23 views

Uploaded by FABIANCHO2210

cejbawebfovawe awevwegvwevbv rggweaerbaer aerbaer4bq3 erbq3erb

cejbawebfovawe awevwegvwevbv rggweaerbaer aerbaer4bq3 erbq3erb

© All Rights Reserved

- Noc Bss Alarms
- Electrical Cable Fault Locating
- Basic Power System Engineering
- B.Tech. - EIE - R13 -Syllabus.pdf
- Circuits Lectures Mod7
- Kerite Engineering Catalog
- Recent Trends in FACTS controller
- bio_imp
- Spoor full paper.pdf
- Power System Protection for Transmission Lines Phase and Ground Distance Relays
- Environment Block for SimPowerSystems Models - Simulink
- Dar Presentation Dubai Jt
- IPTS-2013-05-Ruester-ENU.pdf
- Impedance Spectroscopy
- Essential Aspects of Power System Planning in Developing Countries
- What is Surge Impedance Loading and It's Significant in Power System
- Lab 04 EE 448 Spring2015_AC_Circuits
- Synopsis MONALI - NEW 2016.docx
- Equivalent Circuit Model Parameters Extraction for Lithium 2018 Journal of E
- Chen Issues of Connecting Wind Farms Into Power Systems

You are on page 1of 5

S. C. Verma, Member, IEEE, Yoshiki Nakachi, Yoshihiko Wazawa, Yoko Kosaka,

Takenori Kobayashi, Member, IEEE, Kazuya Ornata, and Yoshiki Takabayashi

Abstract--

estimation

This

method

paper

using

purposes

phasor

short

circuit

measurement

unit

current

(PMU)

voltages and currents obtained during normal load variation. The

method follows the basic concept of representing the source side

of power system by an equivalent circuit with a voltage behind

back impedance and employs a set of voltage and current phasors

measured at substations over a certain period.

In order to

concept of using a difference between the two consecutive phasors

is introduced. Furthermore, to make the method applicable to a

real

world

system,

the

estimation

process

is

augmented by

system wide frequency variations and a filtering process to filter

out the outlier phasors. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of

the purposed methods were checked and confirmed using field

tests.

consecutive phasors difference based approach.

I.

INTRODUCTION

53GW of renewable energy sources especially solar

generation by 2030. To realize this target, there is a need to

make the existing grid smarter by utilizing a number of

advanced technologies. One of those new technologies is a

measurement device known as a phasor measurement unit

(PMU). The PMU based applications are being vigorously

explored for many areas like monitoring, protection and

control of power system operation [1]-[2]. In the context of

PMU based monitoring applications, this paper considers

PMU measurements (phasors) to monitor/estimate short circuit

current.

The short circuit current is invariably used in many aspects

of power system planning and operation. It is usually

calculated using power system parameters and its

configuration. However, the continually changing power

operation conditions and more integration of renewable

sources like wind and solar generation to the system in the

future, it is going to be more difficult to grasp fully the system

calculation accurately. As a result, there is a rising need to

estimate the short circuit current from on-line measurements

and without any pre-knowledge of network parameters and

configuration.

In this regard, several studies have been carried out and some

estimation methods have been suggested [3]-[9]. They can be

classified into two categories: active and passive. The active

methods try to inject some intentional disturbance to the

system and use the voltage and current response for estimation

[3]-[6]. As such, this class of methods is not suitable for real

time estimation. The passive methods use the current and

voltage measurements obtained during normal load variations

or disturbance to estimate the short circuit current [7]-[9].

However, these methods lack in accuracy as they have not

properly addressed the main implementation issues. The main

issues are like how to filter bad data, how to fix the effects of a

system wide frequency variations and how to prepare a large

set of coherent data needed in real-time estimation.

In order to redress all the above issues, this paper purposes a

short circuit current estimation method using PMU

measurements of voltages and currents obtained during normal

load variation at two adjoining substations. The overall

method follows the basic concept of representing the source

side of power systems by an equivalent circuit with a voltage

behind back impendence. The method employs a set of voltage

and current phasors measured at substations over a certain

period. In order to improve the estimation accuracy of the

proposed method, the concept of using a difference between

the two consecutive phasors for a set of phasors is introduced.

Furthermore, to make the method applicable to a real world

system, the estimation process is augmented by implementing

a reference phasor concept to remove the effects of system

wide frequency variations and a filtering process to filter out

the outlier phasors. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of

the proposed methods were checked and confirmed using field

tests.

The next sections describe the proposed estimation method

followed by its validation through field testing on an actual

system.

II.

Cpo Inc, Nagoya 459-8522, Japan (e-mail: Sc.Verma@chuden.co.jp).

Y. Kosaka, T. Kobayashi, K. Ornata, and Y. Takabayashi are with

Toshiba

Corp.,

Fuchu,

TokyoI83-8511,

Japan(e-mail:

yoko. kosaka@toshiba. cojp).

A. Main Algorithm

The main steps of the proposed short circuit estimation

method are described as follows;

variation using PMU.

Prepare a set of coherent phasors using a reference

phasor while filtering out the outliers.

@ Estimate short circuit impedance employing a least square

approach on the set of coherent phasors of step

@ Estimate short circuit current using the estimated short

circuit impedance and measured phasors.

The proposed estimation method is applied to a power system

shown in Fig. 1. This is a typical case of a medium voltage

level (77kV) system having a mid branch with no facility to

measure voltage and current phasors at its mid branching point.

Equivalent System

Point2

Pointl

v,

Load I

current

ZLI

Load2

Zu

calculated as shown in the following equations;

13

are

(1)

(2)

i.dj3la.!'fhjng Point

Equivalent System

ZSYS '

star equivalent impedances (Za Zb, Zc) are calculated using the

following equations.

IV3, 13

I

____ I

VG

..

MeaslLling Pointl

(Voltage.Current)

'.u.l' !/--r-:\--;;:

(3)

V,

(4)

Circuit

current

(5)

In order to implement the concept of a reference phasor, two

points (substations) are considered for the PMU measurements.

VI and 11 are measured voltage and current at measuring point1,

whereas V2 and 12 are measured voltage and current at

measuring point2. The source side equivalent system is

assumed to voltage VG with back impedance as Zsys' The line

impedances ZOnel, ZOne2 and ZOne3 are shown in Fig.I. Keeping

the implementation of the proposed method simple, the mid

branch is replaced by an equivalent line between

! - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . -y3- i3- . - . i

,

I v, I

V"I,

c:::::)

{2,

(6)

(7)

shown in Fig. 3. Using Z'line, the relationship between voltages,

current and system back impedance can be now shown as

under;

rj'1 r

o

Z. ,-1sys

.

,-1

sys Zsys + + Zline

0

;)I

,-I

-Z,-I

. I-I

ZLI

.

ZL2 (Z;ysZ;"1 + Zne (Z;YS + ZI ))

Zsc Z;ysZL2 + ZIZL2 + Z;ysZ1 + Z:ine (Z;YS + ZI )

(8)

can be calculated using the next equation.

v"I,

Zu

given in Fig.2.

(9)

(11), the short circuit current Isc and short circuit capacity Psc

at point2 can be computed.

jsc

pse

(10)

V,v2'

(11)

Zsc

zsc'"

measured/calculated values of voltage and current at pointl

(V'I' Ia and point2 (Vb 12) of Fig. l., the evaluation of back

impedance of equivalent system Z'sys is the main parameter

need to be calculated in order to find out the short circuit

current of (10). The estimation of Z'sys is described in the next

section.

B.

a least square method is described for a set of phasors

measured or calculated from PMU measurements during

natural load variation. From (8), the relation between system

back impedance and pointl data (V'I' 11) are shown as follows;

'=IiG-z),

(12)

where

g

g

l

Equation (12) can be rearranged and shown as (13)

[:H: : =! l

h

11

(13)

of y=xe, and by using a least square method, it can be

represented as shown below;

X Txe=xTy

wherey= u

[]

w

'X

=

(14)

0 -g h , and

0 I -h -g

I

e-

impedance remain unchanged for a period during which a set

of phasors is measured. In this study, this period is selected as

3 seconds, so it is quite reasonable to assume the constant

values of these parameters over this short period. With this

assumption and on using the measured/calculated values of

pointl ( V 'lk IJk(k=1,2,

',n)), (12) can be used to derive a

modified variant of the estimation method as follows;

=_ I'l

I'l/'k

..

= VG Z'sYSjlk

_I = VG Z'sYSjlk_1

(16)

(17)

M, =I'lg+ jM

=

(18)

- g

consecutive

measured/calculated phasors is used to estimate the system

back impedance.

< Corrections to System Frequency Variation and a

Coherent Set of Data using a Reference Phasor>

As shown in (18), the difference between two consecutive

measured/calculated phasors is desirable to estimate the

system back impedance. This difference should be from

natural load variation and not from system frequency variation.

In order to remove the effect of system frequency variation

from a set of phasors used in the estimation of system

impedance, a higher short circuit capacity substation with a

higher voltage is selected. At this substation, an additional

voltage phasor is measured and denoted as a system phasor.

Since the effects of frequency variation are common among all

the measurements. Hence, as shown in Fig. 4,

9

9

s(tL

a s(tl+Ll t

I 9

I

I

s to

s(tO+Ll t)

e sCtOtnLLt)

(15)

of the short circuit current estimation to a real world system,

the following modifications are proposed.

<Application of Difference between two Consecuitive

Phasors (DLS

calculated for each set of N phasors from different measuring

points. Once the back impedance is estimated, the short circuit

current can be estimated using (10) for each set of phasors.

'

Z'sys

Time

C.

Z'sys

V,

g

V;

g

RSYS

B=(XTxr' xry

From (16),

s(tl+nLl t)

s( i

s(ti+t.

s ti+nLl t

Measuring Point 1

1( O+Ll t)

Measuring Point 2

e HtOtnt. t)

2 to

2(tO+Ll t)

?(tOtnLLtt

I

I

18

9

9

1 I+Ll t

1(tl+nt. t)

2(tl

2(tl+Ll t)

J

I

2(tl+nLl t)

2(ti

2(ti+t. tJ

I

I

19

9

9

tCti)

1 ti+t. t

1 ti+nLl t

9

9

2 ti+nLl t

due to the frequency variation of this system phasor from all

the other phasors measured at different points (substations).

After removing the effects of system frequency variation, the

measuring point 1 at time to is selected as a reference point.

The phase angle of this phasor is subtracted from a set of other

phasors as shown in Fig. 5.

Measuring Point 1

III.

Measuring Point 2

Time

j to

A. Measurement Setup

liT

shown in Fig.7.

The PMU (NCT2000 Toshiba, below referred to as NCT)

t1

(=to+lI T)

GPS

Base \oJtage 77kY

Base MVA IOMVA

obtained and this set is found to be helpful in realizing an

increased accuracy of the estimation process.

Because it is a method of determining the short-circuit

current from data measured during normal load fluctuations,

there is a possibility that a set of phasors used in the estimation

process may have very small changes in their values. As these

changes may not be desirable for the estimation based on DLS

method shown in (18), there is a need to identify such

undesirable data (bad data) by devising a suit able filter

capable enough to trace

Fig. 7.

A (measurement pointl) substation B (measuring point2) is

used to measure 77kV bus voltage, line currents. At substation

A, the 154kV bus voltage was also measured for the purpose

of the system phasor used to apply corrections for system

frequency variations. NCT is a PMU used to receive GPS

signals from satellites and the synchronization was applied for

all the measurements. The data collection was performed for 3

seconds every three minutes. The sampling frequency of

5760Hz was used in measurements and a data set of 180

phasors for 3 seconds (60Hz system : 60 phasors per second)

was prepared and used for the estimation process.

B.

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

remove such outliers, the results of short circuit current

estimation method for one day using DLS method are plotted

in Fig. 6. The horizontal axis is the standard deviation of the

difference in voltage phasors of the estimation data set, and the

vertical axis is the median of the estimation results from each

data set. A straight horizontal line in Fig. 6 is a maximum

short-circuit current obtained by off-line analysis. It is clear

from this figure, that the threshold value should be carefully

selected so that the appropriate data are not lost, whereas the

bad data are removed to have better results.

In this study, the threshold value is selected as 60% of one

day average, and it is generally found to provide good results.

was performed on the actual power system in Fig. 7 and the

testing results for substation B are shown in Fig. 8 (24hours).

Each point in the plots represents the median (180 points for 3

seconds) of the estimation results of each data set. Fig. 8(a)

indicates the results of estimation method with no usage of the

system phasor (reference phasor) for any corrections as well as

no filtering for the outliers. Fig. 8(b) shows the estimation

results with use of the reference phasor but without filtering

the outliers. Fig. 8(c) shows the estimation results with use of

the reference phasor and filtering outliers. On comparing

these plots, the effectiveness of the proposed method is amply

clear and the estimation method suggested in this paper is

quite applicable to the real world system as its accuracy is

sufficient enough for use in the day-to-day power system

planning and operation work.

5

[5]

500

400

,300

[6]

200

o

"

100

[7]

500

400

g 300

-- -- ------

8

s 200

100

60%t00O!2::

0:

U

t::

[8]

[9]

Measurement for Improved Power Quality-Part I:The Measurement

Technique," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.l9, No. 3, pp.I442-I448,

July 2004

Wilsun Xu, Emad E. Ahmed, Xiqin Zhang, and Xian Liu,

"Measurement

of Network Harmonic Impedances:

Practical

Implementation Issues and Their Solutions," IEEE Trans. Power

Delivery, vol. I7, No. I, pp.21 0-216, Jan. 2002.

Khoi Vu, Miroslav M. Begovic, Damir Novosel, and Murari Mohan

Saha, "Use of Local Measurements to Estimate Voltage-Stability

Margin," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 14, No.3, August 1999.

Krishnaswamy Srinivasan, Claude Lafond, and Roger Jutras, "Short

Circuit Current Estimation from Measurement of Voltage and Current

during Disturbances," iEEE Trans. industry Applications, vol. 33, No.4,

pp. I061-1064, July/Aug. 1997.

S. A Arefifar, and Wilsun Xu, "Online Tracking of Power System

Impedance Parameters and Field Experiences," IEEE Trans. Power

Delivery, vol. 24, No.4, pp.1781-1788, Oct. 2009.

Estimated results

using proposed method

VI.

BIOGRAPHIES

obtained his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Nagoya Institute of

Technology, Japan, in 1994. Before coming to Japan, in 1990, he has been

working in an electric power company in India. In 1994, he joined Chubu

Electric Power Co. , Inc. Nagoya and since then, he has been engaged in R&D

studies concerning power system analysis. He is a senior member of IEEJ.

Yoshiki Nakachi

(c)Estimation results with corrections and filtering

IV.

CONCLUSION

short-circuit current using PMU measurements obtained from

normal load fluctuation is proposed and its validity and

effectiveness was confirmed through the actual field testing

carried out on the real system. The features like preparing a set

of coherent phasors by using a reference phasor, corrections

for system wide frequency variation through the use of a

system phasor, and removal of outliers by employing a fIlter,

have been found to be very useful to increase the usefulness

and practical applicability of the proposed estimation method.

In the future, there is a plan to extend this work to develop

online systems using the proposed method for applications in

power system monitoring and control.

V.

[I]

[2]

[3]

[4]

REFERENCES

monitoring, protection and control," IEEE 59th Annual Conference for

Protective Relay Engineers, 2006.

M. G. Adamiak, A P. Apostolov, M. M. Begovic, C. F. Henville, K. E.

Martin, G. L. Michel, AG. Phadke, and J. S. Thorp, "Wide Area

Protection - Technology and Infrastructures," IEEE Trans. Power

Delivery, vol. 21, No.2, pp.52-65, April 2006

Ade Oliveira, J. C. Oliveira, J. W. Resende, and M. S. Miskulin,

"Practical Approaches for AC System Harmonic Impedances

Measurements," iEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.6, No. 4, pp.I72I1726, Oct. 1991.

M. Nagpal, W. Xu.,

and J. Sawada, "Harmonic Impedance

Measurement using Three-Phase Transients," IEEE Trans. Power

Delivery, voU3, No. I, pp.272-277, Jan. 1998.

Technology, Tokyo, Japan, in 1990, 1992 respectively. He received his Dr.

Eng. degree from Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, Japan, in 2007.

He joined Chubu Electric Power Co. , Inc., Nagoya, Japan in 1992. After

working at R&D center, presently he has been with the power system

operation department. His main areas of interest are power system analysis,

power system stability control and voltage control. He is a member oflEEJ.

Yoshihiko Wazawa

1985. He joined Chubu Electric Power Co. , Inc. Nagoya, in 1985. He has

been mainly engaged in operation and maintenance of protection, control and

SPS systems. At present, he has been engaged in R&D studies on power

system control, and power system analysis. He is a member oflEEJ.

Yoko Kosaka.

University. She joined Toshiba Corporation in 1990. She is presently a

researcher of Power System Solution and Distribution System R&D

Department and is engaged in power system analysis. She is a member of

lEEl

engineering all from the University of Tokyo in 1989, 1991 and 1995

respectively. He has been with Toshiba Corporation since 1994 and is

currently in charge of smart grid and battery energy storage systems

engineering. He is a senior member of IEEJ.

Kazuya Ornata

Waseda University in 1980 and 1996 respectively. In 1980, he joined Toshiba

Corporation where he has been engaged in research and development work on

power system analysis and stabilizing control technology. He is a senior

member of IEEJ.

Chiba University. He joined Toshiba Corporation in 1982. He has been

mainly engaged in system design and development business of the

supervision and control system for electric power systems. He is presently a

engineer of Power System Solution Engineering Group. He is a member of

lEEJ.

- Noc Bss AlarmsUploaded byAshar Saragih
- Electrical Cable Fault LocatingUploaded byKARAM ZAKARIA
- Basic Power System EngineeringUploaded byDon Nikko PelAez Fernandez
- B.Tech. - EIE - R13 -Syllabus.pdfUploaded byhemanthbbc
- Circuits Lectures Mod7Uploaded byDonald Church
- Kerite Engineering CatalogUploaded byWardencasianAlanis
- Recent Trends in FACTS controllerUploaded byUdayakumar Vengatesan
- bio_impUploaded byestraj1954
- Spoor full paper.pdfUploaded byCinar Inal
- Power System Protection for Transmission Lines Phase and Ground Distance RelaysUploaded byfreddyrivera
- Environment Block for SimPowerSystems Models - SimulinkUploaded byhitmancutead
- Dar Presentation Dubai JtUploaded bySudhir Ravipudi
- IPTS-2013-05-Ruester-ENU.pdfUploaded byDoña Paloma Inmaculada
- Impedance SpectroscopyUploaded byMatch Box
- Essential Aspects of Power System Planning in Developing CountriesUploaded byDBachai84
- What is Surge Impedance Loading and It's Significant in Power SystemUploaded byrohan kumar
- Lab 04 EE 448 Spring2015_AC_CircuitsUploaded byKoe Chien Thong
- Synopsis MONALI - NEW 2016.docxUploaded byumesh kubde
- Equivalent Circuit Model Parameters Extraction for Lithium 2018 Journal of EUploaded byMukesh Padwal
- Chen Issues of Connecting Wind Farms Into Power SystemsUploaded byjorgeage2
- 00630469.pdfUploaded byadrsasshjhda
- 2014 Line Distance Protection Fundamentals_Price.pdfUploaded byPrashant Rajak
- Balun Filter Matched 2450BM14A0002 v2Uploaded byTuấn Tú Lê
- Paper 05Uploaded bymahesh_pattabhi038
- Slot Line on a Dielectric SubstrateUploaded byAsad Rahman
- RF2012A-778042Uploaded byAnonymous B1gdy1j5
- bayati2018Uploaded byAbid Ali Dogar
- Contingency Analysis of Power SystemUploaded byRobinson
- Ppt SynopsisUploaded bygopalchandramahato
- Analisis de Contirngencia Usando SincrofasorUploaded byLuis Azabache Anhuaman

- IEEE-14 BUS SYSTEMUploaded byrishabhshah2412
- 2018_Bookmatter_AdvancedSmartGridFunctionalitiUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- A REVIEW OF RECENT ADVANCES IN ECONOMIC DISPATCH 1990.pdfUploaded bySheri Abhishek Reddy
- hashemi2013.pdfUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- Decentralised Security Constrained DC-OPF OfUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- Optimal Power Flow in Direct Current Networks2Uploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- Microgrid Modeling and Grid Interconnection StudiesUploaded byNayan Manna
- Ieee 14 Bus Technical NoteUploaded byStefania Oliveira
- Dc Power OpfUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- A Resistance Sign-based Method ForUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- 6041 FilteringProtective WebUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- 727295Uploaded byWoldemariam Worku
- hfoshoasndknasd dbasbaeb babrareb barbarbar dsbargbarf vdadsgbareb badfbrrebUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- 18_wappendixUploaded byDrManohar Singh
- 1737-6954-1-PB.pdfUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- 97a09089db2de8d5bac08690642567a0 (2).pdfUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- 978-3-7315-0271-5Uploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- Tran Fe BuckUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- 04-2008-JA-PS-A-1-009-Clean copy.pdfUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- Applications of the Dynamic Mode DecompositionUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- dmdnoisearxivplain_v3Uploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- metodoNuevoUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- Thuc Kjetil GNTUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- 3 RealTimeTheveninComputations.pdfUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- Distribution FeederUploaded byFABIANCHO2210
- Gauss NewtonUploaded byDenis Saric
- text6-1_37-48Uploaded bySiva Reddy

- System and ComponentsUploaded bySolomonmadhankumar
- Servo MotorUploaded byAnand
- High Voltage Cables.docxUploaded bykhadijabugti
- 3V tip and tricsUploaded byapi-26061087
- MOS PMU bckUploaded byHartini Rahman
- ACTMUploaded bydc12dc
- SI4248U_Flyer_020105Uploaded byMihai Balan
- Radio ReceiversUploaded byThắng Phan Duy
- MXA2500E_RevG-1075455Uploaded byestraj1954
- ECE65 Notes 2 Diodes0Uploaded byAlex Chan
- En Hr100-Ct Installation Instructions NewUploaded byMaciej
- Stepper Motor Positioning Control by IR RemoteUploaded bysathish
- IS/IEC 60079.30.1.2007Uploaded bycamsps
- -Auto-ReclosureUploaded byvurumuu
- EED Question Bank 2015Uploaded byAnonymous omWD4POP
- Battery Testing for Off-grid Solar Products Lighting GlobalUploaded byRafiurRahman
- Et200s 4di Namur Manual en-US en-USUploaded byAnton Tsarev
- VPI ProcessUploaded bySantosh Kumar
- Law420, Law 520Uploaded byquangpp
- Relay XRU.pdfUploaded bydanielliram993
- mosfet puente h motor MC33926.pdfUploaded byjppad
- Schneider Price List 2018Uploaded byAvijitSinharoy
- Experimenters Handbook 1964Uploaded byvikicacica
- ENG_DS_EPP-2342_1410Uploaded byAnonymous SOQFPWB
- Mobile Phone FunctionsUploaded byDarshanVisani
- Substation grounding grid design using Alternative Transients Program-ATP and ASPIXUploaded bysales5655
- Fuente LcdUploaded byGuspcArgentina
- Direct Current StdsUploaded byClementine Jacquez Makinano
- 300W Subwoofer Power AmplifierUploaded byhovukiem
- 500AMPUploaded byEsteban Quezada Neri