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# Instrumentation and Process Control (2150504)

Sem- V- CH
Chapter Name: Response of Higher Order System

## Damped Vibrator: Second order System

A block of mass w resting on a horizontal, frictionless table is attached to a linear spring.
A viscous damper (dashpot) is also attached to the block.
Assume that the system is free to oscillate horizontally under the influence of a forcing function F(t).

The origin of the coordinate system is taken as the right edge of the block when the spring is in
the relaxed or unstretched condition.

## The block is motionless (dY/dt = 0) and

Block located at its rest position (Y = 0) before the forcing function is applied, i.e. time t = 0.
Damping is an effect that reduces the amplitude of oscillations in an oscillatory system.
This effect is linearly related to the velocity of the oscillations.
This restriction leads to a linear differential equation of motion, and a simple analytic solution.
except for mass-dominated systems.
In mechanics, damping may be realized using a dashpot.

This device uses the viscous drag of a fluid, such as oil, to provide a resistance that is related
linearly to velocity.
The damping force Fc is expressed as follows:

Fc= -cdY/dt

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## Instrumentation and Process Control (2150504)

Sem- V- CH
Chapter Name: Response of Higher Order System

## At time zero, the block is assumed to be at rest at this origin.

Consider the block at some instant when it is to the right of Y = 0 and when it is moving toward
the right (positive direction). Under these conditions,
1. The force exerted by the spring (toward the left) of -KY
where K is a positive constant, called Hookes constant.

## 2. The viscous friction force (acting to the left) of -C dY/dt,

where C is a positive constant called the damping coefficient.

## 3. The external force F(t) (acting toward the right).

Newtons law of motion, which states that the sum of all forces acting on the mass is equal to the
rate of change of momentum (F = mass X acceleration), takes the form:
w.d2Y/dt2 = -KY-CdY/dt+ F(t)
Where
with mass w, Spring (Hooks) constant k and , viscous damper of damping coefficient
c,Where
w in kilograms, k in newtons per meter, and c is the viscous damping coefficient, given in units
of Newton seconds per meter (N s/m) or simply kilograms per second. Rearranging

equation:

the

## w.d2Y/dt2 +CdY/dt +KC= F(t)

Prepared By: Mukesh M Mahbubani

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## Instrumentation and Process Control (2150504)

Sem- V- CH
Chapter Name: Response of Higher Order System

## Compare with standard form of second order equation:

2d2Y/dt2+ 2 dY/dt+Y(t)=X(t)
Time constant
2

: =w/K, =w/K
=C /4wK, and are positive
_______________

## Take Laplace Transforms

2 s2 Y(s)+ 2 s Y(s)+Y(s)=X(s)
Transfer function is:

Y(s)/X(s)=1/(

2 s2+ 2 s +1)

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