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Former CE/Civil/TANGEDCO
2. Estimation of Loads:
Before we design any structure, it is very necessary to understand the
complete structural system of the structure. How the load act on them,
how are they transmitted from one element to the other, etc., must be
visualized initially. If a loading diagram of the beam is given, it may be
easy to design it, however, the first part of the problem, i.e. finding out
the loads on the beam requires thorough knowledge of the structural
system and the way in which the load transfer takes place.
The buildings are designed to carry some live loads, functional loads and
many other loads during its life span. To carry the loads, we provide the
structural systems like slabs, beams, columns etc., which also have dead
loads. The functional loads may be dead loads like tiles, walls, partitions
etc., and other loads include wind, earthquake, impact etc.
The loads are usually first carried by the slabs although the beams may
be subjected to direct loads. The slabs

will transfer the loads on the

beams will be transferred to the columns by bending and shear. Columns

will resist loading by axial compression with bending and will transfer
them to the foundations. Foundations will also resist the loads by bending
and shear and ultimately transfer them to the good soil.

Before calculating loads on the structure, it is necessary to ascertain

preliminary size of various structural components such as slab, beam,
column and foundation type.
Thumb rule: per foot run Or 1 cm per 1 foot run (Convert 1 m multiply
by 3 to get feet). Example for 5.0m span i.e 15, the slab thickness
required is 15x1=15cm.
Oneway slab:
As per Thumb rule:
(i) Simply supported slab : 40 to 45mm/ m span
(ii) Continuous slab

: 40mm/m span

Based on L/d ratio:

(i) Simply supported slab = 25
(ii) Continuous slab

= 30


Total Depth of


Maximum Permissible Span for

One edge
Both ends

100 mm(4)

2.03 m
( 6- 8)

2.44 m
( 8- 0)

2.84 m
( 9- 4)

1.02 m
( 3- 4)

115 mm(4)

2.29 m
( 7- 6)

2.74 m
( 9- 0)

3.20 m
( 10- 6)

1.14 m
( 3- 9)

125 mm(5)

138 mm(5)

150 mm(6)

2.54 m
( 8- 4)

3.05 m
( 10- 0)

2.79 m
( 9- 2)

3.35 m
( 11- 0)

3.05 m

3.66 m

3.56 m
( 11- 8)

1.27 m
( 4- 2)

3.91 m
( 12- 10)

1.40 m
( 4- 7)

4.27 m

1.52 m

( 10- 0)

( 12- 0)

( 14- 0)

( 5- 0)


3.30 m
( 10- 10)

3.96 m
( 13- 0)

4.62 m
( 15- 2)

1.65 m
( 5- 5)

175 mm(7)

3.56 m
( 11- 8)

4.27 m
( 14- 0)

4.98 m
( 16- 4)

1.78 m
( 5- 10)

3.81 m
( 12- 6)

4.57 m
( 15- 0)

5.33 m
( 17- 6)

1.91 m
( 6- 3)


Where L = effective span of slab.

Two way slab:
Based on Thumb rule:
Support condition
Simply supported slab
Continuous slab

Overall slab depth

40mm/m span
35mm/m span

Based on L/d ratio

Case 1: For span Lx upto 3.5m and Live load up to 3.0KN/m2
Support condition
L/D ratio
Simply supported slab
Continuous slab
Case 2: For span Lx > 3.5m and Live load > 3.0KN/m2
Support condition
Simply supported slab
Continuous slab

L/d ratio

Width of beam= width of wall or 1/3 to 2/3 depth of beam for all beams
1/3 to of overall depth for Tee beams
b= 3.24(Lx)1/3 (As per Swedish Regulations) b, Lx are in cms.
For simply supported and continuous beam=1/10 to 1/12 of clear span

Tee beams=1/12 to 1/15 of clear span

Cantilever beams=1/5 to 1/6 of clear span.
Dp/Dt =1.67 Ly/Lx but not less than 2.5 where Dp=Depth of beam
Dt=Depth of slab
Thumb rule: 1 per 1 foot run Or 7 to 8 cm per metre run
Support condition
Singly Reinforced beam

Section Type

100mm/m span
80mm/m span
120 to 150mm/m span
Doubly reinforced
2/3 D of Singly
reinforced section
Simply supported Doubly reinforced beam=L/15 or 2/3 D of sSngly
reinforced beam
Continuous doubly reinforced beam= L/12 to L/15

Based on l/d ratio

Loading Type
3 to 4m
5 to 10m
Relation between Slab & Beam
Slab depth
D in inches



Beam Depth

L/d ratio
15 to 20
12 to 15

Maximum Span of beams

One End
Both End






























h x 16
Where h is depth of beam in inches.

h x 18.5

h x 21

3. Column Design:
Size of column shall be chosen on the higher side and richer mixes and
age factor
shall be used to the lower storeys. It shall be advantage to use minimum
mix as M25
concrete and Fe 500 TMT bars

for Multistoreyed building design.


economy in shuttering, column size can be kept the same throughout the
height of building(or in steps of a few storeys at the least) for carrying the
reinforcement. Moments in columns change sign in each storey, so that, we
provide symmetrical bar arrangement in a column section and the steel
area is kept
constant throughout a given storey. In General steel reinforcement is
equally on all
faces, in case of columns subjected to only axial load where as in case of
subjected to bending also in addition to axial load the longitudinal bars are
at the faces in the plane of bending.
is less but

Generally in top storey the axial load

the bending moment will be more. In construction of Multi storey building

design if the
building is designed for higher floors and construction is limit to less than
floors, design should

be checked for top most floor and accordingly the

reinforcement shall be adopted.

The design of column necessitates determination of load transferred
from beam

at different floor levels. Loads are transferred slabs to beams and then to
Hence, slabs and beams
columns. This

are normally designed prior to the design of

method enables one to asses the loads on columns more accurately and
design of
column becomes realistic and economical.
However, in practice, many times situation arise which require the
design of
columns and footings to be given to the client prior to the design of slabs
and beams.
In such situations, loads on columns and footings are required to be
assessed using
judgement based on past experience or using approximate methods. The
loads on
the columns can be determined approximately on the basic floor area
shared by each
column. These loads are normally calculated on the higher side so that
they are not
less than the actual loads transferred from slabs/ beams. This method of
design of
column is likely to be uneconomical.
However as per official procedure, one should design slabs and
beams first in
order to know the actual design loads on columns. Only in case of
emergency for need
of giving the design of column and footings prior to the design of beams,
approximate method of assessing the load on column based on the floor
area shared
by the columns by tributary area method
reactions at


by summation of beam

floor levels can be used.

1.Approximate Method for estimation of Load on column by thumb

Load on column = No. of floors x Tributary area of column x


Column Position


Interior column



Side or end column



Corner column



Note: Add extra 2KN/m2 in toilet and staircase areas.

For example for residential flats (GF+3 Floors) for 4m x 4m panel
Load on interior column = 4 x 16 m2 x 12 KN/m2 =768 KN say 780KN or
78 tonnes.
2. Speedy calculation for Load on column (Alternate Method)
Following approximate loads may be considered for various types of
Type of Building

Load /m2 per floor in KN/m2

Residential Flats


Education/Medical hospitals


Library/Godowns/printing press


Industrial Building


Steel Roof ACC sheet building

Staircase/ Escalators


Car parking (Silt Floor)

Roof terrace floor


Load on the column= Intensity of loading x Area to be covered under

the influence of the column. This area can be arrived by bisecting the
distance between the columns on all four sides (2 sides on corner

1. Extra load for sitout & Balcony: This can be separately computed
apportioned to the column concerned.
2. For Lift & Machine room: extra loads can be arrived from the lift &
room data.
3. Overhead Tank: extra load can be easily calculated Dead wt. of
OHT+weight of water to be stored and apportioned to the column
concerned. For example
10,000 litres capacity of OHT the dead weight of tank may be taken
as 100%
weight of water i.e 10m3 or 10tonnes. Total weight is 10t+10t =20t.
Load on
each column assuming supporting water tank column as 4,
Moment factors to be considered for calculating loads on columns as
Reynolds hand book:
Position of column

Moment factor

Interior Middle column


Exterior intermediate column


Corner column


For example interior intermediate column with 5m x 4m grid with (silt

Load on column= Equivalent load x Reynolds moment factor.
Equivalent load = Tributary area x Total load intensity.
Tributary area = (5m x 4m) =20 m2
Total Load intensity=load intensity for silt Floor+ load intensity for
flat for 3 Floors +Load intensity for Roof area
= (8 +3x16+10)=66KN/m2
Equivalent load on interior column =20 x 66=1320KN.
Actual axial Load on interior column= Equivalent load x
Moment Factor =1320 x 1.10=1452KN.

Arriving size of Column:

Based on load on column, size of the Column can be calculated by any
one of the following method.
Method 1 : Based

on ultimate load/m2 (Approximate)

Ag (Gross area) required = 80 to 100 mm2 per every 1KN ultimate

load carried by the column depending on the grade of concrete used.
Ac= cross sectional area of column
D= large dimension of column =Ac/b
b=width of column.
For 1.5 x 1452= 2178 KN ultimate load, area required= 80x 2178
=174240 mm2
If b=230mm, D=174240/230=758mm say 750mm.
Provide Size of column as 230 x 750mm. Assume 1 to 2% of steel and M25
concrete. If we provide 2% of steel,
Ast required= 2/100 x(230 x750) =3450mm2 . Provide 8 Nos. 25 dia steel.
Safe Load carrying capacity of column
=1851KN. >1452KN .
Factored Load =1.5x1851= 2776.5KN> 2178KN.

Method 2 : Based on Axial load on Column

Equivalent axial
Load with
moment factor (KN)

Column size

Up to 500

230 x 230

Above 500 to 800

230 x 300

Above 800 to 1200

230 x 450

Above 1200 to 1500

230 x 600

Above 1500 to 1950

300 x 750

Above 1950

300 x 830

As per table for axial load of 1452 KN , approximate size of column =

230 x600mm. The reinforcement shall be taken as 1 to 2% of cross
sectional area provided.
Method 3: (Based on tributary area)
Area required is mm2/m2 of area covered by the column
Grade of concrete

External column

Internal column
















For example for (Silt +4Floors) residential building interior column with
M20 concrete with 5m by 4m grid
Area required = (5 storey) x tributary area (5x4)x 1500 mm2
Assuming width of column b=230 mm
Depth required

D = 150000/230 =652mm say 600mm

The size of column to be adopted is 230 x 600 mm.

Method 4: Based on thumb rule :

(i) Based on height or span of the beam

Column depth is 3 to 5% of total height of building
For example (Silt +4 Floors) 5 storeyed building with 3m height
The depth of column is (5x3=15m+0.6m(Basement height)) 15.6x3/100=
0.47m say 480mm.
If the beam span is 4.0m, along transverse direction,
width (b) = 1/12 of span of beam
b= 1/12x4.00 =0.333m say 300 mm. Column size is 300 x 480
(ii) Based on storey/ span of beam
If building height is 3 storeys or less:
If beam span is < 6m, D=300mm;
If beam span is between 6.0 to 9m, D=350mm
If the beam span is more than 12.0m, D=400mm.
If the building height is 4 to 9 storeys:
If beam span is < 6m,
If beam span is between 6.0 to 9m,


If the beam span is more than 12.0m,D=600mm

In this example, the span of beam is 5.0m and No. of storeys =5
Size of column is 300 x 400mm.

(iii) Based on Seismic and Non seismic areas:

For Seismic areas : Assume Pu/fck bD=0.35 for side column and 0.30 for
corner column. In case of non seismic areas, the ratio will be 0.40 for side
column and 0.35 for corner column.
For example if Pu= 2178KN, fck=20, column area for non seismic zone for
side column=2178x1000/0.40x20=272250mm2 . The size of column is
300 x 900mm. Assume 0.8% of C.S area=2160mm2. Provide 8 Nos. 20mm
dia bars. (2512mm2.2160mm2)
Method 5: Using Column load & Moment
Based on Column load & Moment;
Assume 2% of C.S area for fy=250N/mm2
(i) If the line of action of the eccentric Load is outside
C.S.area = Pu/0.4 fck
(ii) If the line of action of the eccentric Load is inside (within the section)
C.S.area=Pu /0.45 fck
Example : Pu=2460KN

Mu=91 KNm fck=20N/mm2 fy=415 N/mm2

Calculate eccentricity of Load =Mu/Pu = 91/2460=0.037m

Assume that line of action of axial load is inside the section and check this
C.S.area required =2460 x103 /0.45 x20x106 =0.273m2
If one dimension is 460mm, the other needs to be= 0.273/0.46=0.59m
say 0.60m
Therefore section of column=460mm x 600mm
Area of steel reinforcement -=0.20 x 0.273 x(250/415) x 106

Method 6:
Safe load carrying capacity of column based on % of steel and
known column section for various grade of concrete and Steel.
Steel Grade
Fe 415

Concrete Grade

Fe 500






P=(2.7005 p+ 8)

P=(3.27p + 8)



P=(2.6805 p+ 10)

P=(3.25p +10)



P=(2.6605 p+ 12)

P=(3.23p + 12)



P=(2.6405 p+ 14)

P=(3.21p + 14)



P=(2.6205 p+ 16)

P=(3.19p + 16)



Where P is Axial Load carrying capacity of column in KN.

p = % of steel reinforcement (say 2% is 2)
b = Breadth of Column in mm
D = Depth of Column in mm.
Method 7: Based on formula given in IS 456-2000
STEP 1 :- Calculation of the Influence Area of the Column :
The first step is to find out the Influence Area of the Column to be
Designed. In this plan the tributary area for internal column= (2.85 x
2.35) =6.70m2

STEP 2:- Calculation of the Loads Coming on Column from the

Influence Area :
In this step the Load Calculation is being done. This is done by calculating
all the loads acting within the influence area.
The Loads acting are broadly classified as Dead Load (DL) and Live Load
(LL). Dead Loads are the load of objects which cannot be moved from on
place to another like the loads of Brick Work, Beams, Slabs etc. and the
Live Loads are the loads coming from movable objects such as Humans,
Chair, Table etc.
Thus We Need to Calculate the Dead Loads as well as Live Loads within
the Influence Area, these are as follows in the general case of a Building :A) Dead Loads :

Due to weight of Slab


Due to weight of Floor Finish


Due to weight of Brick Masonry


Due to weight of Beam


Due to weight of Self Weight of Column

[25000 N/m3 ]
[500 N/m2]
[19200 N/m3]
[25000 N/m3]
[25000 N/m3]

B) Live Load :
It depends upon the Nature of the Structure, and it values for different
structural nature are given in the concerned Code of Practice, like in India
these are given in I.S.: 875-Part II.
For Residential Buildings it is generally considered @ 2KN/m2

For office Building 2.50 to 4.0KN/m2

For Roof with access provided 1.50KN/m2
With access not provided 0.75KN/m2
Slab Load/m2

Roof slab

Live Load

1.50 KN/m2

Floor Slab

Dead load
3.0 KN/m2

3.0 KN/m2

Floor finish



Total Dead load


Self weight 0.12x25


If partition wall load is there, this can be calculated as follows:

230mm wall load/m run=0.23 x 1x (3.0-0.3) x 19.20=11.92 KN/m say
115mm wall load/m run=0.115x1x(3.0-0.30) x19.20 =5.96KN/m say 6.0
Parapet wall load =0.23 x 1 x 0.90x19.20=3.97 KN/m say 4.0KN/m
Now after correct calculation of above loads the Total Load is Calculated
Total Load on each floor = Dead Load + Live Load
Now this the actual load which will be acting on column for each floor, now
if the building say 5 storied, then just multiply the value with the nos. of
floors, like for five storied building multiply the Total Load on each story
with 5.
Now thus the Total load acting on column at Column Base is obtained and
it is denoted with P.
Hence P= Total Load on each Floor X Nos. of Stories = (Dead Load + Live
Load) X Nos. of Stories.
Now we shall move to the actual Designing to determine suitable Column
sections and its Reinforcements so that the above load is safely resisted
by the column Designed.

It can be done by Three main Methods of Design : a) Working Stress

Method b) Ultimate Load Method and c) Limit State Method.
The Modern Practice is to use Limit State Method for all types of
Designing, Hence we discuss here the Limit State Method Of Design Of

STEP 3 :- Finding The Gross Cross-Sectional Area Required For

The Column
This is the one of the most important and main step of the Design of
First in the Limit State Method of Design we must increase the load acting
on the column with a Load Factor so that if there will be any accidental
increase of loads the column will be still safe to resist the load without a
failure. The Factor of Safety for Dead Load + Live Load Combination is 1.5,
hence we must multiply the load action on column (P) with the 1.5 to
obtain the Ultimate Load that is the Factored Load of the Column that is Pu.
Hence Factored Load, Pu = 1.5 X P
For Design we will work with this value of load.
Now before going on we here to say that we will design according to the
Code Of Practice of I.S.: 456-2000
The Ultimate Load of a Column is given by,
Pu = 0.4.fck.Ac + 0.67.fy.Asc [Equation I]
Where, Pu = Ultimate Load of the Column in N/mm2
fck= Yield Strength of Concrete in N/mm2
Ac = Area of Concrete (Cross-Sectional Area) of Column in mm2
fy = Yield Strength Of Steel in N/mm2
Asc = Area of Steel (Cross-Sectional Area) in Column in mm2
Now the column consists of Concrete and as well as Steel in the form of
Reinforcements hence the Total Cross-Sectional Area of Column is made of
Area of Concrete and Area of Steel.

The Total Cross-Sectional area of Column can be also termed as Gross

Cross-Sectional Area of Column and its denoted by Ag.
Hence, Gross Cross-Sectional Area of Column = C/S Area of Concrete +
C/S Area of Steel
Therefore, Ag = Ac + Asc
And hence, Ac = Ag - Asc
Now putting the above obtained value in the original equation (Equation I)
we get,
Pu = 0.4.fck.(Ag-Asc) + 0.67.fy.Asc [Equation II]
Now Assume the Percentage of Steel you want to use ranging anywhere
from 0.8% to 6% with Respect to Gross Cross-Sectional Area of the
Column (Ag). Say Assuming Steel as 1% of Ag it means Area of Steel Asc =
1% of Ag = 0.01Ag
The higher will be the percentage of steel used the lower will be Ag and
thus lesser will be the cross-sectional dimension of the column. But the as
the Price of Steel is very high as compared to the Concrete hence it is
desirable to use as less as steel possible to make the structure
economical, again if the percentage of steel is lowered then the Ag will
increase at higher rate, about 30% with decrease of just 1% of steel and
so each lateral dimension of the column will increase and will cause a
gigantic section to be provided to resist the load. Therefore both the
factors are to be considered depending upon the amount of loadings.
My suggestion is to use the following Percentage of steel for the Design,
Which Ive found to be effective and to produce economical and safe
section of Column.
Loading (Pu) in N

Percentage Of Steel for Satisfactory

Below 250000 --------------------------------------------0.8%

250,000 to 500,000 --------------------------------------1.0%
500,000 to 750,000 --------------------------------------1.5%
750,000 to 1000,000 -------------------------------------2.0%
1000,000 to 1500,000 -----------------------------------2.5%

1500,000 to 2000,000 -----------------------------------3.0%

And so on, with increase of each 250,000 N increasing the Percentage of
Steel as 0.5%.
Now input the value of the Asc in the form of Ag in the Equation I. For
example suppose 1% Steel is used then the equation will be like the one
below :Pu = 0.4.fck.(Ag-0.01Ag) + 0.67.fy.0.01Ag
Therefore, if we know the Grade of Concrete and Grade of Steel to be used
and Factored Load coming on the Column and Assuming the Percentage of
steel required appropriately then we can very easily Calculate the GrossSectional Area (Ag) of the Column required from the above form of the
Now as the Ag is obtained thus the Lateral Dimensions of the Column that
are the sides of the column can be easily determined.
The Ag or Gross-Sectional Area of the Column means that it is the product
of the two lateral sides of a column [i.e. Breadth (b) X Depth (D)], hence
reversely knowing the Ag we can determine the Lateral Dimensions.
For making a Square Section just Determine the Root Value of the Ag. Like
if the Value of Ag is 62500 mm2 Then considering square section of a
column we can get each side

Also Rectangular Column Sections Can be made by using different

proportion say b : D = 1 : 2 , Hence D=2b , Therefore, Ag = b X D = b X 2b
= 2b2 or b=

Hence D can be also determined as D=2b after Calculating the b.

Most of the times after calculating the sides of a column it will give results
such as 196.51mm or 323.62 etc. values, which practically cannot be
provided at field, hence we must increase those values to the nearest
greater multiple of 25mm (i.e. 1 inch). For examples a value of 196.51mm
may be increased to 200mm or 225mm or 250 mm even, and a value of
323.62mm may be increased to 350mm. more it will be increased the
more it will be safer, but it is uneconomical to increase by a very high

amount, it should not be increased more than by 75mm to consider the

economical factor.
STEP 4 : Check For Long/Short Column
Depending upon the ratio of Effective Length to the Least Lateral
Dimension of a column, a column may be classified as Long Column and
Short Column. If the value of this ratio is less than 12 then its called as a
short column and if the value is more than 12 then its called as a Long
Column. A short column mainly fails by direct compression and has a
lesser chance of failure by buckling. And in the case of a long column the
failure mainly occurs due to the buckling alone. Long column being
slender, that is being thin like stick as compared with its length it grows a
tendency to get bended by deviating from its verticality under the action
of loads. Due to this tendency of long column to get buckled (bended) a
long column of all same properties and dimensions that of a short column
will be able to carry much lesser load safely than that of the short column.
Suppose a 400mmx400mm short column can take a load of 1000KN , then
a long column of 400mmx400mm having same grade of concrete, same
amount of reinforcement and same workmanship will be able to carry a
lesser load like say about 800KN only, hence we get a loss of 200KN which
is 20% loss of load carrying capacity. So the above formula used in Step 3
holds good only for the Short Column. For using it in long column a little
modification is needed, which I will update it later when I will get hands on
this article again. For now let us concentrate on Short Column. First of all
we need to find out the effective length of a column, which can be
obtained by multiplying a factor with the actual unsupported length of the
column. The factor depends upon the end condition of the column. In most
general cases we use a Both End Fixed Column for which The Factor is
Therefore, Effective Length = Effective Length Factor (0.65) x Unsupported
Length (l). suppose a column has a unsupported length of 2.7m =
2700mm, hence the effective length will be lef = 0.65x2700 = 1755mm.
Least lateral dimension means the shorter of the two dimensions of
column that is length and breadth. But in case of a circular column as
there is only diameter, hence we will use the diameter.
Suppose a column is of 400mmx200mm section and has an unsupported
length of 2700mm, then the Ration of Effective length t the Least Lateral
Dimension will be as follows :-

(Effective Length/Least Lateral Dimension) = (lef/b) = (1755/200) = 8.775

which is less than 12 and hence is a Short Column.
STEP 5 :Check For Eccentricity
Eccentricity means deviating from the true axis. Thus an Eccentric Load
refers to a load which is not acting through the line of the axis of the
column in case of column design. The eccentric load cause the column to
bend towards the eccentricity of the loading and hence generates a
bending moment in the column. In case of eccentric loading we have to
design the column for both the Direct Compression and also for the
bending moment also. Practically all columns are eccentric to some extent
which may vary from few millimetres to few centimetres. In practical field
it is almost impossible to make a perfectly axially loaded column, as a
reason we have to consider a certain value of eccentricity for safety even
though if we are designing for a axially loaded column. The conditions of
considering eccentricity and its value may differ from code to code
according to the country. Here I will tell you what I.S. : 456-2000 says.
According to it the eccentricity which we have to consider for design must
be taken as the greater of the followings :i) 20mm.
ii) (lef/500) + (b/30)
lef = Effective Length of the Column
b = Lateral Dimension of the Column (We have to calculate two separate
values for two sides in case of rectangular column)
Permissible Eccentricity :- 0.05b where b is the dimension of a side of a
column, we have to check for two sides separately in case of rectangular
The Permissible eccentricity must be greater than or equal to the actual
eccentricity of the column. Or else we have to design it for bending also.
STEP 6 : Calculating The Area Of Steel Required
Now the Area of Steel Required Asc is to be calculated from the Ag as the
predetermined percentage of Ag. For example if the Gross-Sectional Area
of the Column is 78600 mm2 and at the starting of calculation of Ag it was
assumed that 1% Steel is used then we get,

Asc = 1% of Ag = 0.01Ag = 0.01 X 78600 = 786 mm2

Now we shall provide such amount of Reinforcements that the CrossSectional Area of the Reinforcement provided is Equal to or Greater than
the Cross-Sectional Area of Steel required above.
Hence in the above case we shall Provide 4 Nos. of 16mm Diameter Bars
Hence, The Actual Area of Steel Provided,
Hence the Area of Steel Provided is Greater than Area Of Steel Required,
Hence the Structure will be Safe.
NOTE : The minimum of 4 Nos. of Bars to be provided at the four corners
of a rectangular or Square Column and minimum diameter of Bars that to
be used is 12mm Diameter. Hence 4 Nos. of 12mm Diameter Bars are
must in any Column irrespective of their necessities.
STEP 7 : Determining The Diameter and Spacing Of The Lateral
In this step we will Determine the Diameter and the Spacing of the Lateral
Ties or Transverse Links or Binders.
The Diameter of the Ties shall not be lesser than the Greatest of the
following two values



1/4th of the Diameter of the Largest Diameter Bar

For an example if a Column has 16mm and 20mm both types of bar as
Longitudinal Bars or main Reinforcement then 1/4th of 20mm = 5mm
Hence we shall provide 6mm diameter Ties. But in practice we use 8 dia
RTS only.
The Spacing of Ties shall not exceed the least of the followings three

Least Lateral Dimension


16 Times of the Diameter of the Smallest Diameter Longitudinal Bar


300 mm

[In this case our objective is to minimize the value to reduce the spacing
and to make the structure more stable, hence we shall take least value
and suitably in a multiple of 25mm]

4. Foundation:
(i) Depth of foundation:
Minimum depth of foundation: 500 mm from G.L. ( As per I.S. 1080-1962)
Minimum depth of foundation as per Rankines theory
d = p / {1- sin / 1+ sin }2
Where p = gross bearing capacity (SBC )
= density of soil.
= angle of repose of soil.
But in practice, the foundation depth is kept at 0.90m or even more. The
depth of
foundation depends not only on the nature of soil strata but also on the
height of
building. It is customary practice to place the foundation of a simple
footing at a
minimum depth of 1.50 m from ground level or at least 1.50 times the
width of
footing. In cold climates the depth is kept at a minimum of 1.50 m below
because of possible frost action. For low rise building (less than four
a depth of foundation of 1.2m to 1.50m may be adequate. For taller
buildings (6 to
12 storeys) 2.0m to 3.0m foundation depth will be adequate. For still taller
shallow foundation may not be suitable. In these case higher capacity of
foundation shall be adopted to suit the super structure of load and nature
of soil
condition. For tall isolated Structures, like water towers, the foundation
depth may
be at 3.0m also.

A few practical requirements also may have to be considered while

deciding the depth of foundation such as the existing foundation of nearby
building, the possible influence of future expansion etc. If the height of
building is more, the horizontal forces acting on the building such as wind
force are large. As a thumb rule, minimum depth of foundation may be
selected as 5% to 10% of the height of building.
Where the moisture content may vary and cause shrinkage, the depth
must be
with the minimum moisture content variation(1.50m to
2.0m).In case of
black cotton soils of expansive nature, the zone of movement may be as
deep as
3.0m to 3.50m. This is why ,the under reamed piles in expansive clays are
taken to
minimum depth of 3.50m.
(ii) Size of Footing:
For working out size of footing working load on foundation to be considered.
The load
to be increased for 10% on account for self weight of footing.
Area of Footing required= Axial Load on column+10% for self weight
SBC of Soil
For square footing side of footing = Area = X in m
(i) Size of footing : 1000 mm to 3000 mm in multiples of 250 mm.
(ii) Maximum depth near column face:
500 to 1000 mm in multiples of 50 mm.
iii) Depth of Footing:
Depth of footing can be calculated based on bending moment, one way
shear and two way shear consideration. For preliminary, depth of footing
can be calculated using any one of the following approximate methods.
(a) Thumb rule based on projection of footing

Depth of footing D =650 x a where

a = projection of footing from face of column in metres and D is


(b) Thumb rule based on side of the footing for Fe 415 / Fe 500 steel.
Net upward soil pressure


D / A value

t / m2







1 /4.5


1 /4.0


1 /3.50

Note :

Increase 20% for sloped and stepped footing.


p = Net upward pressure in t / m2

D = Overall depth of footing in cm.
A = Average side of footing in cm.


Minimum depth at the edges =200 mm

to IS
(iv) Reinforcement:
Minimum Dia. of bar : 8 RTS
Thumb rule:

: 10 RTS

(150 mm according

Up to 2.0 m width
Above 2.0m Up to 3.0 m width
Above 3.0 m width

: use 10 RTS
: use 12 RTS
: use 16 RTS

Minimum reinforcement :
Not less than 0.15% of c.s area for mild steel &
0.12% when HYSD bars are used.
Maximum spacing of bar : 200 mm
(180 mm for Tor 40 as per IS 456-2000)