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Optics

Sources of Light
1. Luminous Objects:
Give out their own light (Primary Source). e.g. Sun, Stars, light bulb, candle etc.
2. Non Luminous Objects:
Reflect light of luminous objects (Secondary Source). e.g. Moon, planets, etc.
We see things due to reflection phenomenon
There should be light
The light rays must be entering the observers eye making an image.
Types of materials:
1. Transparent (See through) e.g. glass
2. Opaque (Non see through) e.g. wooden chair, table
3. Translucent/semi transparent e.g. frosted glass (partially allows light to pass
through) butter paper/wax paper.
In space we see darkness as there is no dust or particles to reflect the light.
Light:
Type of energy that makes things visible to us.

Light itself is invisible.


Light travels (propagates) along a straight path (line).

Ray of light:
Directed path followed by the light.
Fig

Light Beam:
Collection (set) of parallel light rays.
Fig

Pin-hole Camera:

Fig

Reflection of light:
The bouncing of light from a smooth (polished) surface like (mirror) is called reflection of light.

Fig

Light

Fig

i.

Incident Ray:
Light ray (from source) approaching the reflecting surface (mirror).

ii.

Reflected Ray:
Light ray that bounces off the reflecting surface.

iii.

Point of incidence:
Point of the reflecting surface (mirror) where incident ray strikes it.

iv.

Normal:
Imaginary line, at the point of incidence, perpendicular to the mirror.
Fig

v.

Angle of incidence:
Angle between normal and incident ray.

vi.

Angle of reflection:
Angle between normal and reflected ray.
Fig

Whenever you are seeing something, and are given an observer, light ray arrow will be directed
in the eye.

Fig

Laws of Reflection:
There are two laws of reflection:
1. Angle of incidence (< i ) is equal to angle of reflection (< r )
i.e.
<i=<r
2. Incident ray, reflected ray and normal at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane.
Image formed by plane mirror:
Consider an object O in front of the plane mirror, MM, as shown in the diagram. Draw two
rays emerging from the object and hitting the mirror such that:
Fig

1. One ray is incident at the mirror, at 90o to the surface of the mirror i.e. < i = 0o
2. The second ray striking the mirror at any angle other than 90o to its surface.
i.e. 0< < i < 90o

Fig

3. Now draw reflected rays for both I and II according to the laws of reflection.
4. Produce the reflected rays behind the mirror, these rays intersect at I.
5. The point of intersection of these extrapolated rays is the location of the image formed by
the plane mirror.
Conclusion:
From the diagram, when OG and GI are measured it will be seen that:
GI = OG
Distance between image and mirror is equal to distance between object and mirror.

Real Image:
Image that can be taken (transformed) on screen (Shadow).
Virtual Image:

Image that cannot be taken in screen also called unreal/ imaginary image.
Characteristics of Image formed by plane mirror:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Image is formed at same distance behind the mirror as object is in front of it (mirror).
Image has same size and is upright.
Image has same colors.
Virtual image is formed (i.e. it cannot be taken on screen).
Image is literally inverted (side-wise opposite) i.e. left side of object becomes right of
the image and vice versa.

How far is the image of chart from the observer?


Ans: 12m

Fig

State the value of < i and hence that of < r


Fig

Ans. < i = 55o (90-35) = 55o


So < r = 55o

Light
Ray Diagram, for image formation, by plane mirror
1. Single Ray Diagram (distance of image is same) (no observer)
Fig

Single Ray Diagram (with observer)


Fig

2. Double Ray Diagram


Fig

What is the time seen in the mirror?


Fig

Reversibility Law
Fig

Reversibility Law:
Instead of locating objects image. The image of observer can be located to draw ray diagram.
View Range:
Part of rear object, seen inside the mirror.
When we can see image in mirror? (Range of view)
Fig
Observer B will be able to see the image only. The line drawn from image to observer A, doesnt intersect
the mirror, hence no reflection take place and image is not seen.
Q. What part of the signboard is seen inside the mirror?
Fig
< with wall = < of incidence, provided incident ray is parallel to ground.
Fig
Multiple Reflections:
Reflection from two mirrors.
i.

Reflection from two vertical mirrors, which are mutually perpendicular.


[Every image formed in one mirror becomes object for the other mirror].
In vertical perpendicular mirrors, total 4 images are formed but only 3 are seen because at G, two
images overlap.

ii.

Figmirrors, which are parallel.


Reflection from two vertical
Fig

Refraction
Refraction
The change in speed and direction of light, due to change in medium (change is density of a
medium) is known as refraction of light (bending of light).

i.e.

When light travels from air to glass (rare to denser medium), it bends closer to the normal
and
Its speed decreases
Its direction changes
Fig

When light passes from glass to air [denser to rare medium]:


It bends away from the normal
Its speed increases
Fig

Laws of Refraction
There are two laws of refraction, as given:
1. Incident ray, refracted ray and normal at the point of incidence, all lie on the same plane.
2. The ratio of sine of angle of incidence (< i ) to the sine of angle of refraction (< r ) is
constant (for given medium).
i.e.
s i
=constant
s r
Snells Law:
The ratio between sin < i to sin < r is constant.
Refraction Index (of a medium):
Bending power of a medium

Fig

The constant ratio between sin < i to sin < r is known as refractive index of the medium i.e.
R . I .=

s i
s r

R . I .=

s r
s i

(The light passing from rare to denser medium)

(Light passing from denser to rare medium)

If < i is increased, corresponding < r also increases.


Every medium has its particular value of R.I. e.g.
R.I. of glass is 1.5 or 3/2

And R.I. of water is 1.3 or 4/3


Fig

measure < i = 45o


given that R.I = 1.5
calculate < r
R . I .=

1.5=

s i
s r

s 45
s r

sin < r x 1.5 = sin 45


< r = sin-1

sin 45
1.5

< r = 28.1o

Draw refracted ray

Refraction
Q. Draw the path of light ray through the prism, given that R.I. of material of prism is 1.5.
Fig

R . I .=

1.5=

sin<i
sin<r

R . I .=

sin 55
sin<r

1.5 =

1.5 x sin r = sin 55


sin r =

sin55
1.5

r = sin-1

sin 55
1.5

sin <r
sin<i

sin<r
sin 30

sin30 x 1.5 = sin r


sin-1(sin30 x 1.5) = r

48.6o = r

r = 33o

r = 49o

Fig

R . I .=

1.5=

sin<i
sin<r

R . I .=

sin 53
sin<r

1.5 =

1.5 x sin r = sin 53


sin r =

sin53
1.5

r = sin-1

sin 53
1.5

sin<r
sin 30

sin30 x 1.5 = sin r


sin-1(sin30 x 1.5) = r

48.6o = r

r = 32o

r = 49o

Transparent Sphere:
Fig

R . I .=

sin<i
sin<r
1.5=

r = sin-1

sin 28
1.5

sin <r
sin<i

sin 28
sinr

r = 18o
Refraction

Image formation due to refraction


The image of an object, lying under water, appears to be higher than its actual depth, due to
phenomenon of refraction, as shown below:
Fig

So R.I. can also be defined as:


Ratio b/w real depth to apparent depth is known as R of the medium

i.e.
R . I .=

e.g.

Real dept h
apparent dept h

R . I .=

4
3

4 24
=
3 x
x=18 m

R.I can also be defined in terms of speed of light, as given below:


The Ratio b/w speed of light in air (vacuum) to speed of light in medium gives R.I. of the
medium.
i.e.
R . I .=

Speed of lig h tair


Speed of lig h tmedium

R . I .=

V air
V medium
Fig

Light
Critical Angle < c:
The angle of incidence in denser medium for which the angle of refraction in (rare medium) is
90o i.e. < r = 90o, is called critical angle i.e. < c.
Condition for critical angle:
Light ray must be travelling from denser to rare medium. Every medium has particular value of
critical angle.
e.g.
Critical angle for glass is 42o i.e. < c = 42o
And critical angle for water is 49o i.e. < c = 49o
Fig

Total internal reflection:


When angle of incidence, in denser medium becomes larger than critical angle, the light ray turns
back into the denser medium. This phenomenon is known as Total Internal reflection.
Conditions for TIR:

Light must be travelling from denser to rare medium.


Angle of incidence must be larger than critical angle i.e. < i > < c.
In total internal reflection, no refraction occurs
In simple refraction, reflection also occurs.

R.I. in terms of Critical Angle

Fig

By definition of R.I. for light travelling from denser to rare medium, we can write:
R . I .=

sin<r
sin<i

Under critical condition:


We have

<i=<c

And

< r = 90o

Applications of Total Internal Reflection


i.
ii.

Periscope
Optic Fiber

i.

Periscope consists of two right isosceles prisms as shown below:


Fig

Image formed by periscope is:


1) Upright
2) Virtual
3) Same Size

Applications of Total Internal Reflection


Optical Fiber:
Thin, hair like projection, in which light entering from one side, is totally internally reflected
repeated till it emerges from the other end.
(Irrespective of the bends in it)
Fig

Uses of Optic Fiber:

Medical use
Telecommunication

Medical Use:
Optic cable is injected into the patients body to view inner body organs. The end of this optic
cable bears a lens; light is shown onto the inner body organs, through this optic cable (by
phenomenon of total internal reflection). The light reflected by the organs is intercepted by the
cable and following total internal reflection, it reaches the system connected to the cable which
traces the image of that organ from where the light was reflected; which is seen on screen or
computer connected to it.
Telecommunication:

Optic Fiber is used to transmit audio signals and video signals without any interference. Number
of signals can be transmitted simultaneously, without distortion. i.e. almost 1400 audio signals
and above 10 video signals.
Fig

Lenses
Lens:
A transparent (refracting) (object) medium with at least one curved surface.
Mainly, there are two types of lenses:
1) Convex Lens /Converging lens:
Lens which is thicker at the center than at the edges, as shown below:
Fig

2) Concave Lens/Diverging Lens


Lens which is thinner at the center than at the edge as shown
Terms related to lenses

Fig

Center of Curvature (C or 2F)


The center of sphere from which lens is taken.
Fig

Optical Center (O,C)


Geometrical midpoint of the lens

Principle axis
Fig
A line passing through center of curvatures and optical center of the lens

Fig
Principle Focus (F) or Focal Point or Principle Focal Point

Fig
The point on principle axis, where set of rays parallel to principle axis meet after passing (refracting)
through the lens

Focal Length (f)


Distance between lens (Optical center) and the principle focus.
Fig

Focal Plane
Imaginary surface, at the focal point, (passing) perpendicular to the principle axis
Fig

Distance between lens (optical center) and center of curvature is double the distance between
optical center and focal point.
Rays used for image formation by (converging) lens:
1) A light ray incident on lens, parallel to the principle axis, passes through the focal point
(F) after passing through the lens.
Fig

2) A light ray incident on the lens, through focal point (F) becomes parallel to the principle
axis after passing through the lens.
Fig

3) A light ray incident on the lens at its optical center passes straight through the lens
(without bending).
Fig

Symbols for Lenses:


Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Fig

Inverted
Smaller than object
Real image
Between F and 2F

Facts:
Virtual image: always upright
Real Image: always inverted
If real rays meet image formed is real image. If unreal rays meet image is virtual.
Object outside 2F
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Inverted
Smaller than object
Real image
Lying between F and 2F
Uses: camera, eye

Object between 2F and F


Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Inverted
Magnified (larger than object)
Real image
Lying outside 2F
Uses: projector, photograph enlarger.
All optical devices in the world give image.

Object at F:
Uses: To produce a parallel beam of light, as in a spotlight.
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Highly magnified
Upright
Virtual
Formed at infinity

highest magnification at F

Rays are parallel so we assume that image is formed at infinity.


At F, image becomes from real to virtual moving towards O, image becomes magnified.
Object between F and O

(Slightly to the left of center of O and F)


Uses: magnifying glass
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Magnified
Upright
Virtual
Behind object

Object at 2F
Uses: Photocopier making equal size copy
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Inverted
Same size
Real
On 2F

Object far from lens: rays are parallel to each other. e.g. rays from sun.
Object at Infinity
Uses: object lens of a telescope
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Diminished (very small)


Real
Inverted
On focal plane

Mutually parallel rays = same point of intersection

Lenses
1. Object outside 2F
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Inverted
Smaller than object
Real Image
Lying between F and 2F

2. Object at 2F
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Inverted
Same size
Real Image
On 2F

3. Object between 2F and F


Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Inverted
Magnified
Real Image
Lying outside 2F

4. Object at F
Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Fig

Highly magnified
Upright
Virtual
Formed at Infinity

5. Object at Infinity
Image is
i.

Fig

Diminished

ii.
iii.
iv.

Real
Inverted
On focal plane

6. Object between F and O


Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Magnified
Upright
Virtual
Behind Object

Lenses
Focusing
Fig

Screen: A plane white surface, used to obtain image on it.


Screen must be lying at the points where the rays are passing through exactly.
To get clear image, position can be adjusted of:
i.
ii.
iii.

Screen
Lens
Object

Q. How to focus a blur image on screen?


Ans. To get a clear image, adjust the position of:
i.
ii.
iii.

Screen
Lens
Object

Lenses
Q1. (a) An object 2cm high lies 8cm away from a convex lens of focal length 3cm.
By drawing appropriate ray diagram, show the image formed by the lens.

(b) Measure the size of image formed.


(c) Measure the distance of image from the lens.
(d) Calculate the ratio of size of image to size of object.

(e) Calculate the ratio of

Distance of image
Distance of object
lens lens

(f) Compare the two answers for parts (d) and (e). What do you conclude from these answers?
Linear Magnification (M):
The ratio between image size to object size is known as linear magnification.
i.e.
Object
Image
Linear Magnification=
Object
Image
M =
Linear magnification has no units, as it is a ratio between similar quantities.

Lenses
Q1. An object of size 1m is placed in front of a thin converging lens of focal length 0.5m, at a
distance of 0.75m. By using appropriate scale, draw ray diagram to show the image formation by
the lens and hence calculate linear magnification of the image, stating the nature of the image.
Scale:
1cm = 0.25m
2cm = 0.5m
3cm = 0.75m
4cm = 1m
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Inverted
Magnified
Real Image
Lying outside 2F

Linear Magnification=

7.2 cm
4 cm
= 1.8

Q2. An object of 3cm is placed 6cm in front of thin converging lens, such that the image
obtained on screen has a magnification of 2. Draw appropriate Ray Diagram, and using this
diagram, measure focal length of the lens used.
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Inverted
Magnified
Real Image
Lying outside 2F

Diverging Lens:

Refracted ray seems to be coming from focal point.


Virtual Images
Upright
Rays are virtual
Fig

Image is
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Diminished
Virtual
Upright
Between F and O

Human Eye Defects

Mainly there are two types of Eye defects, as given below:


i.

Short Sightedness
A person, unable to see distant objects, clearly, but can see near objects, clearly, is said to
be suffering from short sightedness.
In short sightedness, image of distant object is formed before the retina as shown below
Fig

Short Sightedness: image is formed short of retina


Q. How to cure short sightedness?
Ans. A diverging lens of suitable focal length is used to correct this defect as shown.
Fig

Long Sightedness:
A person suffering from long sightedness cannot see near objects clearly, but distant objects can
be seen clearly.
In long sightedness, the image of near object is formed behind retina as shown below.
Fig

A convex lens of suitable focal length is used to correct this defect.


Fig

Focal Length of a convex lens is inversely proportional to the thickness of the lens.
Fig

Dispersion of White Light


Dispersion:
Splitting of white light into its consistent (constituent) colors, after passing through the prism, is
called Dispersion as shown below.
Fig

Two Phenomena:

Refraction
Dispersion
Both occur as soon as light enters prism.

Spectrum:
Band of seven colors, resulting from dispersion, is known as (visible) spectrum.
The colors obtained in this spectrum are:
Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red
(VIBGYOR)
Fig

The bending of these colors depends upon frequency (wavelength)


i.e. lesser the frequency of a color, lesser will be refraction (bending) of that color, and vice
versa.
i.e.
Refraction Frequency
1
wave lengt h

Or Refraction

Human eye cannot detect frequency less than red or greater than violet.
Hence, red color has least frequency (within visible spectrum) so it shows least refraction,
whereas violet has highest frequency (within visible spectrum) so it shows greatest refraction.
The rest of the colors in spectrum (ROYGBIV) are in increasing order of frequency:
Frequency increases

Frequency Decreases

R O Y G B I V

V I B G Y O R

Decreasing Wavelength

Dispersion of White Light


Fig

Dispersion:
Visible and Invisible spectrums

Frequency Increases

Infra Red Range (frequencies):


Set of frequencies lesser than the frequency of red color, cannot be detected by normal human
eye, and hence are known as Infra-red frequencies (Range). It includes Infra-red, Microwaves
and Radio waves.
Ultra Violet Range (frequencies):
Set of frequencies higher than the frequency of violet color cannot be detected by normal human
eye, hence are known as Ultra-violet frequencies (Range).
It includes
Ultra-violet, X-Rays, Gamma radiations
Electromagnetic Spectrum:
Fig

Set of frequencies coming from the sun, is known as electromagnetic spectrum. Those radiations
that can travel through vacuum are electromagnetic rays or electromagnetic radiation.
OR
Collectively, visible and invisible spectrum, are known as electromagnetic spectrum.

OR
Set of all frequencies that can pass through vacuum.
Radio
Waves

Micro
waves
Radiations

Infra-red

Visible

Radiations

Spectrum

UltraViolet
Radiation

X-rays

Gamma
Rays

Increasing frequency, decreasing wave length


Common Features of Components of Electromagnetic Radiation:

The frequency remains unchanged. When they enter from one medium to another (speed
and wavelength changes).
They carry no charge.
They transfer energy from one place to another.
They can be emitted and absorbed by matter.

The wave equation v =f is applicable to all of them.

They can pass through vacuum.


These radiations are transverse (waves) in nature.
Direction of motion of particles go perpendicular to direction of wave of medium.
They travel at same (constant) speed i.e. 3.0 x 108 ms-1 in vacuum (air).
They are reflected and refracted.
Fig

Revision Points
1. Reflection
What you should know:
Light
Sources of light (Primary, Secondary)
Propagation of light : along a straight path shown by an arrow
Fig
Beam: Collection of rays can be parallel, conical.
Non reflecting object: anything that we cant see in a lighted room.
Reflecting Object: Anything visible to our eye e.g. mirror has maximum reflection,
minimum absorption.
Opaque Table: Max absorption, minimum reflection.

Definitions: -incident ray, -reflected ray, -normal, point of incidence, laws of


reflection, < s of incidence and reflection.
Reflection: Bouncing of light from any smooth, polished surface (e.g. mirror)
Fig

Image formation by plane mirror


Characteristics of image formed by plane mirror.
Line joining image and object should be perpendicular.

Fig

Fig
Reversibility Law and Range of View

Range of view: What part of object will be visible inside mirror.

Fig

Multiple Reflection:
Parallel Mirrors: (Infinite no of images formed)
Whenever an image lies on I2 in 1 front side of mirror, it becomes object for
the mirror.
Fig

Mutually Perpendicular Mirrors


4 images, 3 are seen at one time, two images can be seen.

Fig

Periscope:
To view optical device objects above line of sight formed by 2 parallel mirrors,
inclined at 45o. Image is virtual, upright, cant be taken on screen and is of same
size.
Fig

There is no 100% reflection, absorption or refraction.


2. Refraction
Def: Change in speed and direction of light due to change in medium.
Fig

In Reflection: Direction changes, speed remains same.


In Refraction: Direction + speed changes due to change in medium.
Laws of refraction
For 2nd law: always

Sini
=R . I
Sinr

or inverted according to question.

sin<i
=Constant
sin<r

(Rare to denser medium)

sin<r
=Constant
sin<i

(Denser to rare medium)

sin<i
sin<r

R . I .=

No S.I unit as its a ratio between two quantities.


R.I. of glass = 1.5 or

3
2

R.I of water = 1.3 or

4
3

Image Formation by Refraction:


Fig

Real Dept h
Apparent Dept h

R . I .=

Larger depth is numerator

V air ( vacuum )

R . I .=

V medium

Where V is speed of light


< c for water = 49o
< c for glass = 42
sin<r
sin<i

R . I .=

sin 90
Sinc

R . I .=

1.5=

1
sin

1
sin

Fig

sin =

1
1.5

=sin1

[ ]
1
1.5

= 41.8 =42o
Critical < : the angle of incidence in optically denser medium for which the < of refraction is 90o.
Total I R:
-

Light must be travelling form denser to rare medium.


< of incidence must be greater than critical <.

Physical Quantities:

Time : Mass : Weight: Length: -

Stop Clock
Stop watch (Electronic, Analogue)
Electronic Timer
Physical balance/ beam balance
Electronic balance
Top pan balance
Spring balance / Newton Meter (N)
Meter rule, measuring tape
1m = 100cm
Vernier calipers (correct to 0.1mm or 0.01cm)
1cm = 10mm
Micrometer screw gauge (correct to 0.01 mm or 0.001cm)1m=1000mm

Pressure
P=

F
A

SI unit

This formula is for solids:


surface
Fig

pressure
min
F
100
P= =

A 0.015 m2

N
m2
P=

Pa or Nm-2
Weig h t
A

P=

T h rust
A

where A is area in contact with the

pressure
max
100
P=

0.1 x 0.02

Weight = mg

Area = 0.15m x 0.1m


= 0.015m2

=10x10 = 100N
Factors affecting pressure:

If area in contact increases, pressure decreases


1
P A
Least area = max pressure

If force applied increases, pressure increases


P F
Great Force = Great pressure
Most pressure exerted when you make a head stand
- Least pressure exerted when you lie on your back (most area)
- When you stand on your feet
more pressure than
- Elephant exerts less pressure than pencil heel
- Rivot
less S.A.
Greater pressure inserted in boards.
- Sharp knife least S.A. greater pressure goes in fruits

Fig

B = more pressure exerted due to less surface area.

Atmospheric Pressure:
Def: Pressure exerted by air beyond us.
-

Air has mass and weight (exerts force on us)


Gravity pulls air (atmosphere) towards the earth

Def: Weight of air column above surface area of 1m2 on the ground.
Weight is Wair = 100,000N
A = 1m2

Atm Pressure = 100,000 N/m2 = 100,000 Pa

1atm pressure = 1.0 x 105 Nm-2

Po = 100,000 Pa
1 Pa = 1Nm-2
Fig

Wherever there is air there will be atmospheric pressure, irrespective of direction or position of
object.
Constant pressure is maintained as upward and lower and sideward pressure cancel each other
and shape and size of object is maintained. It doesnt break.
In outer space, there is no air, so a balloon expands:
Fig

Suits worn by astronauts in space maintains atmospheric pressure so body doesnt feel stress.
Weight on Moon as compared to earth = less
Pressure on Moon as compared to Earth = less
As P F
Pressure due to liquids:
-

Liquids exert pressure


Anything having mass will have weight and exert pressure.
w
P= A
g = 10N/kg
P = gh where h is depth taken from upper surface
P and P g and P h

What is pressure due to water at:


Fig

PD > PC > PB
Pressure = atm pressure + pressure due to liquid
PA = Po
PB = Po + h1g
PC = Po + h2g
PD = Po + h3g
Q. Why does pressure decrease at mountain top?

Ans. Gravity decreases as we go up.


P and P g and P h
Fig

Mercury Barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure.


Fig

Pg = 100,000 Pa
g = 10N/kg
Pwater = 1000 kgm-3
Pressure at:
A = 100,000 Pa
B = gh = 1000x10x1
= 10,000 Pa + 100,000
= 110,000 Pa
C = gh = 1000x10x3 = 30,000+100,000
= 130,000 Pa
D = gh = 1000x10x5 = 50,000+100,000
=150,000Pa

Vectors
200N East
300N South East
Fig

Scale:
Let 50N = 1cm
200N = 4cm

300N = 6cm
Resultant
= 9.2cm
Magnitude = 9.2x50
= 460 N
Direction = 27o clockwise with east
Fig

Hydraulic brakes Pascals principle


Brake paddle pressed
Oil in brake cylinder transmits pressure equally to all tyres
brake pistons more apart
brake shoe comes in contact with rim of tyres
car
slows down (decelerates).
Fig

Waves

Waves:
Travelling disturbance, in a medium is named as wave.
e.g.
When water surface is disturbed with a stick/pencil/stone, ripples are seen moving on the surface
of water. The disturbance imparted at one point, in water, spreads throughout the water surface.
When wave moves across water surface, it disturbs the water particles. The water particles do not
more along with the wave (particles are not displaced), rather particles vibrate about their mean
position.
On the basis of vibration of particles of the medium, waves are classified into two groups:
i.
ii.

Transverse Waves
Longitudinal Waves

i.

Transverse Waves:
Such waves in which particles of the medium vibrate/oscillate perpendicular to the
direction of propagation (motion) of wave.
Fig

Examples:

Water waves
Electromagnetic waves (Light waves)
Waves generated on slinky spring.
Waves produced on rope etc.
Fig
Longitudinal
Waves:
Such waves, in which particles of the medium vibrate/ oscillate along the direction of
motion (propagation) of wave

ii.

Fig

Examples:
Sound waves
Waves generated on slinky spring
Shock waves (seismic waves)
Fig

1. Crest:
Part of wave above mean position or highest point on wave
Fig

2. Trough:
Part of wave below mean position or lowest point on a wave
Fig

3. Wave length ():


Distance b/w two consecutive crests or troughs on a wave.
Or
Distance b/w two consecutive/ successive particles on the wave, which are in phase (in same
state of motion).

Waves
4. Time Period: (T)
The time taken to complete one wave.
Oscillation: One complete up and down movement of the particles of the medium.

5. Frequency: (f)

f=

1
T

measured in Hertz (Hz)

No of waves generated per unit time (per second).

Fig

6. Amplitude:
Maximum displacement of a particle, on a wave from its mean position
Fig

Speed of Wave:

Distance covered per unit time (per second), by a wave, is called wave speed.
Speed of wave=

distance cover ed
time taken
V=

d
t

equ (1)

If a wave covers distance equal to its wavelength,


i.e. d =
Then time taken = T = Time Period, i.e. t = T

Q. A wave takes 5 seconds to cover 50cm. Calculate:


a)
b)
c)
d)

(a)

Speed of wave, if there are 10 waves in 50 seconds:


Calculate wave length, and
Frequency of the above
Calculate period of wave

V=

d
t

0.50
5

When straight waves are generated in


ripple tank as shown
, and light rays
are allowed to fall on them, the image
formed is obtained on screen in the form
of alternate dark and bright lines.

= 0.1 m/s
(b) 10 waves in 50s
x waves in 1s
frequency = x =
V = f
f = 0.2 Hz
V = f

10
50

= 0.2 Hz

A bright region corresponds to crest


(which acts as a converging lens).
A dark region corresponds to a trough
(which behaves like a diverging
lens).
The distance between two
consecutive bright regions or dark
regions corresponds to wave length
of the wave.

V
f

0.1
0.2

1
= =0.5 m
2
(c) Frequency = 0.2Hz
1
(d) Time period = f
=

1
0.2

10
= 2
= 5s
Putting these in equ (1):
We get

V=

V =f

or

equ (2)

V=

1
x
T

where

1
=f
T

Ripple Tank: only associated with water waves


A rectangular tray with absorbing wall and transparent base, used to investigate properties of
water waves.

A light is fitted above the tank and screen is placed underneath, where image of waves is
obtained.
A vibrator is used to produce waves in water contained in Ripple Tank, as shown below.
Fig

Wave front:

Waves

Set of particles on advancing wave, which are in phase.


Or

Fig

Section of advancing wave in which all the particles are in place.


Reflection of Water waves:
When water waves (wave fronts) (in ripple tank) hit a barrier, they bounce off.
The bouncing of water waves on hitting a barrier is called Reflection of water waves.
Reflection of wave fronts of water in ripple tank is shown below:
Reflection of water waves obeys laws of reflection of light i.e. < i = < r
For Drawing reflected wave front:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Draw direction indicator of motion of wave, which is perpendicular to the wave fronts.
Draw normal on the barrier, at the point where direction indicator meets the barrier.
Draw reflected direction indicator according to < i = < r.
Draw reflected wave fronts perpendicular to the reflected direction indicator.
Fig

Note:

In waves and light chapter, speed may be taken as cm/s, instead of m/s.
T=

0.5 5
=
2 20

1 1 20
f= = =
T
5
5
20
= 4Hz

Fig

Waves
Since shallow water is denser medium, we dont sink in it. But we must have greater density than
deep water, so there is a chance that we can sink in deep water.
Fig

Refraction of Water Waves:

The change in speed and direction of water waves due to change in depth of water is known as
refraction of water waves.

From deep (rare) to shallow:


bends towards normal
speed
decreases
Wavelength
increases
From shallow to deep:
Bends away from normal
Speed
increases
Wavelength
increases

Deep and shallow region is created in Ripple Tank by immersing a Perspex sheet in one part of
the tank, as shown below:
Fig

During Refraction (of water waves):


I.
Speed
changes
II.
Direction
changes
III.
Wavelength
changes
IV. Frequency
same
Speed Deep
Refracting Index=
SpeedShallow
R . I .=

V1
V2

(1)

Since
V 1=f 1

(i)

and

Dividing (i) by (ii)


V 1 f 1
=
V 2 f 2
V 1 1
=
V 2 2

(2)

R.I can be expressed as:

V 2=f 2

(ii)

R . I .=

1
2

(3)

Sound Waves:
Sound is a form of energy that produces the sensation of hearing in human/animals.
These waves in which particles oscillate parallel to direction of propagation of wave
(longitudinal waves).
Q. How sound is produces?
Ans. A vibrating body/surface produces sound.
e.g. tuning fork
Fig

Propagation of Sound Waves


Fig

When tuning fork is hit against rubber pad, its prongs vibrate and sound is produced. The right
prong vibrates about its mean position, o, during these vibrations, it compresses air on its right,
(as it moves from A to B) and produces rarefaction in the air, (as it moves from B to A),
continuous vibrations produce series of compressions and rarefactions in the air, which travel
away from the tuning fork, consequently hitting the surface of ear drum and producing sensation
of sound, as shown in the diagram.
Fig

Graphical representation of sound waves:


Graphically sound wave is represented in the form of crests and troughs:

A crest represents a compressional region.


A trough corresponds to rarefaction as shown above.

Rarefaction:
When distance between particles is greater than in during normal (when no wave passes through
air)
Compression:

When distance b/w particles is smaller than during normal (they are closer than normal).

Sound
Sound waves require Material Medium for its propagation:
Fig

Consider an electric bell suspended inside a glass jar with the help of connecting leads (passing
through the cork) as shown in diagram. The glass jar is fitted with a vacuum pump. When the
electric bell is turned ON, the bell can be seen ringing and sound is hear. While keeping the
bell ON, switch on the vacuum pump, which gradually removes air from inside the jar, due
to which the sound becomes fainter and fainter, and when all the air is removed, the bell can be
seen ringing inside the jar, but NO sound heard. If the vacuum pump is reversed, i.e. as air is
pumped into the Jar, the sound gradually increases and becomes maximum loud, when jar is
filled completely with air.
Conclusion: Sound needs material medium for its propagation.
OR
Sound cannot travel through vacuum.
Speed of sound in air
Fig

Consider two stations A and B few km apart (2-3 km) with no obstruction between them, hold a
starting pistol at A, and stopwatch at B, turn on the stopwatch, on seeing flash from starting
pistol, when it is fired.., stop the stopwatch on hearing sound at B. The time interval t
recorded so, is the duration which sound took to travel from station A to station B. Since
distanced b/w stations is known, hence speed of sound v can be calculated using the formula,
V=

d
t

(1)

The speed of sound calculated so is 330m/s. [340ms-1]. The direction wind may affect speed of
sound; in order to get an accurate result, the time taken by sound b/w A and B, is once calculated
by holding pistol at A, and stopwatch at B, i.e. time taken = t1 (say).

Next, the positions of stopwatch and starting pistol are exchanged, and some activity is repeated
to get time taken by sound to move from B to A, i.e. time taken = t, (say).
To calculate speed of sound:
t 1 +t 2
Average time i.e. t= 2
is used in formula (1).
Sound travels faster in liquids, and faster in solids.
Speed of sound in:

Air (gas) = 330ms-1


Water (liquid) = 1500 ms-1
Solid = 4500-6000ms-1

When there is an explosion, sound travels faster through the ground than through air.
Evidence:
When horses gallop, sound can be heard, putting your ear next to the ground.
Echo: Reflection of sound
Fig

Sound
Characteristics of Musical Sound
1. Loudness:
Intensity of sound, i.e. no of sound waves passing through a certain area, per unit time.
Fig

Graphically, loudness is represented by variation in amplitude of the wave, as


shown below:
Fig

Though loudness changes (amplitude changes) but wavelength remains same.


Wind Direction:
Wind carries more and more energy every second towards the listener, so sound is
louder.

Fig

a) Greater force causes greater amplitude, so louder sound is produced.


b) Pitch is some for both as the tension in both strings is not mentioned.
The tighter the string, it vibrates faster and faster, so has a high frequency. As frequency
pitch, pitch is also greater.
Since energy is absorbed by particles, sounds that we hear decreases e.g. as a person
standing outside a room cant hear me as clearly as one sitting in.
Factors affecting loudness of sound:

Surface Area of the vibrating body (vibrating surface area)


Loudness is directly proportional to S.A.
Fig

When object vibrates, it imparts these vibrations to a larger no of particles, so more


energy imparted, hence larger rarefactions and compressions- more energy transferred.

Amplitude of vibration
Fig

Larger the amplitude, greater the vibration, thus more energy imparted, and louder sound
produced and vice versa.

Distance between sound source and listener


Lesser the distance, louder the sound. If there is greater distance, much of the energy is
lost by the time it reaches the listener so loudness decreases.
Wind Direction
2. Pitch:
Characteristics of sound by which one can distinguish b/w shrill and grave/flat sound.
(Thin and Thick sound).
OR
Shrillness of sound is known as pitch. Women produce sound of a higher pitch as
compared to men.
Pitch depends on frequency of sound.
Pitch Frequency of sound
Graphically, higher pitch is represented with closer waves (shorter wavelength), as shown
below.
Fig

Sound B is louder and has greater pitch.


Fig

Sound
Work sheet
(a)
i.

ii.

iii.

The cone of the loud speaker vibrates about its mean positions; during these vibrations, it
compresses the air on its either side, and continuous vibrations produce a series of
compressions and rarefactions in the air, which travel away from the cone.
Loudness is the no of sound waves passing through a certain area, per unit time.
Graphically, loudness is represented by variation in amplitude of the wave. Even though
the amplitude changes, wavelength remains same. Low pitch is represented with farther
waves (longer wavelength).

Time taken=

Distance
Speed

iv.

= 1.73 x 10-3s
The time taken is less in water than in air as water is denser than air so sound travels
faster in water than in air.

(b)
i.

0.57
330

V =f

V
f

330
200

= 1.65m
ii.
Fig

Quality/Timbre

Timbre or quality of sound is that feature of sound by which one can distinguish between two
sounds of same pitch and loudness.
Fig

Characteristics of sound:
i.
ii.
iii.

Loudness
Pitch
Timbre

Echo: Not a characteristic of sound!


Reflection of sound
Def: Echo is defined as sound heard after the reflection of sound from tall, huge obstructions.
There are certain limits for echo to be heard. Sound needs a minimum of 17m distance from
source in order to be reflected, i.e.
Fig

When we speak, sound energy is absorbed by medium


If wall surfaces etc. are smooth, regular reflection will occur and all sound will be distorted.
Fig

Sound
Q. t = ?
Distance = Speed x time
For echo

Fig

2d = v x t
d=v x

t
2

Q. A student fires a starting pistol xm in front of a tall building. If speed of sound is 330ms-1.
Calculate the value of x, giving that the receives first echo five seconds after firing the pistol.

d=v x

t
2

330 x

5
2

Fig

=825m

Q.
Fig

A fires a starting pistol and B hears two echoes with a delay of t seconds b/w them. If speed of
sound in air is 340 m/s, calculate the value of t.
2d = v x t

2d = v x t

2(200) = 340t

2(500) = 340t

400
=t
340
1.18s = t (1st sound)

1000
=t
340
2.94s = t (delay)

Logically:
Let t1 be the time sound takes to move from A to B (directly) then
d=vxt
200 = 340 x t1
t1 =

200
340

t1 = 0.59s
Also, sound from A hits building, bounces off, and reaches B in time t2, and covers a total
distance of:
500+500+200 = 1200m

d = v x t2
1200 = 340 x t2
1200
=t 2
340
3053s = t2
Now delay = t2 t1
t = 3.53 0.59
t = 2.94s
Fig

Calculate delay b/w the two echoes


2d1 = v x t
2 (990) = 330t
1980
=t
330
6s = t1
2d2 = v x t
2 (330) = 330t
2 ( 330 )
=t
330

2s = t2
Delay = t1 t2
= 6-2
= 4s
Audible Range Audibility Range Audible Frequencies
Set of frequencies that can be detected by normal human-ear is taken as audible frequency range.

Audible range is from 20Hz

20,000Hz

Infra sonic / Infra Sound [20Hz

20KHz] Ultra Sound/Ultra Sonic

Any sounds below 20Hz or above 20KHz cannot be detected by normal human-ear and
are known as inaudible frequencies.
Dog whistle produces ultrasonic sounds which humans cant hear (human ear cant
detect) but dogs can hear.

Ultrasound:
Sounds which have frequency above 20 KHz and cant be detected by human-ear.

Bats are ultrasonic (use echolocation)


Bat sends frequencies to moving and non-moving (living and dead things). When their
echo comes, the bat detects variations in the echo and decides whether the thing is living
or non-living.
Dolphins are infrasonic
Jet engine is ultrasonic
Ultrasonic waves compress ear drum.
e.g. this is why we put cotton in our ears when flying in a plane.

Sound
Uses of Ultrasound:
1) To find depth of seabed.
Signals of ultrasound are sent at regular intervals and reflected signals are intercepted.
Time b/w sending and receiving a signal is recorded (t).
Speed of ultrasonic is known using formula:
2d = v x t
Fig be calculated.
Depth d of seabed can

2) Cleaning ornaments
When ultrasound passes through this water (solution)
liquid + chemical, it causes
water particles to move (vibrate) at a frequency above 20KHz, thus brushing the dust off
the ornaments. (The cleansing chemical softens the dust).
Fig

V = 1500 m/s
Calculate depth of sea bed
2d = v x t

Fig

2d = 1500 x 2 x 10-3
d = 1.5m

Q1.
Fig

Calculate
a) Time period of given wave
b) Frequency of given wave
If speed of above wave is 1.5 x 107ms-1
Calculate the wavelength of wave.
0.7
a) Time Period = 3.5
= 0.2ms
0.2
= 1000

f=

b)
=

1
T

= 2 x 10-4s

1
2 x 104

= 5000 Hz
c) V = f
V 1.5 x 107 m/s
= =
f
5000 s
= 3000m = 3x105cm

Sound Waves
Fig

Q. It takes 1s to move from A to B, and waves pass from shallow to deep region in the ripple
tank. Take R.I. of water =

1
3

, hence calculate:

a) Wavelength in shallow region


b) Speed in shallow region

c) Calculate value of frequency in deeper regions


d) By making appropriate measurements, draw the path of refracted wave fronts in deeper
region, and hence, measure wavelength 2 in deeper region.
e) Calculate speed of water waves in deeper part of ripple tank
Answer:
a) Wavelength =

40
4

= 10mm
b) Speed in shallow region
x 40
=
t 1
= 40 mm/s

c) Value of frequency:
V = f
f=

0.04
0.01

Note:
If you take V
and in mm/s
and mm or m/s
or m value of f
will be same.

40mm/s =

40
1000

= 0.04 m/s
10 mm=

10
=0.01 m
1000

= 4Hz in shallow region


Since f = same for shallow and deep regions so f = 4Hz in deep region
d) 2 in deep region = 1.3cm = 13mm
e) V = f
= 4 x 13
= 52 mm/s
Q. A person hears thunder sound 6 seconds after seeing the lightening during thunder strom.
If a second travels 165m every 0.5 seconds in air, calculate:
a) Speed of sound in air
x 165
=
t 0.5
= 330m/s
b) How far is the cloud from the person?

x=vxt
= 330 x 6
= 1980m
Fig

Static Electricity
Electronics:
The study of properties of charges while they are at rest:

There are two types of charges:


i.e.
+ve
&
-ve
Positive
Negative
A point charge is represented by symbol q
+q
-q
An SI unit of charge is coulomb (C).
Charge on an electron = q- = 1.6 x 10-19 C
Charge on a proton = q+ = 1.6 x 10-19 C
An atom is taken to be electrically neutral. i.e.
no of electrons = no. of protons

Fig

Laws of Electronics:
1. Like charges repel each other.
Fig

2. Unlike charges attract each other.


Fig

Q. A & B cause each other to move away, what are their charges?
Ans. They both have same charges.
Electric Field
Region of space around a charge where it can attract/repel (affect) other charges.
Fig

Test Charge/Reference Charge

Unit (coulomb) +ve charge is taken as reference charge. Normally shown as q.


Fig

Electric Field Line(s)


Fig

q. placed near +q will repel along straight path. (q. and +q repel as both have +ve charge).
Imaginary path followed by unit positive charge, within electric field of given charge i.e. B
represents electric field line of charge q (+ve).
Fig

Radial electric field directed, outwards from the charge, exists around it.
For negative charge, electric field lines are directed radially inwards as shown below:
Fig

Characteristics of Electric Field Lines:

They originate from positive charge, and terminate at negative charge.


They never cross each other.
They repel laterally (sideways repulsion)
Fig

They attract/contract longitudinally.

Fig can originate from same point.


No two field lines

Fig

Fig

Strength of Electric field/Electric field intensity


Electric field strength is the force experienced by unit +ve charge at given point in the field.

Repulsion will be smaller at B than at A, so it is stronger at A than at B.


Electric field is zero, at X, because it lies outside the field.
Fig

Conclusion: The strength of field decreases with increase in distance and vice versa.

Electric field pattern between:

i.
ii.
iii.

Like charges
Unlike charges
Oppositely charged parallel plates (finite length).

i.

Like Charges

ii.

Fig
Unlike charges

iii.

Fig

Oppositely charged parallel plates (finite length)


In theFig
central part, each field line is repelled by equally by the surrounding field
lines, causing them to remain straight. At the end, the outermost field lines are
repelled by the inner filed lines due to which they curve outwards.
Infinite length of plates
Fig

As the field lines are infinite in number, they repel each other from both sides so
all remain straight.
i.
ii.

Conductors:
Those materials which allow charges to pass through them e.g. metals
Insulators:
Those materials which do not allow charges to pass through them e.g. wood,
plastic, glass.

Insulators can be charged by rubbing process (friction).


Conductors cannot be charged by rubbing action. They can be charged by induction
process.

Electrically Neutral: Equal no of positive and negative charges


Gain in electrons = -ve charge
Loss of electrons = +ve charge
Same no of electrons and protons: balanced charges: Electrically Neutral
During friction process electrons are swept from 1 material to another.
Two materials while rubbing cant gain protons. Instead there is loss of electrons.
Electrification:

Charging insulators by rubbing process


Examples:
1) When glass rod is rubbed with silk cloth, the glass rod becomes +vely charged and silk
cloth acquires ve charge.
2) When ebonite rod is rubbed against fur, the rod becomes negatively charged, whereas fur
becomes positively charged.
Induce:
To acquire something without any physical medium (physical transfer)
Induction:
Fig

Electrostatic Induction:

Rearrangement of charges on a neutral object, due to presence of charged object near it (without
any physical touch) is named as electrostatic induction.
Fig

Charging by Electrostatic Induction:


Fig

1) Consider two neutral metal spheres (touching each other) resting on insulating stands as
shown.
2) When (+vely) charged rod is brought near sphere A, charges are induced on spheres A
and B, as shown below (rod must not touch any sphere).
3) Separate the spheres and then remove the charged rod.
Fig
Fig

4) Check the polarity of charges on A and B, it will be seen that A becomes vely charged
and B becomes +vely charged.
Fig

When x end of rod B, is brought near z of A, A is repelled. And when y end of B is


brought near z of A again z moves away from y. What can you say about the charges on A
and B?
Ans. Rods A and B are bearing like charges which is proven by the repulsion.
Fig

Whenever we bring a freely suspended neutral body to a charged object, the neutral body
will be attracted to the object by the phenomenon of electrostatic induction.
Earth Wire:
A metal (conducting) wire that connects the object to the Earth (ground)
Symbol of Earth is

Fig

Fig

Earth is taken as hug source of electrons. So any number of electrons can be taken from or
added to the Earth.

When positively charged sphere (object) is earthed, electrons from the ground rush on
to the sphere to neutralize positive charges on it, as shown below:
Fig

Note: Human body is a good conductor of electricity, so never play with electricity.

If the charge from the switch is positive, electrons move through the body form the
ground and if the charge from the switch is negative its is vice versa.
If a person barefooted and touches any charged body, the electric shock is greater than
when he is wearing insulating shoes or standing on a carpet. The person acts as an earth
wire.

Charging a Neutral Sphere using charged rod and Earth wire:


Fig

Q. why are negative charges evenly spread out?


Ans. Mutual repulsion between charges causes them to spread evenly and be distributed evenly
on the sphere.
Fig

We can rub insulating material to temporarily charge it, so paper is attracted to the comb.