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UNIT 1: THE COMPANY

SOCIALISING: INTRODUCTIONS AND GREETINGS

Introductions
Formal
Informal
May I introduce you to Dr Petersen? Hello. I dont think weve met before.
Hello, you must be Lena.
Neutral
Id like to introduce you to Thomas Tauber.
Can I introduce myself? My name is / Im Ralph Keller.
Can I introduce a colleague of mine? This is Pedro Romero.
Formulas
How do you do?
Pleased to meet you.
Please call me Anna.
Greetings
Formal or neutral
Good/Nice to see you again.
How are you?
Informal
Hi, Tom, how are you doing?

How do you do?


Pleased to meet you too.
Then you must call me Bertrand.

And you too, its been ages!


Very well, thanks. What about you?

Hi, Sam, its good to see you again.

WELCOMING A VISITOR
The visitors journey
The visit
Did you have a good flight?
Is this your first visit to Prague?
How was the journey?
Have you been to Brussels before?
Apologizing for the delay
Weather
I hope you havent been waiting long
What is the weather like?
Sorry to keep you waiting
Isnt this weather wonderful/terrible?
Accommodation
Work
Where are you staying?
What do you do?
Whats your hotel like?
Who do you work for?
Home town/ country
Interests
Which part of Canada are you from?
What do you do in your spare time?
Where in France do you live?
Do you do any sport?

INTRODUCTIONS AND GREETINGS


(International Express OUP Unit 1 Intermediate)
1. 1.3 Eric arrives at NMP to meet Piet. Listen to the conversation
a) What does Piet say when he greets Eric? ______________________________
b) How does Piet introduce Eric to Claire?_______________________________
c) What do Eric and Claire say when they are introduced?___________________
2. Work in pairs. Practice what you would say in the following situations.
1. You are at a conference. Introduce yourself to the person sitting next to you.
2. You are meeting a visitor you have never met before in a hotel lobby. You see
someone you think might be your visitor. Speak to her.
3. Introduce a person visiting your organization to a colleague.
4. You arrive at a new company. Introduce yourself to the receptionist.
5. Introduce two friends of yours at a party.
4. Match the phrases in A with appropriate responses in B.
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Hows work?
How are you?
Pleased to meet you.
I havent seen you for ages!
How are things going?
How do you do.
Nice to see you again!
You must be Marco.

B
a. Pleased to meet you, too.
b. Not too bad, thanks. A bit busy.
c. How do you do
d. Yes, thats right.
e. Very well, thanks. And you?
f. Its good to see you again, too.
g. No, Ive been away a lot recently.
h. Everythings going fine, thanks.

5. Jose Mara Molinero is introducing Sanne Heitnik to some of his


colleagues. Listen and complete the chart below. (Audio 10 English for
Socialising. OUP)

Name

Title

Valrie
Product designer
Greg
Sales manager

6. Piet van Els is welcoming Bob Wyatt, a visitor from Toronto, Canada. Read
the conversation. (Int. Express)
1. What topics do they talk about?
2. What questions do you think they asked?
Piet
Mr W
Piet
Mr W
Piet
Mr W
Piet
Mr W
Piet
Mr W
Piet

So, did you have any problems finding us?


No, none at all. I walked here. My hotel is only a few minutes away.
Oh, really? Which _______________________________________?
Im staying at the Garrick. Its in King Street. Do you know it?
I know the name.
What__________________________________________________?
Oh, its very pleasant. I always stay there when I come to London.
How often______________________________________________?
Four or five times a year. What about you?____________________4?
Yes, I do quite a lot of travelling mostly in Europe, but I go to
Canada and the States as well about two or three times a year.
Canada? Thats interesting ________________________________5?
No, Ive never been to Toronto, but I had a wonderful holiday on
Vancouver Island not long ago.

1.4. Listen to the conversation and check your answers.


7. Read later extracts from the conversation between Piet and Mr Wyatt.
What questions do you think they asked?
1. Piet
Mr W

_______________________________________________________?
Just three days. Im flying back the day after tomorrow.

2. Piet
Mr W

_______________________________________________________?
Ive been with Star TV for four years now.

3. Mr W
Piet

______________________________________________________?
Yes, it is. We do get good weather in London sometimes!

4. Piet
Mr W

_______________________________________________________?
I went to New Zealand with my wife and our two daughters.

5. Piet
Mr W

_______________________________________________________?
Yes, I play ice-hockey in winter and I do some sailing in summer.

1.5. Listen to the conversation and check your answers.

REVIEW: INTRODUCTIONS AND GREETINGS


1. Tom Wright worked with Jan on last years commercial. She sees him as
she arrives at Sunshine holiday with the new one. Complete their
conversation. Use the phrases in the box.
Everythings going fine, thanks.
How are things going?
I havent seen you for ages!
JAN
TIM
JAN
TIM
JAN

.its good to see you again, too.


Nice to see you again!

Tim!_____________________________________________ Hello!
Yes, its been a long time. ____________________________
And ____________________________________ I suppose we last
met a year ago.
Thats right. Soare you busy? _____________________________4
________________________________________5 Weve just finished
our new TV Commercial. Look, this is it!

2. A young assistant, Lucy Lang, comes to take Jan to Stefan Herbsts office.
Complete the conversation. Use the phrases in the box.
Did you have any problems finding us?
Im Lucy Lang, Mr Herbsts assistant.

How do you do.


You must be Ms Phillips.

LUCY
JAN
LUCY

Er, excuse me. ___________________________________________


Yes, thats right.
Hello. __________________________________________________
How do you do.
JAN
_______________________________________________________
LUCY
Mr Herbst is expecting you, so would you like to come this way?
JAN
Thank you.
LUCY
_______________________________________________________4
JAN
No, not at all. You see. Ive been here several times before.
1.5. Listen to the conversations and check your answers. (Int Ex WB)
WELCOMING A VISITOR
5. Jos Mara Molinero is meeting a visitor. Listen to the conversation and
tick the topics they talk about. (Audio 7 English for Socialising. OUP)
the journey
the weather

sport
the hotel

the company

UNIT 1: THE COMPANY


BUSINESS: COMPANY STRUCTURE
A Sample sentences

The company is headed by the Managing Director.


The Sales Director is supported by a sales team.
The R&D Department is responsible for new product development.
The parent company is based in Brussels, with subsidiaries in Frankfurt and Milan. That is
the Headquarters or Head Office of the company is in Brussels.

B Form and uses


1. Hierarchy
The Sales Director reports to the MD

The Company is headed by the MD


MD (Managing Director)

Sales Director

The Sales Director is under the MD.


The Sales Director is accountable to the MD.
The Sales Director is supported by a sales team.
The Sales Director is assisted by a Sales Assistant.

Sales Director

Sales Team
Sales Assistant

2. Responsibilities/functions
The Controller is responsible for accounting throughout the company.
The Production Department takes care of product manufacturing.
The Factory Manager is in charge of plants and equipment.
3. Titles
Below are the main managerial titles with common US equivalents in brackets:
Chairman/Chairperson (President)
Managing Director (Chief Executive Officer/Senior Vice-President)
Finance Director (Vice-President Finance)
Sales Manager (Sales Director)
Note: The directors and chairman of a company usually sit on the board of directors (executive
board).
4. Affiliates

Rossomon France (51%)

Rossomon International

Rossomon Germany (70%)

Rossomon Japan(55%)

Rossomon International is the parent company. Rossomon France, Rossomon Germany and
Rossomon Japan are subsidiaries (more than 50 per cent owned by the parent).

Exercise 1: Study the organisation chart, and complete


the paragraph which follows, using the appropriate word
or phrase from the box.
Chief Executive Officer

Board of Directors

Vice President
Vice President
Vice President
Finance
Production
Sales & Marketing

Exports
is responsible for
supports

is in charge of
is accountable to

supported by
consists of

Vice President
Human Resources

Domestic Sales
is headed by

KAF Inc. is a building materials manufacturing company in Detroit. KAF


_________________________ the Chief Executive Officer, _________________ the Board of
Directors, which __________ four people. The staff in each of the four departments
_______________ a Vice-President who is also on the Board. In each department, a managerial
team of directors ________________________ the Vice-President. In the Sales Department, one
director ______________________ exports, the other ____________________ domestic sales.

Exercise 2: Listen to the dialogue and complete the


organization chart for the Annas company.
___________________ Director of Marketing
_____________________
Branding specialist

_____________________
Public Relations Officer

__________________
Product Manager

_____________________
Public Relations Assistant

Exercise 3: Listen to the dialogue again and complete


the sentences.
1. We have separate ___________________ for sales and marketing.
2. Im the public relations ______________ here.
3. I _____________________ directly to Sabrina, whos the _____________
of marketing.
4. If you need to talk to somebody about individual ___________, then you
should contact Vittore or his ________________, Thomas.
5. Sylvia is ________________________ for the image of our various brands.
(English for Marketing and Advertising-Audio 2)

READING
Look at the organisation chart for Cooper France. Then complete the chart with the names of
Jean Lamadon and his colleagues and their position in the company (where possible). Find the
information in the text and in the box.
General Manager
Sales Secretary

Sales Manager
Agent

Sales Representative

NORTH SOUTH WEST

EAST

My names Jean Lamadon, and Im one of the two salesman managers here at Cooper France. Cooper is
an international group based in America which, among other things, produces tools and equipment for the
professional and consumer markets. The group has subsdiaries in several European countries.
I suppose that if Im going to describe how things are organized here in France Id better start at the top.
Thats where youll find Alain Madrange who is everybodys boss here. He controls all aspects of Finance
and is in permanent contact with our Head Office. Both myself and Michel Carnelez, who is the other
sales manager, report directly to him.
As I said, there are two sales managers, because we sell two different categories of products in France.
The first is electrical equipment which is used for assembling components for printing circuit boards.
Thats my area. The other is what we call tools and hardware which includes a lot of quite different
products, mostly sold in Do It Yourself shops all over the country. Michel Carnelez is in charge of that
and he doesnt have any Cooper employees working under him apart from Silvie Cieutat, his sales
secretary. That means he relies entirely on a national network of ten sales agents including his Paris agent
Daniel Royatte. Michel spends much more time than I do marketing and promoting his products.
The way my department is organised is really quite simple. About 80% of our business is done through
distributors and the rest is direct to major account holders, who are our really big customers. As we sell
all over the country, this means I need a team of salespeople. At the moment there are four, each
responsible for one territory: Cyril Jehanne for the north, Jean Noel Echave for the south, Daniel Lorand
for the west and Patrick Amat for the east. I also have a customer services assistant, Jocylene Cuisy, and a
sales secretary, Marie-Christine Chaussadas.
Together they run the sales office and look after most of the administration.

Now listen to a woman talking about BICC Plc and write the relevant information of the
company.
(Business Objectives OUP - TS 26)
7

ORAL WORK IN PAIRS, READ THE TEXT AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS
DIFFERENT KINDS OF COMPANIES

Offices

There may be occasions when you have to talk about


the company (US English: corporation) you work for.
This may be when you're actually showing someone
around the place of work or premises. Or you may
need to explain to someone how your company or
your department is organized, who is responsible for
different aspects of the business and how the
company is run.

The physical surroundings of most modern places of


work, especially offices, are becoming more and more
similar. Although there are some differences from
country to country, one office looks much like another.
Office furniture and equipment tends to be similar
desks, chairs, lamps, filing cabinets, computers,
phones, photocopiers, etc.

Companies and corporations


Companies are a very important part of a country's
economy. Businesses produce goods and services,
and they come in every shape and size. Although the
vast majority of the worlds companies are small, in
many countries, the economy is dominated by large
firms.
Large businesses differ from small ones in a wide
variety of ways. In many countries there are
nationalized companies belonging to the state, as well
as private companies. A private company might be a
small firm with just one owner or a very large firm with
thousands of shareholders owning the firm.
In very large firms the shareholders have very little to
do with the day-to-day running of the firm. This is left
to the management. Large companies maybe
organised into several large departments, sometimes
even divisions. The organizational structure of some
companies is very hierarchical with a board of
directors at the top and the various departmental
heads reporting to them. Often the only time
shareholders can influence the board is at the yearly
shareholders meeting.
Some firms may only produce one good or service.
Others may produce many different products; in fact
they may seem to be like a collection of businesses
inside one company. As a company gets bigger it may
expand geographically. Many large firms are
multinationals with manufacturing plants and trading
locations in several different countries spread around
the world.

The atmosphere of the workplace can influence the


effectiveness of a companys employees. Modern
offices are more spacious and better lit, heated,
ventilated and air-conditioned than in the past. But of
course, this is a feature that varies from firm to firm
and maybe dependent on the size of the company
and its corporate philosophy. In some companies,
the employees work in large open-plan offices without
walls between the departments. In others, the staff
work more privately in individual offices.
Work relations with other people at the place of work
include relationships with fellow employees, workers
or colleagues. A great part of work or job satisfaction
some people say the major portion comes from
getting on with others at work. Work relations will
also include those between management and
employees. These relations are not always
straightforward, particularly as the managements
assessment of how youre performing can be crucial
to your future career.

1. What are the different varieties of companies?


2. How are large companies organised?
3 . When can a shareholder influence the board?
4. What is a multinational?
5. In what ways are companies becoming more
similar?
6. How does the text describe a modern office?
7. What is the difference between an open-plan
and an individual office?
8. What do people say is a big part of job
satisfaction?

UNIT 2: EMPLOYMENT
SOCIALISING: POLITE EXPRESSIONS

Asking people to do things


Can you....?
Will you...?
Could you...?
Would you . ?
Could you possibly?
Would you mind... (-ing)?

Asking for permission to do things.


Can I ...?
Could I...?
May I...?
Could I possibly...? (I)
Would you mind if I ....(past tense)?

Agreeing
Yes, certainly
Yes, of course.

Not at all.
Refusing
Im sorry but ....
Im afraid .
Agreeing
Yes, certainly
Yes, of course.
Please do.
By all means.
No, not at all.
Refusing
Im sorry, but...
Im afraid....

Thanking
Thanks.
Thank you very much indeed.
Its very good of you.

Replies
Youre welcome.
Dont mention it.
Not at all.
Its a pleasure.

Apologizing
Sorry.
Im extremely sorry.

Replies
Its OK.
No problem.
It doesnt matter.
Dont worry about it.

OFFERING HELP AND INVITING


Offering help
Accepting
Refusing
Do you want a hand?
Thatd be great. Thanks.
No, its all right, thanks.
Can I...?
Yes, please. Thank you.
Thats kind of you, but
Shall I...?
I can manage.
Would you like me to...?
Inviting people to do
something themselves

Accepting

Refusing

Please....
Do....
Inviting people to do
something with you.
Would you like to...?

Thank you.

Im all right, thanks.

Accepting

Refusing

Thank you. Id like that. Id love to, but...


That would be lovely. Im sorry, but...

NOTES:
1. Request forms are listed with more informal examples at the top and more formal at the
bottom. So, for example, we are more likely to use Can you...? if we are making a small
request to someone we know well, and Would you mind...? when making a big request to
someone we dont know well.
2. Notice we use different forms for asking people to do things and asking for permission to
do things.
3. The word mind means object to or be annoyed by, so to agree to requests that contain this
word you have to say No, or No, not at all.
4. The verb forms change in these two requests:
Would you mind lending me your pen?
(mind + -ing form)
Would you mind if I used your phone?
(mind + subject + past tense)
5. Note the difference between these two:
Would you like to go to the meeting?
(Would you like + to infinitive)
That means that you are offering somebody to do something himself/herself.
Would you like me to go to the meeting?
(Would you like + object pronoun + to
infinitive)
That means that you are offering somebody to do something for him/her.
6. If youre refusing a request, its generally polite to give a reason.
7. We use the expression Do you want a hand? when we offer to work alongside someone.
8. We can invite someone to do something themselves by saying please or do.
Please sit down.
Do help yourself.
9. Simply saying yes is not enough when you are accepting an invitation. Its important to
sound positive and enthusiastic.
10

EXERCISES:

Polite questions

A. Match each polite question on the left with a sentence from the right that has a
similar meaning.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Would you mind if I went to the bank?


Would you mind going to the bank?
Would you like me to go to the bank?
Would you like to go to the bank?

a. Do you want to go to the bank?


b. Go to the bank, please.
c. Please may I go to the bank?
d. Do you want me to go to the bank for you?

B. Now rewrite these sentences as polite questions. Begin each one with Would you...?
1. I can send you our latest annual report. Do you want me to?
Would you__________________________________________________?
2. Id like a day off next week. Is that OK?
Would you__________________________________________________ ?
3. Do you want to fly Business Class?
Would you __________________________________________________?
4. Please wait a few minutes. The manager is busy at the moment.
Would you ___________________________________________________?
5. We can pay you in advance if you want.
Would you ___________________________________________________?
6. Please dont park here. The visitors car park is over there.
Would you_________________________________________________________?
SOCIALISING: REQUESTS AND OFFERS

(I = informal. All other forms = neutral)


Requesting
Could you please(call him)?
Do you think you could (come too)?
Would you .. (ring the company)?

Agreeing
Yes, certainly
Yes, thats no problem
Yes, of course.

Can you . (give me a hand)? (I)


Would
you mind . (checking these figures)?
Do

No, of course not.


Not at all.

Refusing
Im sorry but thats not possible (Its too late).
Im afraid not. (I have to go now).
Offering
Accepting
Would you like me to (book a room)?
Thats very kind of you.
Shall I (change the flight)?
Yes, please.
Declining
11

Would you like (a lift)?

Thanks, but that wont be


necessary.

EXCHANGING INFORMATION
Asking
Id like

some information on.(hotels).


to ask you about (flights to Prague).
to know (how long the journey takes).

Could / Can you tell me (how many flights a day there are)?
Do you happen to know (what time the airport bus leaves)?
Checking
You did say (Tuesday), didnt you?
Thats (the 12th of this month), is it?
So (the flight leaves at 8.15)?
Sorry, did you say (thirteen or thirty)?
Showing you understand
I see.
Right. Ive got that.

Confirming
Yes, thats right.

I said (thirteen).

Correcting information
Sorry. I made a mistake. Its forty, not fourteen.

Sorry. Thats not correct. It should be 10.30.

REQUESTS AND OFFERS. EXCHANGING INFORMATION


1.

Work in pairs. Practice the dialogues with your partner using the phrases in the box.
Can you?
Would you mind . (+ ing)?
Do you think you could ?

Ask
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Could you?
Id like you to
Do you mind (+ing)?

a colleague to translate a letter for you.


a friend to do some supermarket shopping for you.
your secretary to work three hours overtime this week.
a colleague to give you a lift to the train station.
your secretary to make some photocopies.
your son or daughter to tidy their bedroom.
a colleague to help you move some office furniture.
a friend to water your house plants while youre on holiday.

12

2. 6.4. Listen to a conversation between Rosa and Claire. Write the information Rosa
asks Claire to get.
From

To

Day/Date

3. 6.5. Listen to the phone call Claire makes to Executives Travel Services. Write the
times of flights in her notebook.
FLIGHT
From
To
Day/Date
Departure
Arrival
nd
London
Bilbao
Sunday 2
Bilbao

Seville

Tuesday 4th

Seville

Valencia

Friday 7th

Valencia

Barcelona

Saturday 8th
Sunday 9th

4. ORAL PRACTICE: Practice the following situations with your colleagues.


STUDENT A: Your name is Kate / Kyle Hops and you work at the Norwegian
subsidiary of International Garments Inc. Here is what you need. Call a
colleague at HQ and ask him/her
-

500 pens and 300 pencils, all with company logo


delivery in 4 months

STUDENT B: You are the person in charge of stationery at International


Garments Inc. You only have 400 pens and 200 pencils in stock.

13

STUDENT A: Your name is Pat Thacker and you work for Hense Bank in
Germany. You need to travel to England on a business trip and you need
flight dates and times for February the 26th , arriving before 11 in the
morning, and returning to London on the 28th, in the afternoon. Ask about
prices.
STUDENT B: Your name is Peter/Petra and you work for Special Travels in
Germany. The information about flights to England from Frankfurt is the
following:
Departing Fkf: 8.25 Arriving 10.00
Departing London: 15.05
Arriving 16.35
9.25 Arriving 11.00
16.35 Arriving
18.05
STUDENT A: Your name is Louis Morris and you are having lunch with a
customer at your office. Offer him/her drinks and food.
STUDENT B: Your name is Julian Sax and you are having lunch with Louis
Morris. You are allergic to milk and a vegetarian.
5. Rewrite the indirect questions as direct questions.
1. Could you tell me what time the 10.30 flight from Paris will arrive?
_________________________________________________________________________
2. Do you know if there are any cancellations on the 8 am. flight to Moscow?
_________________________________________________________________________
3. Id like to know where I can get some foreign currency?
_________________________________________________________________________
4. Can you tell me where you bought your tax-free goods?
_________________________________________________________________________
6. Rewrite the direct questions. Use introductory phrases from 9.
1. Are there any seats available on that flight?_____________________________________
2. Has the plane from London Heathrow arrived yet?_______________________________
3. Is there a connecting flight to Manchester?____________________________________
4. Which terminal should I go to?______________________________________________

PRONUNCIATION
1. 6.7. Listen to the corrections. Circle the
correct information.
1. 4th

14th

4. Frankfurt

Berlin

2. 6.9. Listen and correct the mistakes you


hear using the information below.
1. 30th

4. Toronto
14

2. 30th 13th

5. 12.45

12.30

2. 19th

5. 13.45

3. Zrich Geneva

6. 07.30

07.20

3. Rome

6. 15.50

GIVING DIRECTIONS
7. Carl is giving Kathrin directions. Listen to the dialogue and complete the
sentences. (Audio 9- English for Socialising. OUP)
1. Its just ______________ the corridor, the third door ______________ the left.
2. Ill show you ________________ it is.
3. But actually, I thought maybe I could just pop ______________ Rogers office and say
hello.
4. Where is he? - _________________ the third floor.
5. So, go _________________ the door and turn left to get ______________ the lift.
6. Then, _______________ you come out of the lift, go right, and its the
_______________________ door on your left.
7. So, Ill meet you _________________________ here in about ten minutes?

8. Youre in your office with a visitor. Look at the sketch below and complete
the sentences with the correct words. Then practice with a colleague giving
him the instructions to go to different parts in the office.
Conference room

Kitchen

Lifts

Selins
office

Svens office

Server room

Secretariess
office

Toilet

Claras office

Michaels
office

Photocopier
Storage
room

Your office

Meeeting room

Lobby

15

1. __________________________________ ? Its opposite mine.


2. Go out of the door and turn left. The ______________________ is on your right, just
past Claras office.
3. Just go out of the door and go straight ahead. The _____________________ are at the
end of the corridor.
4. Go out of the door and turn right. The ___________________ is on your left, just after
the lobby.
5. Turn right when you go out of my office. The ______________________ is at the end of
the corridor on your right.

UNIT 2: EMPLOYMENT
BUSINESS : TALKING ABOUT YOUR JOB
1. LOOKING FOR A JOB. Listen and complete the text. (New Insights into Business
Longman TS 7)
When a company needs to ________________ or employ new people, it may decide to
advertise the job or __________________ in the appointments section of a newspaper. People
who are interested can then ________ ________ the job by sending in a 4____________ of
________________ or 5______________ __________ (AmE: cover letter), and a
6
________________
____________ or CV (AmE: resum), containing details of their education and experience. A
company may also ask candidates to complete a standard 7____________ ___________. The
companys human resources department will then select the most suitable applications and
prepare a 8_________________ of candidates or 9________________, who are invited to attend
an 10_________________. Another way for a company to 11_______________ is by using the
services of a 12________________ ________________ (AmE=search firm) who will provide
them with a list of suitable candidates.
2. JOBS: Complete this extract of a letter of application with suitable words.
'My name is Jean Wilson and I have just started working _____ a bank. I graduated __
Edimburgh University last year with a degree ___ Business and Management. Now I am going
to train ____ an accountant. I think I will do well because I am good ___ figures and I am
skilled ____ using computers. I think that training ____ a specific job will be more interesting
than the general education I got at university.'
3. JOB ADVERTS: New Insights unit 2 P 20
Look at the job advertisement below. Listen to the conversation and complete the missing
information.
PREFER A CAMPING TRIP TO A COCKTAIL PARTY?
PATAGONIA has a new position open:
1
_________________ ___________________ Associate
Job is based in 2 _________________. Candidates must have substantial 3 ________________/
__________________ experience and strong 4 ________________________ skills. They must have
serious proficiency in technical sports (skiing, kayaking, climbing) and outdoor experience.
16

__________________________ mother tongue. Environmental background a plus. No glamour its a


gritty job!
Patagonia is a 6 ______________ company which designs and distribute functional
7
_____________________ ______________________.
Send CV with picture to:
Natalie Baudoin Patagonia Gmbh

patagonia

Reitmorstrasse 50
8000 Munich 22 Germany
The interviews will be in Munich during the last week of 8_______________________.
4. RECRUITMENT: Choose the best word from the brackets to fill the gap.
1. I had a 9-to-5 __________ when I left school but I hated it. (job/work)
2. We have a ____________ system but everybody must be here between 9 and 2.
(repetitive / flexitime)
3.We all look forward to 5.30 because then we can ______ off for the day. (shift/ clock)
4. We need to ___________ four new people for our office in Manchester. (join/ recruit)
5. We are using a recruitment ___________ to find them for us. (agency/headhunter)
6. They advertised the ___________ in the local newspaper last week. (positions /applicants)
7. So far, 60 people have applied for the ___________. (works / posts)
8. On Monday, we will draw up a ___________ of 10 or 12 people. (reference / shortlist)
9. Then we'll invite them all to come for an __________. (interview / appointment)
10.We hope to __________ the succcessful applicants by the end of the month. (apply / appoint)
5. PAYMENT: Choose the best word from the brackets to fill the gap.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I work in a small hotel in Amsterdam. I ________ 8 an hour. (earn / paid)


It's not a lot, but it's more than the ___________ wage. (maximum / minimum)
Some customers leave me _________ and that is a great help. (perks / tips)
My sister works in a bank and her ________ is 3,000 a month. (salary /wages)
The bank also provides her with a good _________ (bonus / benefits)
When she is 55 she will be able to give up work and live on her (package /pension)

6. OUT OF WORK: Complete the sentence with an appropriate word. The first letter is
given.
1. I didn't like the way the company was being run so I r_____________.
2. They l________ o_____ 200 people in March and 50 more in September.
3. I have regular performance r_______________ with my manager.
4. She was f____________ for copying company software on to her PC.
5. If you break the safety rules you can be d__________________.
7. REMUNERATION: Match the word from column A to its best definition in B. There is
one word that you don't have to use.
A
a) severance payment
b) stock options
c) compensation package

B
1. American term for all the benefits an employee receives.
2. Payment for those who have stopped working.
3. Benefit that lets employees buy company shares at low price.

17

d) remuneration
e) performance-related
f) fat cat
g) boardroom row
h) pension

4. Bonuses given for reaching objectives set by the company.


5. Money paid to an employee who is asked to leave the company.
6. Formal word for all the pay that an employee receives.
7. Director of a company who is paid a huge salary .
but doesn't deserve it.

8. WORKPLACE: Choose the best word from the brackets to complete the sentence.
1. I am in charge of training in the human __________ department. (support /resources / staff)
2. We have 200 people on our ___________ (recruitment / business / payroll)
3. Our ___________ department is responsible for recruitment. ( personnel / employee / worker)
4. We have a ____________ of 65 in London and about 30 in Paris. (staff / union / headquarters)

UNIT 3: DOING BUSINESS


BUSINESS: SALES AND PURCHASING
1. RETAILING: Read the text about the American company Wal-Mart, the worlds largest
retailer. Replace the words in italics with the words in the box.
profits
overheads

range
suppliers

discount
niche

Wal-Mart is already manoeuvring to bring its vision of retailing to the European consumer. In the
US, the company operates stores that are often twice as big as their European equivalents and
which sell a huge selection 1____________of quality products at a significant price reduction
2
_______________. However, duplicating its success on the old continent may prove to be just
as difficult as conquering the New Worlds markets. Firstly, Europe with its limited space
available for building new stores and its high operating costs 3_______________ may make it
more difficult for the company to produce the same positive financial results 4______________
than it has had in the US. In addition to that, it may be difficult to persuade companies that
provide goods for retailers 5 _________________________ to do business with them in the same
way as they do in the US. But with its purchase of the British supermarket chain ASDA, WalMart clearly wants to establish a particular market 6_____________ for itself in Europe.
FACE TO FACE
WHAT IMPRESSION DO YOU TRY TO GIVE THE PEOPLE YOU DEAL WITH (IN BUSINESS)
I try to be:

pleasant
sincere
efficient
alert /lively-minded
clear
distinct
friendly
warm
polite
certain/sure
I try not to be:

unfriendly

kind
nice
open-minded
affable
amicable
cordial
welcoming
courteous
confident
calm

unpleasant

relaxed
tranquil
composed
collected
self-possessed/
self assured
honest
upfront/upright
skillful/skilled
expert

clever/intelligent
active
proficient
trained
experienced
helpful
reliable
trustworthy
honourable

unreliable

unintelligent

18

shy
aggressive
asleep
vague
unclear
imprecise
ambiguous
cold
unsociable

hostile
unkind
timid
diffident
anxious
worried
nervous
undecided
uncertain

dishonest
devious
underhanded
inept
clumsy
sleepy
lazy
stupid
unclever

prejudiced/
biased
inefficient
nasty
unhelpful
off-hand
brusque
rude

2. Read the text and underline the adjectives that describe personal attitudes and qualities.
UNDERSTANDING BODY LANGUAGE
What you say with your body can be as important as what you say with words. In meetings,
negotiations, and social situations it is important to think about body language gesture,
posture, facial expression, eye contact, and other non-verbal signals. Look at these people,
for example. Which of these words would you use to describe them: interested, bored,
thoughtful, aggressive, neutral? How did you decide?
Of course, body language can mean different things in different cultures. In western
countries, crossing your arms can indicate you are suspicious or even hostile, but smiling
and keeping your hands visible can indicate you are open-minded. If you play with a pen or
even your hair, it can mean you are distracted; but putting your hand on your chin show you
are thoughtful. Leaning back in your chair can sometimes seem rude, but leaning forwards
slightly can indicate you are attentive. Nodding gently when someone is making a point can
show you are supportive and encouraging. If you stare at someone they may think you are
being intrusive, but establishing good eye contact is important if you are trying to be
decisive.
4. Look at the list of adjectives in the box and answer the questions.
attentive
friendly

bored
interested

decisive
intrusive

distracted
neutral

encouraging
rude

supportive

1. Find two pairs of opposite adjectives.


2. Find five adjectives whose opposites are formed by adding either un- or in-. Give the full word.
3. The following words from the list do not take un- or in- to form their opposites. What are their
opposites? You may need to use a dictionary.
encouraging

neutral

rude

5. Replace the phrases in italics with adjectives from the box.


analytical
confident

diplomatic
enthusiastic

flexible
innovative

motivated
punctual

responsible
thorough

19

Employee profile
An excellent employee who is able to be trusted _______________1. He is always on time
______________2, and is clearly interested in his work and works hard _________________3. His ideas
are new________________________4, and he is sure about his own ability_______________5 when
putting them forward. He is also good at dealing with people in difficult situations _________________6,
and is able to change to suit new situations___________________7. Perhaps he needs to be a little more
logical and scientific _________________8 about his approach, but his reports are very
detailed___________9.
His best quality is that he is excited and interested______________________10 about everything!

VIDEO MARKET LEADER IN CAMERA PART 1


In this video you will meet Steve Morgan, Hes a young dynamic salesman,
Hes looking for a new job.
1. Read the job advertisement and Steve Morgans CV. Then answer these
questions.
1. What qualities are Bateman Retail technologies looking for in a new salesperson?
___________________________________________________________________________
2. What skills do candidates for this job need?
___________________________________________________________________________
3. Do you think Steve Morgan is a good candidate for the job? Why?
___________________________________________________________________________
AD

CV

SALESPERSON REQUIRED

Name: Steve Morgan


Address: 37 Summerfield Av
BATEMAN RETAIL TECHNOLOGIES
London W3 0YT
Education:
We are looking for an experienced salesperson
1996-2003 Dunstone
School
to sell our exciting range of products. Have you
A-levels
in Maths
got the skills and qualities we need?
Economics.
2003-2006 London University
At least 5 years experience in sales
Degree in
Business
Confident, dynamic and enthusiastic
20

Ability to motivate a team


Advanced IT skills and interest in
Computers
e-commerce
software
If so, apply to batemanhr@co.uk

Work Experience:
2006-2008
Portman
Jan

Jan

Salesman for

and hardware.
Award for salesperson
of the year in 2007
2008- present Sales Manager for
Jan
southeast division in
Brightland Comms.
managing team of 20
salespeople.
Responsible for sales
of communications
equipment.

2. Are the following statements True or False?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Steve went straight from university to his first job.


Steve stayed in his first job for only two years.
Steves first company was not pleased with his work.
Steve was given more responsibility in his second job.
Steve does not have a job at the moment.

3. Match the words and expressions in bold with their definitions:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Youre a salesman, a good, dynamic salesman.


What do you know about their main competitors?
Ask them about their policy on customer-care.
I dont know how much profit they made.
You havent even checked their product line.

a) other companies in the same industry.


b) money that a company makes.
c) energetic, enthusiastic
d) the things they make and sell.
e) making sure people who buy their
products are satisfied.

4. Answer the questions:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Where is Steve going?____________________________________________________


Who starts talking to him in the street?_______________________________________
Why is Steve nervous?____________________________________________________
Is Steve properly prepared for the interview?__________________________________

PART 2
1. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences:
impression

positive

enthusiastic

relax

charming

motivate

21

1. Good managers _________________ their staff and make them want to work harder.
2. It is important to ________________ in an interview so that you dont look nervous.
3. It is good to have a ____________________ attitude to believe that everything will be
fine.
4. To make a good _______________ on people, you should dress smartly.
5. He is a very ______________________ man, always polite and pleasant to others.
6. She is very energetic and ______________________ - she really enjoys her work.

2. Discussion topic: What do you think is the most important thing in an


interview?
Appearance?

Personality?

Experience?

Academic background?

PART 3
1. Match the words 1 to 8
with their opposites a) to h)
1. falling
2. decreased
3. nervous
4. expansion
5. weak
6. difficult
7. lower
8. stupid

a) clever
b) easy
c) higher
d) strong
e) rising
f) increased
g) confident
h) contraction

2. Whats the meaning of


No customer care,
no customer loyalty ?

2. Answer these questions.


1. Who is the woman in the waiting room?___________________________________________
2. Who does Steve thinks she is when he meets her?____________________________________
3. Why is Steve taking an evening course?___________________________________________
4. What does Bateman Retail Technologies sell?______________________________________

3. Discussion topics:
Do you think Steve will get a job with Bateman Retail Technologies?
Do you think Jennifer should have introduced herself earlier?
Do you buy things on-line? What do you think of retail websites?
22

PART 4
1. Choose the correct word or expression from the box to complete each
sentence.
discount

guarantee

parent

special offer

promising

1. She had a _________________ career as a dancer, but then she broke her leg and had to stop.
2. We ______________________ to deliver on time or we will give you a refund.
3. We only have one office in London, but our ___________ company has offices all over the
world.
4. We can offer you a 10 percent ________________ for large orders.
5. We have a ______________________ at the moment two for the price of one.

2. Try to remember the numbers that are missing.


1. If you have any problems, we guarantee to have an engineer on-site within _______________
minutes and were available ____________ hours a day.
2. How long would I have to wait for, say, __________________ units?
3. Thats _________________ more than weve got in the warehouse.
4. I could have the first _________________ delivered within ___________ hours.
5. Hes responsible for ______________________ buildings this size.

3. Discussion topic: Is Steve a good salesman? Why/Why not?

4. WRITING ACTIVITY : Preparation of CV and letter of application

23

UNIT 3: DOING BUSINESS


SOCIALISING: INVITATIONS
INVITATIONS

Inviting
Accepting
Would you like to join us for lunch?
Thank you. That would be very nice.
Would you like to come to our barbecue?
Thanks. Id love to.
How about joining us tonight?

That sounds like a good idea.


Declining
Id love to but (Im afraid Ive made other arrangements)
Thats kind of you but (unfortunately I wont be able to. Im leaving).
Offers
Do try one of these canaps.
How do you like your coffee?

Thanks, but I couldnt eat anything else.


Black, one sugar, please/ White, please.

Responding politely
Oh, dear. Ive just split some wine
Antonio sends his regards.
I hope you have a good weekend.
Im afraid I didnt catch your name.

Never mind.
Thank you. Do give him mine.
Thanks. The same to you.
Its Claire. Claire Hallan.

SAYING GOODBYE
(I = Informal. All other forms = neutral)

I must be going now (or Ill miss my plane).


24

I think I should get back to my hotel now (as Im leaving very early tomorrow)
I think I should be going.
I must be off. (I)
I have enjoyed meeting you.

Ive enjoyed meeting you, too.


I hope to meet you again.

I hope so, too.


I look forward to meeting you again.
(I hope you) have a good flight

Thanks, and the same to you.

You, too. (I)


Thank you so much for all your hospitality.
Thank you very much for all your help. I really appreciate it.
Bye. Ill be in touch (soon).
See you (in May).
So long. (I)
Take care. (I)
Gotta go. (I)

SOCIAL RESPONSES. COMMON EXPRESSIONS


1. 12.3. Listen to the telephone conversation between Rosa and Mara Ferrando. Answer
the questions.
1. What good news does Rosa tell Mara?
____________________________________________________________________________
2. When did the investors make their decision?
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Match the offers and invitations made by people at NMPs party in A with their replies
in B.
A

1. Mara, would you like another drink?


2. Do try one of this canaps. Eric made them.
Theyre delicious.
3. Were having a barbecue on Thursday evening.
Would you like to come?
4. Were going to see the new musical next week.
How about coming with us?
5. Would you like me to give you a lift back to your
hotel after the party?

a. Yes, Id love to see it. When are you going?


b. Thats very kind of you, if youre sure its no
trouble.
c. Did he? Then I must try one.
d. Oh, Id love to but Im afraid Ill be away on
business then.
e. Thanks, Piet, Id love some more wine.

3. 12.5. Listen to some more comments made by people at the party. Tick the most
appropriate response. Then listen again and check (International Express)
1. a. Never mind.
b. Its Claire. Claire Hallan.

5. a. Black, one sugar, please.


b. It doesnt matter.

25

2. a. Thank you. Do give him mine.


b. Does he?
3. a. Its OK.
b. Not at all.
4. a. Thanks. I hope so too.
b. Do you?

6. a. Really?
b. Oh, Im sorry to hear that.
7. a. Never mind.
b. Dont mention it.
8. a. Yes, I expect so.
b. Thanks. The same to you.

4. TS24. Listen and check your answers. (English for Socializing Express Series)
1. What did Anna say about the tuna?_____________________________________________
2. Does Bruno often eat at the restaurant?__________________________________________
3. When did Carlo get married? _________________________________________________
4. Where did Anna spend her last summer holidays?_________________________________
5. Does Anna do any sport? Which one?___________________________________________
6. Which countries does Anna mention at the end of the conversation?____________________

REVIEW: SOCIAL RESPONSES AND COMMON EXPRESSIONS


During the buffet supper at the end of the Opposition Party Conference, shadow
Transport Minister, Helen Price, talked with many people. Complete the conversations. Use
the phrases in the box.
Black, no sugar, please.
Thanks, Id love some more wine.
Id love to, but Im afraid Ill be Thanks. The same to you.
Im afraid I didnt catch your name. Yes, I think I should get an early night tonight.
Oh, Im sorry to hear that.
Thats very kind of you, if youre sure its no trouble.
GUEST 1
Helen, would you like another drink?
HELEN
__________________________________________________________________
GUEST 2
Were having a small lunch party next Friday. Would you like to come?
HELEN
__________________________________________________________________
away at a conference in Brussels.
GUEST 3
Would you like me to email you a copy of the report I told you about?
HELEN
__________________________________________________________________
GUEST 3
No, none at all. Itll only take a moment.
GUEST 4

My husband wanted to be here too, but hes been doing too much and the doctors
told him to rest for two weeks.

HELEN

26

__________________________________________________________________
4

GUEST 5
HELEN
GUEST 5
GUEST 6

Im so pleased to meet you at last. My names Juliette Rotherham.


Im sorry, its rather noisy.
____________________________________________5
Its Juliette. Juliette Rotherham.
So Im off to Rome next week, and youre going to Brussels, arent you? I hope
you have a good trip.

HELEN
__________________________________________________________________6
GUEST 7
How do you like your coffee?
HELEN
__________________________________________________________________7
GUEST 8
Do you have to leave so soon?
HELEN
__________________________________________________________________8
Im leaving at 6.00 in the morning.
12.4. Listen to the conversations and check your answers.

UNIT 4: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES


SOCIALISING: OPINIONS
( S = strong. All other forms = neutral)

Asking for opinions

Giving opinions

What are your views on (the location)?

I really do think.(we need more time). (S)

Whats your opinion (of the hotel)?

From a (financial ) point of view

What do you think about (the design)?

In my opinion (its too expensive).

27

Agreeing

Disagreeing

Yes, I agree completely.(S)


Yes, definitely. (S)

In my opinion thats out of the question. (S)


Im afraid I disagree completely. (S)

I agree

Im afraid I cant agree with that idea.

Yes, you have a point there.

Im afraid thats not how I see it.

Expressing reservations and doubts


I agree up to a point, but (we need more information)
You could be right, but (its very risky).
Maybe, but (I think you should speak to him first).
PARTICIPATING IN A MEETING OR DISCUSSION
( I = informal. All other forms = neutral)

Opening

Stating objectives

Right. Shall we start?

The aim of this meeting is to

OK. Lets start. (I)

In this meeting we need to decide

Beginning the discussion

Moving on

Would you like to start?

Can we get back to the main point?

28

Could you begin?

So, lets move on to the next topic

Asking for clarification

Interrupting

Sorry, I dont quite follow you.

Could I just ask something?

Could you explain what you mean by that? Before you go on, could I say ...?
Would you mind repeating that?

Excuse me, could I come in here?

Checking agreement

Summarizing

So, are we all in agreement?

So, to sum up

Do we all agree then?

Weve agreed that

Concluding

Closing

Well, I think thats everything

Good, lets call it a day, then.

GIVING OPINIONS. AGREEING AND DISAGREEING.


1. 3.3 Listen to the first part of a meeting between Rosa, Piet and Eric.
1. How many programmes will NMP finance?________________________________________
2. Which countries does Eric think should be in the first three programmes?_________________
3. Why does Piet disagree with Eric?________________________________________________
4. Which three countries do they agree on?___________________________________________
2. 3.4 Listen to the second part of the meeting.
1. Which two groups of people must the pilot programme impress?
_____________________________________________________________________________
2. Why does Rosa want to find a consultant for each programme?
_____________________________________________________________________________
3. What does their choice of Spain for the pilot programme depend on?
_____________________________________________________________________________

PARTICIPATING IN A MEETING OR DISCUSSION.


1. Some of the phrases used in the meeting are given below. Complete the list with other
phrases you remember from the meeting.

29

Opening
_______________________________

Stating objectives
The aim of the meeting is to_________________

Beginning the discussion


Eric, would you like to start?

Interrupting
Just a minute, Rosa, could I just ask something?

Asking for clarification


_______________________________

_____________________________________
Checking agreement
___________________________________________

Moving on
_______________________________

Concluding
Well, I think thats everything. Is there anything else
you want to discuss?

Summarizing
________________________________

Closing
Good. Lets call it a day, then________________

2. Work in groups. Each person chooses one of the topics below and starts a short
discussion of that topic. Give your opinions and explain why you agree or disagree with
your colleagues.
1. Public transport should be state-owned, not privatized. A public transport system can either
make a profit or provide a good service. It cannot do both.
2. University education should be free and the state should pay the cost of students
accommodation, food, and books.
3. All employees should get a share of a companys profits, not only senior management.
4. Unemployed people who get payments from the state should do some kind of work in
exchange for the money they receive.
3. Claudia Stamitz, CEO of Data-Flash, is discussing the new Baltic region operation with
her Sales Director, Harry Brice, and Finance Director, Michel Marat. Complete the
conversation using phrases in the box.
You could be right, but
would you like to start?
Sorry, but could you explain what you mean by that?
Do we all agree then?
Personally, I think
Yes, Id go along with that.
Then lets move on to the next topic.
The aim of this meeting is to
Excuse me. Could I come in here?
CLAUDIA

Right. Lets start.__________________________________________________


discuss our new operation in the Baltic region. First, we have to decide on the best
place to open. So, what are your views?
Harry, _________________________________________________________
30

HARRY
CLAUDIA
HARRY
MICHEL
CLAUDIA
HARRY
MICHEL

HARRY
MICHEL
CLAUDIA
MICHEL
CLAUDIA

Well, until recently, I thought we should open in Stockholm, but now I feel that
we should look to the east.
_______________________________________________________________3.
Yes, I mean the eastern Baltic states Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Theyre
small, but theyre dynamic and their economies are growing fast.
_______________________________________________4. Costs are also much
lower there than in Sweden or Finland.
Thats a very good point. But which one should we choose?
_______________________________________________5 Estonia could be the
right place. There are a lot of skilled technical people there.
_______________________________________________6 Estonia is very small.
What about Lithuania? The population is bigger, and its got probably the fastestgrowing economy in the whole EU. I think we need to find out more about all
three Baltic states in order to...
______________________________________________7 I have to make a trip
over there next week, so I suggest that I do some research and report back to our
next meeting.
Good idea!
I think so, too. ____________________________________________________8
Yes, definitely.
Good. ___________________________________________________9 Thats our
new Baltic Regional Director

3.4 Listen to the conversation and check your answers.

UNIT 4: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES


BUSINESS: COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES
1. BUSINESS ETIQUETTE QUIZ: Choose the correct answer to the following questions.
1. If a Chinese businessman asks if your business is prosperous, it is polite to reply that is doing
a) well
b) moderately
c) poorly
2. Which of the following gifts would a Chinese friend consider to be in bad taste?
a) a clock
b) an oil painting
c) a cut glass vase
3. When you receive someones business card in Japan do you
a) study it carefully and put it on the table in front of you?
b) thank the person and put it in your pocket quickly?
c) look at it quickly just to memorise the name before putting it in your pocket?
4. When you take leave of your Japanese counterparts, do you
a) shake hands and thank them warmly for their hospitality?
b) make a rapid departure, not knowing what to say?
c) bow and thank them for their hospitality?
5. What is the customary way of greeting in the Middle East?
a) embracing b) bowing
c) shaking hands
6. Which of the following would be likely to offend your Middle Eastern host?
a) smoking a cigarette
b) refusing a cup of coffee c) leaving some food on your plate
31

7. In Africa, when you meet someone for the first time, it is considered polite to
a) ask about the health of your hosts family
b) talk about the weather
c) compliment your host on his appearance
8. If you are invited to a home or a school in a Buddhist country, you shouldnt
a) pat a childs head
b) shake a childs hand
c) give a child a present
9. Which American habit is likely to be seen as a sign of disrespect in Asian countries?
a) taking off ones jacket
b) crossing ones legs when sitting
c) looking people in the eye
10. If you are invited to a British friends home for dinner, it is usual to arrive
a) well before the stated time
b) exactly on time
c) a few minutes after the stated time
11. In Britain, it is not considered polite to ask your host
a) how his wife is
b) how much he earns
c) how is business is going
2. COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES. Match the words from the three columns below
to make sentences. Transform the names of the countries into adjectives:
1. Hola
2. Ferrari
3. Evian
4. Mateus Ros
5. IBM
6. AGFA
7. Philips
8. Carslberg
9. IKEA
10. BBC 1
11. Olympic
12. Pravda
13. Aker AS
14. Istambul
15. Nokia

Denmark
Norway
France
Holland
Spain
Finland
USA
Britain
Turkey
Portugal
Russia
Germany
Greece
Italy
Sweden

furniture retailer
newspaper
computer company
beer
electronics company
industrial company
mineral water
seaport
airline
car manufacturer
photographic company
wine
mobile phone company
weekly magazine
television channel

Example: IBM is an American computer company


1.___________________________________________________________________________
2.___________________________________________________________________________
3.___________________________________________________________________________

32

4.___________________________________________________________________________
5. __________________________________________________________________________
6.___________________________________________________________________________
7.___________________________________________________________________________
8.___________________________________________________________________________
9.___________________________________________________________________________
10.__________________________________________________________________________
11.__________________________________________________________________________
12.__________________________________________________________________________
13.__________________________________________________________________________
14.__________________________________________________________________________

3. READING: DOING BUSINESS IN OTHER COUNTRIES


Understanding cultural differences is essential for companies involved in international business.
Countries vary across several dimensions, affecting workplace values.
When it comes to international business, understanding cultural differences and promoting
cultural sensitivity will help ensure that communication across borders is effective and that
business transactions are successful.
Each country has its own cultural standards of being, thinking, and acting, and these cultural
differences strongly influence workplace values and business communication. What may be
considered perfectly acceptable and natural in the workplace of one country, can be considered
confusing or even offensive in the workplace of other country.
Business representatives involved in the international business arena should be aware of how
other cultures differ across the following dimensions:
Power Distance
In some countries, such as the Arab nations and many Latin American countries, people
recognize and respect differences in power. In these high power distance cultures, bypassing a
supervisor or any other superior would be considered insubordination. In low power distance
countries, such as America, the lines between superiors and subordinates are often blurred. It is
perfectly acceptable in America, for example, that supervisors can mingle with subordinates as
equals within a social setting.
Explicit Versus Implicit

33

In some countries, such as America and Germany, people tend to be explicit in communication.
Ideas are fully spelled out, and when trying to understand a message, people will depend on what
has been actually said or written. In other countries, such as Japan, people tend to speak and
communicate in an implicit and indirect manner. In this case, people depend on common
understanding in knowledge and etiquette to extract the underlying message.
Individualism Versus Collectivism
In individualist cultures, such as America, individuality, independence, and self-determination
are valued. In collectivist cultures, such as Japan, people are expected to identify with and work
well in groups. In exchange for their loyalty and compliance, people receive a sense of security,
protection, and shared responsibility.
Masculinity Versus Femininity
The cultures that are more masculine, such as Japan, value competitiveness, assertiveness,
ambition, and the accumulation of wealth. On the other hand, feminine cultures, such as Sweden,
place more emphasis on relationships, compassion, and the general quality of life.
Uncertainty Avoidance
This dimension concerns the level of uncertainty and ambiguity that members of a culture are
comfortable with. Cultures that are high in uncertainty avoidance prefer rules and structured
circumstances. Within their structured environment, these people tend to be more emotional and
expressive. Cultures that are comfortable with uncertainty avoid rules and in general are less
emotionally expressive and pragmatic.
Every culture possesses a unique mixture of attitudes, values, and social expectations. When
conducting business across countries, it is vital that business representatives are provided with an
understanding of the cultural differences and are able to be sensitive to them.

DOING BUSINESS IN SPAIN


For the international business person doing business in a foreign country offers certain
intercultural challenges. Differences in culture mean differences in etiquette and protocol.
Understanding a country's business culture, protocol and etiquette is important in achieving
success abroad.
Meeting & Greeting:
When doing business in Spain handshakes are standard as with the rest of Europe. First-time
introductions will be formal; as the relationship develops it will naturally become less so. It is
always a good idea to try and use some of the local language. A simple means of doing so is in
using the appropriate greeting for the time of day - "Buenos dias" (good day), "Buenas tardes"
(good evening) or "Buenas noches" (good night).
Most people can be greeted using Seor (Mr), Seora (Mrs) or Seorita (Miss) followed by their
surname. You may also hear people being addressed with their professional titles; Profesor may
be used with teachers and engineers are referred to as Ingeniero.
Communication:

34

The Spanish can be described as a cheerful and outgoing people. Their warmth and initial
friendliness may appear perfunctory or superficial to a reserved foreigner but in fact allows a
way of observing social niceties whilst at the same time affording the time and a proper
opportunity to get to know someone.
When doing business in Spain, note that relationships built in a face-to-face environment are the
be all and end all. People will want to spend time getting to know others in order to ensure the
right chemistry exists for a business relationship. It is therefore important to present yourself in
the best possible light; the Spanish appreciate people who are dignified yet modest. The ability to
be amusing and entertaining is also much prized and humour plays an important part even in
business meetings and discussions. Banter is acceptable but be sure not to employ sarcasm as it
may get lost in translation and cause offense.
Meetings & Negotiating:
Initial meetings may be more focused on the relationship rather than business. Let your Spanish
counterpart take the lead.
There may be an agenda and a starting time, but they serve more as guidelines rather than a rigid
timetable. Issues may be discussed simultaneously rather than separately. Several people may
also try to speak at once and interruptions are not uncommon. If this happens it should not be
interpreted as rude but rather an indication that what you were saying was of great interest.

Discussion topic: What do you think of the Spanish version? Do you agree or do
you disagree?

4. THE INTERNET: DOMAINS

Match the country codes to the country:


.al
.pl

.at
.pt

.by
.se

.cz
.si

.de
.sk

.dk
.ua

.ee
.no

.fr

.gr

.ie

.it

.lv

.nl

If you need help go to this link :


http://www.youreuropemap.com/europe_map_7.html
OR
http://www.youreuropemap.com/

35

2. Now find the part of the domain for someone who...


.ac.uk

.au

.ca

.co.uk

.es

.gov

.ibm.de

.org

.at

.ch

.com

.net

works for a company which is probably in th US.


works for a German division of a computer hardware company.
is writing from Australia.
is writing from Austria.
works for a non-profit organisation.
works for an Internet service provider.
lives in Switzerland.
is writing from Canada.
works for the US government.
is writing from Spain.
works for a company in England.
works for a British university.

36

Now lets watch a video in which you will learn about cultural differences when
writing e-mails.
http://www.videojug.com/interview/cultural-differences-in-business-e-mail-2

UNIT 5: ORDERS
SOCIALIZING: TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS

Announcing identity
(Caller)
Hello, this is Barbara Ling.
Good morning. Its Rebecca Park here.

Hello. David Jackson. Can I help you?


Marketing Services. Good afternoon.

Asking for people and connecting


(Caller)
Id like to speak to Mr Lee, please.
Hold on, please.
Could you put me through to Maria Garca, please?
Ill just transfer you.
Can I speak to someone in Marketing, please?
Yes, just a moment.
Could you give me his number, please?
Sorry to keep you waiting.
She asked me to phone her this morning.
Person wanted is not there or the number is wrong
37

Im afraid she isnt in at the moment. Can I give her a message?


Sorry, hes in a meeting. Would you like to call back later?
Sorry, this isnt her extension. Ill try to transfer you.
I think you must have dialled the wrong number.
Im afraid theres nobody here with that name.
When will the person wanted be in?
(Caller)
When would be a good time to call again?
Calling off
(Caller)
Ill get back to you soon.
Thanks very much. Goodbye.

She should be back by 4 oclock.

Thanks for calling.


Well be in touch soon. Goodbye.

Requests
(Caller)
Id like to speak to somebody about Whats the order number?
Can you give me some information
Can you give me the reference no.?
about?
When did you send the order?
Whats the position on?
Ill have to check with the department
Could you bring delivery forward
Can I consult it and call you tomorrow?
by a few weeks?

1. (U1-T1&2) Write a message for each of the people the callers wanted.
(English for Telephoning CUP)
1. Phone message.
2. Phone message.
Caller:
Message:

Caller:
Message:

2. Complete the sentences with words from the box. Use each word only once.
here
see
in moment
mobile holding
speaking
hold
1.
2.
3.
4.

Try calling back ____________ an hours time.


7. Just a _________________, please.
Wait a minute, Ill _____________ if shes here.
8. Hello, is that Mauro ___________?
Sorry, hes not _______________ at the moment.
Ill get the information you want. Do you mind ___________ on?
38

5. You should be able to reach her on her ______________.


6. Ill have to put you on ____________ while I check.
Study these examples of how to ask for information politely.
You dont know a callers name. (give) Could you give me your name, please?
You arent sure of the name of the callers company. (repeat) Would you repeat the name of
your company, please?
You want to know where the caller is calling from. (tell)Can you tell me where youre calling
from, please?
3. Now make questions using could, would, and can in a similar way.
1. You arent sure exactly what the caller is phoning about. (tell)
____________________________________________________________
2. You want to know the callers telephone number. (give)
____________________________________________________________
3. You dont know how to spell the callers name. (spell)
____________________________________________________________
4. You want to find out when the caller will be in the office tomorrow. (tell)
____________________________________________________________
4. (U1-T11) Listen to the surnames and try to copy them. Then listen to the spelling to
check. Then listen again and try to spell them correctly.
1. ___________
4. ___________

2. ____________
5. ____________

3.____________
6.____________

5. (U2-T&2)Listen to the two conversations and complete the table.


Call
1.

Callers name

Name of company

Person wanted

2.

6. Complete the sentences with words from the box. Use each word only once.
hold
extension
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Directory
code

confirm
mobile

Internet
dialled

appointment
bothered

Isnt that 423884? I think thats what I _______________.


No, this isnt her ____________. Ill transfer you back to the switchboard.
Im sorry to have ____________ you.
Hes out of the office at the moment. Youll get him if you call his __________.
Ive lost their new numbers. Ill have to call ____________ Enquiries.
You might find what you want if you look on the ________________.
Sorry to keep you waiting. Please ______________ on a bit longer while I try to find her.
Could you please tell me the area ________ for Hamburg?
Im now in a position to _____________ arrangements we made.
39

10. Can we reschedule the ____________ for next week?


7. (U2-T5) Listen to the phone conversation and complete the table.
Person wanted

Company wanted

Company answering

Making enquiries.

Enquiries for prices and discounts


(Caller)
Ive seen your advertisement and Id like
to know how much you charge for

We can give you a 10% discount if you


order before 30 October.

Could you please tell me what your terms are?


Does the discount go up according to the
size of the order?

When you open an account with us you get 5% off


immediately.

What are your hotel rates? Does that


include breakfast?

Our prices start at $100 for a single room,


with breakfast included.

Can I order online? Whats your website


address?

I can email our price list to you or shall I


fax it?

We usually get a better discount on a


repeat order.

Those are the best terms we can offer.

Can you quote me a price for that?


courier

The price includes insurance and delivery by

8. (U3-T1&2) Listen to two phone conversations and complete the table.


Call Caller
Person/Company called
Caller interested in
1
2
9. Listen to the calls again and write down the messages.
1. Capital Investment Systems
2. Globe Travel Agency
Investor number: _______________
Phone number: _________________________
40

She wants to buy:________________


Telephone number: _____________

Number of people travelling: ______________


Flight dates: ___________________________

10. Complete the sentences with words or phrases from the box. Use each sentence only
once.
increase
rates
order
gone up
charge
shares
lowest
give
special
1. Here are the _____________ prices available for the flights you wanted.
2. Couldnt you manage to ____________ me a better discount for this large _______?
3. Its a good price it hasnt ____________ since last year.
4. Weve had to ________ prices in line with inflation.
5. We can offer you a ___________ discount if you order by the end of the month.
6. Our room ____________ compare favourably with similar hotels in the area.
7. How much do you ____________ for each transaction?
8. I think investing in ____________ in the dotcom sector may be risky now.
11. (U3-T6) Listen to the phone conversation and complete the email.
To: Maggie Redwood

Subject: Order

Dear Maggie,
This is to confirm our conversation earlier. The price for ________________
XJ33 power supplies is US$ ______________ each.
I look forward to receiving your order.
I will also forward a sample _____________________.
Best regards,
Takumi Kijama.

Placing an order

Ordering
(Caller)
Were ready to order now.
Wed like to place an order for 200
packs of printer paper.
Im phoning you with a repeat order.

What would you like to order?


Can I have your customer number?
Whats the item number?
Im afraid this item is out of stock.
41

Delivery
(Caller)
We need the goods urgently. Can you
dispatch them today?
How soon will the parcel arrive?
How will the order be sent?
When can we expect delivery?
Avoiding misunderstanding

Well dispatch the goods immediately

The consignment will be sent by air freight.


It should arrive by the end of the week.

Confirming order arrangements

Sorry, I didnt hear what you said.


Can we go through the order in detail,
please?
Could you repeat the price, please? Can I double-check some of the details?
I didnt catch what you said.
Ill email you confirmation of the order.
Problems with the line
Can I call you back? Im on my mobile and the lines not very good.
I think the signal is going. Ill call back when I can.
I can hardly hear you. Can you speak up, please?
12. (U4-T1,2,3,) Listen to three phone calls and complete the table.
Call Company called
Caller
Reason for calling
1
2
3

13. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.
freight
invoice
repeat
pay
stock
urgently
note
catch
account
place

item
catalogue

1. Thank you for your quotation. Wed like to ________ an order now.
2. I need to __________ down the reference number.
3. When you order, you need to give the __________ number for the latest
______________.
42

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Were under pressure from our customer. Can you send the order ___________, please?
I dont need to ____________ by credit card because Ive got a monthly _____________.
The ____________ will be enclosed with the goods.
Im afraid its out of ___________, so it wont be sent for two weeks.
Well send it by air ____________, so it will arrive tomorrow.
Im calling to make a ________________ order. Wed like exactly the same as last
month.
10. Sorry, I didnt quite _______ what you said. Could you say that again?
14. ( U4-T5) Listen to the phone conversation and write down the missing information.
Order confirmation
Order placed by: _________________
Type of flowers: _________________
Quantity: ________
Person addressed to:______________

Delivery address: _______________________


Delivery date/time: __________________________
Message: __________________________________
Payment by: ________

15. (U4-T6) Listen to the phone conversation and complete the email.
To: Serge Duval

Subject: Order confirmation

Dear Serge,
This is to confirm our conversation earlier.
You have ordered ____________ CM25 hard drives at a reduced price of _________
each rather than ___________ because the order is significantly larger.
You will settle the account by _____________ transfer immediately, to the amount of
$132,000.
Thank you for your order.
Jennifer Sato
Kobayashi components.
16. Jean Duban works as a salesperson for the international telecommunications supplier
TEGID (SA) in Lyon, and spends a lot of time on the phone. Listen to two of his phone
conversations and complete the notes.
Customer order:
From: Junko Hanamura, JapanCom in ______
Quantity: model XPR14:_______
Model _________: 250
Delivery by Friday morning to _______
Need to fax _____________ contract

Customer order:
From: Alex Beck, Phone Europe, Sheffield
First order under the _________ contract

Quantity: ___________ extension leads


Delivery within ___________ months.

(English for Sales and Purchasing Audio 19-20)

UNIT 6: ORDERS
BUSINESS:

WRITING E-MAILS AND LETTERS

1. EMAIL AND WEBSITE ADDRESSES


43

Match the symbol with how you say it:

AT, BACK SLASH, CAPITAL H, DOT, HYPHEN/DASH, SLASH, SMALL H,


UNDERSCORE

______________

__________________

______________

__________________

______________

__________________

______________

__________________

2. ACCRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


1. Try to find out what these accronyms stand for.

Thx
Tia
Re
FAQ
CU
FYI
Rgds
BTW
Fwd

REQ __________________ You write this when you want someone to do something

__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________

You write this to someone who has helped you.


You write this to someone who is going to help you.
This means about and is the subject of your mail
You see this a lot on the Internet.
You use this to say goodbye.
You use this to show no reply is needed.
This is the short form of a common close.
You write this when you want to add more info.
This is used to send the same mail to another
colleague.
from someone.

IMO __________________ You use it to say what you think.


ATB __________________ This is a close, to wish someone well.
*See Appendix 1 :E-Mails page 55

2. Give the full meaning of these abbreviations:

ie ______________
asap ____________
Jan _____________
at the mo __________________

6. bw _________________
7. attn_________________
8. pls __________________
9. w/e__________________
44

PRACTICE MAIL: Now answer this mail keeping the style.


From: Evan Davis
To: Sydney Braithwaite
Subject: Monitors offer
Dear Mr Braithwaite
Im writing to enquire about the monitors you informed us of last month.
Please could you send us a brochure and price list?
We would also appreciate a visit from your rep in order to get more information
about the products. Could you ask one of them to contact us, please?
Looking forward to your reply,
Evan Davis
Purchasing Assistant

2. FORMAL AND INFORMAL LANGUAGE


1. Complete the table with the phrases below:
Can you help?- We hope you are happy with this-Let us know if you need any more help-Please
answer asap-Im sending you the..in an attachment-Im sending you...-Thanks for choosing..We are working on your request-Can you please send me...?-Thanks for your email.

More formal

Less formal

Id appreciate a reply asap


Would you be able to help...?
Could you please send me...?

__________________________
__________________________
__________________________

Please find the...in the attachment.


Im pleased to send you...
Thank you for your email.
Do not hesitate to contact us if
you require further assistance.
We hope you find this satisfactory.
Thank you for your interest.
Your request is being processed.

__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________

45

2. Now use (parts of) the phrases from the table to complete the
request and reply emails below:
From: Rachel

To: xxx

Subject: Request for brochures


Our company is currently looking for accommodation for some overseas
colleagues who will be transferred to Southampton for 12 months.
________________________________ me some brochures showing the various
houses and flats you have to offer? We also need to find locations near
schools; __________________________________?
As our employees are arriving next month, I _____________________________.
Thank you very much.
Best regards.
Rachel Bemish
HR assistant
Wells Ltd
From: Brian
To: Rachel
Subject: Re: request for brochures
Dear Ms Beamish

Attachment: Southampton.pdf

___________________________. Unfortunately, the brochure you


requested is being reprinted at the moment, but
_________________________________. Prices and location have
remained the same, so youll find the requested
information_______________________. The new brochure will be
sent by post as soon as its available.
We______________________________________________
______________________________________
Regards
Brian Pearson
Changing Rooms

3. Now write one mail choosing from these situations:


A: You work for OFFICEQUIP, and you provide office furniture for companies. You
have received a mail from a customer (Gerard Letour) asking for information about
your shops in Paris and about your products. Write your mail to give him the
information he needs.

46

B: You work for OFFICEQUIP, and you have received a mail from a customer (Liz
Stevens) complaining about an order which has not arrived yet. Write a mail to
apologize and solve the problem.

4. MAKING AND CONFIRMING ARRANGEMENTS


1. Below are two email exchanges. Match the emails with their replies
and explain the reasons for your choice.
A:

B:

Just writing to confirm my visit.


Monday 21st sounds fine. Could you
collect me from the station?
My train arrives at 10.00. Thx.
us?
Looking forward to seeing the factory.
CU Monday.

Thank you for your invitation to visit your factory.


I can confirm that Friday morning at 9 am is
convenient for us. We will be arriving at the station
at 8.30. Can you arrange for someone to collect

C:

D:

We look forward to seeing you next Friday.

Im writing to arrange a meeting with you and


Ms Milton to visit our factory. You expressed interest in
this last time we spoke.
I would like to propose next Friday at either 9 am or 3 pm.
The tour usually lasts two hours.
Please let me know which time is convenient for you.
Im looking forward to seeing you both soon.

A quick note to arrange a time for you to


visit the factory next week. How about
Monday, 21st May at 10.15?
Where should we meet? Should I pick you
up from the station?
Pls send me an email by 5 pm today to
confirm this.

UNIT 6: IT
SOCIALIZING: GIVING TALKS AND PRESENTATIONS

Introducing the topic


47

This morning Im going to (talk about)


Today Id like to (describe)
The aim of my presentation this morning is to (explain)
Ive divided my presentation into
In the first part of my talk, Ill be looking at
First, Id like to (give you an overview of the project).
Second, Ill move on to (the role of technology).
Then, Ill focus on (the financial side).
Finally, well consider (what new skills will be needed).
Referring to questions
Please, feel free to interrupt at any point.
Do interrupt me if theres anything you dont understand.
If you dont mind, well leave questions till the end.
Introducing each section

Summarizing a section

So, lets start with (the objectives)


Now, lets move on to (the next part)
This leads me to (my next point)
Finally, (lets consider)

That completes my(description of)


So, to summarize, (there are)

Referring to visual information

Referring

This slide illustrates how


This diagram shows
If you look at this graph you can see

I mentioned earlier (the role of)


Ill say more about this later.
Well come back to this point later.

Checking understanding

Clarifying and paraphrasing

Is that clear?/Are there any questions?


Do you see what I mean?
Does that seem to make sense?

OK, what Im trying to say is


Let me explain what I mean.
Well, let me put it another way.

Closing

Dealing with questions

This brings me to the end of my presentation.


If you have any questions, Id be pleased to
answer them.
Thank you for your attention.

Im glad you asked that.


Can I get back on that later?
Im afraid I dont have all the
details
48

1. Carol Hunt is a freelance consultant for NMP. She gives talks and presentations on a
variety of subjects.
1. What is the title of her talk?_____________________________________________________
2. What do you think is meant by signposting language?_______________________________
NMP BUSINESS TRAINING SEMINAR

Carol Hunt

Communication skills at work


Giving talks and presentations
1. Preparation
2. Signposting language
3. Delivery
NMP BUSINESS TRAINING SEMINAR

Carol Hunt

Communication skills at work


Preparation: six key points
1. Objectives
2. Audience
3. Content

4. Organization
5. Visual Information
6. Practice

2. 7.6 Listen to the first part of Carol Hunts talk and discuss with your partner the
importance of the six key points.

3. 7.7 Listen to the last part of Carol Hunts presentation. Complete the key points about
delivery on the screen.
NMP BUSINESS TRAINING SEMINAR

Carol Hunt

Communication skills at work


Delivery - key points
1. nerves
2._____________
3. _____________

4. _______________
5. _______________

Discussion Topic: What are your weak points when speaking in public? And your strong
points?

49

GIVING TALKS AND PRESENTATIONS


4. Alan Fraine is giving a presentation about HydroGen at a conference on clean energy.
Match the underlined phrases in the talk with phrases from the box with a similar
meaning.
Introducing the topic
a. the purpose of my presentation
this morning is to
b. My presentation will be in
Referring to questions
c. please feel free to ask any
questions you may have.
Introducing each section
d. First of all, I want to take a brief
look at
e. Now, lets begin with

Section 1
ALAN

Section 2
ALAN

Section 3
ALAN

Referring backwards and forwards


f. .., as I mentioned previously,
g. well come back to this point later.
Referring to visual information
h. As you can see from this first chart
Referring to common knowledge
i. , as you are aware,
Concluding
j. ..that concludes my presentation.

Good morning everyone, and thank you for your interest in HydroGen. Now, the
aim of my talk today is to ____a______ explain the companys mission as we
move into a new phase of development. Ive divided my talk into _______ three
sections. First, Id like to give you an overview of _____ the companys origins.
Then Ill move on to our development into consultancy on water resources in
North America. Finally, well focus on our new stage of development with
partners around the world. So lets start with 4 _______ the companys early days.
HydroGen was founded back in 1936
During the last ten years, we have widened our attention to many areas of water
resource management and, as I mentioned earlier, 5______ this development has
taken the form of a consultancy business. It has met a big demand because, as you
know, 6______ the need for clean, reliable water and energy supplies is large and
growing. This is true both here in the States and Canada and, of course, globally.
And Ill say more about this later. 7_____ Now lets turn to some facts and
figures. If you look at the first chart, 8_____ we now provide a wide range of
technical support. And,
and, with our highly-experienced French, Norwegian, and Turkish partners, our
project in central Turkey is now progressing well, and we expect to complete in
two years.

50

Well, that brings me to the end of my talk. 9______ Now, I know that there are
many areas which I have not discussed in detail, so if you have any questions, Id
be pleased to answer , them. 10_____
7.1 Listen and check your answers.

APPENDIX 1
BUSINESS
CORRESPONDENC
E
E-MAILS

51

52

1. Which button would you use to send a message?


2. Write the email of the adressee.
3. Who is sending the message?

1. Which button would you press to send a document along with the mail?
53

1. Where do you find the mails you have received?


2. Where do you find the mails you have sent?
3. How do you start writing a message?

Cc: carbon copy


Bcc: Blind carbon copy (you dont want others to see the message)
54

1. E MAIL STRUCTURE
Subject line: Short and specific information about the contents of the message .
Example: Business trip to Spain

Salutation: Depending on how well you know the person.

Dear Mr, Ms, Mrs

Very formal. Usually first contact.

Dear John

Less formal. You have already met him/her or they have


addressed you by your first name.

Hi/Hello Mary

Informal. Friends or colleagues you usually work with.

No salutation

Very informal. As part of a longer email exchange.

Opening sentence: To explain the reason for your message.


Example:

Im writing to...
Just a quick note to...

Formal
Informal

Body: Details of the message. In emails, they are usually short and direct, and you can use
contracted forms such as Im, youve, etc.

Conclusion: You tell the reader what kind of response you expect.
Example:

Looking forward to you reply.

Friendly ending for formal or informal

Hope to hear from you soon.

Informal.

correspondence.

Close: Usually according to the salutation.


Yours sincerely
Regards / Best wishes
Bye / All the best / Best
James / Mary

Very formal, rarerly used in emails.


Common for formal and informal emails.
Friendly and informal.
To close colleagues.

55

USEFUL VERBS:
to apologize
to appreciate
to ask if
to assist
to clarify
to complain
to confirm
to contact
to enquire
to get in touch

Abbreviations and acronyms:


to let sb know
to postpone / to put off
to receive
to regret
to reply
to send
to sort out
to touch base
to update

Ad(vert)
am
appt
asap
eg
ie
info
pls
pm
RU
4
LOL
BTW
FAQ

re
rep
rgds
w/e
wk
yr
Mon
Tues
Jan
U
TIA
2
IMO
Fwd CU
FYI
THX

56

USEFUL PHRASES AND VOCABULARY FOR MAILS


blue: more formal

black: standard

green: informal

You don't know the name

You know the name

You write to a group

Dear Sir or Madam


To whom it may concern

Dear Mr, Mrs, Ms...


Dear John
Hello Pat
Hi Mary / Hey John

Salutations

Hello

Dear all
Hi everyone

Opening sentence
Replying to an email:

Giving a reason:

Thanks very much for your email.


This is to say thanks for your mail.

I'm writing to...


Just a quick note to...
Just a short email to

clarify...
confirm...
inform you...
follow up on...
reply to...
request...
tell you...
update you...

Attaching files
I'm sending you/ attaching...
I've attached...
Please find attached...
I'm sending you the price list as an attachment.

If you can't open the attachment


I'm afraid you forgot to attach.../I
can't open the document.

Making enquiries

Replying to an enquiry

I am interested in receiving/finding out...


I would like to receive...
We would be grateful if...
Could you please send me...?
Please send me...
Would you be able to (help)...?
Can you help?
I'd appreciate a reply asap.
Please answer asap.

Thank you for your interest.


I'm pleased to send you
I'm sending you...(in an attachment)
Please find the requested information
attached.
We hope you find this satisfactory.
We hope you are satisfied with this.
Thanks for choosing us.
Your request is being processed/ We
are working on your request.

57

Informing

Requesting action

I'd like to inform you of...


please?
Just a few comments about...
Just a note to say...
Here's the low-down on...
Just to update you on...
FYI: This is to let you know...

Can you send it to me by Friday,

Making arrangements

Confirming arrangements

I'm writing to set up/arrange a time...


How/what about Tuesday?
Is Monday OK?
Could you collect me/pick me up at the airport?

I'd like to confirm...


Just writing to confirm...
Monday is convenient for me.

Changing arrangements

Giving good news

I'm sorry but I can't do/make Thursday.


This is to let you know I've had to put off/postpone
the meeting.
I'm writing to call off/cancel...
I'm afraid I can't make/manage Friday. How about...?

We are pleased to inform you...


I'm happy to tell you...
You'll be delighted to hear...

I need the information by Thursday.


Please get in touch.
Keep me posted.

Giving bad news

Complaining

We regret to inform you...


I'm sorry but.../I am afraid that...
Unfortunately...

I'm writing to complain about...


We're not happy with...
I was disappointed to hear...

Apologizing

Friendly ending

I do apologize for the delay in replying.


We must apologize for the inconvenience.
We deeply regret
We apologize for any inconvenience caused.
Sorry for the delay.
Please accept our apologies.
I am extremely sorry...

Looking forward to your reply.


Hope to hear from you soon.
Do not hesitate to contact us if...
Let me know if I can help you further.
Hope all is well with you.
Feel free to get in touch if....
Have a nice day/weekend.

Close
Yours sincerely
Kind/Best regards
Regards
See you soon
Take care
Bye

58

VOCABULARY
1. Word Formation
2. Make & Do collocations
p62

p57

59

APPENDIX 1
WORD FORMATION

SUFFIXES
A. Common noun suffixes
-er / / is used for the person who does an activity, e.g. writer, painter, worker, shopper, teacher.
You can use er with a wide range of verbs to make them into nouns.
Sometimes the er suffix is written as or (it is still pronounced as //). E.g. sailor, operator,
supervisor, actor.
-er/-or are also used for things which do a particular job, e.g. pencil-sharpener, bottle-opener,
grater, projector.
-er/-ee (pronounced /i:/) can contrast with each other meaning person who does something (-er)
and person who receives or experiences the action (-ee)
employer/employee sender/addressee
payee (e.g. of a cheque)
-(t)ion / -sion / -ion are used to form nouns from verbs, e.g.
complication pollution reduction alteration donation promotion

admission

-ist (a person) and ism (an activity or ideology) : used for peoples politics, beliefs and
ideologies, and sometimes their profession. E.g.
Buddhism

journalism

Marxist

typist

B. Adjective suffixes
-able / -ible with verbs means can be done
drinkable
washable
readable
forgivable

physcist

terrorist

edible (can be eaten) flexible

C. Verb suffixes
-ise/- ize form verbs from adjectives, e.g. modernise, commercialise, industrialise
OTHER SUFFIXES
-ment

-ity

-al

excitement

flexibility

enjoyment

productivit
y
scarcity
complexity

refusa
l
arriva
l

replacement
adjustment
improvemen
t
retirement
investment

curiosity
generosity
sensitivity

ABSTRACT NOUNS
-hood
-ship

brotherhood

friendship

motherhood

partnership

childhood
neighbourhoo
d
(wo)manhood

membership
ownership

adulthood

companionship
apprenticeship

ADJECTIVES

relationship

VERBS
60

-ive
passive
productive
active

-al

-ous

-ful

-less

brutal
legal

delicious
outrageous
furious

forgetful
hopeful
useful

useless
hopeless
harmless

-ify
beautify
purify
terrify

The following words have been turned into nouns by using different suffixes:
Adjectives

nouns

- ness
shortness
sleepiness
foolishness
smoothness
weakness

fullness
calmness
kindness
sadness
expensiveness

willingness
narrowness
carelessness
roughness
awareness
hardness
deepness (depth)
brightness
cleanliness / cleanness

similarity
infinity
ability
capability
formality

singularity
simplicity
flexibility
unity
availability

- ity
popularity
clarity
creativity
regularity
confidentiality

Verbs

responsibility
probability
possibility
nationality

nouns

-ment
development
fulfilment
resentment
commitment
acknowledgement
arrangement

investment
confinement
discouragement
contentment
amazement
embankment

postponement
disagreement
agreement
assessment
management
concealment

imprisonment
government
requirement
refinement
improvement

confirmation
resignation
embarkation
presentation
cancellation
revelation
determination

organisation
frustration
evaluation
classification
duplication
education
separation

connection
selection
prediction
revolution
invention
definition
preparation

-(a)tion
information
creation
combination
limitation
situation
location
termination

61

PREFIXES
A. Prefixes are often used to give adjectives a negative or an opposite meaning. For example,
comfortable / uncomfortable, convenient / inconvenient and similar / dissimilar.
Other examples are unjust, inedible, disloyal. Unfortunately, there is no easy way of knowing
which prefix any adjective will use to form its opposite.
In- becomes im- before a root beginning with m or p, e.g. immature, impatient, impartial,
improbable.
In- becomes ir- before a word beginning with r, e.g. irreplaceable, irreversible.
In- becomes il- before a word beginning with l, e.g. illegal, illegible, illiterate.
The prefix in- ( and its variations) does not always have a negative meaning often it gives the
idea of inside or into, e.g. internal, import, insert, income.
B. The prefixes un and dis can also form the opposites of verbs, e.g. tie / untie, appear/
disappear.
Here are more examples:
-un

-dis

unbend
disagree
undo
disapprove
undress
disbelieve
unfold
disconnect
unload
discredit
unlock
dislike
unveil
dismount
unwrap
disprove
unzip
disqualify
C. Here are some examples of other prefixes in English. Some of these words are used with a
hyphen.
prefix
meaning
examples
anti
auto
bi
ex
ex
micro
mis
mono
multi
over
post
pre
pro
pseudo
re
semi
sub
under

against
of or by oneself
two, twice
former
out of
small
badly/wrongly
one/single
many
too much
after
before
in favour of
false
again or back
half
under
nor enough

anti-war antisocial antibiotic


autograph auto-pilot autobiography
bicycle bilateral biannual bilingual
ex-wife ex-smoker ex-boss
extract
exhale
excommunicate
microwave
microscopic
misunderstand mistranslate misinform
monotonous monologue monogamous
multi-national multi-purpose multi-media
overdo overtired oversleep overeat
postwar postgraduate post-impressionist
preconceived pre-war pre-judge
pro-government pro-revolutionary
pseudo-scientific pseudo-intellectual
retype reread replace rewind
semicircular semi-final semi-detached
subway submarine subdivision
underworked underused undercooked

62

PRACTICE:
PREFIXES
1. Complete these columns by forming the negatives of each of the words in this list.
accurate
convenient
formal
profit-making
used

agree
desirable
fortunately
readable
valid

capable
employed
honest
satisfied

certain
experienced
known
stop

un-

dis-

in-

uncertain

disagree

inaccurate

connect
foreseen
payment
sufficient
non-

2. Add prefixes to the words in these list to form words with the opposite meaning. Circle
the words that have a different prefix from the others.
Example:

improbable, imperfect,

_________ legal,
_________ reliable,
_________ moral,
_________ certain,
_________ polite,
_________ organized,

irresponsible

likely,
relevant,
practical,
fair,
convenient,
honest,

immature

logical,
legible
regular,
rational
profitable, possible
justified,
accurate
formal,
dependent
similar,
efficient

3. Now use the words you have circled in exercise 2 to complete these sentences.

North Africa is the only ______________ division in the group. It lost $1.5m last year.

It was rather ____________________ of him to ask us to leave like that.

Sandra is very busy. Shes ________________ to have time to see us this week.

Its a very ______________ way of working. Were wasting both time and money.

These statistics are hopelessly _________________. Ive found four mistakes already.

As cars get older they become more and more _____________________.

63

4. Match the prefixes w3ith the groups of adjectives.


disun-

il-

a __________
b __________
c __________
d __________
e __________
f __________

im-

possible
honest
popular
legible
complete
regular

in-

probable
similar
economical
legal
expensive
relevant

irprecise
organised
manageable
logical
efficient
responsible

5. Add prefixes to the following adjectives.


a
e
i

likely
literate
resistible

b
f
j

respectful
frequent
liberal

c
g
k

polite
lawful
mature

d
h
l

rational
proportionate
helpful

SUFFIXES
Look at the way these nouns are formed.
noun
assessment
effectiveness
regularity
administration

stem
assess (verb)
effective (adjective)
regular (adjective)
administer (verb)

suffix
+ ment
+ ness
+ ity
+ ation

1. Put the words into the correct columns in the table. In which ones does the stress
change?
confidential
organise
disagree
-ment

willing
similar
careless
-ness

prepare
present
popular
-ity

require
invest
aware
-ation

64

APPENDIX 2
MAKE & DO COLLOCATIONS

LIST OF EXPRESSIONS WITH DO


Away with
The accounts/ budget /forecast
Badly /well/ good /better/harm /right /wrong
Business (with)
The cooking /dusting/ ironing/ washing/
gardening
A course
A crossword
Damage or harm
The dishes
An exam /examination
An experiment
An exercise
A favour
A good turn
Have something/nothing to do with
Homework/housework
The honours
A jigsaw /puzzle
A job
Justice
A lesson
Medicine /engineeering/science/arts
More harm than good
Ones (best) duty
Ones face/eyes/hair
The photocopying/the typing/the filing
Research
Repairs
A service
(the, some) shopping
(some) sightseeing
Something to, or for, or with someone
(some) sport
(someone) a favour
(something) for a living
A translation
(some) travelling/sailing
(some) work
Up something

LIST OF EXPRESSIONS WITH


MAKE
An agreement
An offer
An application
A phone call
An apology
A photocopy
An appointment
A place for
An arrangement or plan Progress
Allowances for
An attempt
A promise
The bed
A report (on)
A budget
A request
A business trip
Sacrifice
A cake/bread/tea/coffe
/ a meal
Sense
Certain /sure
A scene
A change
A search (for)
A choice
A success of
A complaint
A speech
A copy
A start
A deal
A suggestion
A decision
Trouble (for sb)
A demand
Use of
A difference
Up ones face
A discovery
Up ones mind
An effort
(sb) welcome
An enquiry
Work (for others)
An excuse
War / Peace
A face /faces (at somebody)
A fire
A fool of somebody
A forecast
A fortune
Friends (with)
Fun of someone
A fuss of
Gestures/Faces
A guess (at)
Haste
An improvement
A good/bad impression on
A journey/trip
A list
A loss /profit
A living
Love (to)
Money the most of
A mistake /error
A move

65

A noise/sound

66