Yes, We do.
MARK: How often does your husband exercise?
JENNIFER: He sometimes exercises four times a week. But he usually exercises only twice a week.
MARK: Where do you like going on holiday?
JENNIFER: We rarely go on holiday. However, we like going to the mountains if we can.
MARK: What type of books do you read?
JENNIFER: I often read horror stories.
MARK: Thank you very much for answering my questions.
JENNIFER: Youre welcome!
Material compilado e elaborado pela professora Laila Azevedo (2015/2)

Questo 01-. De acordo com o texto Jennifer uma:


a) professora
b) artista plstica
c) bibliotecria
d) secretria.
Questo 02- Todos tm um estado civil, indique a
alternativa que corresponde ao estado civil dela:
a) casada
b) divorciada
c) solteira
d) viva
Questo 03- O marido de Jennifer tambm trabalha, a
profisso dele :
a) policial
b) dentista
c) engenheiro
d) advogado

Questo 04 Alm da profisso, ele pratica exerccios


de quanto em quanto tempo?
a) duas vezes por semana.
b) trs vezes por dia.
c) uma vez ao ms.
d) quatro vezes por semana.
Questo 05- Todos ns gostamos de lazer aos feriados.
Nos feriados eles costumam ir:
a) praia.
b) a museus.
c) s montanhas.
d) ao teatro.
Questo 06. Como Jennifer trabalha em uma livraria,
ela adora ler livros. Marque a alternativa que
corresponde a preferncia de livros de Jennifer:
a) aventura
b) romances
c) fico cientfica
d) terror

Activity 4

1. Assinale a alternativa que no corresponda a uma palavra cognata:


a) phone
b) product
c) book
d) electronic
2) Qual o assunto do texto?
a) O texto fala sobre um aparelho celular cuja agenda telefnica sincronizada com o computador.
b) O texto fala sobre de um produto fabricado na Europa e que se comunica com as pessoas.
c) O texto fala sobre um organizador que conectado a um aparelho celular
d) O texto fala sobre a combinao entre a Sharp e um produto eletrnico.
3) Qual a marca do produto?
a) Sharp
b) Personal
c) Mobile Communicator
d) European Market

4) Onde o produto est sendo esperado?


a) na Amrica do Norte
b) na Europa
c) no mercado mundial
d) na Sharp

Material compilado e elaborado pela professora Laila Azevedo (2015/2)

Escolha a opo que melhor traduz os termos em ingls sublinhados.


1.Recipient
a.Expediente
b.Receptor
c.Recipiente
2.Library
a.Livraria
b.Biblioteca
c.Livros
3.Deception
a.Corte
b.Decepo
c.Fraude
4.Defendant
a.Defensor

b.Ru
c.Defesa
5.Comprehensive
a.Compreensivo
b.Abrangente
c.Compulsrio
6.Disco
a.Discoteca
b.Disco
c.Fiscal
7.Commodity
a.Mercadoria
b.Comodidade
c.Incomodar

8.Actually
a.Atualizar
b.Atualmente
c.Na verdade
9.Terrific
a.Terrvel
b.Temvel
c.timo
10.Reclamation
a.Queixa
b.Reivindicao
c.Proclamao

What are false cognates/false friends?


Os chamados falsos cognatos (false friends) so palavras que parecem significar uma coisa, mas, na verdade,
significam outra, totalmente diferente. Voc no deve ficar preocupado (a) porque a probabilidade de uma palavra
semelhante ao portugus ser um false friend muito pequena (menos de 0,1%). Portanto, mais provvel que voc
acerte do que erre. Mesmo assim, importante conhecer essas palavras pelo fato de que um termo entendido
erroneamente pode alterar todo o sentido da interpretao de um texto.
H casos nos quais a mesma palavra possui significados diferentes, dependendo do contexto em que
empregada, funcionando vezes como um cognato, vezes como um false friend.
1. Leia o texto e sublinhe os false friends.
A DAY AT WORK
In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union representatives. The discussion was very
comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an
agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary recorded everything in the notes. Eventually, they decided to set a
new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement.
Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had realized that the proposed agreement would be
partially against the company policy not to accept workers that have already retired. I pretended to be really busy and
late for an appointment, and left for the cafeteria. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular
moment because there were some strangers in the office.
After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation and has a graduate
degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds
to improve college education and build a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he
assumes this is what the people expect from the government.
Fonte: SCHTZ, Ricardo. Falsos conhecidos - False friends. Disponvel em:
2. De acordo com o texto acima, relacione os false friends aos seus significados em portugus.
a) attend
b) cafeteira
C) comprehensive
d) discussion
e) eventually
f) mayor

1. abrangente
2. prefeito
3. por fim, finalmente
4. conversa, debate
5. refeitrio
6. Comparecer

Material compilado e elaborado pela professora Laila Azevedo (2015/2)

Universidade Federal do Amazonas


Instituto de Cincias Humanas e Letras
Departamento de Lnguas e Literaturas Estrangeiras
Curso de Letras Lngua e Literatura Inglesa
Apostila 3 Cognatos
Exerccios
Leia os dois trechos a seguir:
1. Obama ends Middle East trip with visit to Petra ruins US President
Barack Obama has ended his visit to the Middle East with a trip to the
famous ruins of the ancient city of Petra in Jordan. The site of the ancient
city, which is carved into rose-red stone, dates back 2,000 years and is
Jordan's top tourist attraction, drawing more than half a million visitors
each year.
(Available at http:www.bbc.co.uk, accessed on March 25th 2013)
Question Time:
a. Onde o presidente Barack Obama esteve no ltimo dia de sua visita ao
Oriente Mdio?
b. Cite algumas caractersticas a respeito deste local.
c. Liste os cognatos encontrados nesse texto
2. My name's Josh Peterson. I started studying Physics at college, and I
attend the classes on Mondays and Fridays at 8 a.m. every week. In my
opinion, Physics is difficult and I'm not an expert in it. I record the teacher's
explanations and lectures to study later at home. Sometimes I go to the library
to get some books to assist my study, too. I usually study after lunch and then, I
help my parents at the fabric shop.
a. Qual a profisso de Josh Peterson?
b. Cite pelo menos duas atividades rotineiras de Josh.
c. Qual curso ele est fazendo na faculdade?
d. Como a relao dele com o curso?

Material compilado e elaborado pelo aluno Gabriel Coelho do curso Letras Lngua Inglesa (2015/2)

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS


INSTITUTO DE CINCIAS HUMANAS E LETRAS
DEPARTAMENTO DE LNGUAS E LITERATURAS ESTRANGEIRAS

Ingls Instrumental

Cognatos (Cognates)

Leia o texto e responda s questes a seguir.


Training For Mars
Six NASA recruits, 3 men and 3 women, have taken up residence in a dome near
a barren volcano in Hawaii designed to simulate life on Mars.
The team, made up of three scientists, a pilot, an architect and a doctor and journalist will live in
isolation for a year while being monitored using cameras and movement trackers. Just as they
would if they were on the red planet itself, the recruits will have to wear a spacesuit any time
they venture outdoors. The mission will last a full 12 months, while NASA believes a real-life
human mission to Mars would take between one and three years.
This is not the first time humans have prepared for just such a mission. In 2011, would-be
astronauts from Europe, Russia and China were locked away in windowless, cramped cells for a
record-breaking 520 days. While the experiment was deemed a success, it's thought it could be
decades before man steps foot on Mars for real.
Fonte: http://www.newsinlevels.com/products/training-for-mars-level-3/

1- Onde os recrutas da NASA esto?


______________________________________________________________

2- Quais as profisses dos integrantes do time da NASA?


_____________________________________________________________

3- Como os recrutas sero monitorados?


_____________________________________________________________

4- Acredita-se que se passe quanto tempo at que o homem realmente consiga


ir a Marte?
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Material compilado e elaborado pelo discente de Letras Lngua e Literatura Inglesa pela
Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM) Lucas da Costa Pereira (2015/2)