You are on page 1of 8

G Model

ARTICLE IN PRESS

RECYCL-3062; No. of Pages 8

Resources, Conservation and Recycling xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Resources, Conservation and Recycling


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/resconrec

Full length article

The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel


mill with oxygen blast furnace
Peng Jin, Zeyi Jiang , Cheng Bao, Shiyu Hao, Xinxin Zhang
School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 27 February 2015
Received in revised form 18 June 2015
Accepted 9 July 2015
Available online xxx
Keywords:
Oxygen blast furnace
Mathematical model
Energy consumption
Carbon emission
Integrated steel mill

a b s t r a c t
As an energy intensive industry, Chinas iron and steel industry is faced with the challenges of energy
saving and carbon emission reduction. The oxygen blast furnace with top gas recycling (TGR-OBF), as a
new iron-making process, can signicantly reduce CO2 emission. To obtain parameters on the material
and energy ows of this process, a TGR-OBF model was established, which comprises the oxygen blast
furnace, the top gas removal process and the preheating units. The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill (ISM) with the TGR-OBF was analyzed based on the material and energy
ows. The analysis concluded that TGR-OBF signicantly decreased the generation and consumption of
metallurgy gas. Due to the consumption of large amount of oxygen and the removal of CO2 , the ISMs with
the TGR-OBF purchased 2.8 times more electricity than the conventional ISM, while the energy consumption of the ISM with the TGR-OBF was reduced to 14.4 GJ per ton crude steel, thanks to the reduction of
coking coal consumption. Compared with the conventional ISM, the direct CO2 emission from the ISM
with the TGR-OBF was reduced by 26.2%, and it could be reduced by 56.5% when CO2 capture and storage
realized. If the net CO2 emission from the ISM with the TGR-OBF is calculated based on the world average
CO2 emission factors, it would be 1.75 t/t crude steel (without CO2 capture and storage) and 1.17 t/t crude
steel (with CO2 capture and storage).
2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The reduction of carbon consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2 )
emission has become a major issue for the mitigation of climate
change. The energy-intensive iron and steel industry has contributed to approximately 6.7% of the total CO2 emission across the
world according to the International Energy Agency (Steel, in press).
The blast furnace is the main process of the iron and steel industry,
which emits over 70% of the CO2 (Xu, 2010). Since 1950s, in-depth
researches have been conducted around the world to improve
the energy efciency of conventional blast furnaces (BF). After six
decades effort, the carbon consumption of conventional BFs has
been reduced by over 50% (Van der Stel et al., 2013). However, little
progress has been made on reducing CO2 emission through modication of conventional BF processes. So it is an urgent need for steel
companies to develop new technologies to lower the CO2 emission
of the ironmaking process.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 62334971; fax: +86 10 62334971.


E-mail address: zyjiang@ustb.edu.cn (Z. Jiang).

During the 20th century, the oxygen blast furnace with top
gas recycling (TGR-OBF) was proposed and developed to raise
productivity and reduce coke consumption, such as Lu and Kumar
(1984), Fink, (1996), FOBF (Qin et al., 1987) and NKK (Ohno et al.,
1992), etc. TGR-OBF can signicantly reduce CO2 emission and
lower the cost for CO2 capture by top gas recycling after CO2
removal (Ho et al., 2013). In 2004, 15 European countries initiated and implemented the Ultra-low CO2 Steelmaking (ULCOS)
plan, focusing on the TGR-OBF process. Researchers built an 8 m3
experimental oxygen blast furnace (OBF), which reduced fuel consumption by 140 kg per ton hot metal and decreased the CO2
emission by 76% (Danloy et al., 2009).
Many researchers investigated the inuence of the TGR-OBF on
the integrated steel mill (ISM) using the mathematical model. Yin
et al. (2003) investigated the relation between the blasting parameters and the output gas quantity based on mass and energy balance.
They demonstrated that the OBF and combined cycle will be an efcient ironmaking and power generation process with higher energy
efciency and less pollution. Nogami et al. (2006) performed the
energy and material balance analyses of ironmaking systems, and
found that the CO2 emission from the TGR-OBF system becomes
smaller than the standard system after the scrubbed CO2 is stored.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008
0921-3449/ 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: Jin, P., et al., The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill with oxygen
blast furnace. Resour Conserv Recy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008

G Model
RECYCL-3062; No. of Pages 8

ARTICLE IN PRESS
P. Jin et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Nomenclature
a
specic area (m2 /m3 )
specic heat of gas and solid particles (J/(kg K))
c
CE, CEd , CEi , CEc net CO2 emission, direct CO2 emission, indirect CO2 emission and credit (t/t crude steel)
eiin , eiout energy substance i for input and output (kg/t crude
steel)
comprehensive energy consumption (GJ/t crude
E
steel)
Dz
inner diameter of furnace at z (m)
hgs
heat transfer coefcient between gas and solid
(W/(m2 K))
hw
overall heat transfer coefcient based on inner surface area (W/(m2 K))
H
heat of reaction (J/kmol)
M
mole mass (kg/kmol)
total pressure of gas (Pa)
P
pi
Energy equivalent values of substance i (GJ/kg)
overall reaction rate (kmol/(m3 s))
R
u
supercial velocity (m/s)
T
temperature (K)
Twe
exit temperature of cooling water (K)
mole fraction
x
y
mass fraction
z
height from tuyere level (m)
Greek symbols

fractional void in bed



viscosity of blast furnace gas (kg/(m s))
density (kg/m3 )


stoichiometric number
CO2 emission factors of electricity (tCO2 /MW h)

Subscripts
g
gas
s
solid

Helle et al. used thermo-chemical two zone models to optimize the


ISM with TGR-OBF. They reported that the energy inputs can be
reduced by 18.9%, and the CO2 emission can be reduced from 1.6
to 1.01.1 t/t crude steel (Helle et al., 2010a,b; Mitra et al., 2011;
Ghanbari et al., 2011). Nowadays, the mathematical models based
on heat transfer and reaction kinetics have not been used much to
analyze the inuence of TGR-OBF on the ISM.
The feasibility of TGR-OBF needs to be further analyzed with
mathematical models, as this new process is still under development. In this paper, a TGR-OBF model based on heat transfer and
reaction kinetics was established to obtain the parameters of the
process, including metallurgy gas, electricity, energy consumption
and CO2 emission. The inuence of the TGR-OBF on the ISM was
analyzed combing these parameters with the material and energy
ows.
2. Models and methods
2.1. Integrated steel mill
The ISM is composed of the manufacturing system and the
energy system, as is presented in Fig. 1. The iron ore and carbon reductant are made into steel products by the manufacturing
system, which includes coking, sintering, pelleting, ironmaking,
steelmaking and rolling processes. Metallurgy gases comprise of
coke oven gas (COG), blast furnace gas (BFG) and LinzeDonawitz

gas (LDG), are the by-products of the manufacturing system. The


energy substances, which include metallurgy gases, electricity,
oxygen and steam, are managed by the energy system. The power
system is the buffer that converts the remaining metallurgy gases
from the manufacturing system into electricity.
2.2. The TGR-OBF model
In the TGR-OBF process, the hot air used in the conventional BF
is replaced by room-temperature oxygen, and the top gas, which is
preheated by the heater unit and from which CO2 has been removed
by vacuum pressure swing absorption (VPSA) unit, is re-injected
into the furnace through the main and stack tuyeres.
Mathematical models, including the stack and bosh model, the
combustion zone model and the gas recycling system model, were
developed for the main body of the furnace and the auxiliary system, as is presented in Fig. 2. The gas recycling system provides the
boundaries for recycle gases from the stack and the main tuyeres.
The combustion zone model provides gas inlets for the stack and
bosh model. The stack and bosh model can show the processes of
heat transfer, iron reduction, coke gasication and ore melting.
2.2.1. The stack and bosh model
The computational domain of the stack and bosh model is from
the main tuyere level to the stockline in the furnace, as is illustrated
in Fig. 2. To formulate the one-dimensional model of OBF with
counter-current gas and solid, the following assumptions were
made:
(a) Steady-state operation.
(b) Radial and circumferential distributions of the process variables
are disregarded, and the gas and solid ows are assumed to be
piston ow.
(c) The volume rate of the solid phase remains unchanged.
(d) The heat of the reactions is only released to solid particles.
(e) The heat loss of the furnace only affects the gas phase.
(f) The pressure and velocity of the gas are determined by the
Ergun equation for porous medium and the state equation of
ideal gas.
The governing equations for the stack and bosh model are
expressed as follows:
Mass conservation of the solid phase,



(s us ) 
Ri
ij Mij
=
z
7


(1)

i=1

where i = 17 represents indirect reduction by CO, indirect reduction by H2 , solution loss reaction, water gas reaction, decomposition
of limestone, direct reduction of molten wustite, and water gas shift
reaction, respectively. j represents Fe2 O3 , Fe3 O4 , FeO, Fe, C, CaCO3
and CaO, respectively.
Chemical species conservation of the solid phase,

s us ys,j
z


=

7



ij Ri Mij

(2)

i=1

Energy conservation of the solid phase,


 
(s us cs Ts )
= hgs a Tg Ts +
(Ri Hi )
z
7

(3)

i=1

Please cite this article in press as: Jin, P., et al., The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill with oxygen
blast furnace. Resour Conserv Recy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008

G Model

ARTICLE IN PRESS

RECYCL-3062; No. of Pages 8

P. Jin et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Fig. 1. The structure of integrated steel mill.

Ergun equation for the gas ow,


150(1 )2 g ug
1.75 (1 ) g ug 2
dP
=
+
dz
3 p dp
3 p2 dp2

(7)

Since the molten liquid phase is not considered in the model,


the method of equivalent heat capacity was adopted to describe
the melting process. The melting rate of the metal and the slag
at the cohesive zone was controlled by the heat transfer rate
(Kubo et al., 1982). Seven main chemical reactions are considered in the model, including indirect reduction by CO, indirect
reduction by H2 , solution loss reaction, water gas reaction, decomposition of limestone, direct reduction and water gas shift reaction.
The reaction rate equations are summarized in the Supporting
information.

2.2.2. The combustion zone model


The ow rate, the composition and the temperature of the gas
out of the combustion zone are important boundary conditions
for the stack and bosh model. In the combustion zone model, the
incomplete combustion of carbon, the solution loss reaction and
the water gas reaction were considered.
Fig. 2. The model structure of TGR-OBF.

Mass conservation of the gas phase,

g ug

7  


Ri


(ik Mik )

(4)

i=1

where k represents CO, CO2 , H2 , H2 O and N2 , respectively.


Chemical species conservation of the gas phase,

g ug yg,k


=

7


(ik Ri Mik )

(5)

i=1

Energy conservation of the gas phase,

g ug cg Tg
z

= hgs a Tg Ts hw


4 
Tg Twe
Dz

(6)

2.2.3. The gas recycling system model


The gas recycling system model includes mass conversation of
the VPSA unit and heat conversation of the heater unit. In the VPSA
unit, the recovery rate of CO2 is set at 90% (Arasto et al., 2013), and
the energy consumption is set at 645.7 kJ/kgCO2 (Liu et al., 2011). In
the heater unit, the recycled gas is heated to 900 C, and the thermal
efciency is set at 86% (Danloy et al., 2008).

2.3. Methods to calculate energy consumption and carbon


emission
2.3.1. The comprehensive energy consumption
The energy equivalent values of each substance were employed
in the calculation (SAC, in press). The energy substances input into
the ISM are mainly coking coal, injection coal, electricity and steam,
and the outputs are mainly metallurgy gas, electricity and steam,

Please cite this article in press as: Jin, P., et al., The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill with oxygen
blast furnace. Resour Conserv Recy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008

G Model

ARTICLE IN PRESS

RECYCL-3062; No. of Pages 8

P. Jin et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Fig. 3. The ow rate (a), temperature (b), gas composition (c) and fractional reduction (d) as functions of the dimensionless distance from the tuyere level.

etc. The comprehensive energy consumption is calculated on the


basis of energy balance:
E=

m



n
 


eiin pi

i=1

eiout pi

(8)

i=1

2.3.2. The CO2 emission


The net CO2 emission comprises the direct and the indirect
CO2 emission as well as the CO2 credit according to the GHG
(greenhouse gas) protocol (World Resources Institute and World
Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2013). The direct
CO2 emission of the ISM is from fossil fuel combustion, metallurgy
gas combustion and decomposing of carbonate, and can be calculated on the basis of carbon balance. The indirect CO2 emission
is from the electricity and steam consumed in the ISM. The CO2
credit is calculated based on the outputs of electricity and steam
from the ISM. The net and direct CO2 emissions are calculated as
follows:
CE = CEd + CEi CEc

CEd =

Cin Cp Cbyp

12 44

(9)
(10)

3. Results and discussion


3.1. The study on the TGR-OBF process
The process parameters of TGR-OBF calculated by the mathematical model were presented in Fig. S1 (Supporting information).

When the volume of the oxygen blast is 239 N m3 (xO2 = 90%,


xN2 = 10%) and the recycle gas through two rows of tuyeres is
300 N m3 , to produce one ton of hot metal, 190 kg coke and 170 kg
injection coal are needed, and 74 N m3 BFG can be outputted to
the other users. The caloric value of the BFG from the TGR-OBF is
6034 kJ/N m3 , which is approximately two times that of the conventional BF.
Fig. 3 presents the ow rate (a), the temperature (b), the gas
composition (c) and the fractional reduction (d) as functions of the
dimensionless distance from the main tuyere level. At the lower
tuyere level, the gas ow of the TGR-OBF is much less than that
of the conventional BF. Although the recycled gas injected through
the stack tuyeres effectively supplements the ascending gas, the
gas ow rate at the upper zone of the OBF is only 67% of that of the
conventional BF. The lowered gas ow rate results in lower temperature in the OBF, which helps reduce gasication of the coke. Due
to the oxygen blast and the gas recycling, the CO concentration in
the OBF is higher than that of the conventional BF, which facilitates the indirect reduction of iron oxide. The fractional reduction
of iron ore (fs ) is the ratio of the oxygen actually removed from the
iron oxide against all the removable oxygen in it. Zero fs means the
iron is fully oxidized as hematite and unity fs means the iron is fully
reduced. The dimensionless height for full reduction in the OBF is
higher than that of the conventional BF. It means that the reduction
rate of iron oxide in the OBF is faster than that in the conventional
BF. The low temperature and high reductive environment in the
OBF is favorable to lower the coke gasication and raise the reaction rate of iron oxide, and facilitate the process of iron ore heating,
reduction and melting.

Please cite this article in press as: Jin, P., et al., The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill with oxygen
blast furnace. Resour Conserv Recy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008

G Model
RECYCL-3062; No. of Pages 8

ARTICLE IN PRESS
P. Jin et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Fig. 4. The material ows of conventional ISM and ISM with TGR-OBF.

3.2. Analysis of the material and energy ows


The material and energy ows of the ISM were developed on
the basis of the operation parameters. The effects of the TGR-OBF
on the material and energy ows were studied based on the data
from the mathematical model. Fig. 4 presents the comparison
between the material ows of the conventional ISM and that of the
ISM with the TGR-OBF. Compared with the conventional ISM, the
coal input of the ISM with the TGR-OBF is reduced by 26.1% due to
the decrease of coke consumption. The oxygen consumption of the
ISM with the TGR-OBF is 2.7 times higher than that of the conventional ISM. In the ISM with the TGR-OBF, most of the blast furnace
gas (BFG) is recycled as reductant, and only a small amount of the
BFG is output as by-product. Approximately 295.6 m3 pure CO2 is
captured for every ton of crude steel from the TGR-OBF, which can
be used to produce methanol or be stored underground.
Fig. 5 presents the comparison between the energy ows of the
conventional ISM and that of the ISM with the TGR-OBF. As the metallurgy gas generated from the coking and iron-making processes
is reduced in the ISM with the TGR-OBF, the outputs of electricity
and steam of the energy system are reduced by 88.2% and 10.7%
respectively. Compared with the conventional ISM, the electricity
purchased for the ISM with the TGR-OBF is signicantly increased
due to the increase of electricity consumption of the ironmaking
process and the oxygen plant.

3.3. The energy consumption and carbon emission


3.3.1. Metallurgy gas
The oxygen blast and top gas recycling can signicantly reduce
the generation and consumption of metallurgy gas in the coking

and ironmaking processes, which greatly inuences the balance of


metallurgy gases. Fig. 6(a) presents the metallurgy gas balances
of the conventional ISM and the ISM with the TGR-OBF. The TGROBF reduces the generation of metallurgy gas by 53.4% and cuts
the consumption of metallurgy gas by 26.2% for the ISM. In the
rst half of 2014, the emission rates of BFG and COG of Chinas key
steel enterprises are 2.32% and 0.72% respectively (Wang, 2014).
Therefore, while meeting the need of gas balance, the TGR-OBF can
realize zero emission of metallurgy gas.
3.3.2. Electricity
Fig. 6(b) presents the electricity balance of the conventional ISM
and the ISM with the TGR-OBF. The CO2 removal at the VPSA unit
will raise the electricity demand in the ironmaking process by 89%.
The electricity consumption of the oxygen plant increases by 1.7
times with increasing demand for oxygen from the TGR-OBF. In
general, the electricity demand of the ISM with the TGR-OBF is
50.9% higher than that of the conventional operation. The electricity output of the energy system decreases from 265.6 kW h/t steel
to 2.5 kW h/t steel with less metallurgy gas output into the power
plant. Compared with the conventional ISM, the electricity purchased for the ISM with the TGR-OBF increases from 185.7 kW h/t
steel to 698.5 kW h/t steel.
3.3.3. Energy consumption
Fig. 6(c) presents the energy balances of the conventional ISM
and the ISM with the TGR-OBF. Although the purchased electricity
of the ISM with the TGR-OBF increases from 0.66 GJ to 2.52 GJ for
one ton of crude steel, the energy input decreases from 17.89 GJ/t
to 14.67 GJ/t due to the sharp decrease of coking coal consumption. Compared with the conventional ISM, the comprehensive

Please cite this article in press as: Jin, P., et al., The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill with oxygen
blast furnace. Resour Conserv Recy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008

G Model
RECYCL-3062; No. of Pages 8
6

ARTICLE IN PRESS
P. Jin et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Fig. 5. The energy ows of conventional ISM and ISM with TGR-OBF.

energy consumption of the ISM with the TGR-OBF is reduced from


17.49 GJ/t to 14.40 GJ/t, saving energy by 17.7%.
3.3.4. CO2 emission
The CO2 emissions of the conventional ISM and the ISM with the
TGR-OBF are listed in Table 1, in which Case 0 represents the conventional ISM, Case 1-1 represents the ISM with the TGR-OBF, Case
12 represents the ISM with the TGR-OBF considering CO2 capture
and storage. Compared with the conventional ISM, the direct CO2
emission of the ISM with the TGR-OBF is reduced by 26.2%, and it
could be further reduced by 56.5% were storage of the captured CO2
realized. The result has the same trend with the previous research

which realized a reduction of 37.5% in direct CO2 emissions by


TGR-OBF (Helle et al., 2010a). The indirect CO2 emission and credit
are affected by the CO2 emission factors of the steam and the
electricity. As for the CO2 emission factors of the electricity, the
factors of North China Grid ( = 1.0302) and the world average
( = 0.504) are referred to respectively (Worldsteel Association,
2013). The indirect emission of the ISM with the TGR-OBF is 3.8
times that of the conventional ISM, due to its large amount of electricity consumption. The net CO2 emission rate of the ISM with the
TGR-OBF is 2.12 t/t steel ( = 1.0302) and 1.54 t/t steel ( = 0.504).
When the captured CO2 is stored, the net CO2 emission rate of
the ISM with the TGR-OBF would be 1.75 t/t steel ( = 1.0302)

Please cite this article in press as: Jin, P., et al., The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill with oxygen
blast furnace. Resour Conserv Recy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008

G Model
RECYCL-3062; No. of Pages 8

ARTICLE IN PRESS
P. Jin et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Table 1
The CO2 emissions for conventional ISM and ISM with TGR-OBF.
Cases

Net emission

Direct emission

Indirect emission

Credit

Case 0a
Case 1-1a
Case 1-2a
Case 0b
Case 1-1b
Case 1-2b

2.08
2.12
1.54
1.98
1.75
1.17

1.91
1.41
0.83
1.91
1.41
0.83

0.19
0.72

0.02
0.01

0.09
0.35

0.02
0.01

a
b

CO2 emission factor refers to the North China Grid ( = 1.0302).


CO2 emission factor refers to the world average ( = 0.504).

4. Conclusion
In this paper, a comprehensive model of the TGR-OBF was established to obtain the parameters related to the material and energy
ows for the new ironmaking process. The effects of the TGR-OBF
on the energy consumption and carbon emission of the ISM were
investigated on the basis of the material and energy ows. The
application of the TGR-OBF in the ISM will lead to the decrease of
metallurgy gas generation by 53.4% and the increase of electricity
consumption by 1.7 times. Compared with the conventional ISM,
the ISM with the TGR-OBF can reduce the comprehensive energy
consumption by 17.7% and the consumption of the coking coal by
39.6% due to the decrease of coke consumption in the ironmaking
process. Compared with the conventional ISM, the direct CO2 emission of the ISM with the TGR-OBF is reduced by 26.2% and by 56.5%
with CO2 capture and storage. Without CO2 capture and storage,
the net CO2 emission rate of the ISM with the TGR-OBF is 2.12 t/t
crude steel ( = 1.0302) and 1.54 t/t crude steel ( = 0.504). With CO2
capture and storage, the net CO2 emission rate of the ISM with the
TGR-OBF is 1.75 t/t crude steel ( = 1.0302) and 1.17 t/t crude steel
( = 0.504).
Acknowledgements
This work is nancially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51134008) and the National Key Basic
Research Program of China (2012CB720405).
Appendix A. Supplementary data
Supplementary data associated with this article can be found,
in the online version, at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.
07.008
References

Fig. 6. The metallurgy gas balances (a), electricity balances (b) and energy balances
(c) for conventional ISM and ISM with TGR-OBF.

and 1.17 t/t steel ( = 0.504). Therefore, the net and indirect CO2
emissions are affected by the energy structure and power generation efciency in China. Compared with the conventional BF, the
low-carbon advantage of the TGR-OBF will be more revealed with
the increasing electricity generation efciency in China.

Arasto, A., Tsupari, E., Krki, J., Pisil, E., Sorsamki, L., 2013. Post-combustion
capture of CO2 at an integrated steel millPart I: Technical concept analysis.
Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 16 (0), 271277.
Danloy, G., Van der Stel, J., Schmole, P., 2008. Heat and mass balances in the ULCOS
blast furnace. In: Proceedings of the 4th Ulcos seminar, Duisburg, Germany, pp.
13.
Danloy, G., Berthelemot, A., Borlee, J., Van der Stel, J., Dimastromatteo, V., Hallin,
M., et al., 2009. ULCOSpilot testing of the low-CO2 blast furnace process at
the experimental BF in Lule. Rev. Metall. 106 (1), 18.
Fink, F., 1996. Suspension smelting reduction-a new method of hot iron
production. Steel Times 36, 398.
Ghanbari, H., Helle, M., Pettersson, F., Saxn, H., 2011. Optimization study of
steelmaking under novel blast furnace operation combined with methanol
production. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50 (21), 1210312112.
Helle, H., Helle, M., Saxen, H., Pettersson, F., 2010a. Optimization of top gas
recycling conditions under high oxygen enrichment in the blast furnace. ISIJ
Int. 50 (10), 931938.
Helle, H., Helle, M., Pettersson, F., Saxen, H., 2010b. Multi-objective optimization of
ironmaking in the blast furnace with top gas recycling. ISIJ Int. 50 (10),
13801387.
Ho, M., Bustamante, A., Wiley, D., 2013. Comparison of CO2 capture economics for
iron and steel mills. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 19, 145159.

Please cite this article in press as: Jin, P., et al., The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill with oxygen
blast furnace. Resour Conserv Recy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008

G Model
RECYCL-3062; No. of Pages 8
8

ARTICLE IN PRESS
P. Jin et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling xxx (2015) xxxxxx

Yin, J., Sun, G., Kuang, C., Yang, T., 2003. Oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle
(OBF-CC)an efcient iron-making and power generation process. Energy 28
(8), 825835.
Kubo, H., Nishiyama, T., Kyoguchi, G., Yasuno, M., Taguchi, S., Kurihara, J., 1982. A
dynamic one-dimensional simulation model of the blast furnace process.
Kawasaki Steel Giho 14 (2), 134144.
Liu, Z., Grande, C., Li, P., Yu, J., Eodrigues, A., 2011. Multi-bed vacuum pressure
swing adsorption for carbon dioxide capture from ue gas. Sep. Purif. Technol.
81 (2), 307317.
Lu, W.K., Kumar, R.V., 1984. The feasibility of nitrogen-free blast furnace
operations. Iron. Steel Soc. AIME Trans. 5, 2531.
Mitra, T., Helle, M., Pettersson, F., Henrik, Saxn, Chakraborti, N., 2011.
Multiobjective optimization of top gas recycling conditions in the blast furnace
by genetic algorithms. Mater. Manuf. Process. 26 (3), 475480.
Nogami, H., Yagi, J., Kitamura, S., Austin, P., 2006. Analysis on material and energy
balances of ironmaking systems on blast furnace operations with metallic
charging, top gas recycling and natural gas injection. ISIJ Int. 46 (12),
17591766.
Ohno, Y., Matsuura, M., Mitsufuji, H., Furukawa, T., 1992. Process characteristics of
a commercial-scale oxygen blast furnace process with shaft gas injection. ISIJ
Int. 32 (7), 838847.
Qin, M., Gao, Z., Wang, G., 1987. Study on blast furnace operation with all oxygen
blast. Iron Steel 22 (12), 27.

Standardization Administration of China. General principles for calculation of the


comprehensive energy consumption. China GB/T 2589-2008. Available from
http://www.cssn.net.cn/templateHtml/CN-GB/5633108.html?drm ag=
&HasElec=1.
World Steel Association, 2014. Steels Contribution to a Low Carbon Future. World
Steel Association, Available at https://www.worldsteel.org [accessed
6.2014].
Van der Stel, J., Louwerse, G., Sert, D., Hirsch, A., Eklund, N., Pettersson, M., 2013.
Top gas recycling blast furnace developments for green and sustainable
ironmaking. Ironmak. Steelmak. 40 (7), 483489.
Wang, W., October 9, 2014. The development of ironmaking technology for key
steel companies in the rst half of the yeara review (in Chinese). China
Metall. News, 6th ed.
World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable
Development, 2013. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol, Available from
http://www.ghgprotocol.org.
Worldsteel Association, 2013. CO2 Emissions Data Collection. User Guide Version
6, Available from https://www.worldsteel.org/steel-by-topic/climatechange/data-collection.html.
Xu, K., 2010. Low carbon economy and iron and steel industry. Iron Steel 45 (3),
112.

Please cite this article in press as: Jin, P., et al., The energy consumption and carbon emission of the integrated steel mill with oxygen
blast furnace. Resour Conserv Recy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.008