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Toru Yamada & Yutaka Asako

To cite this article: Toru Yamada & Yutaka Asako (2007) Scale Effect on Gaseous Flow

around a Micro-Scaled Gas Turbine Blade, Heat Transfer Engineering, 28:8-9, 696-703, DOI:

10.1080/01457630701326357

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01457630701326357

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=uhte20

Download by: [46.193.64.81]

C Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

Copyright

ISSN: 0145-7632 print / 1521-0537 online

DOI: 10.1080/01457630701326357

a Micro-Scaled Gas Turbine Blade

TORU YAMADA AND YUTAKA ASAKO

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan

Two-dimensional compressible momentum and energy equations are solved on gaseous flows around a micro-scaled gas

turbine blade (GE-E3 ) for which the axial chord length ranges from 86.1 m to 86.1 mm to obtain the scale effect. The

numerical methodology is based on Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. The flow is assumed to be no heat

conduction flow. The computations were performed for gaseous flow around a single blade with periodical conditions

imposed along the boundaries in the pitch directions. The study is focused on the effect of the scale of the turbine blade on

the performance. The predicted pressure distribution on both the pressure and suction sides of the conventional sized blade

and both the inlet and outlet Mach numbers were compared with available experimental data to verify the code, and the scale

effect was discussed.

INTRODUCTION

Recent MEMS fabrication technology is progressing very

rapidly, and many devices are fabricated smaller every year.

Much research on micro-scaled machines, such as micro-air vehicles and autonomous robots, is in the process of assembling

these micro-devises (e.g., sensors and actuators). However, these

micro-scaled machines need a high-density power sourcethe

power of a Li-ion battery, which is the power source used for

almost all laptop PCs and cell phones, is inadequate for those

micro-scaled machines. Therefore, a new power source with a

high power density is required.

A micro-scaled engine using fossil fuels or hydrogen is one

of the candidates for a high-density power source. This is because the power density of those engines is 2030 times higher

than that of a Li-ion battery in air. In addition, it is easy and

fast to fill the fuel tank. Because of those advantages, the development of a micro-scaled reciprocating engine, steam turbine

engine, and gas turbine engine is in progress.

The first micro-scaled gas turbine generator has been developed by Epstein et al. [1], and it is under further development by

Kang et al. [2], Peirs et al. [3] and Kang et al. [4]. Many technical

hurdles remain in the design of the micro-scaled gas turbine engine. For example, refinements in the bearings and combustion

chambers are important to realize high performance.

Address correspondence to Professor Yutaka Asako, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji,

Tokyo 192-0397, Japan. E-mail: asako@ecomp.metro-u.ac.jp

and Kamatsuchi et al. [6] investigated the gaseous flow in the

rotor of micro-scaled gas turbine by CFD, the rotor of which is a

few millimeters in size. However, the authors failed to find any

previous study on gaseous flow around a sub-millimeter blade.

This is the motivation of the present study. It is expected that

the optimum geometry of micro-scaled gas turbine blade differs

from that of conventional gas turbine engines if the rotor size

is on an order of hundreds micron-meter or smaller because the

viscosity affects the flow around the blade.

FORMULATION

The problem to be considered in this study is depicted

schematically in Figure 1. The blades are aligned infinitely in

the vertical direction. The solution domain with the assumption

of a periodic boundary condition, to which a blade is confined,

is shaded in Figure 1a. The computational domain is almost the

same as that used by Mumic [7]. The blades have a constant axial

chord length from 86.1 m to 86.1 mm. The domain is inclined

32 degrees, which is the inlet flow angle to x-direction at upper

stream of the leading edge, and is also inclined 65.7 degrees,

which is the exit flow angle to x-direction of the trailing edge.

The inlet of the solution domain is placed at one axial chord

length upstream from the leading edge, and the outlet of the domain is placed at 1.8 axial chord lengths downstream from the

trailing edge. A chamber at the stagnation temperature Tstg , and

the stagnation pressure Pstg is attached to its upstream section

696

697

u v

p

2 v 2 v

uv vv

+ 2 +

+

= +

+

x

y

y

x2

y

3 y x y

(3)

The energy equation for no heat conduction flow condition

can be expressed as

ui

vi

u v

+

= P

+

+

(4)

x

y

x y

where

= 2

+

u

x

2

+

u v

+

y x

v

y

2

u v

+

x y

2

2

(5)

for the case of the no heat conduction flow.

The equation of the state for the ideal gas is expressed by

i=

1 P

R

=

T

1

1

(6)

with ones for gaseous flow around a conventional sized blade.

Attention will now be focused on the calculation of the Mach

number, which will be defined as

Ma =

V

( 1)i

(7)

V is the average velocity obtained from each velocity components, and and i are the average density and specific internal

energy at a cross-section.

1

V=

u2 + v2 dA,

A

1 P

1

= udA

udA, P =

PdA, i =

A

1

(8)

grid alignment.

study, the flow is assumed steady, two-dimensional and laminar. The fluid is assumed to be an ideal gas with a specific heat

ratio of = 1.4 and a gas constant of R = 287 J/(kg K). The

governing equations can be expressed as

u v

+

=0

x

y

(1)

uu uv

p

2 u 2 u

+

= +

+ 2 +

2

x

y

x

x

y

3 x

u v

+

x y

(2)

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

With the assumptions of no-slip boundary condition; uniform inlet velocity, pressure, and density; and specific internal

energy and specified pressure, Pout , at the outlet, the boundary

conditions can be expressed as follows:

u=v=0

u = uin , v = vin , P = Pin ,

= in , i = iin

at the outlet :

P = Pout

on upper and lower boundaries : ulow = uup , vlow = vup (9)

on the turbine blade :

at the inlet :

698

field are obtained by the stagnation treatment given by Karki

[8]. The stagnation pressure can be expressed in times of the

inlet pressure, velocity, and specific internal energy as follows:

/ 1

1 u2in + v2in

Pstg = Pin 1 +

(10)

2

iin

= X X Y Y

= X2 + Y2

J = X Y X Y

(14)

The number of cells in -direction was 310, and that in direction was 40.

Also, from the ideal gas law, the relationship for pressure and

density between stagnation and inlet point can be expressed as

Pstg

Pin

=

stg

in

(11)

extrapolation from the interior of the computational domain. By

substituting the extrapolated pressure and the stagnation pressure into Eq. (11), the inlet density is obtained. Upon using the

equation of state, the specific internal energy at the inlet can be

found. Finally, the inlet velocity can be determined by substituting these values into Eq. (10). The procedure is repeated until

convergence is achieved.

The computation was performed for two blades with the axial

chord length, 86.1 mm and 86.1 m. First of all, the computational data for conventional scaled blade was compared with

available experimental data to verify the code. Then the scale effect was discussed. Although the governing parameters of compressible flow are the Reynolds number and Mach number, it is

impossible to reduce the scale of the flow field without changing

both of them. Therefore, the flows around blades having different

size were investigated under the identical pressure ratio.

NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS

The numerical methodology is based on the ArbitraryLagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method developed by Amsden et al.

[9]. The detailed description of the ALE method is documented

in the literature and will not be given here.

the turbine blade of GE-E3 whose the axial chord length was

Cx = 86.1 mm. Then, the present computational result for Cx =

86.1 mm was compared with their data to verify the computational code. In their study, measurements were performed on a

five-bladed linear cascade in a stationary blow-down facility. In

the facility, a turbulence-generating grid was placed 26.7 cm upstream of the center blade. Therefore, it is expected that the flow

was turbulent from the inlet. The blade was a two-dimensional

model of the first stage gas turbine rotor blade with a profile of

a GE-E3 aircraft gas turbine engine rotor blade. The total turning angle of the blade was 97.7 , and the inlet and outlet angles

were 32 and 65.7 . The inlet total pressure (Pt ) was 126.9 kPa,

and the outlet static pressure (Pout ) was 102.7 kPa, which gave

an overall pressure ratio (Pt /Pout ) of 1.23. The measured inlet

and outlet Mach numbers were 0.25 and 0.59, respectively. The

computations were performed for the blade of Cx = 86.1 mm.

The stagnation pressure and temperature were fixed at Pstg =

126.9 kPa and Tstg = 300 K, respectively, and the outlet static

pressure was also fixed at Pout = 102.7 kPa. These values completely coincided with the experimental values.

The inlet total pressure and the local static pressure ratios

around the blade (Pt /P) are plotted as a function of x in Figure 2.

As shown, Pt /P of computational value on the blade of the pressure side agrees well with the experimental value. However,

some discrepancies are observed for the Pt /P value on the blade

of the suction side. The maximum difference of Pt /P is about

7%.

The Mach numbers at the inlet and outlet of the experiment

and the computation for Cx = 86.1 mm are tabulated in Table 1.

Grid Generation

The grid generation by Nozaki et al. [10] and Thompson et al.

[11] is adopted. The grid generation was performed by two ways,

as shown in Figure 1b. In Domain 1, the line of constant lies

normal to the blade surface. At the outlet boundary, however, the

line of constant coincides with the line of constant X. Grids

in Domain 2 are obtained solving inverse Poisson transform

equation. These are shown as follows.

Poisson equations are expressed as

XX + YY = P (, )

XX + YY = Q (, )

(12)

and P(,) and Q(,) control the spacing of the interior. The

inverse Poisson transforms are expressed as

X 2X

+ X = J2 (PX + QX )

Y 2Y

+ Y = J2 (PY + QY )

(13)

where

= X2 + Y2

heat transfer engineering

699

Figure 2 Pressure distribution around the blade for verification of the computational code.

The calculated inlet Mach number coincides with the experimental data; however, the calculated outlet Mach number is

slightly lower than that of the experimental data. Both results

qualitatively agree well.

Local Reynolds Number

The local Reynolds number is defined by

Re =

VL

Figure 3 Local Reynolds number based on the distance from leading edge

along the blade surface: (a) Cx = 86.1 mm and (b) Cx = 86.1 m.

(15)

where V and are the velocity and density on the upper boundary

of the computation domain, respectively, and L is the distance

from the leading edge of the blade along the surface. The local

Reynolds number is plotted as a function of L in Figures 3a and

3b.

Figure 3a is the result for Cx = 86.1 mm, and Figure 3b

is the result for Cx = 86.1 m. In Figure 3a, it is observed

that Re increases monotonically. At L/Lt = 0.3 (corresponding

to x/Cx = 0.38), Re exceeds 3.0 105 , which is the critical

Reynolds number of the turbulent flow on a flat plate. Therefore,

it seems that the flow is turbulent after the region of L/Lt = 0.3,

and it makes the discrepancy of pressure distribution between

the computation and the experiment. Figure 3b shows the result

for Cx = 86.1 m. The tendency is similar to for Cx = 86.1 mm.

The order of Re is 102 everywhere on the blade surface, which is

far below the critical Reynolds number of 3.0 105 . This means

that the flow around the blade of Cx = 86.1 m is laminar.

Table 1 Inlet and outlet Mach number for verification of the computational

code

Computation (Cx = 86.1 mm)

Inlet

Outlet

0.25

0.24

0.59

0.51

Mach Number

The contour plots of Mach number for the flow around the

blade are presented in Figure 4, the axial chords of which are

86.1 mm and 86.1 m. Figure 4a is the result for Cx = 86.1 mm,

and Figure 4b is the result for Cx = 86.1 m. It is observed

in Figures 4a and 4b that the Mach number in the suction side

of the blade is higher than that in the pressure side for both

cases. However, the Mach number of Cx = 86.1 m is lower

than that of Cx = 86.1 mm in the whole region. This tendency

is accentuated near the suction side of the blade. Furthermore,

there exists the band area from the trailing edge to the outlet

where the Mach number is extremely low in the case of Cx =

86.1 m. This fact indicates that the inlet and outlet angles are

not suitable for the case of Cx = 86.1 m.

Temperature

The contour plots of temperature around the blade are presented in Figures 5a and 5b. Figure 5a is the result for Cx =

86.1 mm, and Figure 5b is the result for Cx = 86.1 m. The

temperature in the pressure side is higher than that in the suction

side in both cases. In the case of Cx = 86.1 m, the temperature

near the blade surface is high. There exists the band area from the

vol. 28 nos. 89 2007

700

Figure 4

86.1 m.

Figure 5

86.1 m.

blade surface of the suction side to the outlet where the temperature is high. This area corresponds to the area where the Mach

number is low, which is due to the kinetic energy conversion

into the internal energy.

Velocity Vector

The velocity vectors around the blade are plotted in Figures 6

and 7. Figure 6 shows the result for Cx = 86.1 mm, and Figure 7

heat transfer engineering

the leading edge are shown in Figures 6b and 7b. The reference

arrows in Figures 6a and 7a indicate 200 m/s, and the reference

arrows in Figures 6b and 7b indicate 100 m/s. As can be seen in

Figure 6a, the flow passes through the blades smoothly. However, the flow changes its flow direction by the reaction of the

lifting force. It is observed in Figure 6b that the thickness of

the boundary layer is very thin for the case of Cx = 86.1 mm.

However, it is observed in Figure 7b that the velocity near the

vol. 28 nos. 89 2007

701

Figure 7 Velocity vector (Cx = 86.1 m): (a) whole region, and (b) near

leading edge.

Figure 6 Velocity vector (Cx = 86.1 mm): (a) whole region, and (b) near

leading edge.

layer becomes thick.

Scale Effect

The inlet total pressure and the local static pressure ratios

around the blade (Pt /P) are plotted as a function of x in Figure

8. Those are the computational results for Cx = 86.1 mm and

heat transfer engineering

lower than that of Cx = 86.1 mm. The difference is observed in

the range of x/Cx = 00.7, and the maximum difference is 7%.

The Mach numbers at the inlet and outlet of Cx = 86.1 mm

and Cx = 86.1 m are tabulated in Table 2. For comparison

with the computational data of difference size of the blade, it is

observed that the inlet and outlet Mach numbers of Cx = 86.1 m

are lower than that of Cx = 86.1 mm. The difference at the inlet

is 17%, and that at the outlet is 18%. On the other hand, the

Reynolds number based on axial chord length and exit velocity

is 1.0 106 in the case of Cx = 86.1 mm and 0.9 103 in the

vol. 28 nos. 89 2007

702

NOMENCLATURE

Cx

i

L

Lt

mm and Cx = 86.1 m.

specific internal energy, Jkg1

distance from leading edge along the blade surface, m

distance between the leading edge and trailing edge along

the blade surface, m

Ma Mach number

P

static pressure around the blade, Pa

Pt

inlet total pressure, Pa

R

gas constant, J(kg K)1

Re

local Reynolds number

T

static temperature, K

u,v

velocity components, ms1

V

velocity obtained from u and v, ms1

x

axial distance from leading edge, m

X, Y cartesian coordinates, m

Greek Symbols

Reynolds number. It is well known that the smaller Reynolds

number is, the thicker the boundary layer thickness becomes.

This mainly causes the difference of the flow between the two

sizes of the blade.

Two-dimensional compressible momentum and energy equations are solved for a conventional and micro-scaled turbine

blade. The computations were performed for no heat conduction flow. In the flow around the micro-scaled blade, the effect

of viscosity becomes large, especially at the suction side. The

effect is as follows:

In the case of Cx = 86.1 m, there exists the band area from

the trailing edge to the outlet where Mach number is extremely

low.

In the case of Cx = 86.1 m, there exists the band area from the

surface of the suction side to the outlet where the temperature

is high.

The pressure ratio Pt /P on the suction side in the case of Cx =

86.1 m is lower than that of Cx = 86.1 mm.

The velocity near the blade surface is low because of the viscosity and the boundary layer become thick in the case of

Cx = 86.1 m.

Cx = 86.1 m)

Inlet

Outlet

0.24

0.20

0.51

0.45

density, gm3

specific heat ratio

Subscripts

in

out

stg

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Computation (Cx = 86.1 m)

inlet value

outlet value

stagnation value

REFERENCES

[1] Epstein, A. H., Senturia, S. D., Al-Midani, O., Anathasuresh,

G., Ayon, A., Breuer, K., Chen, K.-S., Ehrich, F. E., Esteve, E.,

Frechette, L., Gauba, G., Ghodssi, R., Groshenry, C., Jacobson,

S., Kerrebrock, J. L., Lang, J. H., Lin, C.-C., London, A., Lopata,

J., Mehra, A., Mur Miranda, J. O., Nagle, S., Orr, D. J., Piekos, E.,

Schmidt, M. A., Shirley, G., Spearing, S. M., Tan, C. S., Tzeng,

Y.-S., and Waitz, I. A., Micro-Heat Engines, Gas Turbines, and

Rocket EnginesThe MIT Micro Engine Project, 28 th AIAA

Fluid Dynamics Conference, Snowmass Village, 1997.

[2] Kang, S., Johnston, J. P., Arima, T., Matsunaga, M., Tsuru,

H., and Prinz, F. B., Micro-Scale Radial-Flow Compressor Impeller Made of Silicon NitrideManufacturing and Performance,

ASME GT2003-38933, pp. 16, 2003.

[3] Peirs, J., Reynaerts, D., and Verplaesten, F., A Microturbine for

Electric Power Generation, Sensors and Actuator, vol. A113, pp.

8693, 2004.

[4] Kang, P., Tanaka, S., and Esashi, M., Demonstration of MEMSBased Turbocharger on a Single Rotor, Journal of Micromechanics

and Microengineering, vol.15, pp. 10761087, 2005.

[5] Mehra, A., Computational Investigation and Design of Low

Reynolds Number Micro-Turbomachinery, M.S. Thesis, MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronauts, MIT, Cambridge, Mass.,

1997.

[6] Kamatsuchi, T., Nakahashi, K., Katoh, T., Tanaka, K., and Esashi,

M., Numerical Simulation of Micro-Fabrication Turbine Flows,

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

Proc. 31th JSASS Annual Meetings, Tokyo, pp. 246249, 2000 (in

Japanese).

Mumic, F., Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid

Flow in the Gap between a Turbine Blade Tip and the Casing,

Licentiate Thesis, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden,

p. 20, 2004.

Karki, K. C., A Calculation Procedure for Viscous Flows at All

Speeds in Complex Geometries, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota, 1986.

Amsden, A. A., Ruppel, H. M., and Hirt, C. W., SALE: A Simplified ALE Computer Program for Fluid Flow at All Speeds, Los

Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report, No. LA-8095, Los Alamos

NY, 1980.

Nozaki, O., Hirose, N., Kawai, N., and Tamura, A., Numerical

Analysis of Cascade Flow Solving Navier-Stokes Equation, Proc.

4th NAL Symposium on Aircraft Computational Aerodynamics,

National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 7175, 1986

(in Japanese).

Thompson, J. F., Warsi, Z. U. A., and Mastin, C. W., Numerical

Grid Generation Foundations and Applications, Elsevier Science

Publishing Co., New York, 1985.

Kwak, J. S., and Han, J., Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Squealer

Tip and Near Squealer Tip Regions of a Gas Turbine Blade, ASME

IMECE2002-32109, pp. 14, 2002.

703

[13] Kwak J. S., and Han, J., Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Squealer

Tip and Near Squealer Tip Regions of a Gas Turbine Blade, ASME

J. Heat Transfer, vol. 125, pp. 669671, 2003.

Toru Yamada is an M.S. student in the Department

of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan. He received his B.S. degree from the

same university in 2005. Currently, he is working on

gaseous flow around a micro-scaled gas turbine blade

with CFD toward an M.S. degree in mechanical engineering.

engineering at Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.

He received his Ph.D. in 1982 from Tokyo Metropolitan University. He was also a post-doctoral fellow at

the University of Minnesota. He has written more than

100 journal articles and book chapters in the area of

fluid mechanics and heat transfer with an application

to heat exchanger and electronics cooling. His current

interests are toward the areas of heat transfer and fluid

mechanics in micro-systems.

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