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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/tust

with harnessed joints interaction using numerical modeling

Masood Hajali a, Ali Alavinasab a, Caesar Abi Shdid b,

a

b

Pure Technologies, 3420 State Route 22 West, Suite 130, Branchburg, NJ 08876, USA

Lebanese American University, Department of Civil Engineering, 211 E 46th St., New York, NY 10017, USA

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 7 October 2014

Received in revised form 13 September 2015

Accepted 8 October 2015

Available online 22 October 2015

Keywords:

Buried concrete pipes

Pipe joints

Prestressed concrete cylinder pipes

Numerical modeling

Earth pressure

Finite element analysis

a b s t r a c t

Broken prestressing wire wraps are the main cause of failure in buried prestressed concrete cylinder pipes

(PCCP), which form the backbone of water and wastewater infrastructure networks in North America.

Advanced numerical modeling using non-linear finite elements is used to model the effect of the number

and location of broken wire wraps on the structural performance of Class 125-14, 96-in. PCCP. The modeling technique used is unique in that it considers full interaction between adjacent pipes with harnessed

joints, as well as combined internal and external loading with full soilpipe interaction. Performance indicators in the various components of PCCP are monitored as internal pressure is increased. A sensitivity

analysis is presented for how manipulating the severity of the damage affects the failure pressure of

the pipe. The results show that the internal fluid pressure required to cause failure can be as much as

34% lower when the damage is at the barrel of the pipe, and that the internal pressure that causes yielding

of the wire wraps decreases by 66% as the damage worsens from 5 to 100 wire breaks.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) originally appeared in

1942 as Lined Cylinder Pipe (LCP). After a decade, Embedded Cylinder Pipe (ECP) was developed as another type of PCCP with concrete encasement of the steel cylinder on both sides and

prestressing wire wrapped around the outer concrete core. The

design and manufacturing standards of PCCP in the United States

are now published by the American Water Works Association

(AWWA) in the AWWA C301 Standard Specifications for Reinforced

Concrete Water Pipe Steel Cylinder Type, Prestressed (AWWA

C301-52), with the latest revision released in 2007 (AWWA

C304-2007). While PCCP is widely used nowadays in underground

water and wastewater transmission networks, the understanding

of its behavior under combined internal and external loading is still

being gradually developed.

PCCP consists of a concrete core, a steel cylinder, high tensile

prestressing wires, and an outer mortar coating layer. The concrete

core is the load-bearing component with the steel cylinder acting

as a water barrier between inner and outer core concrete layers. Prestressing wires produce a uniform circumferential compressive

pressure in the concrete core that balances tensile stresses

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: masood.hajali@puretechltd.com (M. Hajali), ali.alavinasab@

puretechltd.com (A. Alavinasab), caesar.abishdid@lau.edu.lb (C. Abi Shdid).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2015.10.016

0886-7798/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

developed in the pipe from internal fluid pressure. The mortar coating protects the prestressing wires from physical damage and external corrosion. Rupture of prestressing wires around the concrete core

is common in PCCP and can be the result of damage due to corrosion,

hydrogen embrittlement, overloading, or manufacturing defects. As

a result of this loss of circumferential compressive load around the

pipe, tensile stresses will develop that can lead to possible cracking

of the concrete core and cause leak or damage in the pipe.

While the structural condition of underground water and

wastewater mains can be assessed using ultrasonic tomography

methods (Abi Shdid and Hajali, 2014; Yang et al., 2010), satellite

detection of ground movement (Arsnio et al., 2014); direct inspections by remotely-controlled closed circuit television (CCTV), and

more recently sewer scanner and evaluation technology (SSET)

cameras, remains to be the most accurate and widely used method

to detect damage in buried infrastructure elements such as PCCP.

Such inspections need to be conducted on a regular and systematic

basis in order to monitor deterioration rates and perform on-time

replacement of pipes prior to their failure. However, the large size,

underground nature, and operating conditions of these facilities

make it prohibitively expensive to do so in a manner that mitigates

the serious effects of their failure. Owners have therefore resorted

to the use of risk curves that are developed based on numerical values assigned by inspectors that place any pipe in one of five internal condition grades (ICG) according to a subjective assessment of

12

risk models are then used to predict failure pressures and

remaining life of pipe elements. A more accurate and efficient

approachthan using subjective ICGto producing failure data

for developing such risk curves is the use of accurate numerical

modeling such as the FEM method described by Jung et al.

(2014) that models full interaction between buried pipes and the

overburden soil.

2. Background

The behavior of PCCP under combined internal and external

loading has been under investigation since the middle of the twentieth century, and studies of PCCP failures have led to the development of the design standards (AWWA Research Foundation, 2007).

Despite standardizing the design and manufacturing of PCCP, the

inclusive understanding of the structural behavior and performance of damaged PCCP is still in its infancy.

Advances in the field of numerical modeling techniques and

finite element analysis have led to considerable benefits to many

engineering industries (Mahendran, 2007; Ovesy et al., 2015) and

not only allows the introduction of innovative and efficient products, but also the development of accurate design methods.

Xiong et al. (2010) used a nonlinear FEM to study the correlation

between the degree of prestressing stresses during manufacturing

of PCCP and their associated resultant stresses in the outer concrete core and prestressing wires. The study also compared the

resultant stress obtained with another FEM model that replaces

the effects of tensile stresses in prestressing wires with an equivalent radial pressure around the pipe. The results obtained from the

equivalent radial pressure model were within a 10% deviation of

the proposed model (Xiong et al., 2010).

Rauniyar (2013) conducted full-scale experimental tests and

numerical modeling of ECP under three-edge bearing load. The

study utilized three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis

for the numerical modeling, and used composite material with

complex stress phenomenon due to prestress and interaction

between the various component layers of the ECP. The model

accounted for the contribution of each component, the manufacturing process, and the simultaneous effects of shrinkage, creep

and relaxation (Rauniyar, 2013). More advanced models have been

used in recent studies to investigate the behavior of PCCP using an

extended form of the finite element method (XFEM). Alavinasab

et al. (2011a) used XFEM to study crack initiation, growth, and life

prediction analysis of damage in Prestressed Concrete Noncylinder

Pipe (NCP). Nonlinear FEM has been used not only in static analysis

of PCCP, but also in the dynamic response of PCCP. Alavinasab et al.

(2010, 2011b) used FEM to evaluate the natural frequencies and

mode shapes for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of PCCP.

The structural performance of damaged PCCP is dependent on

the number of broken prestressing wire wraps as well as on the

location of such break regions along the length of the pipe.

Alavinasab et al. (2013) studied the effect of the location of broken

wire wraps on the strength of PCCP using advanced computational

modeling. The study compared three different locations for the

defect: at the spigot joint, at the bell joint, and in the barrel of

the pipe. The study however consider no interaction between the

bell end and spigot end of adjacent pipes, which leads to overly

conservative results that assume complete disjointedness of adjacent pipes. The results found that strength reduction for a PCCP

with low to medium number of wire wrap breaks at a joint was

about 20%. The paper argued that cracking in the pipe will occur

much sooner when the defects occurred at the joint rather than

in the barrel of the pipe. Alavinasab and Hajali (2014) studied

the effects of broken wire wraps at the joint in the safe operation

of an adjacent pipe.

the effect of concrete lining on the structural performance of buried concrete-lined steel pipes. The approach utilized detailed soil

modeling and presented a design method for the concrete lining

of pipes (Kang and Davidson, 2013). Allouche et al. (2014) examined the performance of liners for the rehabilitation of cured-inplace pipes (CIPP). The study evaluated the usefulness of various

types of testing for tracking the deterioration of CIPP liners inservice and concluded that they are more cost effective than

replacement of damaged concrete pipes (Allouche et al., 2014).

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used by Amaitik and

Amaitik (2008) to develop a PCCP wire breaks prediction model.

The ANN was trained on real-world acoustic monitoring data.

The ANN takes the monitoring period, pipe age, soil resistivity,

design pressure, design soil density, design soil cover, type of

pre-stressing wire wrap, wire diameter, and wire pitch as inputs;

and predicts the number of wire breaks (Amaitik and Amaitik,

2008). ANNs were also used successfully to predict the compressive strength of concrete and its degradation under corrosion

attack in buried concrete wastewater collection pipes (Hewayde

et al., 2007). Another approach was developed by Kleiner et al.

(2004) to model the deterioration of buried PCCP using a fuzzy

rule-based, non-homogeneous Markov process. The model yielded

possibility of failure at every point along the life of the pipe. However, adequate and sufficient data to validate the model were not

provided (Kleiner et al., 2004).

Other studies have attempted to use probabilistic models for

investigating the trends of structural deterioration of concrete

pipes. Younis and Knight (2010) used a new ordinal regression

model for the deterioration of reinforced concrete wastewater

pipelines based on cumulative logits. The model was presented

using the Generalized Linear model formulation and incorporated

the interaction effect between the explanatory variables (Younis

and Knight, 2010). However all such models do is predict the probability of a buried concrete pipe falling in one of the five ICGs, as

compared to the others that give a numerical value for the ICG of

a pipe. They hence fall short of accurately modeling the failure

based on an exact measurement of deterioration variables such

as broken wires.

3.1. PCCP joints

The rigid nature of PCCP makes the joint a very important component of the pipeline. The function of a pipe system generally

determines the performance requirements of the joints, but in general, joints make construction a lot easier. Joints are also designed

so that when pipe sections are laid together they will make a continuous line of pipe with an interior free from irregularities. Joints

are normally designed to provide soil-tightness, water-tightness,

the ability to accommodate lateral and longitudinal movement,

and the strength to handle shear that induces vertical deformation.

Joints in PCCP consist of a spigot ring, a bell ring, a rubber gasket, a steel spigot ring, a steel bell ring, grout on the exterior of the

joint between the two pipes, and a harness clamp. Spigot and bell

steel rings are welded to the steel cylinder from the ends. Joints are

designed to allow a pipe to deflect during installation and operation while maintaining a watertight seal. After the spigot steel ring

is pushed home into the bell steel ring, the clamp halves of the harness are tightened using bolts for sealing of the joint. When joined,

the bell and spigot ends compress the rubber gasket into a groove

to form a high pressure seal. A schematic of the PCCP joint is shown

in Fig. 1; such a joint provides high shear strength, excellent water

tightness, and flexibility. A layer of mortar or cement paste is

13

end of the pipe, but also because of the relative displacement and

rotation between adjacent pipes. A Class 125-14, 244 cm (96-in.)

ECP was considered and modeled for this purpose, and the stresses

and strains developed in the prestressing wire wraps, concrete

core, and mortar coating were compared for the cases of wire

breaks at the joint and in the middle of the pipe. The structural performance of the PCCP was evaluated using four (4) different measurements: micro cracking, visible cracking, yielding of wire wraps,

and rupture stress of wire wraps.

4.1. Finite element modeling

HARNESS CLAMP

RUBBER GASKET

placed on the inner side of the bell ring and on the external side of

the spigot end of the pipe. The exterior of the joints are subsequently grouted to protect the steel joint rings from deterioration.

Concrete thrust blocks were commonly used to carry the unbalanced thrust forces at the elbows and other fittings of concrete

pipes. These blocks derive the major part of their resistance to

movement from the soil wedge behind them. While concrete

thrust blocks provide an acceptable equilibrant for unbalanced

thrust forces, the possibility of disturbance to the soil wedge by

street excavationsrequired for the installation and maintenance

of other utilitieshave lead concrete pipe manufactures to develop

harnessed joints. Such joints are capable of transmitting forces

through the pipe wall, which are then dissipated by friction to

the surrounding soil. Although the joint is harnessed, it still retains

the flexibility to permit slight differential settlement.

3.2. Theoretical and practical motivation

Once in tension, cracks in the concrete initiate, and with additional strain, its load carrying capacity decreases further. At high

strains, the load carrying capacity of the concrete core becomes

negligible, and the loads are transferred to other components of

the PCCP. This load transformation differs at the joints due to the

interaction between the pipes spigot and bell rings. The interaction between adjacent pipes thus affects the performance of PCCP

and needs to be considered and carefully modeled.

The effects of the location and number of broken prestressing

wire wraps on the performance of damaged PCCP have not been

thoroughly investigated, and the few studies available in the literature have not considered the effect of the interaction at harnessed

joints between adjacent pipes. Broken wire wraps in PCCP can occur

near the joint or in the barrel (middle) of the pipe. The objective of

this study is to investigate how the location of broken prestressing

wire wraps affects the strength of the PCCP when full interaction

exists between the bell and spigot ends of the adjacent pipes. Such

understanding is critical to owners and inspectors in evaluating

both the short- and long-term performance of a pipeline system.

ECP (rated for 14 feet underground depth) with a length of 6.1 m

(20 feet) is assembled using three-dimensional nonlinear finite elements that incorporate the creep and shrinkage effects of the concrete, as shown in Fig. 2a. The ECP section is modeled using a

composite element with five layers representing the inner concrete

core, the steel cylinder, the outer concrete core, the prestressing

wire, and the mortar coating. Care is taken when modeling the prestressing wire wraps and the joint rings to ensure that a realistic

behavior of the ECP was achieved. The model predicts the performance of a PCCP, utilizing the tensile strengths of the prestressing

wire, the steel cylinder, the concrete core, the mortar coating, as

well as a plasticity algorithm that models concrete crushing in

compression regions. The model assumes perfect interface

between the prestressing wires and the concrete. A four-node

quadratic shell element, in which each node has six degrees of freedom, is used in modeling the undamaged and damaged portions of

the pipe. An eight-node linear brick element, in which each node

has three translational degrees of freedom, is used for modeling

the joint ends of the pipe. Fig. 2b shows the finite element mesh

model in the PCCP and the details of the different layers in the pipe

wall thickness.

The ECP section was modeled based on the tensile strength of

concrete and a plasticity algorithm that facilitated concrete crushing in compression regions. The concrete was modeled using a

three-dimensional composite axi-symmetric element with additional adjustments made to predict the failure of brittle materials.

Cracking and crushing were determined by a failure surface, which

formed the boundary between the undamaged zone and failure

(damaged) zone. Once the failure surface was reached, cracking

or crushing occurred. The nonlinear elastic behavior of concrete

is defined by the multi-linear stressstrain relationships governed

by scalar damaged elasticity as shown in Eqs. (1) and (2) (Hajali

and Abi Shdid, 2013).

r Del : e epl

Del 1 dDel0

4. Modeling approach

Modeling the structural behavior of a damaged underground

PCCP at a joint is a complex nonlinear problem due to the interaction between not only the broken prestressing wire wraps and the

Bell End

Spigot End

Fig. 2a. Spigot and bell ends of the PCCP numerical model.

14

Fig. 2b. Finite element mesh model and the layers of the PCCP wall thickness.

Fig. 3. PCCP with 5, 35, 70, and 100 broken wire wraps.

Table 1

Damaged pipe length corresponding to number of wire breaks (WB).

ECP class

designation

Internal

pressure

rating

Backfill

height

rating

5 WB

35 WB

70 WB

100

WB

Class 12514

0.86 MPa

(125 psi)

4.3 m

(14 ft)

5.5

(2.17)

38.6

(15.18)

77.2

(30.36)

110.2

(43.38)

Del is the degraded elastic stiffness, and d is the scalar stiffness

degradation variable, which can take values from zero (undamaged

material) to one (fully damaged material). Damage associated with

the failure mechanisms of the concrete (cracking and crushing)

therefore results in a reduction in the elastic stiffness.

e_ e_ el e_ pl

strain rate, and e_ pl is the plastic component of the strain rate.

The average wall thicknesses of the inner and outer concrete

core are 4.93 cm (1.94 in.) and 11.43 cm (4.5 in.), respectively.

The average thicknesses of the steel cylinder and mortar coating

are 0.15 cm (0.0598 in.) and 2.30 cm (0.904 in.), respectively. The

center-to-center spacing of prestressing wire wraps is set to be

1.10 cm (0.434 in.). The lengths of the bell and spigot ends are considered to be 14 cm (5.5 in.) and 19.05 cm (7.25 in.), respectively.

The average wall thicknesses for the bell ring and spigot ring are

0.635 cm (0.25 in.) and 0.95 cm (0.375 in.), respectively. By virtue

of symmetry, only half of each pipe section is modeled with fixed

displacement boundary condition in longitudinal direction

considered at the intact pipe side, thus allowing the damaged pipe

to move in longitudinal direction. In order to have a realistic behavior for the harnessed joint, interface elements are used at the joint

to allow small movement to occur. An efficient approach developed

by Mayer and Gaul (2005) is used to model the contact interfaces of

joints with segment-to-segment contact elements like thin layer or

zero thickness elements used between spigot and bell ends.

The model was subjected to loads corresponding to internal

fluid pressure, pipe and fluid weights, and external earth loads as

per the pipe dimensions and internal pressure and backfill ratings

defined by (AWWA C304-2007). The Soil was not directly modeled,

but rather the Marston Theory was used for calculating earth loads

on PCCP buried pipes. The formula is world-recognized as the Marston Load Equation for Rigid Pipes. The Marston Theory considers the

effect of vertical soil load and lateral soil support in its equations

(Moser and Folkman, 2001).

The number of broken wire wraps was varied over a broad range

of distress levels as shown in Fig. 3 in order to evaluate the cracking

of the concrete core and mortar coating, and the yielding of the prestressing wires with increasing internal fluid pressure as the number of broken wire wraps increases. The lengths of damaged ECP

sections corresponding to the various numbers of wire breaks considered for the joint and the barrel are shown in Table 1. Three (3)

different broken wire wrap scenarios were modeled: starting from

the spigot end and continuing along the pipe length, starting from

the bell end and continuing along the pipe length, and in the barrel

of the pipe. The scenario of broken wire wraps starting at the spigot

end of the PCCP is shown in Fig. 4a, and the scenario of broken wire

wraps at the barrel of the PCCP is shown in Fig. 4b.

A bilinear stressstrain relationship is used for modeling the

steel material. The values used to represent the performance of

the steel components are based on the yield and ultimate strengths

15

Fig. 4a. PCCP with broken wire wraps at the spigot end.

values in the relevant design standard. The yield strength of the

prestressing wire is typically 85% of its ultimate strength, while

the yield strength of the steel cylinder is either denoted on the pipe

design specifications sheet or taken from the design standard in

place at the time of production. The Yield Limit is reached when

either the steel cylinder or the prestressing wire reach its yield

strength. The ultimate strength of the prestressing wire is dictated

by the gage and class of the wire, while the ultimate strength of the

steel cylinder is determined by the grade of the steel. The Strength

Limit is exceeded when one of the PCCP components reaches its

ultimate strength, which, theoretically, will cause the failure of

the pipe.

Table 2

Material properties of PCCP based on AWWA C304 standard.

fc0 is the 28-day compressive strength of concrete, taken as

31 MPa (4500 psi); cm is the mortar coating density, considered as

2242 kg/m3 (140 lb/ft3); and fm0 is the 28-day compressive strength

of mortar coating, taken as 37.9 MPa (5500 psi).

The gross wrapping stress, fsg, which is the stress in the prestressing wire during wrapping, is considered as 75% of the specified minimum tensile strength of the wire, as shown in Eq. (6). The

yield strength of wire, fsy, is taken as 85% of the specified tensile

strength of the prestressing wire, as shown in Eq. (7).

from the current (AWWA C304-2007). The concrete core is modeled with a 28-day compressive strength of 31 MPa (4500 psi).

The tensile strength of the concrete core is modeled at 3235 kPa

(470 psi). The Youngs Modulus, density, and Poissons Ratio used

in the various components of the PCCP model are shown in Table 2.

The modulus of elasticity of the core concrete is calculated from Eq.

(4) and modulus of elasticity of the mortar coating evaluated using

Eq. (5). The stressstrain behavior of the concrete core and mortar

coating are modeled based on the (AWWA C304-2007).

Component

Youngs Modulus

(GPa)/(psi)

Density

(kg/m3)/(lb/ft3)

Poissons

Ratio

Concrete

Mortar coating

Prestressing wires

Steel cylinder

27.17/3.94E+06

25.1/3.64E+06

193.05/28E+06

206.84/3E+07

2322.61/145

2242.58/140

7832.8/489

7832.8/489

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0 0:3

Ec 0:074c1:51

fc

c

0

fm

Ec 0:074c1:51

m

0:3

5

3

f sg 0:75f su

16

f sy 0:85f su

ultimate strength, fu, of 1737.5 MPa (252 ksi). The Modulus of Elasticity of the wire, Es, after wrapping at fsg, for stress levels below fsg

is taken as 193,050 MPa (28,000 ksi). The stressstrain relationship

for the prestressing wire, after wrapping at fsg, is given in Eq. (8).

f s e s Es

es 6 f sg =Es

for es > f sg =Es

for

f s f su 1 1 0:6133es Es =f su

2:25

The yield strength of the steel cylinder in tension is taken as

227 MPa (33,000 psi), and the strength of the steel cylinder at failure is taken as 310 MPa (45,000 psi). Density and Poissons Ratio of

the prestressing wire and steel cylinder used in the model are

shown in Table 2. The compressive strength of the mortar coating,

based on AWWA C304 standard, was 37.9 MPa (5500 psi) (AWWA

C304-2007).

5. Results and discussion

The effects of the number and location of broken wire wraps on

the failure of buried PCCP are evaluated by monitoring the stresses

and strains developed in the various components of the pipe. This

is done while modeling PCCP with full interaction at the harnessed

joint and considering the external loading around the pipe using

the Marston Theory. Three important pipe failure indicators are

considered: the onset of micro and visible cracking in the concrete

core, onset of micro and visible cracking in the mortar coating, and

the yielding and rupturing of the prestressing wire wraps.

5.1. Cracking of concrete core

The onset of micro and visible cracking in the concrete core of a

PCCP is the first indication of deterioration and the eventual failure

of the element. Micro cracking of the mortar coating or concrete

core is defined by the strain associated with a crack that is

P0.001 in. wide, and visible cracking of the mortar coating or concrete core is defined by the strain associated with a crack that is

P0.002 in. wide. Micro cracks appear in the concrete at a hoop

strain of 2.0E4, while visible cracks appear at a hoop strain of

1.46E2. Once concrete begins to crack in tension, its load carrying

capacity decreases with additional strain. The hoop strain developed in the inside concrete core of the damaged ECP at the barrel

of the pipe was compared to the strain developed at the spigot and

bell ends. Fig. 5 shows this comparison for a 244 cm (96-in.) diameter Class 125-14 ECP with five (5) broken wire wraps. The results

indicate that visible cracking in the concrete core in barrel of the

1.60E-03

pipe occurs at 1379 kPa (200 psi), while the visible cracking at

the spigot end and bell ends of the pipe occur at 1393 kPa

(202 psi) and 1482 (215 psi), respectively.

The results show that, under the same level of damage, the hoop

strain inside the concrete core at the invert of a Class 125-14 PCCP

reaches the limits of micro cracking (initiation of deterioration) at

lower internal fluid pressures when the damage occurs at the spigot end, compared with pipes having wire breaks at the barrel and

bell end of the pipe. However, the model shows a faster rate of

deterioration at the barrel of the pipe as the internal fluid pressure

increases, thus resulting in visible cracks occurring at the barrel of

the pipe prior to appearing at the joint. A possible explanation of

this behavior is the confining effect that the harness clamp imposes

on the hoop strain at the joints, thus preventing the rapid rate of

hoop strain increase.

5.2. Cracking of mortar coating

Similarly, the onset of visible cracking in the mortar coating in

the barrel, spigot end, and bell end of the PCCP with five (5) broken

wire wraps occurred at 1517 kPa (220 psi), 1593 kPa (231 psi), and

1655 kPa (240 psi) internal fluid pressure, respectively as shown in

Fig. 6. Also, the onset of micro cracking in mortar coating in the

barrel, spigot end, and bell end of the pipe with five (5) broken wire

wraps occurred at 1437 kPa (208 psi), 1530 kPa (221 psi), and

1600 kPa (232 psi) internal fluid pressure, respectively. The results

of this second failure indicator show thatunder the same level of

damage in PCCPboth micro and visible cracks would occur at the

barrel of the pipe sooner (at lower internal pressure) when compared to the spigot and bell ends of the same PCCP. This difference

from the behavior of the hoop strain in the concrete core can be

attributed to the fact that the harness does not provide the same

confinement effect at the joint on the mortar coating that it does

on the concrete core.

5.3. Yield and rupture of prestressing wires

As the internal fluid pressure increases inside a damaged PCCP

with broken prestressed wire wraps from corrosion or other causes

listed earlier, the stress level in undamaged wires increases beyond

the yield limit. Additional internal pressure will eventually cause

the stress level in the remaining prestressed wire wraps to go over

the ultimate strength limit, thus leading to fracture of additional

wires. This third failure indicator is studied by monitoring the

stresses in the prestressing wires and determining the internal

fluid pressures which will cause them to reach their yield and ultimate strength limits. The impact of increased damage through a

growing number of broken prestressing wire wraps on these failure stresses is also analyzed, and the results are summarized in

Table 3. Figs. 7 and 8 show the stresses in the prestressing wires

Visible Cracking

1.40E-03

1.60E-03

Barrel

1.20E-03

1.40E-03

6.00E-04

Strain

Strain

Spigot

8.00E-04

Bell

4.00E-04

Visible Cracking

1.00E-03

Micro Cracking

8.00E-04

Spigot

6.00E-04

Bell

4.00E-04

Micro Cracking

2.00E-04

0.00E+00

Barrel

1.20E-03

1.00E-03

2.00E-04

0.00E+00

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Fig. 5. Hoop strain in concrete core of PCCP with five broken wire wraps.

200

400

600

800

Fig. 6. Strain in mortar coating of PCCP with five broken wire wraps.

17

Table 3

Internal pressure (kPa) required to yield or rupture the prestressing wire wraps.

Yield

Barrel

5 WB

35 WB

70 WB

100 WB

1900

1320

920

720

Rupture

Spigot

2110

1410

970

730

Bell

2218

1850

1135

895

Barrel

19%

1.60E+06

Spigot

2300

1490

1000

755

1.70E+06

2380

1650

1120

900

2500

2150

1500

1100

1.50E+06

Bell

Stress (kPa)

1.80E+06

1.40E+06

1.30E+06

Spigot

Bell

1.20E+06

1.10E+06

Barrel

1.00E+06

9.00E+05

8.00E+05

200

400

15%

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Fig. 9. Stress in prestressing wires with seventy (70) broken wire wraps.

Barrel

Bell

Stress (kPa)

Spigot

Fig. 7. Stress in prestressing wires with five (5) broken wire wraps.

1.80E+06

1.70E+06

1.60E+06

1.50E+06

1.40E+06

1.30E+06

1.20E+06

1.10E+06

1.00E+06

9.00E+05

8.00E+05

20%

Spigot

Bell

Barrel

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1.80E+06

Fig. 10. Stress in prestressing wires with one hundred (100) broken wire wraps.

29%

1.70E+06

1.60E+06

Yield Limit State

1.40E+06

62%

Barrel

1.30E+06

1.60E+06

Spigot

1.20E+06

1.10E+06

Stress (kPa)

Stress (kPa)

1.50E+06

Bell

1.00E+06

9.00E+05

8.00E+05

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Fig. 8. Stress in prestressing wires with thirty-five (35) broken wire wraps.

Yield Limit

70WB

1.40E+06

100WB

35WB

1.20E+06

5WB

1.00E+06

8.00E+05

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

for PCCP with five (5) and thirty-five (35) broken wire wraps,

respectively. Figs. 9 and 10 show the stress in the prestressing

wires for PCCP with seventy (70) and hundred (100) broken wire

wraps, respectively. Figs. 710 compare the stresses in the prestressing wires when the damage occurs at various locations of

the PCCP: spigot end, bell end, and barrel.

It is clear from Figs. 710 that when considering harnessjointed ECP with full joint interaction, the stress in the prestressing

wire wraps reaches the yield limit at lower internal fluid pressures

when the wire breaks are at the barrel than when wire breaks are

at the spigot or bell ends of the pipe. The spigot and bell locations

do not have the same effect on the yield pressure and the ultimate

pressure of the PCCP. Fig. 7 shows that for 5 wire breaks, yielding of

the prestressing wires occurs at an internal fluid pressure of

2110 kPa (306 psi) when the damage is at the spigot end and at

2218 kPa (322 psi) when the damage is at the bell end, compared

to only 1900 kPa (276 psi) when the damage is at barrel of the pipe.

In effect, the internal fluid pressure that will result in yielding of

the prestressed wires is almost 15% lower when the defect is in

Fig. 11. Stress in the prestressing wirebroken wire wraps at the barrel.

the middle of the pipe than when the defect is near the spigot

end. When considering the complete rupture of the prestressing

wires, this same difference becomes 8.0%. It can also be argued

here that the confinement effect that the harness provides at the

joint is the main reason for this delayed yielding of the prestressing

wires near the joint when compared to those at the barrel of the

pipe.

Fig. 8 shows that the prestressing wire wraps of a PCCP with 35

wire breaks reach their yield stress limit state at an internal fluid

pressure that is as much as 29% lower when the defect is in the barrel

than when it is at the spigot end of the pipe. This difference in internal pressure continues to diverge due to a higher rate of deterioration at the barrel, until it reaches about 31% at the ultimate

(rupture) stress. The same can be said about PCCP with 70 and 100

wire breaks where the yield-inducing internal pressures are 19%

and 20% lower at the barrel, respectively, and the rupture-causing

18

1.80E+06

Strength Limit

60%

1.60E+06

Stress (kPa)

Yield Limit

1.40E+06

100WB

70WB

5WB

1.20E+06

35WB

1.00E+06

8.00E+05

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Fig. 12. Stress in the prestressing wirebroken wire wraps at the bell end.

65%

1.60E+06

Stress (kPa)

Yield Limit

1.40E+06

100WB

70WB

5WB

1.20E+06

35WB

1.00E+06

8.00E+05

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Fig. 13. Stress in the prestressing wirebroken wire wraps at the spigot end.

internal pressures are 34% and 32% lower at the barrel, as shown in

Figs. 9 and 10. For 35 broken wire wraps, as can be seen from Fig. 8

and Table 3, the yielding of the wires occurs at 1320 kPa (191 psi)

for the barrel location, 1490 kPa (216 psi) for the spigot location

and 1850 kPa for the bell location, which is 29% lower when the

defect is at the barrel but only 6% when the defect is at the spigot.

For 35, 70 and 100 broken wire wraps, the barrel location and the

spigot location give quite the same internal pressure at yield.

It can also be seen from the numbers of Table 3 and plots of

Figs. 710 that these internal pressures that cause yielding and

the eventual rupture of the wire wraps drop as the damage in

the PCCP worsens and the number of respective wire breaks

increase from 5 to 100. Figs. 1113 therefore, comparefor each

location of defecthow the internal pressure that causes failure

of the prestressing wires varies with the length of the defect, which

corresponds to a different number of broken wire wraps. When the

wire breaks occur at the barrel of a PCCP, the prestressing wire

wraps reach their yield stress limit at internal fluid pressures of

1900 kPa (276 psi), 1320 kPa (191 psi), 920 kPa (133 psi), and

720 kPa (100 psi) for 5, 35, 70, and 100 wire breaks, respectively.

Similarly, when the damage is at the barrel, the onset of rupture

for the prestressing wire wraps occurs at internal fluid pressures

of 2300 kPa (334 psi), 1490 kPa (216 psi), 1000 kPa (145 psi), and

755 kPa (110 psi) for 5, 35, 70, and 100 wire breaks, respectively.

These translate to a 62.2% and 67.2% drop in the internal fluid pressures required to both yield and rupture the prestressing wires, as

the defect worsens from 5 to 100 wire breaks at the barrel of a

PCCP. Similar numbers are obtained for when the wire breaks

occur at the bell end and the spigot end of the PCCP, as shown in

Figs. 11 and 12, respectively.

Fig. 14 shows, as an example, the stress developed in the prestressing wire for a PCCP with thirty-five (35) broken wire wraps

at the spigot end of the pipe. Von Mises stress is used since it is

a good representative of the hoop stress developed circumferentially around the pipe (rH) and longitudinal or axial stress in the

pipe (rL). The color gradient indicates the calculated range of stress

for each element in the pipe model. Note that in Fig. 14 the stress is

reported in imperial units. It is interesting to observe from the

results that the highest amount of stress occurs near the location

of the damage. This is expected since the breakage of wire wraps

in a particular region of the pipe will result in more stress concentration on the remaining undamaged wire wraps in the vicinity of

the damage.

The external load was considered, based on a real case study, to

consist of 4.3 m (14 feet) of soil. Changing the height of earth cover

will change the internal pressure required to: (a) yield or rupture

the steel cylinder and prestressing wires, and (b) cause visible

cracking and micro cracking in the concrete core and mortar coating; but will not significantly change the difference between the

results of the bell, the spigot, and the barrel.

In this paper, the effect of broken wire wraps on the structural

performance of a damaged PCCP was investigated using an

advanced three-dimensional numerical response model that

accounted for full interaction between the spigot and bell ends of

adjacent pipes and subjected the pipe to both internal fluid and

external soil loads. A sensitivity analysis was presented to give a

better understanding of how the number and respective location

of broken prestressing wire wraps affect the failure limit of the

pipe. Three different locations of defects were considered: spigot

joint, bell joint, and barrel; as well as four different numbers of

broken wire wraps that varied between 5 and 100. The failure of

the pipe was investigated by examining three critical indicators:

cracking of the concrete core, cracking of the mortar coating, and

yielding of prestressed wire wraps.

The results showed that wire wrap breaks at the barrel of the

pipe decrease the overall pressure capacity of PCCP more so than

Fig. 14. Von Mises stress (psi) in prestressing wires for PCCP with 35 WB at spigot end.

wire breaks located at the joints. The results indicate over 30%

strength reduction for a low to medium number of wire wrap

breaks occurring at the barrel when compared to the bell joint. This

strength reduction increases over 33% for medium to high number

of wire breaks. Additionally, the model results showed that if wire

wrap breaks occur at the barrel, it is anticipated that cracking in

the pipe will occur at lower internal pressures than if the breaks

occurred at the joints. These internal pressure limits can also drop

by as much as 65% with increased number of wire breaks. It is

therefore argued that the location and not just the extent of damage have a significant effect on the structural performance of PCCP.

The conclusions arrived at are significant for owners, operators,

and inspectors of underground PCCP pipeline systems alike. The

results presented will help these stakeholders develop risk models

to better access the risk of failure that certain pipe defects pose.

This in-turn will serve the purpose of more efficient and on-time

replacement of these facilities. While the conclusions arrived at

in this study can be expected to remain valid for other classes of

PCCP, the results remain specific to Class 125-14 96-in. PCCP and

would not extend to cover the entire range of PCCP classes without

proper validation studies. Furthermore, while several issues

regarding the structural performance of damaged PCCP with harnessed joints were discussed in this paper, there are many open

questions and issues that need to be researched. Future research

into the structural performance and monitoring of PCCP should

include full-scale experimental models of PCCP as well as developing risk curves for these infrastructure systems. Comparing risk

models developed based on numerical simulation as the one presented here to ones based on ANN.

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