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V.M.RAJAN,M.E.(Struct),FIE,

Former CE/Civil/TANGEDCO

******

2. Estimation of Loads:

Before we design any structure, it is very necessary to understand the

complete structural system of the structure. How the load act on them,

how are they transmitted from one element to the other, etc., must be

visualized initially. If a loading diagram of the beam is given, it may be

easy to design it, however, the first part of the problem, i.e. finding out

the loads on the beam requires thorough knowledge of the structural

system and the way in which the load transfer takes place.

The buildings are designed to carry some live loads, functional loads and

many other loads during its life span. To carry the loads, we provide the

structural systems like slabs, beams, columns etc., which also have dead

loads. The functional loads may be dead loads like tiles, walls, partitions

etc., and other loads include wind, earthquake, impact etc.

The loads are usually first carried by the slabs although the beams may

be subjected to direct loads. The slabs

will resist loading by axial compression with bending and will transfer

them to the foundations. Foundations will also resist the loads by bending

and shear and ultimately transfer them to the good soil.

preliminary size of various structural components such as slab, beam,

column and foundation type.

PRELIMINARY SIZE OF RCC BUILDING COMPONENTS:

1.Slab:

Thumb rule: per foot run Or 1 cm per 1 foot run (Convert 1 m multiply

by 3 to get feet). Example for 5.0m span i.e 15, the slab thickness

required is 15x1=15cm.

Oneway slab:

As per Thumb rule:

(i) Simply supported slab : 40 to 45mm/ m span

(ii) Continuous slab

: 40mm/m span

(i) Simply supported slab = 25

(ii) Continuous slab

= 30

Total Depth of

slab

Simply

supported

slab

One edge

Both ends

Cantilever

Continuous

Continuous

slab

100 mm(4)

2.03 m

( 6- 8)

2.44 m

( 8- 0)

2.84 m

( 9- 4)

1.02 m

( 3- 4)

115 mm(4)

2.29 m

( 7- 6)

2.74 m

( 9- 0)

3.20 m

( 10- 6)

1.14 m

( 3- 9)

125 mm(5)

138 mm(5)

150 mm(6)

2.54 m

( 8- 4)

3.05 m

( 10- 0)

2.79 m

( 9- 2)

3.35 m

( 11- 0)

3.05 m

3.66 m

3.56 m

( 11- 8)

1.27 m

( 4- 2)

3.91 m

( 12- 10)

1.40 m

( 4- 7)

4.27 m

1.52 m

( 10- 0)

( 12- 0)

( 14- 0)

( 5- 0)

162.5

mm(6)

3.30 m

( 10- 10)

3.96 m

( 13- 0)

4.62 m

( 15- 2)

1.65 m

( 5- 5)

175 mm(7)

3.56 m

( 11- 8)

4.27 m

( 14- 0)

4.98 m

( 16- 4)

1.78 m

( 5- 10)

3.81 m

( 12- 6)

L/20

4.57 m

( 15- 0)

L/24

5.33 m

( 17- 6)

L/28

1.91 m

( 6- 3)

187.5

mm(7)

Reference

L/10

Two way slab:

Based on Thumb rule:

Support condition

Simply supported slab

Continuous slab

40mm/m span

35mm/m span

Case 1: For span Lx upto 3.5m and Live load up to 3.0KN/m2

Support condition

L/D ratio

Simply supported slab

28

Continuous slab

32

Case 2: For span Lx > 3.5m and Live load > 3.0KN/m2

Support condition

Simply supported slab

Continuous slab

2.Beams:

L/d ratio

25

30

Width:

Width of beam= width of wall or 1/3 to 2/3 depth of beam for all beams

1/3 to of overall depth for Tee beams

b= 3.24(Lx)1/3 (As per Swedish Regulations) b, Lx are in cms.

Depth:

For simply supported and continuous beam=1/10 to 1/12 of clear span

Cantilever beams=1/5 to 1/6 of clear span.

Dp/Dt =1.67 Ly/Lx but not less than 2.5 where Dp=Depth of beam

Dt=Depth of slab

Thumb rule: 1 per 1 foot run Or 7 to 8 cm per metre run

Support condition

Singly Reinforced beam

Section Type

Rectangular

Flanged

Cantilever

Depth

100mm/m span

80mm/m span

120 to 150mm/m span

Doubly reinforced

2/3 D of Singly

beam

reinforced section

Simply supported Doubly reinforced beam=L/15 or 2/3 D of sSngly

reinforced beam

Continuous doubly reinforced beam= L/12 to L/15

Span

Loading Type

3 to 4m

Light

5 to 10m

Medium

>10m

Heavy

Relation between Slab & Beam

Slab depth

D in inches

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

Beam Depth

h

L/d ratio

15 to 20

12 to 15

12

Simply

One End

Both End

supported

Continuous

Continuous

12

16

18-6

21-0

14

18-8

21-7

24-6

16

21-4

24-9

28-0

18

24-0

27-7

31-5

18

24-0

27-9

31-6

20

26-9

30-10

33-0

22

29-4

34-0

38-6

Reference

h x 16

12

Where h is depth of beam in inches.

h x 18.5

12

h x 21

12

3. Column Design:

Size of column shall be chosen on the higher side and richer mixes and

age factor

shall be used to the lower storeys. It shall be advantage to use minimum

mix as M25

concrete and Fe 500 TMT bars

achieving

For

economy in shuttering, column size can be kept the same throughout the

height of building(or in steps of a few storeys at the least) for carrying the

reinforcement. Moments in columns change sign in each storey, so that, we

generally

provide symmetrical bar arrangement in a column section and the steel

area is kept

constant throughout a given storey. In General steel reinforcement is

equally on all

faces, in case of columns subjected to only axial load where as in case of

column

subjected to bending also in addition to axial load the longitudinal bars are

arranged

at the faces in the plane of bending.

is less but

design if the

building is designed for higher floors and construction is limit to less than

designed

floors, design should

column

The design of column necessitates determination of load transferred

from beam

at different floor levels. Loads are transferred slabs to beams and then to

columns.

Hence, slabs and beams

columns. This

method enables one to asses the loads on columns more accurately and

design of

column becomes realistic and economical.

However, in practice, many times situation arise which require the

design of

columns and footings to be given to the client prior to the design of slabs

and beams.

In such situations, loads on columns and footings are required to be

assessed using

judgement based on past experience or using approximate methods. The

loads on

the columns can be determined approximately on the basic floor area

shared by each

column. These loads are normally calculated on the higher side so that

they are not

less than the actual loads transferred from slabs/ beams. This method of

design of

column is likely to be uneconomical.

However as per official procedure, one should design slabs and

beams first in

order to know the actual design loads on columns. Only in case of

emergency for need

of giving the design of column and footings prior to the design of beams,

the

approximate method of assessing the load on column based on the floor

area shared

by the columns by tributary area method

reactions at

or

by summation of beam

1.Approximate Method for estimation of Load on column by thumb

rule:

Load/m2/Floor.

Office/commercial

building

Column Position

Residential

building

Interior column

12KN/m2

14KN/m2

17KN/m2

19KN/m2

Corner column

22KN/m2

24KN/m2

For example for residential flats (GF+3 Floors) for 4m x 4m panel

Load on interior column = 4 x 16 m2 x 12 KN/m2 =768 KN say 780KN or

78 tonnes.

2. Speedy calculation for Load on column (Alternate Method)

Following approximate loads may be considered for various types of

buildings.

Type of Building

Residential Flats

16

Education/Medical hospitals

building

18

Library/Godowns/printing press

building

22

Industrial Building

20

Staircase/ Escalators

18

10

the influence of the column. This area can be arrived by bisecting the

distance between the columns on all four sides (2 sides on corner

columns).

Note:

1. Extra load for sitout & Balcony: This can be separately computed

and

apportioned to the column concerned.

2. For Lift & Machine room: extra loads can be arrived from the lift &

Machine

room data.

3. Overhead Tank: extra load can be easily calculated Dead wt. of

OHT+weight of water to be stored and apportioned to the column

concerned. For example

10,000 litres capacity of OHT the dead weight of tank may be taken

as 100%

weight of water i.e 10m3 or 10tonnes. Total weight is 10t+10t =20t.

Load on

each column assuming supporting water tank column as 4,

=20t/4=5t.

Moment factors to be considered for calculating loads on columns as

per

Reynolds hand book:

Position of column

Moment factor

1.10

1.30

Corner column

1.80

+4Floors)

Load on column= Equivalent load x Reynolds moment factor.

Equivalent load = Tributary area x Total load intensity.

Tributary area = (5m x 4m) =20 m2

Total Load intensity=load intensity for silt Floor+ load intensity for

residential

flat for 3 Floors +Load intensity for Roof area

= (8 +3x16+10)=66KN/m2

Equivalent load on interior column =20 x 66=1320KN.

Actual axial Load on interior column= Equivalent load x

Moment Factor =1320 x 1.10=1452KN.

Based on load on column, size of the Column can be calculated by any

one of the following method.

Method 1 : Based

load carried by the column depending on the grade of concrete used.

Ac= cross sectional area of column

D= large dimension of column =Ac/b

b=width of column.

For 1.5 x 1452= 2178 KN ultimate load, area required= 80x 2178

=174240 mm2

If b=230mm, D=174240/230=758mm say 750mm.

Provide Size of column as 230 x 750mm. Assume 1 to 2% of steel and M25

concrete. If we provide 2% of steel,

Ast required= 2/100 x(230 x750) =3450mm2 . Provide 8 Nos. 25 dia steel.

Safe Load carrying capacity of column

P=(2.6805p+10)bD/1500=(2.7005x2.275+10)230x750/1500

=1851KN. >1452KN .

Factored Load =1.5x1851= 2776.5KN> 2178KN.

Equivalent axial

column

Load with

moment factor (KN)

Column size

(mm)

Up to 500

230 x 230

230 x 300

230 x 450

230 x 600

300 x 750

Above 1950

300 x 830

230 x600mm. The reinforcement shall be taken as 1 to 2% of cross

sectional area provided.

Method 3: (Based on tributary area)

Area required is mm2/m2 of area covered by the column

Grade of concrete

External column

Internal column

M20

2000

1500

M25

1800

1200

M30

1600

900

M35

1400

600

M40

1200

300

For example for (Silt +4Floors) residential building interior column with

M20 concrete with 5m by 4m grid

Area required = (5 storey) x tributary area (5x4)x 1500 mm2

=150000mm2

Assuming width of column b=230 mm

Depth required

Method 4: Based on thumb rule :

Column depth is 3 to 5% of total height of building

For example (Silt +4 Floors) 5 storeyed building with 3m height

The depth of column is (5x3=15m+0.6m(Basement height)) 15.6x3/100=

0.47m say 480mm.

If the beam span is 4.0m, along transverse direction,

width (b) = 1/12 of span of beam

b= 1/12x4.00 =0.333m say 300 mm. Column size is 300 x 480

(ii) Based on storey/ span of beam

If building height is 3 storeys or less:

If beam span is < 6m, D=300mm;

If beam span is between 6.0 to 9m, D=350mm

If the beam span is more than 12.0m, D=400mm.

If the building height is 4 to 9 storeys:

If beam span is < 6m,

If beam span is between 6.0 to 9m,

D=400mm;

D=500mm

In this example, the span of beam is 5.0m and No. of storeys =5

Size of column is 300 x 400mm.

For Seismic areas : Assume Pu/fck bD=0.35 for side column and 0.30 for

corner column. In case of non seismic areas, the ratio will be 0.40 for side

column and 0.35 for corner column.

For example if Pu= 2178KN, fck=20, column area for non seismic zone for

side column=2178x1000/0.40x20=272250mm2 . The size of column is

300 x 900mm. Assume 0.8% of C.S area=2160mm2. Provide 8 Nos. 20mm

dia bars. (2512mm2.2160mm2)

Method 5: Using Column load & Moment

Based on Column load & Moment;

Assume 2% of C.S area for fy=250N/mm2

(i) If the line of action of the eccentric Load is outside

C.S.area = Pu/0.4 fck

(ii) If the line of action of the eccentric Load is inside (within the section)

C.S.area=Pu /0.45 fck

Example : Pu=2460KN

Assume that line of action of axial load is inside the section and check this

later.

C.S.area required =2460 x103 /0.45 x20x106 =0.273m2

If one dimension is 460mm, the other needs to be= 0.273/0.46=0.59m

say 0.60m

Therefore section of column=460mm x 600mm

Area of steel reinforcement -=0.20 x 0.273 x(250/415) x 106

=3289.16mm2

100

Method 6:

Safe load carrying capacity of column based on % of steel and

known column section for various grade of concrete and Steel.

Steel Grade

Fe 415

Concrete Grade

Fe 500

M20

M25

M30.

M35

M40

P=(2.7005 p+ 8)

P=(3.27p + 8)

bD/1500

bD/1500

P=(2.6805 p+ 10)

P=(3.25p +10)

bD/1500

bD/1500

P=(2.6605 p+ 12)

P=(3.23p + 12)

bD/1500

bD/1500

P=(2.6405 p+ 14)

P=(3.21p + 14)

bD/1500

bD/1500

P=(2.6205 p+ 16)

P=(3.19p + 16)

bD/1500

bD/1500

p = % of steel reinforcement (say 2% is 2)

b = Breadth of Column in mm

D = Depth of Column in mm.

Method 7: Based on formula given in IS 456-2000

STEP 1 :- Calculation of the Influence Area of the Column :

The first step is to find out the Influence Area of the Column to be

Designed. In this plan the tributary area for internal column= (2.85 x

2.35) =6.70m2

Influence Area :

In this step the Load Calculation is being done. This is done by calculating

all the loads acting within the influence area.

The Loads acting are broadly classified as Dead Load (DL) and Live Load

(LL). Dead Loads are the load of objects which cannot be moved from on

place to another like the loads of Brick Work, Beams, Slabs etc. and the

Live Loads are the loads coming from movable objects such as Humans,

Chair, Table etc.

Thus We Need to Calculate the Dead Loads as well as Live Loads within

the Influence Area, these are as follows in the general case of a Building :A) Dead Loads :

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

[25000 N/m3 ]

[500 N/m2]

[19200 N/m3]

[25000 N/m3]

[25000 N/m3]

B) Live Load :

It depends upon the Nature of the Structure, and it values for different

structural nature are given in the concerned Code of Practice, like in India

these are given in I.S.: 875-Part II.

For Residential Buildings it is generally considered @ 2KN/m2

For Roof with access provided 1.50KN/m2

With access not provided 0.75KN/m2

Slab Load/m2

Roof slab

Live Load

1.50 KN/m2

Floor Slab

2.0KN/m2

Dead load

3.0 KN/m2

3.0 KN/m2

Floor finish

2.25KN/m2

1.00KN/m2

5.25KN/m2

4.00KN/m2

230mm wall load/m run=0.23 x 1x (3.0-0.3) x 19.20=11.92 KN/m say

12KN/m

115mm wall load/m run=0.115x1x(3.0-0.30) x19.20 =5.96KN/m say 6.0

KN/m

Parapet wall load =0.23 x 1 x 0.90x19.20=3.97 KN/m say 4.0KN/m

Now after correct calculation of above loads the Total Load is Calculated

by,

Total Load on each floor = Dead Load + Live Load

Now this the actual load which will be acting on column for each floor, now

if the building say 5 storied, then just multiply the value with the nos. of

floors, like for five storied building multiply the Total Load on each story

with 5.

Now thus the Total load acting on column at Column Base is obtained and

it is denoted with P.

Hence P= Total Load on each Floor X Nos. of Stories = (Dead Load + Live

Load) X Nos. of Stories.

Now we shall move to the actual Designing to determine suitable Column

sections and its Reinforcements so that the above load is safely resisted

by the column Designed.

Method b) Ultimate Load Method and c) Limit State Method.

The Modern Practice is to use Limit State Method for all types of

Designing, Hence we discuss here the Limit State Method Of Design Of

Column.

The Column

This is the one of the most important and main step of the Design of

Column.

First in the Limit State Method of Design we must increase the load acting

on the column with a Load Factor so that if there will be any accidental

increase of loads the column will be still safe to resist the load without a

failure. The Factor of Safety for Dead Load + Live Load Combination is 1.5,

hence we must multiply the load action on column (P) with the 1.5 to

obtain the Ultimate Load that is the Factored Load of the Column that is Pu.

Hence Factored Load, Pu = 1.5 X P

For Design we will work with this value of load.

Now before going on we here to say that we will design according to the

Code Of Practice of I.S.: 456-2000

The Ultimate Load of a Column is given by,

Pu = 0.4.fck.Ac + 0.67.fy.Asc [Equation I]

Where, Pu = Ultimate Load of the Column in N/mm2

fck= Yield Strength of Concrete in N/mm2

Ac = Area of Concrete (Cross-Sectional Area) of Column in mm2

fy = Yield Strength Of Steel in N/mm2

Asc = Area of Steel (Cross-Sectional Area) in Column in mm2

Now the column consists of Concrete and as well as Steel in the form of

Reinforcements hence the Total Cross-Sectional Area of Column is made of

Area of Concrete and Area of Steel.

Cross-Sectional Area of Column and its denoted by Ag.

Hence, Gross Cross-Sectional Area of Column = C/S Area of Concrete +

C/S Area of Steel

Therefore, Ag = Ac + Asc

And hence, Ac = Ag - Asc

Now putting the above obtained value in the original equation (Equation I)

we get,

Pu = 0.4.fck.(Ag-Asc) + 0.67.fy.Asc [Equation II]

Now Assume the Percentage of Steel you want to use ranging anywhere

from 0.8% to 6% with Respect to Gross Cross-Sectional Area of the

Column (Ag). Say Assuming Steel as 1% of Ag it means Area of Steel Asc =

1% of Ag = 0.01Ag

The higher will be the percentage of steel used the lower will be Ag and

thus lesser will be the cross-sectional dimension of the column. But the as

the Price of Steel is very high as compared to the Concrete hence it is

desirable to use as less as steel possible to make the structure

economical, again if the percentage of steel is lowered then the Ag will

increase at higher rate, about 30% with decrease of just 1% of steel and

so each lateral dimension of the column will increase and will cause a

gigantic section to be provided to resist the load. Therefore both the

factors are to be considered depending upon the amount of loadings.

My suggestion is to use the following Percentage of steel for the Design,

Which Ive found to be effective and to produce economical and safe

section of Column.

Loading (Pu) in N

Design

250,000 to 500,000 --------------------------------------1.0%

500,000 to 750,000 --------------------------------------1.5%

750,000 to 1000,000 -------------------------------------2.0%

1000,000 to 1500,000 -----------------------------------2.5%

And so on, with increase of each 250,000 N increasing the Percentage of

Steel as 0.5%.

Now input the value of the Asc in the form of Ag in the Equation I. For

example suppose 1% Steel is used then the equation will be like the one

below :Pu = 0.4.fck.(Ag-0.01Ag) + 0.67.fy.0.01Ag

Therefore, if we know the Grade of Concrete and Grade of Steel to be used

and Factored Load coming on the Column and Assuming the Percentage of

steel required appropriately then we can very easily Calculate the GrossSectional Area (Ag) of the Column required from the above form of the

equation.

Now as the Ag is obtained thus the Lateral Dimensions of the Column that

are the sides of the column can be easily determined.

The Ag or Gross-Sectional Area of the Column means that it is the product

of the two lateral sides of a column [i.e. Breadth (b) X Depth (D)], hence

reversely knowing the Ag we can determine the Lateral Dimensions.

For making a Square Section just Determine the Root Value of the Ag. Like

if the Value of Ag is 62500 mm2 Then considering square section of a

column we can get each side

proportion say b : D = 1 : 2 , Hence D=2b , Therefore, Ag = b X D = b X 2b

= 2b2 or b=

Most of the times after calculating the sides of a column it will give results

such as 196.51mm or 323.62 etc. values, which practically cannot be

provided at field, hence we must increase those values to the nearest

greater multiple of 25mm (i.e. 1 inch). For examples a value of 196.51mm

may be increased to 200mm or 225mm or 250 mm even, and a value of

323.62mm may be increased to 350mm. more it will be increased the

more it will be safer, but it is uneconomical to increase by a very high

economical factor.

STEP 4 : Check For Long/Short Column

Depending upon the ratio of Effective Length to the Least Lateral

Dimension of a column, a column may be classified as Long Column and

Short Column. If the value of this ratio is less than 12 then its called as a

short column and if the value is more than 12 then its called as a Long

Column. A short column mainly fails by direct compression and has a

lesser chance of failure by buckling. And in the case of a long column the

failure mainly occurs due to the buckling alone. Long column being

slender, that is being thin like stick as compared with its length it grows a

tendency to get bended by deviating from its verticality under the action

of loads. Due to this tendency of long column to get buckled (bended) a

long column of all same properties and dimensions that of a short column

will be able to carry much lesser load safely than that of the short column.

Suppose a 400mmx400mm short column can take a load of 1000KN , then

a long column of 400mmx400mm having same grade of concrete, same

amount of reinforcement and same workmanship will be able to carry a

lesser load like say about 800KN only, hence we get a loss of 200KN which

is 20% loss of load carrying capacity. So the above formula used in Step 3

holds good only for the Short Column. For using it in long column a little

modification is needed, which I will update it later when I will get hands on

this article again. For now let us concentrate on Short Column. First of all

we need to find out the effective length of a column, which can be

obtained by multiplying a factor with the actual unsupported length of the

column. The factor depends upon the end condition of the column. In most

general cases we use a Both End Fixed Column for which The Factor is

0.65.

Therefore, Effective Length = Effective Length Factor (0.65) x Unsupported

Length (l). suppose a column has a unsupported length of 2.7m =

2700mm, hence the effective length will be lef = 0.65x2700 = 1755mm.

Least lateral dimension means the shorter of the two dimensions of

column that is length and breadth. But in case of a circular column as

there is only diameter, hence we will use the diameter.

Suppose a column is of 400mmx200mm section and has an unsupported

length of 2700mm, then the Ration of Effective length t the Least Lateral

Dimension will be as follows :-

which is less than 12 and hence is a Short Column.

STEP 5 :Check For Eccentricity

Eccentricity means deviating from the true axis. Thus an Eccentric Load

refers to a load which is not acting through the line of the axis of the

column in case of column design. The eccentric load cause the column to

bend towards the eccentricity of the loading and hence generates a

bending moment in the column. In case of eccentric loading we have to

design the column for both the Direct Compression and also for the

bending moment also. Practically all columns are eccentric to some extent

which may vary from few millimetres to few centimetres. In practical field

it is almost impossible to make a perfectly axially loaded column, as a

reason we have to consider a certain value of eccentricity for safety even

though if we are designing for a axially loaded column. The conditions of

considering eccentricity and its value may differ from code to code

according to the country. Here I will tell you what I.S. : 456-2000 says.

According to it the eccentricity which we have to consider for design must

be taken as the greater of the followings :i) 20mm.

ii) (lef/500) + (b/30)

Where,

lef = Effective Length of the Column

b = Lateral Dimension of the Column (We have to calculate two separate

values for two sides in case of rectangular column)

Permissible Eccentricity :- 0.05b where b is the dimension of a side of a

column, we have to check for two sides separately in case of rectangular

column.

The Permissible eccentricity must be greater than or equal to the actual

eccentricity of the column. Or else we have to design it for bending also.

STEP 6 : Calculating The Area Of Steel Required

Now the Area of Steel Required Asc is to be calculated from the Ag as the

predetermined percentage of Ag. For example if the Gross-Sectional Area

of the Column is 78600 mm2 and at the starting of calculation of Ag it was

assumed that 1% Steel is used then we get,

Now we shall provide such amount of Reinforcements that the CrossSectional Area of the Reinforcement provided is Equal to or Greater than

the Cross-Sectional Area of Steel required above.

Hence in the above case we shall Provide 4 Nos. of 16mm Diameter Bars

Hence, The Actual Area of Steel Provided,

Hence the Area of Steel Provided is Greater than Area Of Steel Required,

Hence the Structure will be Safe.

NOTE : The minimum of 4 Nos. of Bars to be provided at the four corners

of a rectangular or Square Column and minimum diameter of Bars that to

be used is 12mm Diameter. Hence 4 Nos. of 12mm Diameter Bars are

must in any Column irrespective of their necessities.

STEP 7 : Determining The Diameter and Spacing Of The Lateral

Ties

In this step we will Determine the Diameter and the Spacing of the Lateral

Ties or Transverse Links or Binders.

The Diameter of the Ties shall not be lesser than the Greatest of the

following two values

1.

6mm

2.

For an example if a Column has 16mm and 20mm both types of bar as

Longitudinal Bars or main Reinforcement then 1/4th of 20mm = 5mm

Hence we shall provide 6mm diameter Ties. But in practice we use 8 dia

RTS only.

The Spacing of Ties shall not exceed the least of the followings three

values

1.

2.

3.

300 mm

[In this case our objective is to minimize the value to reduce the spacing

and to make the structure more stable, hence we shall take least value

and suitably in a multiple of 25mm]

4. Foundation:

(i) Depth of foundation:

Minimum depth of foundation: 500 mm from G.L. ( As per I.S. 1080-1962)

Minimum depth of foundation as per Rankines theory

d = p / {1- sin / 1+ sin }2

Where p = gross bearing capacity (SBC )

= density of soil.

= angle of repose of soil.

But in practice, the foundation depth is kept at 0.90m or even more. The

depth of

foundation depends not only on the nature of soil strata but also on the

height of

building. It is customary practice to place the foundation of a simple

footing at a

minimum depth of 1.50 m from ground level or at least 1.50 times the

width of

footing. In cold climates the depth is kept at a minimum of 1.50 m below

surface

because of possible frost action. For low rise building (less than four

storeys)

a depth of foundation of 1.2m to 1.50m may be adequate. For taller

buildings (6 to

12 storeys) 2.0m to 3.0m foundation depth will be adequate. For still taller

buildings

shallow foundation may not be suitable. In these case higher capacity of

pile

foundation shall be adopted to suit the super structure of load and nature

of soil

condition. For tall isolated Structures, like water towers, the foundation

depth may

be at 3.0m also.

deciding the depth of foundation such as the existing foundation of nearby

building, the possible influence of future expansion etc. If the height of

building is more, the horizontal forces acting on the building such as wind

force are large. As a thumb rule, minimum depth of foundation may be

selected as 5% to 10% of the height of building.

Where the moisture content may vary and cause shrinkage, the depth

must be

considered

with the minimum moisture content variation(1.50m to

2.0m).In case of

black cotton soils of expansive nature, the zone of movement may be as

deep as

3.0m to 3.50m. This is why ,the under reamed piles in expansive clays are

taken to

minimum depth of 3.50m.

(ii) Size of Footing:

For working out size of footing working load on foundation to be considered.

The load

to be increased for 10% on account for self weight of footing.

Area of Footing required= Axial Load on column+10% for self weight

SBC of Soil

For square footing side of footing = Area = X in m

PRACTICAL DIMENSIONS:

(i) Size of footing : 1000 mm to 3000 mm in multiples of 250 mm.

(ii) Maximum depth near column face:

500 to 1000 mm in multiples of 50 mm.

iii) Depth of Footing:

Depth of footing can be calculated based on bending moment, one way

shear and two way shear consideration. For preliminary, depth of footing

can be calculated using any one of the following approximate methods.

(a) Thumb rule based on projection of footing

a = projection of footing from face of column in metres and D is

in

mm.

(b) Thumb rule based on side of the footing for Fe 415 / Fe 500 steel.

Net upward soil pressure

in

D / A value

t / m2

5

1/7

10

1/5.5

15

1/5.0

20

1 /4.5

25

1 /4.0

30

1 /3.50

Note :

1)

2)

D = Overall depth of footing in cm.

A = Average side of footing in cm.

3)

to IS

456-2000)

(iv) Reinforcement:

Minimum Dia. of bar : 8 RTS

Preferable

Thumb rule:

: 10 RTS

(150 mm according

Up to 2.0 m width

Above 2.0m Up to 3.0 m width

Above 3.0 m width

: use 10 RTS

: use 12 RTS

: use 16 RTS

Minimum reinforcement :

Not less than 0.15% of c.s area for mild steel &

0.12% when HYSD bars are used.

Maximum spacing of bar : 200 mm

(180 mm for Tor 40 as per IS 456-2000)

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