You are on page 1of 27

Odour formation ontextiles Why dotextilesaccumulate

Malodour?
Caroline Amberg
Swissatest testmaterials ag, St. Gallen, Schweiz

8th International Fresenius Conference Detergents and Cleaning


products, 12th/13th of February 2014, Mainz

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Introduction
CarolineAmberg
Over10yearsatSwissatest testmateirals ag:laundryhygiene,
microbiologicaltesting(disinfectants,products,food),applied
R&D(laundryhygiene,biofilmformationinhousehold
devicesandwatersupplysystems,Odourformationon
textiles)
Swissatest Testmaterials ag

February2014

Spinoffcompanyoftheswiss federalinstituteofmaterial
testingandresearch

FormerEMPATestmaterials ag

Development,productionandsalesoftestmaterials for
detergentandwashingmachineproducersandtextile
industry+Microbiologicallab

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Malodour ontextiles:Whats the problem?

Knownproblemonsyntheticfibers (sweatodour)

Washingatlowtemperaturewithaliquiddetergentisnot
sufficienttoremoveallmalodourcomponents

Malodouraccumulationoldsweatmaldourontextiles

Dailylifecomfortisreduced
Lifecycleofthetextileisdecreased
Highercostsanduseofressources

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Malodour ontextiles:Microorganisms
Microbial growth:
a) Microbial growth on the fiber: Bacteria form
a biofilm on the fiber. They use sweat and
sebum compounds (odorless) as nutrients,
and degrade them to odorous volatiles
c)

Microbial degradation of the fiber:


Bacteria degrade the fiber, and release
odorous substances

Chemical adsorption:
b) Odorous substances produced by the skin
flora are adsorbed to the fiber,
and released over time
A combination of these effects

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Malodours

Newand accumulated malodours

pluswater

Malodours like sweat,smoke,food,moldy malodours


February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Malodour inawash and wear cycle


Wearthetextile:
Axillasweatasprimarysourceofodourontheskin
Interactionofvolatilesubstancesandmicroorganismswith
thefiber,dye,etc

Dirtylaundry:wetconditions,contactwithother
textiles,malodours
Washingprocess:
removalofcertainmalodourcompounds
Interactionofdetergentandsoftenerwithfiber(dye,
finishingetc)microorganismsandvolatilesubstances

Wear:Axillasweatandbodywarmth
Interactionwithmicroorganismonthetextile
Interactionwithvolatilesubstancesalreadypresentonthe
textile
Interactionwithfiber,dye,finishingetc.

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Malodour formation inthe axilla

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Microorganisms inthe axilla

Sweat is primary onodourless substance and


contains ca.1E+07CFU/ml

Sweat is transformed into odorous substances


by microorganisms

Staphylococcus sp.,aerobic Corynebacteria,


Micrococci,Propionibacteria and Malassezia
(Yeast)

Significant relation between malodour and


number of totalaerobesrespectively total
aerobic Coryneforms (James,Casey,Hyliands
and Mycock,2004)

Hughvariations within humans of microbial


numbers and malodour formation inthe axilla

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Biotransformationinthe axilla

Steroids
Corynebacteria

Odorous
androstene

Sources: James, Casey, Hyliands and MyCock, 2004; Austin and Ellis, 2003
February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

Correlation of Malodour and microbial numbers inthe axilla

Source:Tayloretal.,2003.InternationalJournalof Cosmetic Science.

Totalaerobesand aerobic coryneforms correlate with axillary malodour


assessed by probands and panel tests
February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

10

Sweat malodour and producers inthe axilla

February2014

Organism

Gram

Odoroussubstancesproduced

SelectedReferences

Bacillus licheniformis

Bacillus subtilis

isobutyric acid,
isovaleric acid,
2methylbutyricacid

Ara etal.2006

Corynebacterium xerosis

5androst2en17one

Obendorfetal.2007,
Dumasetal.2009

Corynebacterium
tuberculostearicum

Corynebacterium bovis

3methyl2hexenoicacid,
3methyl3hydroxyhexanoicacid

Natschetal.2005

Corynebacterium jeikeium

3methyl2hexenoicacid,
3methyl3hydroxyhexanoicacid,
3methyl3sulfanylhexan1ol

Natschetal.2005,
Bratt&Dayan2011

Corynebacterium minutissimum

Corynebacterium striatum

5androst2en17one,
3methyl2hexenoicacid,
3methyl3hydroxyhexanoicacid,
3methyl3sulfanylhexan1ol

Obendorfetal.2007,
Natschetal.2003,
Natschetal.2005,
Bratt&Dayan2011

Propionibacterium acnes

propanoic acid,
aceticacid

Jamesetal.2004

Staphylococcus epidermidis

isovalericacid,
5androst2en17one

Obendorfetal.2007,
Munketal.2001,
Araetal.2006,
Dumasetal.2009,
Troccazetal.2004,
Goweretal.1997

Staphylococcus haemolyticus

3methyl3sulfanylhexan1ol

Troccaz etal.2004

Troccazetal.2004

Troccazetal.2004

Troccaz etal.2004

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

11

Mostimportant compounds /Microorganisms inthe axilla


Odour fingerprint of every individual
Dailyvariations
Keymicroorganisms are Corynebacterium sp.
Keycompounds:
3methyl2hexenoicacid

Corynebacterium sp.

3methylobutanoicacid
(Isovaleric acid)

3hydroxy3methylhexanoicacid

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

12

Malodour transfer to the textile

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

13

Malodour formation onTextiles

Odor intensity is highest on


Polyester,followed by Cotton
onlowest by Wool
Well,thats what we
experience inour everyday
life
Butwhat are the reasons?

Source:McQueenetal.2007,TextileResearchJournal
February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

14

Microbial growth onthe fabric

Lower growth of Staphylococcus sp.


(JIS1902)within 24hours on
hydrophilic fibers compared to
hydrophobic fibers

Testwith probands (field tests):

Microflora from the axilla is able to form


biofilm ontextiles
Lower Biofilmamount onhydrophilic
fiber compared to hydrophobic fibers

Source:Teufeland Redl,2006.Lenzinger Berichte

Is Hydrophobicity /surface energy crucial for microbial attachment?


Is the amount of microorganisms responsible for malodour formation (likeinthe axilla)?
Canwe set amalodour limit as critical number of microorganisms?
February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

15

Microbial adhesion factors onfabrics


Depending onthe
microorganisms (charge,
hydrophobicity of cell
wall)
Nonspecific interaction
with the fabric
VanderWaals
interaction
Electrostatic
interaction
Specific interaction
(distinct groups inthe
bacterial cell wall)
higher adhesion onhydrophobic,nonpolarsurfaces:Hydrophobicity is one of
the crucial factors of bacterial attachment
Source:Fletcher,M.(1996)Bacterialadhesion.WileyLiss,USA
February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

16

Number of Microorganisms =malodour intensity?


Totalaerobic counts

TotalCorynebacterium sp

TotalCorynebacterium Subgroup

Wool

Microbial reduction ondifferentfiber types over


storage times of 1day,7days and 28days

cotton

polyester

Malodour intensity stays thesame over


storage time
Comparablemicrobial numbers onwool,
cotton andPolyester
Microbial numbers changed overstorage time
depending onthefabric

Microbial reduction has no influence on


malodour intensity

Source:McQueenetal.2007,TextileResearchJournal
February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

17

Number of Microorganisms =malodour intensity?


Microorganisms inthe Axilla

Truefor primary odour


generated inthe axilla

Microorganisms onthe fabric

Nottrue for the secondary odour developing


onthe garment incontact with the axilla

Bacterial attachment and growth ontextilesis probably notthe only reason for
malodour formation and persistance
Source:ElizabethA.Grice&JuliaA.Segre,NatureReviewsMicrobiology9,244253(April2011)
February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

18

Chemicaladsorption
DifferentFibers have differentbinding /retention
properties for sweat malodour compounds:

Isovaleric acid onwool,cotton and Polyester:The


sweat malodour compound wasfastreleased from
Polyesterwhereas onwool 98%of the isolvaleric acid
remained bound onthe fabric (measured after3h
incubation)

Hydrophilic coating of Wool,Cottonand Polyester


increasing the retention of isovaleric acid onCotton
and Polyester.

Paneltests showed alower odour intensity of the


coated PESand Cotton.

Isovaleric acid

Source:Hammer,T.R.,BernerDannenmann,N.Hfer,D.(2013).Flavour and Fragrance Journal.


February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

19

Malodour transfer to the textile

Amount of microorganisms /
Corynebacterium is notdirectly related to
the maldour intensity of the textile

Malodour intensity is highly dependent on


the fiber type

Microbial attachment and chemical


adsorption seem to be dependent onthe
hydrophobicity of the textile(beside other
textileproperties likewater sorption etc)

Relationbetweenmalodourontextiles,microbialinteractionand
chemicaladsorptionisnotfullyunderstandandsubjectoffurther
investigation

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

20

Malodour removal during alaundry process

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

21

Malodour removal during alaundry process

3methyl2hexenoicacid

pluswater

Isovaleric acid
Depending onthe cycle:
Temperature
Detergent (pH)
Water /Mechanical action

Powder detergent
(pH10to 11):
Mostcarboxylic acid are
removed by the washing
process
Androstene??
Liquiddetergent
(pH89):
Volatilefatty acids are
nottotally removed

5androst2en17one

Washing may change the odour profile of the textile


February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

22

Malodour compounds onwashed textiles


Odoroussubstance

Literaturereference

1hexen3one(Ketone)

Munketal.(2000)

1octen3one(ketone)

Munketal.(2000)

Ethyl2methylpropanoate(ester)

Munketal.(2000)

Ethylbutanoate(ester)

Munketal.(2000)

4heptenal(aldehyde)

Munketal.(2000)

Octanal (aldehyde)

Munk etal.(2000)

2octenal(aldehyd)

Munketal.(2000)

ChungandSeok (2012)
Methional(Aldehyd)

Munk etal.(2000)

2nonenal(Aldehyd)

Munk etal.(2000)

2,6nonadienal(Aldehyd)

Munk etal.(2000)

2,4nonadienal(Aldehyd)

Munk etal.(2000)

2,4decadienal(Aldehyd)

Munk etal.(2000)

Hexanal(aldehyde)

ChungandSeok (2012)

Nonanal(aldehyde)

ChungandSeok(2012)

Decanal(aldehyde)

Takeuchietal(2012)

4methoxybenzaldehyd(aldehyde)

Munketal.(2000)

3methylbutanoicacid(fattyacid)

Takeuchietal.(2012)

4methyl3hexenoicacid(fattyacid)

Kimotaetal.(2012)
Takeuchietal.(2012)

5methyl4hexenoicacid(fattyacid)

Takeuchietal.(2012)

6heptenoicacid(fattyacid)

Takeuchietal.(2012)

4methyloctanoicacid(fattyacid)

Munketal.(2001)

4ethyloctanoicacid(fattyacid)

Munketal.(2001)

Guaiacol

Munk etal.(2001)

Volatilefatty acids
January2014

aldehyds

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

ketones
23

Removal of Microorganisms during alaundering process

water consumption

washing temperature

appropriate detergent choice (bleach /no bleach)


Lowtemperature cycles and liquiddetergents are notable to
remove microorganisms from textiles

Source:IFHreport (2013):Effectiveness of laundering processes used indomestic home


setting.

Bleach systems are notalways adapted to low temperatures


Liquids donotcontain bleach (notstable)
Washing machines dooften notreach the stated temperature

Dubai,January2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

24

Summary
Malodour formation is aresult of microbial transformation of former odourless sweat
and sebum compounds
Malodour intensity correlates with the number of aerobesand number of
Corynebacterium sp.
Onthe textilemalodour sources are more complex:
Microbial activity onthe textileitself
Chemicaladsorption of the volatilesubstances produced by bacteria onthe skin
and onthe textile
Chemicaladsorption seems to be important and driven by the fiber properties like
hydrophobicity
Thetypical sweat odour compound (volatilefatty acids)are removed inawashing test
with apowder detergent (highpH)whereas aliquiddetergent low temperature cycle
is notable to remove them totally
Afterwashing,the textileshave differentmalodour profiles then before washing:
Aldehydes and ketones are more prominentafterwashing
Alow temperature cycle with aliquiddetergent is notable to remove bacteria on
textilecompletely.Furthergrowth afterwashing is probable.
R. Donlan, (2002).
Biofilms: Microbial Life
on Surfaces.

February2014

Malodour accumulation ontextilesseems to be acomplex interaction between


microbes,volatilesubstances and the fiber

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

25

Odour projects
CTIprojectNr.13310.1PFFLINM:Developmentof new textilecoatings reducing
bacterial adhesion finished 2013
Cooperation of Swissfederal laboratories for materialtesting and research (EMPA),SANITIZEDAGand
Swissatest Testmaterialsag

With SanitizedPluma aqua sensation

Followup CTIprojectNr.16190.1PFNMNM:Developmentof new textile


coatings reducing sweat odour start 1thof March2014
Investigations onchemical /microbial /washing process impacts ontextilemalodour formation
Improvement of textilehygiene and malodour prevention

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

26

Thankyouforyourattention

February2014

Swissatest TestmaterialienAG,Mvenstrasse 12,CH9015St.Gallen,swissatest.ch

27