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# Experiment 5: Heat Effects

## Formal Laboratory Report

Jan Luziane Ciocon, Peter Sam Co, Fatima Concepcion, Jenna Del Rosario

## Department of Math and Physics

College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
Espaa, Manila Philippines

Abstract
The different effects of heat among
objects specifically on their specific heat,
heat fusion and thermal expansion of solids
were evaluated after conducting the
experiment. In the first activity, the specific
heat of the metal object was determined and
computed using Energy Conservation. The
next activity, the heat of fusion of ice was
computed by Conservation of Heat energy.
The third activity, the coefficient of linear
thermal expansion of the rod was computed.

1. Introduction
Heat is energy produced and
transferred from one body, set of
components, region or thermodynamic
system to another in any way other than as
work. The specific heat is the amount of
heat required to change a unit mass or unit
quantity, such as mole of a substance by one
degree in temperature. Therefore, unlike the
extensive variable heat capacity, which
depends on the quantity of material, specific
heat is an intensive variable and has units of
energy per mass per degree. The heat
capacity of a substance can differ depending
on what extensive variables are held
constant, with the quantity being held

## constant usually being denoted with a

subscript.
The method of mixture based on the
fact that when a hot substance is mixed with
a cold substance, the hot body loses heat and
the cold body absorbs heat until thermal
equilibrium is achieved. At equilibrium, the
last temperature of mixture is measured. The
specific heat of the substance is calculated
with the help of the law of heat exchange.
During a phase transition of a given medium
certain properties of the medium change,
often discontinuously, as a result of some
external condition, such as temperature,
pressure, and others. For example, a liquid
may become gas upon heating to the boiling
point, resulting in an abrupt change in
volume.
Phase transition point is the
measurement of the external conditions at
which the transformation occurs. It is also
describe as the transitions between solid,
liquid, and gaseous states of matter, in rare
cases including plasma.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter
to change in volume in response to a change
in temperature like when a substance is
heated, its particles begin moving more and

## thus usually maintain a greater average

separation. Materials which contract with
increasing temperature are rare; this effect is
limited in size, and only occur within limited
temperature ranges. The degree expansion
divided by the change in temperature is
called the materials coefficient of thermal
expansion and generally varies with
temperature.sk
The main objectives of the
experiment are as follows: to determine the
specific heat of a solid by method of
mixtures, to determine the latent heat of
fusion and latent heat of vaporization of
water and to determine the coefficient of
linear thermal expansion of a solid.

## determined by using the method of mixture,

a technique used to determine the heat of
fusion of a substance with known specific
heat. In this method, when a cold substance
is mixed with a hot substance, the hot body
loses heat while the cold body gains heat
and its specific heat is calculated with the
use of the law of heat exchange.
The equation for the specific heat of two
substances with different temperatures is

Cs=

m s( Tf Ti) s

## Cs = Specific heat of the substance

Cl =Specific heat of the liquid

2. Theory

calorimeter

Specific Heat

## Specific heat is the amount of heat capacity

per unit mass required to raise the
temperature by 1C. The heat that is
removed or added during a phase change
does not alter the temperature when there is
a phase change encountered.

## The mathematical formula to get the amount

of energy needed to raise a temperature is

## mc= mass of the calorimeter

Ts= Temperature change of the substance
Tl= Temperature change of the liquid

## Tf= Final temperature

Ti= Initial temperature

Latent Heat

m= Mass

## Latent heat is the amount of energy released

or absorbed by a substance during a change
in its physical state that occurs without
altering its temperature. Heat of fusion is the
latent heat that is related with freezing a
liquid or melting a solid. Latent heat
associated with condensing a vapor or
vaporizing a solid or a liquid is known as the
heat of vaporization. The latent heat is
expressed as the amount of heat per mole or

C= Specific heat
Tf= Final temperature
Ti= Initial temperature

## The specific heat of two substances that

have different temperatures can be

## unit mass of the substance that is undergoing

a change of state.
The equation for latent heat is
Q=mL
Q = the amount of energy released or
absorbed during the change of phase of the
substance
m = the mass of the substance
L = the specific latent heat for a particular
substance Also expressed in
Lf = for heat of fusion
Lv =for heat of vaporization.
Thermal Expansion
Thermal expansion is the affinity of matter
to change in volume in reaction to a change
in temperature. When a substance is heated,
its particles begin moving and become
active hence maintaining a greater average
separation. Materials that contract upon an
increase in temperature are rare. This effect
only occurs within limited temperature
ranges because of its limited size.
Coefficient of thermal expansion is known
as the degree of expansion divided by the
change in temperature and it commonly
varies with temperature.
The equation for thermal expansion is
= Tx

= change in measurement
= change in measurement
T = change in temperature
x = length

3. Methodology

## The following activities were

conducted in this experiment. The first
focused on the determination of the Specific
Heat of a Metal. The initial weight and
temperature of the metal was first obtained
using an electron-gram balance and a
thermometer, respectively. A piece of thread
of about 30cm in length was attached to the
object and was slipped into a metal jacket,
which was then dipped into a hot bath. The
water was heated until the temperature of
the object rose to about 70-80 degrees
Celsius. While heating, a pre-weighed inner
vessel of a calorimeter was half-filled with
tap water. Its initial weight was obtained and
was then placed inside an insulating jacket.
The initial temperature of the water was
measured. Next, the heated metal object was
carefully transferred inside the calorimeter
and a thermometer was inserted through its
cover for stirring and to measure the
equilibrium temperature. The specific heat
of the metal, as well as the percentage error
were then computed.
In the subsequent activity, the latent
heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization
of water were determined. A pre-weighted
inner vessel of a calorimeter was then again,
half-filled with tap water. The initial
temperature of the water was recorded.
Chunks of ice were added and the mixture
was stirred until all ice melted (thermal
equilibrium). Two more weights were
recorded, one with tap water and the second,
mixed with melted ice. The equilibrium
temperature of the mixture was also noted
and the computation for the heat of fusion of
ice by Conservation of Heat energy and the
The last activity concentrated on the
Thermal Expansion of Solids. A given rod
was to be tested and its initial length was
obtained using a meter stick. It was then
placed inside a steam jacket with both ends

## closed tightly with a stopper. However, a

small portion on each end were left for
necessary contacts. Next, a metal frame,
which had a micrometer disc at one end, was
attached to the steam jacket with one end
free to expand. There were two outlets, the
first used rubber tubing to introduce steam
coming from the boiler and into the jacket,
while the other allowed steam to come out.
A thermometer was inserted through the
central hole of the jacket to measure its
initial temperature. The sudden movement
of the galvanometer needle, which was
attached to the metal frame, served as an
indicator that the carefully rotated screw was
already touching the rod. This was done to
obtain the initial reading of the micrometer
disc. Unwinding the screw allowed the rod
to expand while it was heated for twenty
minutes. The final temperature was noted
and, the screw was made in contact with the
rod again to get its final reading. The
difference between the two readings gave
the value for the expansion of the rod and
the coefficient of linear thermal expansion
was then computed.
4. Results and Discussion
Activity 1. Specific Heat of Metal
Table 1.0. Data and Results for Activity 1
Mass of the Sample
16.92g
Mass of Inner Vessel of
43.92g
Calorimeter (IVC)
Mass of IVC with H2O
173.00g
Mass of H2O inside IVC
129.08g
Initial Temperature of H2O 27.0C
& IVC
Temperature of Sample
65.0C
Equilibrium Temperature
28.0C
of Sample, H2O & IVC
Calculated Specific Heat of 0.19cal/gC
Sample
Accepted Value of Specific 0.22 cal/gC

Heat
Percent Error

13.64%

## The specific heat of the sample was

computed for in this activity. Specific heat is
described as the minimum amount of energy
needed in order to produce a change in the
temperature of the said sample of one gram
by 1 oC. By heating the metal sample,
energy is absorbed in relation to the low
specific heat of metals. Thus, as the metal
rod was placed in the calorimeter, its
temperature decreases while the temperature
of the overall system increases. With the
equations used in this experiment, the
calculated specific heat for the metal sample
was found to be 0.19cal/gC. In relation to
the given standard specific heat, or rather the
accepted value for the specific heat to be at
0.22cal/gC, the percent error was computed
for and concluded to be at 13.64%.
Such error percentage may be
attributed to various factors that may affect
the accuracy of results, such as human errors
in conducting the overall methodology of
temperatures, and also to environmental
factors that may have affected some aspects
in the flow of the experimental procedure.
Activity 2. Heat Fusion of Water
Table 1.0. Data and Results for Activity 2
Mass of Inner Vessel of
Calorimeter (IVC)
Mass of IVC with H2O
Mass of H2O inside IVC
Mass of IVC, H2O &
Melted Ice
Mass of Melted Ice
Initial Temperature of H2O
& IVC
Equilibrium Temperature

44.72
218.74g
174.22g
236.28g
62.06g
27.0C
19.0C

## of IVC, H2O & Melted Ice

Calculated Latent Heat of
14.5cal/g
Fusion
Accepted Value of Latent
798cal/g
Heat of Fusion
Percent Error
53.20%
Latent heat of Fusion was computed
and determined in this activity. Latent heat
of fusion is known to be the amount of heat
required to convert one amount (of unit) of a
specific substance from its solid phase to the
liquid phase, while leaving the temperature
of the overall system unchanged or
unaltered. As seen in table 2.0, the
calculated latent heat of fusion is 14.5cal/g.
In relation to the accepted value of
79.8cal/g., it can be said that the
experimental or calculated value is quite far
from the accepted value, thus yielding a
percent error of 81.83%.
Despite
numerous
trials
and
countless efforts to repeat and correct the
procedure done, similar results still persist.
Thus, these errors can be less attributed to
human error, as supported by numerous and
guided trials, and may rather be attributed to
other factors such as environmental factors
and those including the apparatus used.
Despite this, it is still possible that human
error is involved in the production of such
percent error, and these may include
and others.
Activity 3. Thermal Expansion of Solids
Table 1.0. Data and Results for Activity 3
Initial Length of Rod
54.5mm
Disc
1.14mm
Disc
Elongation of Rod
0.26mm

## Initial Temperature of Rod

Final Temperature of Rod
Experimental Value of
Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion
Accepted Value of Coefficient
of Thermal Expansion
Percent Error

20.0C
42.0C
21.7x10-6

25.0x10-6
13.6%

## In the last activity, the value of

coefficient of thermal expansion was
determined. Prior to the experiment proper,
initial readings on the rod and the
micrometer disc were conducted and is seen
in table 3.0. After the experiment procedure,
the change in length (L) was calculated to
be 0.26mm and change in temperature (T)
was 22C. With such values, the calculated
value of coefficient of thermal expansion
was 21. 7x10-6. In relation to the accepted
value of 25.0x10-6, the percent error was
determined to be 13.6%.
Similar to the other activities, errors
especially in regard to the temperature after
expansion. Moreover, difficulty with
apparatus,
specifically
with
the
thermometer, was encountered when
recording the temperature of the rod, which
may in turn ultimately contribute to the error
of the experiment.
5. Conclusion
In the experiment, we were able to
determine the specific heat of a metal
method of mixtures and the computed
specific heat of the metal is 0.19 cal/goC.
The latent heat and of vaporization of water
was also computed based from the results
and it is 14.5 cal/g. lastly, we were also able

## to determine the coefficient of linear thermal

expansion of a solid and the computed value
to complete all the missing values needed
for the computation to get the calculated

## specific heat of sample, latent heat fusion

and experimental value coefficient of
thermal expansion and also to compute the
percent error.

6. References
De Leon. (n.d.). Specific heat. Retrieved November 08, 2016, from
http://www.iun.edu/~cpanhd/C101webnotes/matter-and-energy/specificheat.html
Elert, G. (2016). Thermal Expansion. Retrieved November 08, 2016, from
http://physics.info/expansion/
Hnojewyj, M. (2015, March 21). Heat of Fusion. Retrieved November 08, 2016, from
http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Thermodyn
amics/State_Functions/Enthalpy/Heat_of_Fusion